BRYAN CAPLAN ~ THE MYTH OF THE RATIONAL VOTER ~ 2007

~ TS-‘TSFTPODIMD’-SH-AYDTIO-RI ~ The Slogan – “The Solution For The Problems Of Democracy Is More Democracy” – Sounds Hollow – After You Digest The Idea Of – Rational Ignorance

~ VI-IAPO-NHS-N-ATCA ~ Voter Ignorance – Is A Product Of – Natural Human Selfishness – Not – A Transient Cultural Aberration

~ NA-METOP-BAT-TTCUEAVA ~ Nearly All – Modern Economic Theories Of Politics – Begin By Assuming That – The Typical Citizen Understands Economics And Votes Accordingly

~ MVNTASCIE ~ Most Voters Never Take A Single Course In Economics

~ PWR-FC-T-TL ~ People Would Rather – Feel Compassionately – Than – Think Logically

~ S-SB-HBGT-SCB ~ Self-Serving Bias – Human Beings Gravitate Toward – Selfishly Convenient Beliefs

~ TTWTWITTSACATIAFOD ~ The Trouble With The World Is That The Stupid Are Cocksure And The Intelligent Are Full Of Doubt

~ D-ITWS-ALA-TEIPAC ~ Demagoguery – Is The Winning Strategy – As Long As – The Electorate Is Prejudiced And Credulous

~ L-P-TM-SVWTWTSATTWTWTH ~ Like – Politicians – The Media – Show Viewers What They Want To See And Tell Them What They Want To Hear

~ BBAE-MDWAWIDM-UTBITI-NJFE-B-FEWSP ~ Biased Beliefs About Economics – Make Democracy Worse At What It Does Most – Understanding These Biases Is Therefore Important – Not Just For Economists – But – For Everyone Who Studies Politics

ELIZABETH ANDERSON ~ PRIVATE GOVERNMENT ~ 2017

~ WATTOCIB-FM-A-SC-WMALTWLUUATTE:PG ~ We Are Told That Our Choice Is Between – Free Markets – And – State Control – When Most Adults Live Their Working Lives Under A Third Thing Entirely: Private Government

~ MMWAPG ~ Most Modern Workplaces Are Private Governments

~ YAST-PG-W:YASTAWCOYASYFNCOSDOYL-A-TATIANOYB-AAWROC-WOIIOWISY ~ You Are Subject To – Private Government – Wherever: You Are Subordinate To Authorities Who Can Order You Around And Sanction You For Not Complying Over Some Domain Of Your Life – And – The Authorities Treat It As None Of Your Business – Across A Wide Range Of Cases – What Orders It Issues Or Why It Sanctions You

~ WAISWU ~ Workplace Authoritarianism Is Still With Us

~ MWAHWANOCOTEA-A-WAWOOCSALTI ~ Most Workers Are Hired Without Any Negotiation Over The Content Of The Employer’s Authority – And – Without A Written Or Oral Contracts Specifying Any Limits To It

~ AG ~ Arbitrary Government

~ II-TS-TE-TDCOWG-WC-A-TRTTE-ETSRFTBL ~ It Is – The State – That Establishes – The Default Constitution Of Workplace Governance – Workers Cede – All – Their Rights To Their Employers – Except Those Specifically Reserved For Them By Law

~ PGICOWTAUFDSTIOCWANCOITM ~ Private Governments Impose Controls On Workers That Are Unconstitutional For Democratic States To Impose On Citizens Who Are Not Convicts Or In The Military

~ MP-SN-LOI-A-SD-KMEFETFSOTA ~ Market Pressures – Social Norms – Lack Of Interest – And – Simple Decency – Keeps Most Employers From Exercising The Full Scope Of Their Authority

~ TAFGSFAAPTLAIKOTGUATOG:E;TROL;SCR;V ~ There Are Four General Strategies For Advancing And Protecting The Liberties And Interests Of The Governed Under Any Type Of Government: Exit; The Rule Of Law; Substantive Constitutional Rights; Voice

~ TINASF-RW-V-ITG-JBWGRAHOODNMTHOMBUTTG-O-TTGSNPARIMD-M ~ There Is No Adequate Substitute For – Recognizing Worker’s – Voice – In Their Government – Just Because Workplace Governance Requires A Hierarchy Of Offices Does Not Mean That Higher Officeholders Must Be Unaccountable To The Governed – Or – That The Governed Should Not Play Any Role In Managerial Decision-Making

~ WD-ITFO-W-OA-MF-HSAAIFME ~ Workplace Democracy – In The Form Of – Worker-Owned And -managed Firms – Has Long Stood As An Ideal For Many Egalitarians

~ GIE-NJITFO-TS-B-EMPITW-Y-PDAMOPTPTTINS-IPTTCOWGISTOOVNBWAE-TITOFATPOPW ~ Government Is Everywhere – Not Just In The Form Of – The State – But – Even More Pervasively In The Workplace – Yet – Public Discourse And Much Of Political Theory Pretends That This Is Not So – It Pretends That The Constitution Of Workplace Government Is Somehow The Object Of Voluntary Negotiation Between Workers And Employers – This Is True Only For A Tiny Proportion Of Privileged Workers

