ROBERT FRANK ~ SUCCESS AND LUCK ~ 2016

~ GF&TMOM ~ Good Fortune And The Myth Of Meritocracy

~ SSHDTCEPAMLRIILOTMPOI ~ Social Scientists Have Discovered That Chance Events Play A Much Larger Role In Important Life Outcomes Than Most People Once Imagined

~ TROMHCEN ~ The Rhetoric Of Meritocracy Has Caused Enormous Harm

~ M-CI-1958-AAP-QCOA-AAOP ~ Meritocracy – Coined In – 1958 – As A Pejorative – Quickly Co-Opted As – An Adjective Of Praise

~ STTEMHEABOL-AVOTTTTDRBOT-TTAWTTTA ~ Saying That Top Earners May Have Enjoyed A Bit Of Luck – Apparently Verges On Telling Them That They Don’t Really Belong On Top – That They Aren’t Who They Think They Are

~ TROMATHCTETWSAFOHDOECBAIC ~ The Rhetoric Of Meritocracy Appears To Have Camouflaged The Extent To Which Success And Failure Often Hinge Decisively On Events Completely Beyond Any Individual’s Control

~ SMCEFMMPILTTMPR ~ Seemingly Minor Chance Events Figure Much More Prominently In Life Trajectories Than Most People Realize

~ BWATMTAHPWNAMMS? ~ But What About The Many Talented And Hardworking People Who Never Achieve Much Material Success?

~ IOTTSTSWW1%HTOII1%MTD1PMI-B-TIOCLMLWSSPDTI-TFDIE ~ It’s One Thing To Say That Someone Who Works 1 Percent Harder Than Others Or Is 1 Percent More Talented Deserves 1 Percent More Income – But – The Importance Of Chance Looms Much Larger When Such Small Performance Differences Translate Into – Thousands-Fold Differences In Earnings

~ WTAM-TPRTATAHOWITM-AENOC-ATMCTA-TMLM ~ Winner-Take-All Markets – The Prodigious Rewards That Accrue To A Handful Of Winners In These Markets – Attracts Enormous Numbers Of Contestants – And The More Contestants There Are – The More Luck Matters

~ PWBTSDOOTAA-AHAESOHTTA-MFIETMTKOENFS ~ People Who Believe That Success Depends Only On Talent And Effort – And Have An Exaggerated Sense Of How Talented They Are – May Find It Easier To Muster The Kinds Of Effort Necessary For Success

~ B-UTIOEF-MAEC-IM-FEEPTCIAIWTHNRPOS-IAATMSPMRTUTINTSETSMS ~ But Underestimating The Importance Of External Forces – May Also Entail Significant Costs – It May – For Example Encourage People To Compete In Arenas In Which They Have No Realistic Prospect Of Succeeding – It Also Appears To Make Successful People More Reluctant To Underwrite The Investments Necessary To Sustain Environments That Support Material Success

~ TFRTNSCPWEMFICTAC ~ The Fact Remains That No Society Can Prosper Without Effective Means For Its Citizens To Act Collectively

~ SGIU-ISWTAWTMIB-SSHDMEGTO ~ Since Government Is Unavoidable – It’s Surely Worth Thinking About Ways To Make It Better – Some Societies Have Demonstrably More Effective Governments Than Others

~ ‘HB’-WYTYAKWH-IETIRFWIHTH ~ “Hindsight Bias” – When You Think You Already Know What Happened – It’s Easy To Invent Reasons For Why It Had To Happen

~ HBOWPFWPOUSO ~ Hindsight Bias Operates With Particular Force When People Observe Unusually Successful Outcomes

~ TME ~ The Matthew Effect

~ WTAM-GDTCF-RDLOAPTORP-RTTBHCITHOAFTP ~ Winner-Take-All Markets – Generally Display Two Characteristic Features – Rewards Depend Less On Absolute Performance Than On Relative Performance – Rewards Tend To Be Highly Concentrated In The Hands Of A Few Top Performers

~ B-EP-ASMC-WWAWEBETAH-B-TWRB-TMTAH-ITCP ~ Because – Enormous Prizes – Attract So Many Contestants – Winners Will Almost Without Exception Be Enormously Talented And Hardworking – But – They Will Rarely Be – The Most Talented And Hardworking – In The Contestant Pool

