JONAH BERGER ~ INVISIBLE INFLUENCE ~ 2016

~ 99%-OAD-A-SBO-IHTFADOBTIABOP ~ Ninety-Nine-Point-Nine Percent – Of All Decisions – Are – Shaped By Others – It’s Hard To Find A Decision Or Behavior That Isn’t Affected By Other People

~ TIAEMSRWDTSIAU-WCSI ~ There Is An Even More Subtle Reason We Don’t Think Social Influence Affects Us – We Can’t See It

~ TITMEILMSSAF-B-IHABSIHOE ~ The Idea That Mere Expose Increases Liking May Seem Strange At First – But – It Has Actually Been Shown In Hundreds Of Experiments

~ FLTL-WACUIO-WUHMSIAOBBWDRIIH ~ Familiarity Leads To Liking – We Are Completely Unaware It Occurs – We Underestimate How Much Social Influence Affects Our Behavior Because We Don’t Realize It Is Happening

~ WAAOBIOWOA-SWAIDH-B-NBAOIDMIDO ~ We Aren’t Aware Of Being Influenced One Way Or Another – So We Assume It Didn’t Happen – But – Not Being Aware Of Influence Doesn’t Mean It Didn’t Occur

~ JLABOEO-OSIACSWWAAWWD ~ Just Like Atoms Bouncing Off Each Other – Our Social Interactions Are Constantly Shaping Who We Are And What We Do

~ SI-T-DJLUTDTSAO-LAM-OCA-B-TCAR-SWC-O-IOAU-B-IOCWD-O-ATBOPADT ~ Social Influence – Though – Doesn’t Just Lead Us To Do The Same As Others – Like A Magnet – Others Can Attract – But – They Can Also Repel – Sometimes We Conform – Or – Imitate Others Around Us – But – In Other Cases We Diverge – Or – Avoid Things Because Other People Are Doing Them

~ B-WWTSIDAU-WW ~ But – While We Think Social Influence Doesn’t Affect Us – We’re Wrong

~ WWGU-A-TNAPOPAU-SEFTLWUTTBWEI ~ Where We Grow Up – And – The Norms And Practices Of People Around Us – Shape Everything From The Language We Use To The Behaviors We Engage In

~ PTTLOTLLT ~ People Tend To Like Others That Look Like Them

~ B-ETWMNRI-WACAAITAOTAU-A-TADTSFU ~ But – Even Though We May Not Realize It – We Are Constantly And Automatically Imitating The Actions Of Those Around Us – And – They Are Doing The Same For Us

~ MN-WSEEIAAATSCRAEITA-OODSCAOMIWTMIEFUTDTST ~ Mirror Neurons – Watching Someone Else Engage In An Action Activates The Same Cortical Region As Engaging In That Action – Observing Others Do Something Can Activate Our Mind In Ways That Make It Easier For Us To Do The Same Thing

~ M-FSIBIG-R-LASG-M-BUABUT ~ Mimicry – Facilitates Social Interactions Because It Generates – Rapport – Like A Social Glue – Mimicry – Binds Us And Bonds Us Together

~ W-RAP-AEITST-TOUWTSOTA ~ While – Rewards And Punishments – Are Effective In The Short Term – They Often Undermine What They Set Out To Achieve

~ PTA-TWPC-B-CAOWWTGHATEII-B-IEJFEE-O-KTITT-TVOTGIL-EEIIIV-TOTEODVCBE ~ People Talk About – The Wisdom Of Crowds – But – Crowds Are Only Wise When The Group Has Access To Everyone’s Individual Information – But – If Everyone Just Follows Everyone Else – Or – Keeps Their Information To Themselves – The Value Of The Group Is Lost – Eliciting Everyone’s Idiosyncratic Information Is Vital – Turns Out That Even One Dissenting Voice Can Be Enough

~ WDNTBITMTFCEOO-WNTFLWAA ~ We Don’t Need To Be In The Majority To Feel Comfortable Expressing Our Opinions – We Just Need To Feel Like We Aren’t Alone

~ UWBRTASOHAMEIAHAG ~ Using Written Ballots Rather Than A Show Of Hands At Meetings Encourages Independence And Helps Avoid Groupthink

~ GF-AEWTSTD ~ Going First – An Easy Way To Shape The Discussion

~ HFSTGGTPPRTETIO?-AWPDPOIFIOA? ~ How Far Should The Government Go To Protect People’s Right To Express Their Individual Opinions? – At What Point Does Protecting One Individual’s Freedom Impinge On Another’s?