~ S-TL-ESM-HITIGIN-IMBMA-PT-T-ATG-ATT-RTTI-A-OTTP ~ Since – The Levellers – Egalitarian Social Movements – Have Insisted That If Government Is Necessary – It Must Be Made A – Public Thing – To – All The Governed – Accountable To Them – Responsive To Their Interests – And – Open To Their Participation

~ EA-DOIT-NMHEARTA-INOG-IIABHN ~ Exercising Autonomy – Directing Oneself In Tasks – No Matter How Exacting And Relentless They Are – Is No Ordinary Good – It Is A Basic Human Need

~ TCTTSO-WWFL-HNRWO:WTCQAGE-OAGCAR-TCOOOTWLSTSDADT ~ Those Consigned To The Status Of – Wage Worker For Life – Have No Real Way Out: While They Can Quit Any Given Employer – Often At Great Cost And Risk – They Cannot Opt Out Of The Wage Labor System That Structurally Degrades And Demeans Them

~ A-TPOTROLITCTG-N-TG ~ And – The Point Of The Rule Of Law Is To Constrain The Governors – Not – The Governed

~ WT ~ Wage Theft

~ TSO-WT-STCTPGHAITTOILB ~ The Scale Of – Wage Theft – Supports The Claim That Private Government Has An Inherent Tendency To Overstep Its Legal Bounds

~ ANC-WFWFTTHCWTWTQ ~ Abolish Noncompete Clauses – Which Forbid Workers From Taking Their Human Capital With Them When They Quit

~ NOTSHSBWIP-IASAOP ~ None Of The Sexual Harassment Suffered By Workers Improves Productivity – It’s A Sheer Abuse Of Power

~ LWSFTITCOASOWGIWTHAV-WNSKOIVATTETTIAH-TTAR-A-TTHSSOAIWD ~ Let Workers Speak For Themselves In The Context Of A System Of Workplace Governance In Which They Have A Voice – Workers Need Some Kind Of Institutionalized Voice At Work To Ensure That Their Interest Are Heard – That They Are Respected – And – That They Have Some Share Of Autonomy In Workplace Decisions

JAMES KUNSTLER ~ TOO MUCH MAGIC ~ 2012

~ OSCATASBFTEROTF ~ Our Smaller Cities And Towns Are Scaled Better For The Energy Realities Of The Future

~ OGCAPOTCEA ~ Our Giant Cities Are Products Of The Cheap Energy Age

~ LCCWCAD-ATOD-A-ATW-ITALTHT ~ Large Complex Cities Will Contract And Densify – Around Their Old Center – And – Around Their Waterfronts – If They Are Lucky To Have Them

~ TWTRT-T-T-TMBOKAE ~ The Wish To Resort To – Technomagic – Trumps– Time-Tested Methods Based On Knowledge And Experience

~ AFPWRALMHL ~ All Food Production Will Require A Lot More Human Labor

~ G-I-IE-DNWWWSOVRANP ~ Giant – Integrated – Industrial Economies – Do Not Work Well When Supplies Of Vital Resources Are Not Predictable

~ TM-I-C-E-O-CC-FP-I-FS ~ The Most – Immediate – Critical – Effect – Of – Climate Change – For People – Is – Food Scarcity

~ T-I-INATBAPFOHL-IWNLVFITF-TME ~ The – Internet – Is Now Assumed To Be A Permanent Fixture Of Human Life – It Will Not Last Very Far Into The Future – Too Much Electricity

~ GWSCITP-FDATTWDN-A-ITRL-TWWAUAWWDTTWAWWTWWD ~ Generations Will Soon Come Into Their Power – Feeling Differently About Themselves Than We Do Now – And – In Their Reenchanted Lives – They Will Wonder About Us And What We Did To Their World And What We Thought We Were Doing

NOMI PRINS ~ COLLUSION ~ 2018

~ T-2007-2008-C-WTCO-ALRBS-IWPWCITHOTLACOS-STC-CB-HPMI-PB-TA-UMPPC-QE(QE) ~ The – 2007-2008 – Crisis – Was The Consequence Of – A Loosely Regulated Banking System – In Which Power Was Concentrated In The Hands Of Too Limited A Cast Of Speculators – Since The Crisis – Central Banks – Have Pumped Money Into – Private Banks – Through An– Unconventional Monetary Policy Process Called – Quantitative Easing (QE)

~ QE-IAOCTTEA-CB-MEM-AT-IIBAFM-IRFPBOS(OS)-A’CM’S ~ QE – Is An Overtly Complex Term That Entails A – Central Bank – Manufacturing Electronic Money – And Then Injecting It Into Banks And Financial Markets – In Return For Purchasing Bonds Or Securities (Or Stocks) – A “Conjured-Money” Scheme

~ B-TLOGUTSO-ATW-TS-A-LR-GTTCAITEIRP-U-TBSBACTTC-CTA-A-PFTTCTBT-AAO ~ Banks – The Larger Ones Gobbled Up The Smaller Ones – Along The Way – Their Size – And – Loose Regulations – Gave Them The Confidence And Impetus To Engage In Riskier Practices – Ultimately – They Became So Big And Complex That They Could – Create Toxic Assets – And – Provide Financing To Their Customers To Buy Them – All At Once