~ E-HUTH-IAGM-TMMYST-TMLTB-AIYSTEM-ABI ~ Events – Highly Unlikely To Happen – In Any Given Moment – The More Moments You String Together – The More Likely They Become – And If You String Together Enough Moments – All But Inevitable

~ METAHPFTAASMOMS-MOTASLLTTW ~ Many Extremely Talented And Hardworking People Fail To Achieve Any Significant Measure Of Material Success – Many Of Them Are Simply Less Lucky Than The Winners

~ TITSASTMWWOBTAL-IHCA-MWNHEBRCHTNBB-EAAH ~ This Isn’t The Same As Saying That Most Winners Win Only Because They Are Lucky – In Highly Competitive Arenas – Most Would Not Have Even Been Realistic Contenders Had They Not Been Both – Extremely Able And Hardworking

~ TWAOPTATFTBLMBUTTKOFNTIFP ~ Those Who Are Overly Prone To Attribute Their Failures To Bad Luck May Be Unreceptive To The Kinds Of Feedback Needed To Improve Future Performance

~ TBOFB ~ The Burden Of False Beliefs

~ TIODOPLTTAO-THBBIAHDC-TLBOCOIIBTWCBU ~ There Is One Dimension Of Personal Luck That Transcends All Others – To Have Been Born In A Highly Developed Country – The Lucky Beneficiaries Of Centuries Of Intensive Investment By Those Who Came Before Us

~ IBBIAGEIOOTLTTCHTA-FTALIHMSPMRTPTTRTSTINTMAGE ~ If Being Born In A Good Environment Is One Of The Luckiest Things That Can Happen To Anyone – Failure To Appreciate Luck’s Importance Has Made Successful People More Reluctant To Pay The Taxes Required To Support The Investments Necessary To Maintain A Good Environment

~ TFTAADTBCEP-ORTARWP-STOCBBCARIFFO ~ The Fact That Americans Are Driving The Best Cars Ever Produced – On Roads That Are Riddled With Potholes – Suggests That Our Current Balance Between Cars And Roads Is Far From Optimal

~ PWFMHTAALTTWTAAGOTSA ~ People Will Fight Much Harder To Avoid A Loss Than They Would To Achieve A Gain Of The Same Amount

~ OCPOPAPSHBDC-NJFPAMIF-BAFTWT ~ Our Current Patterns Of Private And Public Spending Have Been Deeply Counterproductive – Not Just For Poor And Middle-Income Families – But Also For The Wealthy Themselves

~ EPIWAEPFTEPOTVSTP ~ Extensive Public Investment Was An Essential Precondition For The Economic Prosperity Of Those Very Same Tax Protesters

~ POSOCAAT ~ Public Opinion Shifts One Conversation At A Time

~ TRSBFTALPRISHMIHTSTPINTSTSOLATFG ~ Tax Resistance Spawned By Failure To Appreciate Luck’s Pivotal Role In Success Has Made It Harder To Sustain The Public Investment Needed To Support The Stock Of Luck Available To Future Generations

~ ATPIT-IFOAPCT-WPABOFAE ~ Abandoning The Progressive Income Tax – In Favor Of A Progressive Consumption Tax – Would Produce A Better Outcome For Almost Everyone

~ PWETAAAOTP-ANJHBOTF-TAMLTP-TIPBMOTBSSATE ~ People Who Enjoy The Admiration And Affection Of Their Peers – Are Not Just Happier Because Of That Fact – They’re Also More Likely To Prosper – That’s In Part Because Most Of The Biggest Economic Success Stories Are Team Efforts

~ IMBIYITALRIYS-IOBPWTBOYFHDS-ESTTWMYFH-TMFTOTBOYMAMYMLTPIPMT ~ It May Be In Your Interest To Acknowledge Luck’s Role In Your Success – If Only Because People Will Think Better Of You For Having Done So – Evidence Suggests That This Will Make You Feel Happier – The Mere Fact That Others Think Better Of You May Also Make You More Likely To Prosper In Purely Material Terms

