PETER KROPOTKIN ~ MUTUAL AID ~ 1902

~ WATF:TWACAWWEO-O-TWSOA? ~ Who Are The Fittest: Those Who Are Continually At War With Each Other – Or – Those Who Support One Another?

~ TWOEAA-INTLON ~ The War Of Each Against All – Is Not The Law Of Nature

~ MA-IAMALONA-MS ~ Mutual Aid – Is As Much A Law Of Nature As – Mutual Struggle

~ LISINEITAW;IITR ~ Life In Societies Is No Exception In The Animal World; It Is The Rule

~ IIETLISWBUIWACDOSF-A-E-OACCSOJGTBAH-IEIWCAIPAWTOIIFOTW-NS-LWBP ~ It Is Evident That Life In Societies Would Be Utterly Impossible Without A Corresponding Development Of Social Feelings – And – Especially – Of A Certain Collective Sense Of Justice Growing To Become A Habit – If Every Individual Were Constantly Abusing Its Personal Advantages Without The Others Interfering In Favour Of The Wronged – No Society-Life Would Be Possible

~ TWEDCREWEAS?-UWITAB? ~ To What Extent Does Competition Really Exist Within Each Animal Species? – Upon What Is The Assumption Based?

~ FTGPFAIOLWTLWOE-NSCSOTWPFACAMAP ~ For The Greatest Possible Fullness And Intensity Of Life With The Least Waste Of Energy – Natural Selection Continually Seeks Out The Ways Precisely For Avoiding Competition As Much As Possible

~ FFBAPFOO-TFIAVLP-S/B/T-N-F-WTPFOOOM ~ Far From Being A Primitive Form Of Organization – The Family Is A Very Late Product – Societies / Bands / Tribes – Not Families – Were – The Primitive Form Of Organization Of Mankind

~ TVPOTCOSHUFIITRPMAADAOI-WOOTIP-A-TAOTPFACAAOROTS ~ The Very Persistence Of The Clan Organization Shows How Utterly False It Is To Represent Primitive Mankind As A Disorderly Agglomeration Of Individuals – Who Only Obey Their Individual Passions – And Take Advantage Of Their Personal Force And Cunningness Against All Other Representatives Of The Species

~ UIIAMG-BIINCOPM ~ Unbridled Individualism Is A Modern Growth – But It Is Not Characteristic Of Primitive Mankind

~ PFSMCEOAAATA-DUTA-TTETTCRFEOA-TWBIRBAISOUROPWATFOTCEATWIGOB-TI-BOH-FTOT ~ Primitive Folk So Much Consider Every One’s Acts As A Tribal Affair – Dependent Upon Tribal Approval – That They Easily Think The Clan Responsible For Every One’s Acts – Their Whole Behaviour Is Regulated By An Infinite Series Of Unwritten Rules Of Propriety Which Are The Fruit Of Their Common Experience As To What Is Good Or Bad – That Is – Beneficial Or Harmful – For Their Own Tribe

~ S-RAS-S-ITIOTC ~ Self-Restriction And Self-Sacrifice – In The Interest Of The Clan

~ WDNKOSHROOSNWHNHIPO-VC-IWAUP-ANOOTCO ~ We Do Not Know One Single Human Race Or One Single Nation Which Has Not Had Its Period Of – Village Communities – It Was A Universal Phase – A Natural Outcome Of The Clan Organization

~ PP-O-P‘FE’-W-I-WTVPATRCO-TVC ~ Private Property – Or – Possession “For Ever” – Was – Incompatible – With The Very Principles And The Religious Conceptions Of – The Village Community

~ TVCWNOAUFG-S-ITCL-BAAU-F-CC-MSIAPF-PFV-A-DO:K/NB/MC ~ The Village Community Was Not Only A Union For Guaranteeing – Share – In The Common Land – But Also A Union – For – Common Culture – Mutual Support In All Possible Forms – Protection From Violence – And – Development Of Knowledge: / National Bonds / Moral Conception

~ EC-IT-J/M/E/EM-HTBDATF-O-TV-TT-O-TC ~ Every Change – In The – Judicial / Military / Educational / Economical Manners – Had To Be Decided At The Folkmotes Of – The Village – The Tribe – Or – The Confederation

~ TRB-WL-OTC-UAWSOI-IWCATWMBUONT-TOC-A-TIWPHDFGTG-IVAS-IPOT-ISAI ~ The Real Barbarian – Was Living – On The Contrary – Under A Wide Series Of Institutions – Imbued With Considerations As To What May Be Useful Or Noxious To – Tribe Or Confederation – And – These Institutions Were Piously Handed Down From Generation To Generation – In Verses And Songs – In Proverbs Or Triads – In Sentences And Instructions

~ TFVRATLC-DIF-AIN-A-FDI-TMS-IETOTSOE-ILTAHY-FC-HBCIE-E-TBTTFG-ATA-ATI-OWOPC-WAIAAPFTF-IOAFD ~ The Fortified Village Rose Against The Lord’s Castle – Defied It First – Attacked It Next – And – Finally Destroyed It – The Movement Spread – Involving Every Town On The Surface Of Europe – In Less Than A Hundred Years – Free Cities – Had Been Called Into Existence – Everywhere – They Bequeathed To The Following Generations – All The Arts – All The Industries – Of Which Our Present Civilization – With All Its Achievements And Promises For The Future – Is Only A Further Development