~ TGSFTM-T-DQES-CBL-PTNTTW-HTGE-TCHBFFTT-TW-NDC-NL-NR-TD-T-CM-I-HRP-PBWUNOTDAWTCMTDWTD ~ To Garner Support For Their Multi-Trillion-Dollar Qe Strategies – Central Bank Leaders – Peddled The Notion That They Were – Helping The General Economy – That Couldn’t Have Been Further From The Truth – There Was – No Direct Channel – No Law – No Requirement – To Divert – The – Cheap Money – Into – Helping Real People – Private Banks Were Under No Obligation To Do Anything With This Cheap Money They Didn’t Want To Do

~ TDW-HASROSMCC-ITWCBSMI-ICGIS-A-ANCE ~ The Danger With – Having A System Rely On So Much Conjured Capital – Is That When Central Bankers Stop Manifesting It – It Could Go Into Shock – And – A New Crisis Emerge

~ T-GFSE-MUISL-TTEOCATTAMM ~ The – Global Financial System Elites – Meet Up In Swanky Locations – They Take Each Other’s Calls And Tend To Avoid Mere Mortals

~ CBANEBV-YTPAG-TPPUTAO-SP-AFE-A-M(ASALO)I ~ Central Bankers Are Not Elected By Voters – Yet They Play At Government – They Promote PolicIes Under The Auspices Of – Stabilizing Prices – Achieving Full Employment – And – Maintaining (A Somewhat Arbitrary Level Of) Inflation

~ POTU ~ Power Of The Unelected

~ TINEALGOT-QMA ~ There Is Nothing Easy About Letting Go Of The – Quantitative Money Addiction

~ EOADOAMADIABNRAEOFS-EIIBMTHH-ITF-OETP-O-CMWTS-MROIWT ~ Existing On A Diet Of Artificial Money And Demand Is Anything But Normal For An Economic Or Financial System – Even If It Boosts Markets To Historic Highs – If The Flow – Or Even The Possibility – Of – Conjured Money Was To Stop – Markets Relying On It Would Tank

~ ABPOTFCACBCWTRIEATSASTN ~ Another By-Product Of The Financial Crisis And Central Bank Collusion Was The Rise In Economic Anxiety That Spawned A Swing Toward Nationalism

~ BCBOBPSAGO-TAOOCOTETA-TVBTCFWTDAPRITWEARSITWOCFTRFTP ~ Because Central Banks Operate Beyond Public Scrutiny And Government Oversight – They Are Only Occasionally Called On To Explain Their Actions – They Vacillate Between Taking Credit For What They Deem Are Positive Results In The World Economy And Remaining Silent In The Wake Of Catastrophic Failures That Result From Their Policies

~ WNADR-WADOORP-WAHFAECC ~ We Need A Debt Reset – Without A Debt Overhaul Or Relief Program – We Are Headed For Another Epic Credit Crisis

~ IO-FSBATHOTBPB-CB-SFLIARP ~ Instead Of – Financing Speculative Bubbles At The Hands Of The Big Private Banks – Central Banks – Should Finance Large Investment And Recovery Programs

~ WS-BUTB-STTCHPDHDTNC-IOTODTFTWTAO ~ We Should – Break Up The Banks – So That They Can’t Hold People’s Deposits Hostage During The Next Crisis – It Only Takes One Domino To Fall To Wipe Them All Out

~ I-TIFC-TCWNBB ~ In – The Inevitable Financial Crash – These Conjurers Will Not Be Blamed

~ T-WE-R-I-AOGTTCB-AFDFS-AHFP ~ The – World Economy – Remains – Imperilled – An Opportunistic Game To The Central Banks – A Field Day For Speculators – A Hazard For Populations

JENNY ODELL ~ HOW TO DO NOTHING ~ 2019

~ RTAE ~ Resisting The Attention Economy

~ SU ~ Surviving Usefulness

~ NIHTDTN ~ Nothing Is Harder To Do Than Nothing

~ IAWWOVIDBOP-MOUFOELM-C-O-O-AAAFRBTTWUD ~ In A World Where Our Value Is Determined By Our Productivity – Many Of Us Find Our Every Last Minute – Captured – Optimized – Or – Appropriated As A Financial Resource By The Technologies We Use Daily

~ TPODN-ITRTWRARTBMP-BR-TQWWCPAP ~ The Point Of Doing Nothing – Isn’t To Return To Work Refreshed And Ready To Be More Productive – But Rather – To Question What We Currently Perceive As Productive

~ DL ~ Deep Listening

~ TMOSTL ~ The Moment Of Stopping To Listen

~ A-P-N-S-DNFYIOFYTE-NFYTS ~ A – Public – Noncommercial – Space – Demands Nothing From You In Order For You To Enter – Nor For You To Stay

~ TMODBPSAOSITYDHTBA-O-PTWTBS-TBT ~ The Most Obvious Difference Between Public Space And Other Spaces Is That You Don’t Have To Buy Anything – Or – Pretend To Want To Buy Something – To Be There

~ TSD-CU-AAUT-SWT-‘P’-CBMOEOEEI ~ Those Spaces Deemed – Commercially Unproductive – Are Always Under Threat – Since What They – ‘Produce” – Can’t Be Measured Or Exploited Or Even Easily Identified

~ Y-IDGET-W-FA-ATT! ~ Yes – It Did Get Easier To – Work – From Anywhere – All The Time!