~ TWHT-TASTSAEAFTBL-MBPAISC-BOB-IIOITEMRA ~ The Widespread Human Tendency – To Attribute Success To Skill And Effort And Failure To Bad Luck – May Be Psychologically Adaptive In Some Cases – But On Balance – It’s In Our Interest To Embrace More Realistic Attributions

~ CTPB-PWINOFMPTGW-BAFETC ~ Contrary To Popular Belief – Private Waste Is Not Only Far More Pervasive Than Government Waste – But Also Far Easier To Curtail

~ APBMRAOWRFCPOT-TCCFWSSOGABTFTF-A-TACSOOCAAT ~ Although Popular Beliefs May Remain At Odds With Reality For Considerable Periods Of Time – The Consensus Can Flip With Surprising Speed Once Good Arguments Begin To Find Their Footing – And – Those Arguments Can Spread Only One Conversation At At Time

VIKTOR FRANKL ~ MAN’S SEARCH FOR MEANING

~ TLITS-TSITFMITS ~ To Live Is To Suffer – To Survive Is To Find Meaning In The Suffering

~ [S]HWHA-‘W’TLCBWAA-’H’ ~ [S]He Who Has A – “Why” – To Live Can Bear With Almost Any – “How”

~ SWFYPBYHFTTAI ~ Success Will Follow You Precisely Because You Had Forgotten To Think About It

~ NSRIAESCFADR ~ No Situation Repeats Itself And Each Situation Calls For A Different Response

~ NPOECTFYWYHE ~ No Power On Earth Can Take From You What You Have Experienced

~ AOTSIPOAAROTOTS ~ Actualization Of The Self Is Possible Only As A Result Of Transcendence Of The Self

~ TMOLACBINCTB ~ The Meaning Of Life Always Changes But It Never Ceases To Be

~ ACTLTIOMPTOP ~ A Challenge To Live Thoughts Instead Of Merely Putting Them On Paper

~ LAI-YWLFTST-AHAAWTFTAYAATAN ~ Live As If – You Were Living For The Second Time – And Had Acted As Wrongly The First Time As You Are About To Act Now

HAL NIEDZVIECKI ~ HELLO, I’M SPECIAL ~ 2004

~ MOO-‘N’-COTWWHTNTFOSSAT ~ Millions Of Otherwise – “Normal” – Citizens Of The Western World Harbour The Notion That Fame Of Some Sort Awaits Them

~ TOAOS-D-TE-C-C-LAC ~ The Outward Appearance Of Specialness – Despite – Their Essentially – Conformist – Conservative – Lives And Convictions

~ ITIASCITEOIATNC-IITUPOC ~ If There Is A Single Constant In The Emergence Of Individuality As The New Conformity – It Is The Ubiquitous Presence Of Celebrity

~ NODWHMCTE-B-NCOCSTBCE ~ Not Only Do We Have More Celebrities Than Ever – But – New Categories Of Celebrities Seem To Be Constantly Emerging

~ MASFWTJTPPOS ~ Millions Are Searching For Ways To Join The Permanent Party Of Special

~ TNAOTNC ~ The New Age Of The New Conformity

~ CWHASOTWTT-TNCIWET ~ Can We Have A Sense Of Tradition Without Traditional Tradition? – The New Conforming Individualists Want Exactly That

~ NWCMBF ~ Now We Crave More Better Faster

~ TSRF ~ The Self-Reliance Fantasy

~ TL-TW-R-I-R ~ Tradition-Lite – Tradition Without – Responsibility – Involvement – Requirement

~ S-TITNLAPSAMIEFUQ-HB-S/F/F/D/R/UTY ~ Suddenly – The Institution That Not Long Ago Provided Stability And Meaning In Exchange For Unquestioning Acceptance – Has Become – Subjective / Flexible / Flawed / Debatable / Relative / Up To You

~ EPCNTUS-DO-YTCB-S/S/N/D/S ~ Every Pop-Culture Narrative Tells Us That – Despite Ordinariness – You Too Can Be – Special / Super / Noticed / Discovered / Successful

~ TMOPCIATOTTOTOP-W-ITPOFHOHH-BTSABTE-ALTL-BSCR-ICHTYH ~ The Message Of Pop Culture Is Always That Of The Triumph Of The Ordinary Person – Who – In The Process Of Following His Or Her Heart – Bucks The System And Becomes The Exception – A Larger-Than-Life – But Still Completely Regular – It-Could-Happen-To-You Hero

