ROWAN JACOBSEN ~ FRUITLESS FALL ~ 2008

~ WHHTTB-TBHETFOANCB-DB-S-VB?-N-S-TMDSSATC-T-ATW ~ Whatever Had Happened To These Bees – They’d Been Healthy Enough To Fly Off And Not Come Back – Dead Bees – Sure – Vanished Bees? – No – Sir – The Mysterious Deaths Soon Spread Across The Country – Then – Around The World

~ MPOETCRWT ~ Most Plants On Earth Today Can’t Reproduce Without Them

~ OT-TT-SOB-OOHBATAON-DAWHCAI-TII-AM-T-HB-TOL-FWUS-MOTIFC-OITB ~ Of The – Twenty Thousand – Species Of Bees – Only One Has Become A True Artisan Of Nectar – Developing A Worldwide Human Culture Around Itself – That Insect Is – Apis Mellifera – The – Honey Bee – This One Life-Form Wound Up Shouldering – Much Of The Industrial Food Chain – On Its Tiny Back

~ IF-A-IA-HCTDWP-A-AECWGONC-IHBFTRMAMHO-B ~ In Fact – As – Industrial Agriculture – Has Come To Dominate World Production – And – As Exotic Crops Were Grown On New Continents – It Has Been Forced To Rely More And More Heavily On – Bees

~ BCDTNOCC ~ Bees Can Do Things No Other Creature Can

~ HBPHBCIEAA ~ Honey Bee Populations Have Been Crashing In Europe And America

~ STSHANAVAIC:CCD ~ Soon The Syndrome Had A Name As Vague As Its Cause: Colony Collapse Disorder

~ IASWTFG-BNALAI-WHBACACATROPRAACWTTSBNB-WAIJH-A-WGOH-ITCB-FWF-WCNLCOT-A-TANOOTB ~ It’s A System We’ve Taken For Granted – Because Nature Always Looked After It – We Have Been As Clueless And Complacent About The Realities Of Plant Reproduction As A Child Who Thinks That Storks Bring New Babies – We Assumed It Just Happened – And – Would Go On Happening – If The Crops Bloomed – Fruit Would Follow – We Can No Longer Count On That – And – There Are No Options Other Than Bees

~ 80%-OTFWPIOM-ROP-SDTL ~ 80 Percent – Of The Food We Put In Our Mouths – Relies On Pollination – Somewhere Down The Line

~ OT-250,000SOP-TSOW-TQ-ROWPTR ~ Of The – 250,000 Species Of Plants – That Share Our World – Three Quarters – Rely On Wild Pollinators To Reproduce

~ INAINOSTCC ~ It’s Not As If No One Saw This Crisis Coming

~ H-CSOTOPF-AWANOFBTBA ~ Honey – Carries Some Of The Original Plant Flavors – As Well As New Ones Formed By The Bees’ Alchemy

~ S-P-B-NOIESW-IMPBFDEOAP-MTVS ~ Smoke – Pacifies – Bees – No One Is Entirely Sure Why – It May Prevent Bees From Detecting Each Other’s Alarm Pheromones – Messages Transmitted Via Scent

~ FAB-NF-M-NF ~ For A Bee – No Flowers – Means – No Food

~ W-HB-MOTILI-TC-N-TI ~ With – Honey Bees – Most Of The Intelligence Lies In – The Colony – Not – The Individual

~ L-NAS-P-IFOCT-QN:MP-P-F/V/M-HIADFB:PIASAGO ~ Like – Nuts And Seeds – Pollen – Is Full Of Complex Top-Quality Nutrients: Mostly Protein – Plus – Fats / Vitamins / Minerals – Honey Is A Doughnut For Breakfast; Pollen Is A Spinach And Garlic Omelet

~ IA-SO-T-TQ-AC-A-DOW-T-S-ATA-TB-M/L/S/A/D/I-O-L-CBETTT-FL-OC-SEOT-A-TBMOTHBD

~ It’s A – SuperOrganism – That – Thinks Quickly – Adapts Constantly – And – Depends On Wisdom – To – Survive – Anything That Affects – The Bee’s – Memory / Learning / Senses / Appetite / Digestion / Instincts – Or – Lifespan – Can Be Enough To Throw Those – Feedback Loops – Off Course – Skew Enough Of Them – And – The Beautiful Mathematics Of The Hive Break Down

~ VM-KMOHBC-MV-IHCOTW ~ Varroa Mites – Killed Millions Of Honey Bee Colonies – Most Varroa-Infested Hives Collapse Over The Winter

~ HDYKOA(TM)-WKTO(TB)?-THITOTMAG-TBWR ~ How Do You Kill One Arthropod (The Mites) – Without Killing The Other (The Bees)? – The Hope Is That Once The Mites Are Gone – The Bees Will Recover

~ V-I-N-B-IA-TWFMITDTITHH-SDWSBEAWGU-BSOTSOLH-YCAYHACKA-PPB-P-PB-WBRI? ~ Varroa – Is – Nasty – But – If Anything – There Were Fewer Mites In The Deadouts Than In The Healthy Hives – Same Disaster Was Striking Beekeepers Everywhere And Was Going Unreported – Beekeepers Speak Of The Stigma Of Losing Hives – Your Colleagues Assume You Have A Condition Known As – PPB – Piss-Poor Beekeeping – Why Bother Reporting It?