~ WMTTROL ~ Work Metastasizing Through The Rest Of Life

~ FIPOC ~ Financially Incentivized Proliferation Of Chatter

~ NOMO ~ The Necessity Of Missing Out

~ NOSMO ~ The Necessity Of Sometimes Missing Out

~ TIIFACB-LIT-DL-BS-A-L-AI-MUYP ~ There Is In Fact A Connection Between – Listening In The – Deep Listening – Bodily Sense – And – Listening – As In – Me Understanding Your Perspective

~ PO-S-AO-T-F-N-I-N-C-AAT-FM-FC-FC ~ Protect Our – Spaces – And Our – Time – For – Non-Instrumental – Non-Commercial – Activity And Thought – For Maintenance – For Care – For Conviviality

~ DD ~ Digital Detox

~ ‘P’-IAENAF-AAWWCBE ~ “Peace” – Is An Endless Negotiation Among Free-Acting Agents Whose Wills Cannot Be Engineered

~ P-NEBETIWFW-AATRPTD-IAAATRPTMOMB ~ Politics – Necessarily Exists Between Even Two Individuals With Free Will – Any Attempt To Reduce Politics To Design – Is Also An Attempt To Reduce People To Machines Or Mechanical Beings

~ SIDWU-TVOAOP-THIFOPSRHAS-DFKFAMUWFC ~ So Instinctively Do We Understand – The Value Of An Outsider’s Perspective – That History Is Full Of People Seeking Remote Hermits And Sages – Desperate For Knowledge From A Mind Unconcerned With Familiar Comforts

~ WIA-PSOF-PCASTT-NC-COAATSTTTCBEMD ~ Whipped Into A – Permanent State Of Frenzy – People Create And Subject Themselves To – News Cycles – Complaining Of Anxiety At The Same Time That They Check Back Ever More Diligently

~ TLOAACDTME ~ The Logic Of Advertising And Clicks Dictates The Media Experience

~ FSOOF-IAVSR-TSGFWS ~ Firecrackers Setting Off Other Firecrackers – In A Very Small Room – That Soon Gets Filled With Smoke

~ TNTPSAIMBTE ~ The Need To Periodically Step Away Is More Obvious Than Ever

~ WHTBATDB:C/P-L/CB ~ We Have To Be Able To Do Both: Contemplate/Participate – Leave/Come Back

~ MJ-IRB-C-BA ~ Moral Judgement – Is Replaced By – Cost-Benefit Analysis

~ TS ~ Third Space

~ LIACSODIU ~ Living In A Constant State Of Distraction Is Unpleasant

~ HSCMEATRTO-ADOL-M ~ Historically – Some Can More Easily Afford To Refuse Than Others – A Degree Of Latitude – A Margin

~ IS-CGALWTAIT-‘A’-TR ~ Institutional Support – Can Go A Long Way Toward Allowing Individuals To – “Afford” – To Refuse

~ AOCR-AOM-‘C’-FP-ITCI ~ Acts Of Collective Refusal – Are Obviously More – “Costly” – For Participants – If They’re Considered Illegal

~ TAM-‘SA’-TB-R-ATM-OGPTSITAOOA-TBAUEOKOMR ~ There Are Many – “Systemic Abuses” – To Be – Refused – At The Moment – One Great Place To Start Is The Abuse Of Our Attention – That’s Because Attention Undergirds Every Other Kind Of Meaningful Refusal

~ II-A(DWTPAT)-TMOR-RCOICAMTDONWANWOMTT ~ If Its – Attention (Deciding What To Pay Attention To) – That Makes Our Reality – Regaining Control Of It Can Also Mean The Discovery Of New Worlds And New Ways Of Moving Through Them

~ B-IWAT-WWSFTBOHWCA-T-TIODOABATC ~ But – If We Allow That – What We See Forms The Basis Of How We Can Act – Then – The Importance Of Directing Our Attention Becomes All Too Clear

~ I-AAW-ASCL-T-WHEMRTWAAEEAIEPOOA ~ If – Attention And Will – Are So Closely Linked – Then – We Have Even More Reason To Worry About An Entire Economy And Information Ecosystem Preying On Our Attention

~ EMTDW? ~ Empower Me To Do What?

~ GFMATW? ~ Good For Me According To Whom?

~ WTPOYAHC-YRYRD-YBTMAAIADKOW ~ When The Pattern Of Your Attention Has Changed – You Render Your Reality Differently – You Begin To Move And Act In A Different Kind Of World

~ EOS ~ Ecology Of Strangers

~ WSCATAUBWABTEOIAPS ~ We Should Care About Those Around Us Because We Are Beholden To Each Other In A Practical Sense

~ WSGFBAITAR-YCEFYPBITNCICF ~ When Something Goes From Being An Idea To A Reality – You Can’t Easily Force Your Perception Back Into The Narrow Container It Came From

~ IWLO-R-LI-BCB-OFBABI-WAARTRONB-S-C-O-C-NSAOOO-IOOP ~ If We Let Our – Real-Life Interactions – Be Corralled By – Our Filter Bubbles And Branded Identities – We Are Also Running The Risk Of Never Being – Surprised – Challenged – Or – Changed – Never Seeing Anything Outside Of Ourselves – Including Our Own Privilege

~ P-POO-P-IDF-D-P-A-E ~ Politics – Play Out On – Platforms – Ill Designed For – Difference – Plurality – And – Encounter

~ T-WWATNOW-BD-B-CD-WHSMTLFTBOE ~ Today – When We Are Threatened Not Only With – Biological Desertification – But – Cultural Desertification – We Have So Much To Learn From The Basics Of Ecology

