NICHOLAS CHRISTAKIS ~ APOLLO’S ARROW ~ 2020

~ SMPCASR-VFPHAET-B-TFTTANIPLMDNMTWCNT-TIR-WSPA ~ Since Major Pandemics Come Along So Rarely – Very Few People Have Actually Experienced Them – But – The Fact That They Are Not In People’s Living Memory Does Not Mean That We Can Neglect Them – They Inevitably Recur – We Should Pay Attention

~ TBITHSTFUWTHOS ~ The Beds In The Hospital Started To Fill Up With The Hospital’s Own Staff

~ AT-CPAOCT-PHM-S-BUPCSTD ~ Asymptomatic Transmission – Can Present An Obvious Challenge To – Public Health Management – Since – Blithely Unaware Patients Can Spread The Disease

~ EW-ASTBAR ~ Essential Workers – Always Seem To Be At Risk

~ E-DOA-CI-O-P/H/E ~ Epidemics – Depend On A – Complex Interaction – Of – Pathogen / Host / Environment

~ P-AAFOT-HE-WHI-2020-WNNTOS-IWJ-NT-U ~ Plagues – Are A Feature Of The – Human Experience – What Happened In – 2020 – Was Not New To Our Species – It Was Just – New To – Us

~ MM-WNT-PF-TCIDTGA-TAC-W-SI-A-TIO-PHM ~ Modern Medicine – Was Not The – Primary Force – That Caused Infectious Diseases To Go Away – The Actual Cause – Was – Socioeconomic Improvements – And – The Implementation Of – Public Health Measures

~ TBC-WNT-D-O-P-N-S ~ To Be Clear – We Need To – Distance – Ourselves – Physically – Not – Socially

~ IAC-A-ANME-A-TWBIUIC ~ Individual And Collective – Approaches – Are Not Mutually Exclusive – And – They Work Best If Used In Combination

~ ASESSAH-CS-FTC-ATSTW-A-AESOE-A-OH-CP ~ A Serious Epidemic Severally Strains Any Health-Care System – Flattening The Curve – Allows The System To Work – And – Avoids Exhausting Supplies Of Equipment – And – Overwhelming Health-Care Personnel

~ BT-AAUTGTPHSR;WCDT-A-PFCT-A-LMATVIOL ~ Buying Time – Also Allows Us To Get The Public Health System Ready; We Can Develop Tests – And – Procedures For Contact Tracing – And – Learn More About The Virus In Our Laboratories

~ WW-FTC-WAFSOTIITFTAPW-SBVOTPOT-A-V-EM-BCFPSFTD-MALLVOTD ~ When We – Flatten The Curve – We Also Push Some Of The Infections Into The Future To A Point When – Simply By Virtue Of The Passage Of Time – A – Vaccine – Effective Medicines – Better Care For People Suffering From The Disease – Milder And Less Lethal Versions Of The Disease

~ FTC-M-STSOTV-N-EI ~ Flattening The Curve – Means – Slowing The Spread Of The Virus – Not – Eradicating It

~ BTT-PSTD-ITLTGTFBOTME-I-ATDSH ~ By The Time – People Start To Die – It’s Too Late To Gain The Full Benefit Of The More Effective – Interventions – Although They Do Still Help

~ TPOPWNTBIFASTH-HI-DOHITDI-TLITD-TFINTBI ~ The Proportion Of People Who Need To Be Immune For A Society To Have – Herd Immunity – Depends On How Infectious The Disease Is – The Less Infectious The Disease – The Fewer Individuals Need To Be Immune

~ OOTMIAARTAEIT-CB ~ One Of The Most Intuitive And Ancient Responses To An Epidemic Is To – Close Borders

~ CT-PAIRIT-EO-S ~ Contact Tracing – Played An Important Role In The – Eradication Of – Smallpox

~ IWMOCTDP-A-TTC-WTAOAF-TSCBTOTMCTF ~ If We Miss Our Chance To Detect Patients – And – Trace Their Contacts – When There Are Only A Few – The System Can Become Too Overwhelmed To Make Contact Tracing Feasible

~ T-OGHIHW-T-T-I-SOS-I ~ Tracing – Often Goes Hand In Hand With – Testing – To – Identify – Sick Or Susceptible – Individuals

~ T-OIODLTHCAV-ITUOWAHTV-NWIHS ~ Testing – On Its Own Does Little To Help Control A Virus – It Tells Us Only Who Already Has The Virus – Not Where It Has Spread

~ IOWYC-T-T-A-I-TYC-BTCOT-A-BAVUC ~ It’s Only When You Can – Test – Trace – And – Isolate – That You Can – Break The Chains Of Transmission – And – Bring A Virus Under Control

~ PAATOL-NJO-L-B-O-R-C-L-A-ME ~ Plagues Are A Time Of Loss – Not Just Of – Lives – But – Of – Routines – Connections – Liberty – And – Much Else

