MICHEAL SHERMER ~ BIASES ~ THE BELIEVING BRAIN ~ 2011

~ CG~SAFCEISO-A-EBAIORDE ~ Confirmation Bias ~ Seeking And Finding Confirmatory Evidence In Support Of Already Existing Beliefs – And – Ignoring Or Reinterpreting Disconfirming Evidence

~ A~RTHOAPROOOPOIWMD ~ Anchoring ~ Relying Too Heavily On A Past Reference Or On One Piece Of Information When Making Decisions

~ A~ADCFOOBAATTOO ~ Attribution ~ Attributing Different Causes For Our Own Beliefs And Actions Than That Of Others

~ A~VTOOAA-EITEOSWKLA ~ Authority ~ Valuing The Opinions Of An Authority – Especially In The Evaluation Of Something We Know Little About

~ A~APOPOBOETAIATU-ETTA-V/U/EC-WATGICUWCAB ~ Availability ~ Assigning Probabilities Of Potential Outcomes Based On Examples That Are Immediately Available To Us – Especially Those That Are – Vivid / Unusual / Emotionally Charged – Which Are Then Generalized Into Conclusions Upon Which Choices Are Based

~ BE~HBTOPIYSGHBOTSRP ~ Bandwagon Effect ~ Holding Beliefs That Other People In Your Social Group Hold Because Of The Social Reinforcement Provided

~ BE~TVAGDOPAHAAS ~ Barnum Effect ~ Treating Vague And General Descriptions Of Personality As Highly Accurate And Specific

~ B~ETSOAABOTBOIC ~ Believability ~ Evaluating The Strength Of An Argument Based On The Believability Of Its Conclusion

~ BB~RTPOCBIOP-B-TBBTTIUYOB ~ Bias Blindness ~ Recognizing The Power Of Cognitive Biases In Other People – But – To Be Blind To Their Influence Upon Your Own Beliefs

~ CI~SCOPT-IF-CBTROR ~ Clustering Illusion ~ Seeing Clusters Of Patterns That – In Fact – Can Be The Result Of Randomness

~ C~CMWIAOPAAOO ~ Confabulation ~ Conflating Memories With Imagination And Other People’s Accounts As One’s Own

~ C~RO-P-B-A-A-B-AR-P-B-A-A-B-MTTAD ~ Consistency ~ Recalling One’s – Past – Beliefs – Attitudes – And – Behaviors – As Resembling – Present – Beliefs – Attitudes – And – Behaviors – More Than They Actually Do

~ EE~VWWOMTWWDNO ~ Endowment Effect ~ Valuing What We Own More Than What We Do Not Own

~ E~NDTAWEFTO-A-T-NN-D-O-D-D-TATCWE ~ Expectation ~ Noticing Data That Agree With Expectations For The Outcome – And – To – Not Notice – Discard – Or – Disbelieve – Data – That Appear To Conflict With Expectations

~ F-CE~OTDTWOAWTBOTWGAWTIAB ~ False-Consensus Effect ~ Overestimating The Degree To Which Others Agree With Their Beliefs Or That Will Go Along With Them In A Behaviour

~ FE~DDCBOHDAP ~ Framing Effects ~ Drawing Different Conclusions Based On How Data Are Presented

~ HE~GOPTOAPTATOTOTP ~ Halo Effect ~ Generalizing One Positive Trait Of A Person To All The Other Traits Of That Person

~ H~ATBAFTBOTMOMIAGIOTAC ~ Herd ~ Adopting The Beliefs And Following The Behaviours Of The Majority Of Members In A Group In Order To Avoid Conflict

~ H~RTPTFWPK ~ Hindsight ~ Reconstructing The Past To Fit With Present Knowledge

~ IOC~BTOCC-O-AL-OTMPCCOI ~ Illusion Of Control ~ Believing That One Can Control – Or – At Least – Influence Outcomes That Most People Cannot Control Or Influence

~ IC~ATACC(C)EBTV ~ Illusory Correlation ~ Assuming That A Causal Connection (correlation) Exists Between Two Variables

~ IB~MSOAGWATSSAS ~ Inattentional Blindness ~ Missing Something Obvious And General While Attending To Something Special And Specific

~ I-G~VTBAAOTWTPTBFMOTG-A-TDTBAAOTWTPTBMOADG ~ In-Group ~ Valuing The Beliefs And Attitudes Of Those Whom They Perceive To Be Fellow Members Of Their Group – And – To Discount The Beliefs And Attitudes Of Those Whom They Perceive To Be Members Of A Different Group

~ JW~SFTTTVOAUEMHDTDI ~ Just World ~ Searching For Things That The Victim Of An Unfortunate Event Might Have Done To Deserve It

~ N~PCAAGMWT-N-E-B-A-I-TT-P ~ Negativity ~ Paying Closer Attention And Giving More Weight To – Negative – Events – Beliefs – And – Information – That To – Positive

~ N~DTPOAETHNHB ~ Normalcy ~ Discounting The Possibility Of An Event That Has Never Happened Before

~ N-I-H~DTVOABOITDNCFW ~ Not-Invented-Here ~ Discounting The Value Of A Belief Or Source Of Information That Does Not Come From Within

~ PE~N-R-A-A-AMV-IEMTSE ~ Primacy Effect ~ Noticing – Remembering – And – Assessing – As More Valuable – Initial Events More Than Subsequent Events

~ P~ATOS-TSOS-B-A-A-V-A-TOTPOOBBOOOB ~ Projection ~ Assuming That Others Share – The Same Or Similar – Beliefs – Attitudes – And – Values – And – To Overestimate The Probability Of Others’ Behaviours Based On Our Own Behaviours

~ RE~N-R-A-A-AMV-REMTEE ~ Recency Effect ~ Noticing – Remembering – And – Assessing – As More Valuable – Recent Events More Than Earlier Events

~ R~AEIJPTTETIRTEFOIPPOGP ~ Representative ~ An Event Is Judged Probable To The Extent That It Represents The Essential Features Of Its Parent Population Or Generating Process

~ RI~RPEABMPTTAW ~ Rosy Retrospection ~ Remembering Past Events As Being More Positive Than They Actually Were

~ S-FP~BIIABIWTCTEFBAA ~ Self-Fulfilling Prophecy ~ Believing In Ideas And Behaving In Ways That Conform To Expectations For Beliefs And Actions

~ S-J~RDATFTCOTWWDWTBTWCHD ~ Self-Justification ~ Rationalizing Decisions After The Fact To Convince Ourselves That What We Did Was The Best Thing We Could Have Done

~ SQ~OFWWAUT ~ Status Quo ~ Opting For What We Are Used To

~ S(G)~ATAMOAGWHCCBTRTGWHAIATPM ~ Stereotyping (Generalization) ~ Assuming That A Member Of A Group Will Have Certain Characteristics Believed To Represent The Group Without Having Actual Information About That Particular Member

~ SC~BISBOTCSITB ~ Sunk Cost ~ Believing In Something Because Of The Cost Sunk Into That Belief

~ T-A~APBABAMVALDTTOO ~ Trait-Ascription ~ Assessing Personal Behaviour And Beliefs As More Variable And Less Dogmatic Than Those Of Others

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