~ IIW-AOA-TWD-WTH-WTS-A-WIOWHA-ITW-AFTG-NJF-L-B-F-E ~ It Is With – Acts Of Attention – That We Decide – Who To Hear – Who To See – And – Who In Our World Has Agency – In This Way – Attention Forms The Ground – Not Just For – Love – But – For – Ethics

~ APB-WALOTTW-SESWAFSE;ASB-WAEDBOC ~ As Physical Beings – We Are Literally Open To The World – Suffused Every Second With Air From Somewhere Else; As Social Beings – We Are Equally Determined By Our Contexts

~ HAO-B-TSCIATATYDHTWS ~ Humility And Openness – Because – To Seek Context Is Already To Acknowledge That You Don’t Have The Whole Story

~ C-IWAWYHYAOFLE;TLYHI-TMCA ~ Context – Is What Appears When You Hold Your Attention Open For Long Enough; The Longer You Hold It – The More Context Appears

~ ARTTMB ~ A Race To The Mediocre Bottom

~ B-B-AACOMOISOFAAW-WEHOTORR ~ But – Because – Apologizing And Changing Our Minds Online Is So Often Framed As A Weakness – We Either Hold Our Tongues Or Risk Ridicule

~ TCCOSAFWIETBAMATAAB ~ The Crowd Can Only See A Figure Who Is Expected To Be As Monolithic And Timeless As A Brand

~ GTAOTITFUDAUO-C-I-A-N-TAT-SAU-C-INLTA-CSS ~ Given That All Of The Issues That Face Us Demand An Understanding Of – Complexity – Interrelationship – And – Nuance – The Ability To – Seek And Understand – Context – Is Nothing Less Than A – Collective Survival Skill

~ DASOPBEAARI-TI-IWWTRHTCAEO-WWAHTRHTCAP ~ Developing A Sense Of Place Both Enables Attention And Requires It – That Is – If We Want To Relearn How To Care About Each Other – We Will Also Have To Relearn How To Care About Place

~ MD ~ Manifest Dismantling

~ TPOTAECJBABLOARTIOPDT;TAEATIOIO-PS-EP-C-A-R ~ The Pitfalls Of The Attention Economy Can’t Just Be Avoided By Logging Off And Refusing The Influence Of Persuasive Design Techniques; They Also Emerge At The Intersection Of Issues Of – Public Space – Environmental Politics – Class – And – Race

YOCHAI BENKLER ~ THE PENGUIN AND THE LEVIATHAN ~ 2011

~ C-TO-SI ~ Cooperation – Triumphs Over – Self-Interest

~ WNNB-RSTTGL-AGBTIHOTM-O-POTCHOF-TSTCW-IHOT-TSOL-ICTA-TP ~ We Need Not Be – Robotic Slaves To The Government’s Leviathan – Automations Guided By The Invisible Hand Of The Market – Or – Parts Of The Collectivist Hive Of Fascism – To Serve The Common Weal – In Honor Of Tux – The Symbol Of Linux – I’ll Call This Alternative – The Penguin

~ INTCCSDBTL-N-TIHOTFMCEGS-WSWT? ~ If Neither The Command-Control Systems Dictated By The Leviathan – Nor – The Invisible Hand Of The Free Market Can Effectively Govern Society – Where Shall We Turn?

~ EWBNTUQOTSS-A-WBTTOHBITO-AM-P-R-T-PAE ~ Economics Was By Now The Unquestioned Queen Of The Social Sciences – And – We Began To Think Of Human Behavior In Terms Of – Almost Mechanical – Predictable – Responses – To – Punishments And Incentives

~ PAIFMC-TMEAOPA-TIJT-DOFSHICS-OMSAETEIBO ~ People Are In Fact More Cooperative – Than Most Economists And Others Previously Assumed – This Isn’t Just Theory – Dozens Of Field Studies Have Identified Cooperative Systems – Often More Stable And Effective Than Equivalent Incentive-Based Ones

~ UCOCASTMUIE ~ Using Control Of Carrots And Sticks To Motivate Us Isn’t Effective

~ ORTTMOUSPITIINWW-OMS ~ One Reason That The Myth Of Universal Selfishness Persists Is That It Is Not Wholly Wrong – Only Mostly So

~ Y-SBAS-B-FASAOTT-ASOUDNAOOSI ~ Yes – Some People Are Selfish – But – Few Are Selfish All Of The Time – And Some Of Us Do Not Act Out Of Self-Interest

~ HBTTSO-N-S-E-THUMSOOCACW ~ Human Beings Tend To Seek Out – Neat – Simple – Explanations – To Help Us Make Sense Of Our Confusing And Complex World

~ ATGHNBEASTTITOUS-OWGITHOTOOAOBIAGW-WTTIATEWEACSIFWOPAA-BDSB-AEO ~ Almost Two Generations Have Now Been Educated And Socialized To Think In Terms Of Universal Selfishness – Once We Get In The Habit Of Thinking Of Ourselves And Our Behavior In A Given Way – We Tend To Interpret All The Evidence We Encounter And Collect So It Fits With Our Preconceptions And Assumptions – By Discarding Some Bits – And Emphasizing Others