~ AGMBAOEFFTVWSWAC-TOFCWTBBTEOTVC-ANLOFBTDWTFE-TMCWB ~ A General Movement Began All Over Europe For Fortifying The Villages With Stone Walls And Citadels – Thousands Of Fortified Centres Were Then Built By The Energies Of The Village Communities – A New Life Of Freedom Began To Develop Within The Fortified Enclosures – The Mediaeval City Was Born

~ G-AFDIMT-P-AIPITEOTC-M/C/H/P/P/P/T/B/E/LW-AOOTSDPO-S-JAMS-AAOMSIACAIAAOLAIWAOFMJ ~ Guilds – A Formidable Development In Mediaeval Times – Played – An Important Part In The Emancipation Of The Cities – Merchants / Craftsmen / Hunters / Peasants / Priests / Painters / Teachers / Beggars / Executioners / Lost Women – All Organized On The Same Double Principle Of – Self-Jurisdiction And Mutual Support – An Association Of Mutual Support In All Circumstances And In All Accidents Of Life And It Was An Organization For Maintaining Justice

~ HOCIWTCITLHRU-ATAOT-NTIVOD-WDUTMOLGFOE-TSLIR-TCOIAAFOBSVCAG ~ Hundreds Of Charters In Which The Cities Inscribed Their Liberation Have Reached Us – And Through All Of Them – Notwithstanding The Infinite Variety Of Details – Which Depended Upon The More Or Less Greater Fulness Of Emancipation – The Same Leading Ideas Run – The City Organized Itself As A Federation Of Both Small Village Communities And Guilds

~ TG-L-S-A-A-P-WTCAOTMC-A-L-CG-WICF-AIO-‘J’-TTC-O- ‘R’ -TBPAC-WWSSEN-PPAE ~ To Guarantee – Liberty – Self-Administration – And – Peace – Was The Chief Aim Of The Mediaeval City – And – Labour – Craft Guilds – Was Its Chief Foundation – An Idea Of – “Justice” – To The Community – Of – “Right” – Towards Both Producer And Consumer – Which Would Seem So Extravagant Now – Penetrated Production And Exchange

~ TIOPRIAAU-TMGS-ITBPTTSWNHTII ~ The Immensity Of Progress Realized In All Arts Under – The Mediaeval Guild System – Is The Best Proof That The System Was No Hindrance To Individual Initiative

~ IR-TMC-WAFO-AACPIFS-AIHTMRFIBTFOIA-TWATC ~ In Reality – The Mediaeval City – Was A Fortified Oasis – Amidst A Country Plunged Into Feudal Submission – And It Had To Make Room For Itself By The Force Of Its Arms – The War Against The Castles

~ TC-NTE-WTRMOTNU ~ The Cities – Not The Emperors – Were The Real Makers Of The National Unity

~ TTITNDTVCDOIOA;E-OTC-ITTRCSCOP-BNASE-TAIATCTCL ~ The Truth Is That Nowhere Did The Village Community Disappear Of Its Own Accord; Everywhere – On The Contrary – It Took The Ruling Classes Several Centuries Of Persistent – But Not Always Successful Efforts – To Abolish It And To Confiscate The Communal Lands

~ TCLCTBPU-ATPWDRTL-BIWESTMOTEC-T-I-E-AEE-IBPOASPTSWOATOCO-TLOTVCWTBTL-ATAWSBP ~ The Communal Lands Continued To Be Preyed Upon – And The Peasants Were Driven From The Land – But It Was Especially Since The Middle Of The Eighteenth Century – That – In – England – As Everywhere Else – It Became Part Of A Systematic Policy To Simply Weed Out All Traces Of Communal Ownership – The Land Of The Village Community Was Taken By The Lords – And The Appropriation Was Sanctioned By Parliament

~ IS-TSPTNDO-TVC-IVO-EL-IAGAJATSP-TNDOSSOAB ~ In Short – To Speak Of The Natural Death Of – The Village Communities – In Virtue Of – Economic Laws – Is As Grim A Joke As To Speak Of – The Natural Death Of Soldiers Slaughtered On A Battlefield

~ TVCHLFOATY;AWTPWNRBWAE-TSITMOC ~ The Village Communities Had Lived For Over A Thousand Years; And Where And When The Peasants Were Not Ruined By Wars And Exactions – They Steadily Improved Their Methods Of Culture

~ CWM-FWC-TWP-AMWD-B-TVC-FTI-ATSCS ~ Canals Were Maintained – Forests Were Cleared – Trees Were Planted – And Marshes Were Drained – By – The Village Communities – From Time Immoral – And The Same Continues Still

~ EUTSORIWNP-TAMPMTM-SI ~ Even Under The System Of Reckless Individualism Which Now Prevails – The Agricultural Masses Piously Maintain Their Mutual-Support Inheritance

~ ASATSRTILBMOWTHBAB-TBAAOR-NTD-P/E/S-WAM-A-ISFABATTMR ~ As Soon As The States Relax The Iron Laws By Means Of Which They Have Broken All Bonds – These Bonds Are At Once Reconstituted – Notwithstanding The Difficulties – Political / Economical / Social – Which Are Many – And – In Such Forms As Best Answer To The Modem Requirements

~ TPWI-BO-TM-AT-TTGD-WATPO-TGPI-A-I-A-S ~ The Periods When Institutions Based On – The Mutual-Aid Tendency – Took Their Greatest Development – Were Also The Periods Of – The Greatest Progress In – Arts – Industry – And – Science

~ MAITRFOOEC ~ Mutual Aid Is The Real Foundation Of Our Ethical Conceptions

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