~ B – DEASPEOA-POE-N-LTBEV-G/A/F/D/D-A-E-A-ANU-ER-TTPACLIASOOID ~ But Deadly Epidemics Always Spawn Parallel Epidemics Of A – Psychological Or Existential – Nature – Leas Tangible But Equally Virulent – Grief / Anger / Fear / Denial / Despair – And – Even – Anomie – Are Not Unexpected – Emotional Reactions – To The Personal And Collective Loss In A Serious Outbreak Of Infectious Disease

~ PHATTBOFTD ~ People Have A Tendency To Blame Others For The Disease

~ AICF-PHA-A-LDAP-IT-AWNEAFOP-A-THPERTTICW ~ An Important Challenge For – Public Health Authorities – And – Leaders During A Pandemic – Is To – Acknowledge Widespread Negative Emotions And Feelings Of Powerlessness – And – To Help People Effectively Respond To Them In Constructive Ways

~ FBOBECECPTSTTTHCTD ~ Fear Brought On By Epidemics Can Even Cause People To Shun Those Trying To Help Control The Disease

~ A-F-TRI-SOS-OT-IATTPWPCTIUI-CAWTIOTE ~ And – Fear – That Results In – Stigmatization Or Scapegoating – Or That – Increases Anxiety To The Point Where People Cannot Take In Useful Information – Can Also Worsen The Impact Of The Epidemic

~ FOD-HI-OE-I-OSD ~ Fear Of Disease – Has Its – Own Epidemiology – Its – Own Spreading Dynamics

~ ROTFOIAOJOTGTTRPOFC-B-TSFRIHETIHTGTEAC ~ Restrictions On The Flow Of Information Are Often Justified On The Grounds That They Reduce Panic Or Foster Consistency – But – They So Frequently Result In Harmful Effects That It’s Hard To Give Those Explanations Any Credence

~ LT-V-M-CHU ~ Like The – Virus – Misinformation – Can Harm Us

~ S-A-DDFPAC-HAADTOP ~ Superstitions – And – Desperate Desires For Preventatives And Cures – Have Always Arisen During Times Of Plague

~ TEOEAOMIIWWWTUEOTPI ~ The Epidemics Of – Emotions And Of Misinformation – Intersect In Worrisome Ways – With – The Underlying Epidemic Of The Pathogen Itself

~ TITBOFCIOFBIIP ~ The Impulse To Blame Others For Causing Infections Or For Being Infected Is Powerful

~ ITPDND-WSW? ~ If The Pathogen Does Not Discriminate – Why Should We?

~ B-IR-PM-HAH-I ~ But – In Reality – Pandemics Mostly – Heighten And Highlight – Inequality

~ PAAATWMOAG-WTIDBABO-CI-AA-O-SP ~ Pathogens Almost Always Affect The Weaker Members Of Any Group – Whether This Is Defined By A Burden Of – Chronic Illness – Advanced Age – Or – Substantial Poverty

~ IATOP-SDL-AAHS-A-UH ~ In A Time Of Plague – Social Distinctions Like – Age And Health Status – Are – Unavoidably Highlighted

~ M-LIJ-CBDR-H-A-SMOTP-L-AHI-SWCNEA-HC-O-E-SD-WTBI ~ Most – Low Income Jobs – Cannot Be Done Remotely – However – And – Since Many Of These Positions – Lack – Adequate Health Insurance – Such Workers Could Not Easily Access – Health Care – Or – Even – Sick Days – When They Became Ill

~ IEFEWWHAVIOM ~ It’s Expensive For Everyone When We Have A Virus In Our Midst

~ F-TWHSFBSSOOVDDTTV ~ Fortunately – The World Has So Far Been Spared Serious Outbreaks Of Violence Directly Due To The Virus

~ OATSDTEITTOP-PTMMI-TDBTWKSWHD-A-TWDN-B-AMPD-A-AMOUCTKSWHD-TEWSMR ~ Of All The Societal Divisions That Emerge In The Time Of Plague – Perhaps The Most Meaningful Is – The Divide Between Those Who Know Someone Who Has Died – And – Those Who Do Not – But – As More People Die – And – As More Of Us Come To Know Someone Who Has Died – The Epidemic Will Seem More Real

~ B-‘R’-P-T-AWT-TR-A-CTS ~ But – “Regular” – People – Too – Are Willing To – Take Risks – And – Contribute To Society

~ LAC-CMSMB ~ Love And Connection – Can Make Suffering More Bearable

~ HAMACOTTOS-I ~ Humans Are Moral Actors Capable Of Transcending Their Own Self-Interest

~ AISO-SI-IVCA-TEC-A-TISAPSO-CB-A-GW ~ An Increased Sense Of – Shared Identity – Is Very Common Among – Those Experiencing Catastrophes – And – This Is A Powerful Source Of – Cooperative Behavior – And – Good Will

~ B-S-PASDTASNR ~ But –Sometimes – Plagues Are So Devastating That A Society Never Recovers

~ S-WWR-HI-O-TPWETB-LL-O-AAVLT-HWETB-R ~ So – We Will Reach – Herd Immunity – Or – The Pathogen Will Evolve To Be – Less Lethal – Or – After A Very Long Time – Humans Will Evolve To Be – Resistant

~ RPR ~ Respiratory Pandemics Recur

~ PAE ~ Plagues Always End

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