~ WASB-WPSAB-WAEBJAM-INM-TWARB ~ We Are Social Beings – We Perform Selfless Acts Because – We Are Emotional Beings Just As Much – If Not More – Than We Are Rational Beings

~ ONADAFMCAVTTSDTMPAG-UR-TFHBLIOOP ~ Our Needs And Desires Are Far More Complex And Varied Than The Simple Desire To Maximize Pleasure And Gain – Until Recently – These Findings Have Been Largely Ignored Outside Of Psychology

~ F-OCFWI-RAF-ODTBSFBOPASBTASG-AFBTGTRD ~ Finally – Our Concern For What Is – Right And Fair – Our Desire To Be Seen Favorably By Our Peers And So Belong To A Social Group – Are Finally Beginning To Get Their Rightful Due

~ TPOCINSSUD-IIGISOTBWAMRRIBS ~ The Promise Of Cooperation Is Not Some Silly Utopian Dream – It Is Grounded In Some Of The Best Work And Most Rigorous Research In Behavioural Science

~ SORAP-S-TIASRFSITGABBSATEOTWC ~ Systems Of Reciprocity Aren’t Perfect – So – There Is Always Some Room For Some Individuals To Get Ahead By Being Selfish At The Expense Of Those Who Cooperate

~ AWMADTA-WHTFITSWI-EEHGAT-TFE-PWMDDDOHASIP ~ Anytime We Make A Decision To Act – We Have To First Interpret The Situation We’re In – Even Economists Have Grudgingly Admitted This – The Framing Effect – People Will Make Different Decision Depending On How A Situation Is Presented

~ SC-R-A-SC ~ Social Capital – Reputation – And – Social Contagion

~ SRHTOC ~ Social Relations Have Their Own Currency

~ MESTOBIASIGIBTBWOIPAU-EIWCUOTI ~ Much Evidence Suggests That Our Behavior In Any Situation Is Greatly Influenced By The Behavior We’ve Observed In People Around Us – Even If We’re Completely Unaware Of That Influence

~ WSTBWTNO-FPAADAPASI ~ We Seem To Be Wired To Need Others – Few Punishments Are As Debilitating And Painful As Social Isolation

~ WASBNLTWAI-STLUBBWBTSTSUAJOOTO ~ We Are Social Beings No Less Than We Are Individuals – Systems That Let Us Be – Work Better Than Systems That See Us As Just One Or The Other

~ E-NM-WWOOPDS-TNIOBFIATESPAWWADTSAO-OBMNOPOMM-BPEAW ~ Empathy – Neuron Mirroring – When We Observe Other People Doing Something – The Neurons In Our Brains Fire In Almost The Exact Same Patterns As When We Are Doing Those Same Acts Ourselves – Our Brains Mirror Not Only Pain Or Motor Movements – But Pure Emotions As Well

~ WVQAS-SPIG-‘LU’&‘NLU’~ We Very Quickly And Subconsciously Sort People Into Groups – “Like Us” And “Not Like Us”

~ IMC-TSATCACWO-IE-TGPTATFACG-WTGMB ~ In Many Cases – The Simple Ability To Communicate And Coordinate With Others – Is Enough – To – Get People To Act Together For A Common Goal – Whatever That Goal Might Be

~ TIETSTWCEMATPTTAOOAS ~ There Is Evidence To Suggest That We Care Even More About The Process Than The Actual Outcome Of A Situation

~ ODFF-AIIUIACC-IACCOHMAB-IIIO-S-I-E-O-S-WHABNODTBTF-A-TBPISTTUF ~ Our Desire For Fairness – As It Is Understood In A Cultural Context – Is A Critical Component Of Human Motivation And Behavior – It Is Independent Of – Self-Interest – Empathy – Or – Solidarity – We Have A Basic Need Or Desire To Be Treated Fairly – And – To Be Participants In Systems That Treat Us Fairly

~ IWWTBASTMPTWW-OCE-INETOTSRAI-WANTTAHFTSI ~ If We Want To Build A System That Motivates People To Work Well – Or Cooperate Effectively – It’s Not Enough To Offer Them Simple Rewards And Incentives – We Also Need To Think About How Fair The System Is

~ FI-A-P-I-P-O-MSWW-A-FMPFWACWT ~ Fairness Is – A – Practical – Integral – Part – Of – Making Systems Work Well – And – Of Making People Function Well And Cooperatively Within Them

~ PAAQGA-SU-E-A-SR-FA-TASOMAUAECN ~ People Are Actually Quite Good At – Setting Up – Enforcing – And – Self-Regulating – Fair Arrangements – Through A Set Of Mutually Agreed Upon And Enforced Community Norms

~ NPOV ~ Neutral Point Of View

~ TIEETST-WICTC-PMP-TBBAECS-WITBLOCTS ~ There Is Enough Evidence To Suspect That – When It Comes To Cooperation – Practice Makes Perfect – That By Building And Engaging Cooperative Systems – We Increase The Baseline Level Of Cooperation Throughout Society

~ TSOFAOSSBENE ~ The Success Of Free And Open-Source Software Baffles Economist No End

~ COE-OW-TOOMR-E-CWAPEAAI-O-IWAPSOAAC ~ Crowding-Out Effects – Occur When – The Offer Of Material Rewards – Either – Clash With A Person’s Expectation About An Interaction – Or – Interferes With A Person’s Sense Of Autonomy And Control

