JASON STANLEY ~ HOW PROPAGANDA WORKS ~ 2015

~ TLOHSTHATPTC-TFOTOI-W-TCG-A-T-SEF-W-OF ~ The Lessons Of History Show That Humans Are Too Prone To Confuse – The Furtherance Of Their Own Interests – With – The Common Good – And – Their – Subjective Explanatory Framework – With Objective Fact

~ S-W-M-P-CB-DBS-I-I-WPP ~ Sincere – Well-Meaning – People – Can Be – Deceived By Self-Interest – Into – Unwittingly Producing Propaganda

~ WSAU-WCETEO-FI-IASIU-DTUDBP-WORUPBOIRAUB-TBATBTRTAE-T-PE ~ When Societies Are Unjust – We Can Expect The Emergence Of – Flawed Ideologies – In A Society That Is Unjust – Due To Unjust Distinctions Between Persons – Ways Of Rationalizing Undeserved Privilege Become Ossified Into Rigid And Unchangeable Belief – Those Beliefs Are The Barriers To Rational Thought And Empathy – That – Propaganda Exploits

~ HPRUTEOFIPIS ~ Harmful Propaganda Relies Upon The Existence Of Flawed Ideologies Present In Society

~ TIAPDOTI:ITTLT-EB-T-TAOK-OT-ID ~ There Is A Powerful Democratic Objection To Inequality: Inequality Tends To Lead To – Epistemic Barriers – To – The Acquisition Of Knowledge – Ones That – Imperil Democracy

~ FI-IAOTROG-OTOH-TBFLMIQTTAFIITFO-FLN-OTOH-TSMFLI-WBLTAA-FIOTOI-TWPTFRTMI ~ Flawed Ideology – Is An Obstacle To Realizing One’s Goals – On The One Hand – Those Benefiting From Large Material Inequalities Will Tend To Adopt Flawed Ideologies In The Form Of – False Legitimation Narratives – On The Other Hand – Those Suffering Materially From Large Inequalities – Will Be Led To Adopt A – Flawed Ideology Of Their Own Inferiority – This Will Prevent Them From Realizing Their Material Interests

~ ASIOA-DS-IIPSCO-L-AIHV-A-AF-PE ~ A System Is Only A – Democratic System – If It Places Some Conception Of – Liberty – As Its Highest Value – And – Allows For – Political Equality

~ IIUSTMTNOAARWTU-O-ROS-V ~ It Is Utterly Standard To Mask The Nature Of An Authoritarian Regime With The Use – Of – Revolutionary Or Socialist – Vocabulary

~ PICPOTMBWPBDAHBTRTG-A-H-DFSWIITOBI-PS-C-‘E’-R ~ Propaganda Is Characteristically Part Of The Mechanism By Which People Become Deceived About How Best To Realize Their Goals – And – Hence – Deceived From Seeing What Is In Their Own Best Interests – Propaganda Short-Circuits – “Economic” – Rationality

~ ‘DD’-GL-I-HOI-DBTRODWPATCG ~ “Democratic Deliberation” – Genuine Liberty – Is – Having One’s Interests – Decided By The Result Of Deliberation With Peers About The Common Good

~ TPUOTLOLD ~ The Propagandistic Use Of The Language Of Liberal Democracy

~ TIOMOPMTVAPWANCOOAT-VB-CWAATRTTSRTR-FCASIAWO-TIOWAP ~ The Influence Of Money On Politics Means That Voters Are Presented With A Narrow Choice Of Options At The – Voter’s Booth – Candidates Who Are Able To Raise The Titanic Sums Required To Run – From Corporate And Special Interests And Wealthy Oligarchs – The Interests Of Wealth And Power

~ IA-MS-TGGI-E ~ In A – Managerial Society – The Greatest Good Is – Efficiency

~ E-MBAV-B-IINA-DV ~ Efficiency – May Be A Value – But – It Is Not A – Democratic Value

~ APTPTBFTDIBBOTB ~ Austerity Policies To Pay The Banks For The Debt Incurred By Bailing Out The Banks

~ IINAT-CSTINA-WFF-AA-A-‘WFF’ ~ It Is Not Atypical To – Call Something That Is Not A – War For Freedom – At All – A – “War For Freedom”

~ VOP:AITRIADBACPI-Y-WPTTUTROTI ~ Vehicle Of Propaganda: An Institution That Represents Itself As Defined By A Certain Political Idea – Yet – Whose Practice Tends To Undermine The Realization Of That Ideal

~ FIB-CRD ~ Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Corrode Rational Debate

~ LAAMOC ~ Language As A Mechanism Of Control

~ G-IOPB-D-EILAPF ~ Genocide – Is Often Preceded By – Dehumanization – Expressed In Linguistic And Pictorial Form

~ TATIWTFAS-IARASFOPD ~ The Attempt To Introduce Words That Function As Slurs – Is A Regular And Systematic Feature Of Political Debate