~ TIOD-‘IDABO’ ~ The Illusion Of Difference – “I Drive A Blue One”

~ TMSMTU-TMDWAII ~ The More Something Matters To Us – The More Distinctive We Assume It Is

~ P-D-TABMOCUI ~ People – Diverge – To Avoid Being Misidentified Or Communicating Undesired Identities

~ U-MIDALTBD ~ Unfortunately – More Information Doesn’t Always Lead To Better Decisions

~ T-I-AWAPBOA-IOJAIA-TM-‘F’-V-IP ~ The – Identity – Associated With A Particular Behavior Or Action – Is Often Just As Important As – The More – “Functional” – Value – It Provides

~ PTNBT ~ Predicting The Next Big Thing

~ PTFINHTD ~ Predicting The Future Is Notoriously Hard To Do

~ JA-TMWSS-TMWLI-TMWSS-TMWLOTTSSF ~ Just As – The More We See Something – The More We Like It – The More We See Something – The More We Like Other Things That Share Similar Features

~ W-F-IS-PAHACDF-N-HHAIPFS:WF-O-O-U ~ While – Familiarity – Is Good – People Also Have A Competing Drive For – Novelty – Humans Have An Innate Preference For Stimulation: What’s: Fresh – Original – Or – Unexperienced

~ WSIN-WIFSN(ON)-T-ARE-TBMF-A-WSTFMP-B-E-ATME-B-KI-A-LD ~ When Something Is New – We Initially Feel Slightly Negatively (or Neutral) – Then – After Repeated Exposure – Things Become More Familiar – And – We Start To Feel More Positively – But – Eventually – After Too Many Exposures – Boredom – Kicks In – And – Liking Declines

~ OD ~ Optimally Distinct

~ WWTBPOS ~ We Want To Be Part Of Something

~ B-ST-O-DTSTA-O-GUCTWADSR ~ Being – Similar To – Or – Doing The Same Thing As – Others – Gives Us Confidence That We Are Doing Something Right

~ TTMSO-WWTBSBWWTBD-WWTDTSTAO-B-WAWTBS ~ These Two Motives Seem Opposing – We Want To Be Similar But We Want To Be Different – We Want To Do The Same Thing As Others – But – We Also Want To Be Special

~ S-E-TETWGO-F-B-DETF-NAF ~ Similar – Enough – To Evoke The Warm Glow Of – Familiarity – But – Different Enough To Feel – Novel And Fresh

~ TPATP-CADO-WDO-WACIAWOD ~ The Particular Attributes That People – Conform And Differentiate On – Will Depend On – Which Attributes Communicate Identity And Which Ones Don’t

~ WOHOHPDOTCOTT-HOA-IP-O-E-W-L-T-B-DP-O-U-A-TMD-T ~ Whether Others Help Or Hurt Performance Depends On The Complexity Of The Task – Having Others Around – Improves Performance – On – Easy – Well-Learned – Tasks – But – Decreases Performance – On – Unfamiliar – And – Thus More Difficult – Tasks

~ EWFOAWTCDACUEU-O-TWIOACFSUC ~ Either We Figure Out A Way To Cut Down And Clean Up Energy Use – Or – The World Is On A Course For Some Unsettling Changes

~ SCIM-GPASOHTSUATPCETTWHABMLTATG-ATST-T-INCD-SCCLPT-D-GU-A-Q ~ Social Comparison Information Motivates – Giving People A Sense Of How They Stack Up Against Their Peers Can Encourage Them To Work Harder And Be More Likely To Achieve Their Goals – At The Same Time – Though – If Not Carefully Designed – Social Comparisons Can Lead People To – Get Disheartened – Give Up – And – Quit

~ AABL-PPAUCD-SHOAWEYTSTWYP ~ At A Basic Level – Peers Provide A Useful Commitment Device – Simply Having Others Around Will Encourage You To Stick To What You Planned

~ WWLHABIOHOLU ~ Where We Live Has A Big Impact On How Our Lives Unfold

~ DOEDOF?-CN-B-WACSBTPAU ~ Do Our Environments Determine Our Fate? – Certainly Not – But – We Are Constantly Shaped By The People Around Us

~ B-AOC-WAASA-WWRION-OPHA-SASIO-AEWD ~ Because – At Our Core – We Are All Social Animals – Whether We Realize It Or Not – Other People Have A – Subtle And Surprising Impact On – Almost Everything We Do

~ WICTOOL-SIIASAIIP-JBWCSI-IDMINT ~ When It Comes To Our Own Lives – Social Influence Is As Silent As It Is Powerful – Just Because We Can’t See It – It Doesn’t Mean It’s Not There

~ B-BI-SIINBNG-IPFOWAE-IWLTMEITW-IPFOTAG-IWLTMG ~ But – By Itself – Social Influence Is Neither Bad Nor Good – If People Follow Others Who Are Evil – It Will Lead To More Evil In The World – If People Follow Others That Are Good – It Will Lead To More Good

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