~ AM-AROAP-CARTTPOOM-A-SUOTPOC ~ Adding Money – As Reward Or As Punishment – Can Actually Redirect The Total Pull Of Our Motivations – And – Steer Us Off The Path Of Cooperation

~ NIMIIACSTCATP-WPAATC-TA-ME-MT-A-CRSMRTWTCTTOA ~ Nothing Is More Important In A Cooperative System Than Communication Among The Participants – When People Are Able To Communicate – They Are – More Empathetic – More Trusting – And – Can Reach Solutions More Readily Than When They Cannot Talk To One Another

~ VANAA-FINSYATATPDAHTIEOIOPHBM-FIITEHC-FSAPS ~ Values Are Not An Afterthought – Fairness Is Not Something You Attend To After The Practical Decisions About How To Improve Efficiency Or Innovation Or Productivity Have Been Made – Fairness Is Integral To Effective Human Cooperation – Fair Systems Are Productive Systems

~ CHU-LTR-BDAI ~ Cooperation Hinges Upon – Long-Term Reciprocity – Both Direct And Indirect

~ STHODMANJMPBAMCWHE ~ Systems That Harness Our Diverse Motivations Are Not Just More Productive But Also More Consistent With Human Experience

JONAH BERGER ~ INVISIBLE INFLUENCE ~ 2016

~ 99%-OAD-A-SBO-IHTFADOBTIABOP ~ Ninety-Nine-Point-Nine Percent – Of All Decisions – Are – Shaped By Others – It’s Hard To Find A Decision Or Behavior That Isn’t Affected By Other People

~ TIAEMSRWDTSIAU-WCSI ~ There Is An Even More Subtle Reason We Don’t Think Social Influence Affects Us – We Can’t See It

~ TITMEILMSSAF-B-IHABSIHOE ~ The Idea That Mere Expose Increases Liking May Seem Strange At First – But – It Has Actually Been Shown In Hundreds Of Experiments

~ FLTL-WACUIO-WUHMSIAOBBWDRIIH ~ Familiarity Leads To Liking – We Are Completely Unaware It Occurs – We Underestimate How Much Social Influence Affects Our Behavior Because We Don’t Realize It Is Happening

~ WAAOBIOWOA-SWAIDH-B-NBAOIDMIDO ~ We Aren’t Aware Of Being Influenced One Way Or Another – So We Assume It Didn’t Happen – But – Not Being Aware Of Influence Doesn’t Mean It Didn’t Occur

~ JLABOEO-OSIACSWWAAWWD ~ Just Like Atoms Bouncing Off Each Other – Our Social Interactions Are Constantly Shaping Who We Are And What We Do

~ SI-T-DJLUTDTSAO-LAM-OCA-B-TCAR-SWC-O-IOAU-B-IOCWD-O-ATBOPADT ~ Social Influence – Though – Doesn’t Just Lead Us To Do The Same As Others – Like A Magnet – Others Can Attract – But – They Can Also Repel – Sometimes We Conform – Or – Imitate Others Around Us – But – In Other Cases We Diverge – Or – Avoid Things Because Other People Are Doing Them

~ B-WWTSIDAU-WW ~ But – While We Think Social Influence Doesn’t Affect Us – We’re Wrong

~ WWGU-A-TNAPOPAU-SEFTLWUTTBWEI ~ Where We Grow Up – And – The Norms And Practices Of People Around Us – Shape Everything From The Language We Use To The Behaviors We Engage In

~ PTTLOTLLT ~ People Tend To Like Others That Look Like Them

~ B-ETWMNRI-WACAAITAOTAU-A-TADTSFU ~ But – Even Though We May Not Realize It – We Are Constantly And Automatically Imitating The Actions Of Those Around Us – And – They Are Doing The Same For Us

~ MN-WSEEIAAATSCRAEITA-OODSCAOMIWTMIEFUTDTST ~ Mirror Neurons – Watching Someone Else Engage In An Action Activates The Same Cortical Region As Engaging In That Action – Observing Others Do Something Can Activate Our Mind In Ways That Make It Easier For Us To Do The Same Thing

~ M-FSIBIG-R-LASG-M-BUABUT ~ Mimicry – Facilitates Social Interactions Because It Generates – Rapport – Like A Social Glue – Mimicry – Binds Us And Bonds Us Together

~ W-RAP-AEITST-TOUWTSOTA ~ While – Rewards And Punishments – Are Effective In The Short Term – They Often Undermine What They Set Out To Achieve

~ PTA=TWPC-B-CAOWWTGHATEII-B-IEJFEE-O-KTITT-TVOTGIL-EEIIIV-TOTEODVCBE ~ People Talk About – The Wisdom Of Crowds – But – Crowds Are Only Wise When The Group Has Access To Everyone’s Individual Information – But – If Everyone Just Follows Everyone Else – Or – Keeps Their Information To Themselves – The Value Of The Group Is Lost – Eliciting Everyone’s Idiosyncratic Information Is Vital – Turns Out That Even One Dissenting Voice Can Be Enough

~ WDNTBITMTFCEOO-WNTFLWAA ~ We Don’t Need To Be In The Majority To Feel Comfortable Expressing Our Opinions – We Just Need To Feel Like We Aren’t Alone

~ UWBRTASOHAMEIAHAG ~ Using Written Ballots Rather Than A Show Of Hands At Meetings Encourages Independence And Helps Avoid Groupthink

~ GF-AEWTSTD ~ Going First – An Easy Way To Shape The Discussion

~ HFSTGGTPPRTETIO?-AWPDPOIFIOA? ~ How Far Should The Government Go To Protect People’s Right To Express Their Individual Opinions? – At What Point Does Protecting One Individual’s Freedom Impinge On Another’s?