~ TIATW ~ Trapped In A Theme World

~ BPCDSWAUIAATS-NDPTUHTGNUSCOOR ~ But Pop Culture Doesn’t Specify What About Us Is Actually All That Special – Nor Does Pop Tell Us How To Garner Notice Upon Successful Completion Of Our Reinvention

~ FOULOATAMDFPC ~ Few Of Us Lack Opinions And Thoughts And Memories Derived From Pop Culture

~ CWS-CWHETROIMF ~ Celebrity Worship Syndrome – Celebrity Worship Has Entered The Realm Of Identifiable Mental Diseases

~ TMTAPSW-TV-TMMTPS ~ The More Time A Person Spends Watching – TV – The More Money That Person Spends

~ TFOTOPTISHBAUF-EITU ~ The Fantasy Of The Ordinary Person Turned International Success Has Become A Universal Fantasy – Encoded In The Unconscious

~ OEAR-BTWWLI-TWWM!-IUTFWOOPCPU ~ Our Expectations Are Raised – But The World We Live In – The World We Made! – Is Unable To Fulfill What Our Own Pop Culture Promises Us

~ ITNC-WTTSFGADNSOI-I-WBWT-IMBPTETS-AT-AOESBDTFOWTSW-STWCFTN ~ In The New Conformity – We Take The System For Granted And Do Not Seriously Oppose It – Instead – We Believe Wholeheartedly That – It May Be Possible To Enter The System – And That – All Our Energies Should Be Directed Toward Figuring Out What The System Wants – So That We Can Fulfill That Need

~ TFITAFTS-AHIW-AABATI-YJDTHE ~ The Focus Is Turned Away From The System – And How It Works – And Aimed Back At The Individual – You Just Didn’t Try Hard Enough

~ TSEIPTEO-Y-B-DAEOTOSIWWLOL ~ The Self-Esteem Industry Places The Emphasis On – You – But – Discourages Any Examination Of The Overall System In Which We Live Our Lives

~ BFTPAERLARPOTCOPS-SEM-TUTIFAL-CUTALODAR-WBTWAATSOOF ~ By Failing To Present Anything Even Remotely Like A Realistic Picture Of The Chances Of Pop Success – Self-Esteem Mythology – Teaches Us To Internalize Failures And Limitations – Conditions Us To Accept Lives Of Disappointment And Regret – We Believe That We Are Always The Source Of Our Failures

~ TOLAIAPCPTCRBR-WFOITBWWSOSOA-OF-OF ~ Though Our Lives Are Steeped In A Pop-Culture Promise That Can Rarely Be Realized – We Feel Our Inability To Become Whatever We’ve Set Our Sights On As – Our Fault – Our Failure

~ WWSTMWITROC-TWCH ~ What We Seem To Most Want Is To Replicate Our Celebrities – This We Cannot Have

~ TNC-TSFTWI ~ The New Conformity – The Search For The Way In

~ SABTTSWLI-ASCWPIAWTCOIBAR-TINCWTMOTS-BEWKITS ~ Subjected And Bound To The Systems We Live In – Any Surface Change We Perform Is Always Within The Confines Of Intense Bureaucracy And Regulation – There Is No Clear Way To Move Outside The System – Because Everything We Know Is The System

~ EFTTP ~ Escape From The Theme Park

~ TLB-CD-A-UOSAPTETPWAFAISA-IATO ~ The Line Between – Chronicling Dissent – And – Using One’s Status As Protester To Enter The Pop World And Further An I’m Special Agenda – Is A Thin One

~ WLIACW-EIP-EIC-EIAOITQFS-ETTTAATL(BRCN) ~ We Live In A Culture Where – Everything Is Permissible – Everything Is Celebrated – Everything Is An Option In The Quest For Special – Even Those Things That Are Against The Law (But Relentlessly Celebrated Nevertheless)

~ ACIWIINLPTAGDIADC ~ A Culture In Which It Is No Longer Possible To Author Genuine Dissent Is A Dying Culture

~ RAUTNCOSIAHSTMF ~ Recognizing And Understanding The New Conformity Of Special Is A Huge Step Toward Moving Forward