~ A-CB-IOTWWBRTGU-EA-TABIWMIDT-RR-TMBNITBTII-C-W-B-TBAPBDOTCTC-C-P ~ A – Cherished Belief – Is One That We Will Be Reluctant To Give Up – Emotional Attachment – To A Belief Is What Makes It Difficult To – Rationally Revise – There May Be Nothing In The Beliefs That Is Intrinsically – Cherish-Worthy – But – The Beliefs Are Preserved By Dint Of Their Connection To Certain – Cherished – Practices

~ A-IB-I-CTIA/OS-I-A-TTCTIOM ~ An – Ideological Belief – Is – Connected To Identity And/Or Self-Interest – And – Tends To Contribute To Its Own Maintenance

~ OPF-AIWA-AB-BB-AAR-PI-CBASO-FIB ~ Our Perceptual Faculties – As Is Widely Agreed – Affected By – Background Beliefs – As A Result – Perception Itself – Can Be A Source Of – Flawed Ideological Belief

~ IINCTASOUPATFOEPB ~ It Is Now Clear That All Sorts Of Unconscious Processes Affect The Formation Of Even Perceptual Beliefs

~ DS-R-ACO-PE-I-GRT-FIB ~ Democratic Society – Requires – A Culture Of – Political Equality – Inequalities – Give Rise To – Flawed Ideological Beliefs

~ MTEIA ~ Mechanisms That Enable Illegitimate Authority

~ TBTTTAICOSI-SA-BITIOOG-O-OO-TTU-DI-SA-R ~ The Beliefs That Tend To Arise In Conditions Of Stark Inequality – Such As – Belief In The Inferiority Of Other Groups – Or – One’s Own – Tend To Undermine – Democratic Ideals – Such As – Reasonableness

~ ICBFIACS-TAF-ITRS-WTFAPBTTAOK ~ Ideologies Can Be Flawed In A Certain Sense – They Are Flawed – In The Relevant Sense – When They Function As Persistent Barriers To The Acquisition Of Knowledge

~ TATDKOFI-ATCOPP-TATFIB-TWCORTTD-A-TFIB-TWCORTTD ~ There Are Two Different Kinds Of Flawed Ideologies – At The Center Of Political Philosophy – These Are The Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Those With Control Of Resources Tend To Develop – And – The Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Those Without Control Of Resources Tend To Develop

~ SIADP-WONTIAJBDIM ~ Substantial Inequalities Are Democratically Problematic – Whether Or Not These Inequalities Are Justified By Differences In Merit

~ IINTETTWABIAPGWH-FIB-CTPTH-IP-TWBTDTPTO-AAROAF-SABP ~ It Is Natural To Expect That Those Who Are Born Into A Privileged Group Will Have – Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Concerning The Privileges They Have – In Particular – They Will Believe They Deserve The Privileges They Obtain – As A Result Of Accidental Forces – Such As Birth Position

~ AHPG-TH-SOTIC-TITTHATSTM-MOTHPG-TCOTMATES-WMIPOT-DN-OTS-TTGOSAJD-ATM-RT-AOBP ~ All Highly Privileged Groups – Throughout History – Share One Thing In Common – The Ideology That They Have Achieved Their Success Through Merit – Members Of The Highly Privileged Group – Through Control Of The Media And The Education System – Will Make It Part Of The – Dominant Narrative – Of The Society – That The Goods Of Society Are Justify Distributed – According To Merit – Rather Than – Accident Of Birth Position

~ TRO-‘D’-A-SCBE-FTPO-SE ~ The Redefinition Of – “Democracy” – As – Social Control By Elites – For The Purposes Of – Social Efficiency

~ DIASIWTCVA-AAE-ASIWOGOPMCFTMOTPI-TOOD ~ Democracy Is A System In Which The Chief Values Are – Autonomy And Equality – A System In Which One Group Of People Makes Choices For The Majority Of The Population Is – The Opposite Of Democracy

~ OC-EANIAD-H-WCLEDMOV ~ Of Course – Experts Are Needed In A Democracy – However – We Cannot Let Experts Dictate Matters Of Value

~ TTAJ:HA-CCA-C-ROVSAADL-CAAI-AC-YO-H-L/B/S/D/DCA-AAM-AE ~ Trying To Achieve Justice: Human Agency – Carefully Crafted Appeals – Consciousness-Raising Of Various Sorts And At Differing Levels – Cultural And Artistic Innovations – Aesthetic Challenges – Years Of – Human – Labour / Blood / Death / Suffering / Dreams / Direct Collective Action – All And More – Are Essential

~ RSM-ITTAAVADOTMO-IIO-R-T-SMAVA-STTPIWTMMS ~ Radical Social Movements – In Their Time Are Always Viewed As Disturbances Of The Moral Order – It Is Only – Retrospectively – That – Social Movements Are Viewed As – Speaking Truth To Power In Ways That Make Moral Sense

~ THNOSM-F-T-E-PR-OB-C-OITSOTMT-TPTA-A-NS ~ The Heroic Narrative Of Social Movements – Faces – The Ever-Present Risk – Of Being – Co-Opted In The Service Of The Message That – The Problems They Addressed – Are – Now Solved

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