~ TIOD-‘IDABO’ ~ The Illusion Of Difference – “I Drive A Blue One”

~ TMSMTU-TMDWAII ~ The More Something Matters To Us – The More Distinctive We Assume It Is

~ P-D-TABMOCUI ~ People – Diverge – To Avoid Being Misidentified Or Communicating Undesired Identities

~ U-MIDALTBD ~ Unfortunately – More Information Doesn’t Always Lead To Better Decisions

~ T-I-AWAPBOA-IOJAIA-TM-‘F’-V-IP ~ The – Identity – Associated With A Particular Behavior Or Action – Is Often Just As Important As – The More – “Functional” – Value – It Provides

~ PTNBT ~ Predicting The Next Big Thing

~ PTFINHTD ~ Predicting The Future Is Notoriously Hard To Do

~ JA-TMWSS-TMWLI-TMWSS-TMWLOTTSSF ~ Just As – The More We See Something – The More We Like It – The More We See Something – The More We Like Other Things That Share Similar Features

~ W-F-IS-PAHACDF-N-HHAIPFS:WF-O-O-U ~ While – Familiarity – Is Good – People Also Have A Competing Drive For – Novelty – Humans Have An Innate Preference For Stimulation: What’s: Fresh – Original – Or – Unexperienced

~ WSIN-WIFSN(ON)-T-ARE-TBMF-A-WSTFMP-B-E-ATME-B-KI-A-LD ~ When Something Is New – We Initially Feel Slightly Negatively (or Neutral) – Then – After Repeated Exposure – Things Become More Familiar – And – We Start To Feel More Positively – But – Eventually – After Too Many Exposures – Boredom – Kicks In – And – Liking Declines

~ OD ~ Optimally Distinct

~ WWTBPOS ~ We Want To Be Part Of Something

~ B-ST-O-DTSTA-O-GUCTWADSR ~ Being – Similar To – Or – Doing The Same Thing As – Others – Gives Us Confidence That We Are Doing Something Right

~ TTMSO-WWTBSBWWTBD-WWTDTSTAO-B-WAWTBS ~ These Two Motives Seem Opposing – We Want To Be Similar But We Want To Be Different – We Want To Do The Same Thing As Others – But – We Also Want To Be Special

~ S-E-TETWGO-F-B-DETF-NAF ~ Similar – Enough – To Evoke The Warm Glow Of – Familiarity – But – Different Enough To Feel – Novel And Fresh

~ TPATP-CADO-WDO-WACIAWOD ~ The Particular Attributes That People – Conform And Differentiate On – Will Depend On – Which Attributes Communicate Identity And Which Ones Don’t

~ WOHOHPDOTCOTT-HOA-IP-O-E-W-L-T-B-DP-O-U-A-TMD-T ~ Whether Others Help Or Hurt Performance Depends On The Complexity Of The Task – Having Others Around – Improves Performance – On – Easy – Well-Learned – Tasks – But – Decreases Performance – On – Unfamiliar – And – Thus More Difficult – Tasks

~ EWFOAWTCDACUEU-O-TWIOACFSUC ~ Either We Figure Out A Way To Cut Down And Clean Up Energy Use – Or – The World Is On A Course For Some Unsettling Changes

~ SCIM-GPASOHTSUATPCETTWHABMLTATG-ATST-T-INCD-SCCLPT-D-GU-A-Q ~ Social Comparison Information Motivates – Giving People A Sense Of How They Stack Up Against Their Peers Can Encourage Them To Work Harder And Be More Likely To Achieve Their Goals – At The Same Time – Though – If Not Carefully Designed – Social Comparisons Can Lead People To – Get Disheartened – Give Up – And – Quit

~ AABL-PPAUCD-SHOAWEYTSTWYP ~ At A Basic Level – Peers Provide A Useful Commitment Device – Simply Having Others Around Will Encourage You To Stick To What You Planned

~ WWLHABIOHOLU ~ Where We Live Has A Big Impact On How Our Lives Unfold

~ DOEDOF?-CN-B-WACSBTPAU ~ Do Our Environments Determine Our Fate? – Certainly Not – But – We Are Constantly Shaped By The People Around Us

~ B-AOC-WAASA-WWRION-OPHA-SASIO-AEWD ~ Because – At Our Core – We Are All Social Animals – Whether We Realize It Or Not – Other People Have A – Subtle And Surprising Impact On – Almost Everything We Do

~ WICTOOL-SIIASAIIP-JBWCSI-IDMINT ~ When It Comes To Our Own Lives – Social Influence Is As Silent As It Is Powerful – Just Because We Can’t See It – It Doesn’t Mean It’s Not There

~ B-BI-SIINBNG-IPFOWAE-IWLTMEITW-IPFOTAG-IWLTMG ~ But – By Itself – Social Influence Is Neither Bad Nor Good – If People Follow Others Who Are Evil – It Will Lead To More Evil In The World – If People Follow Others That Are Good – It Will Lead To More Good