~ TWD-TYB-DAR-T-WC-WE-WAATH-TBDHOD-THTA-THSAT-B-AIDS-BWOEWR?-BWOEWR? ~ This Was Different – The Young Bees – Didn’t Act Right – They – Wouldn’t Cluster – Wouldn’t Eat – Wandered Aimlessly Around The Honeycomb – The Bees Didn’t Have One Disease – They Had Them All – They Had Something Akin To – Bee – AIDS – But What On Earth Was Responsible?

~ H-LCWLATABITW ~ Healthy-Looking Colonies Were Losing All Their Adult Bees In Two Weeks

~ ESA-RABTPI-N-IWAQOWTHEBTMTWA ~ Every Single Almond – Requires A Bee To Pollinate It – Now – It Was A Question Of Whether They Had Enough Bees To Make The World’s Almonds

~ HFIWHBITCHTOTB-CP-TT:ER-TBAOBAITNA-GM(GM)CGTSOT-B-ATAT-LW-TDPO ~ How Fitting It Would Have Been If The Culprit Had Turned Out To Be Cell Phones – The Theory: Electromagnetic Radiation – Tweaks Bees’ Antennae Or Brains And Impairs Their Navigation Abilities – Genetically Modified (GM) Crops Got Their Share Of The – Blame – As Tantalizing As The – Leads Were – They Didn’t Pan Out

~ TBHNJD;TD ~ The Bees Had Not Just Died; They’d Disappeared

~ MTGSA-AD-AA ~ Microwave Towers Got Some Attention – As Did – Alien Abduction

~ FAW-OB-BTWI ~ For A While – Organic Beekeepers – Believed They Were Immune

~ VM-DMBFOAD-PTMBUTFVWI-STCHBU-TLSOMQBHBCIH-YWTC-HDSAA ~ Varroa Mites – Didn’t Make Bees Fly Off And Disappear – Perhaps The Miticides Beekeepers Used To Fight Varroa Were Involved – Since The Chemicals Have Been Used – The Life Span Of Many Queen Bees Has Been Cut In Half – Yet Without The Chemicals – Hives Don’t Survive At All

~ EBGWTA-P-WI-B-CCD-STBT ~ Everyone’s Best Guess Was That A – Pathogen – Was Involved – Because – CCD – Seemed To Be Transmissible

~ TIPOI:AHBASEHDL ~ The Important Piece Of Information: All Honey Bees Are Suffering Extraordinarily High Disease Loads

~ ANGOPCT-N-CA-NP-AIOTP-O-ASN ~ A New Group Of Pesticides Called The – Neonicotinoids – Came Along – Nerve Poisons – An Improvement Over Traditional Pesticides – Organophsphates – Are So Noxious

~ TTOPTHBINN-ABPTTTOP-TWTFGAFP-MCGCITCC ~ The Threat Of Pesticides To Honey Bees Is Nothing New – As Bees Performed The Thankless Task Of Pollination – They Were Taken For Granted And Frequently Poisoned – Many Colonies Get Caught In The Chemical Crossfire

~ MBD ~ Mad Bee Disease

~ OA-CE-DCDEBC-MTBTCWTN? ~ Only After – Chronic Exposure – Do Cigarettes’ Deadly Effects Become Clear – Might That Be The Case With The Neonicotinoids?

~ TLIMSIPTWCHI-A-TDGAACAWTTD ~ The Land Is More Soaked In Pesticides Than We Could Have Imagined – And – They Don’t Go Away As Completely As We Thought They Did

~ CC-DTFIAA-NOD-TC-ABMEDITWFAS ~ Chemical Conglomerates – Don’t Test For Interactions At All – No One Does – Toxic Cocktails – Are Being Mixed Every Day In The World’s Fields And Streams

~ ETBTWE-CCD-SWRWV ~ Even The Bees That Weren’t Exhibiting – CCD – Symptoms Were Rife With Viruses

~ BALT-A-WBTHAT-GTH ~ Bees Are Living Things – And – When Beekeepers Think Holistically About Them – Good Things Happen

~ LAL-HB-R-GP-A-TWFAFBF ~ Like Any Livestock – Healthy Bees – Require – Good Pasture – And – That’s What Fewer And Fewer Bees Find

~ WPY-B-MAD-RB-WTCCHAT-M/F/A-ARN? ~ Why Spend Years – Breeding – Mite- And Disease-Resistant Bees – When The Chemical Conglomerates Have All These – Miticides / Fungicides / Antibiotics – Available Right Now?

~ MSF-R-IO-E-MBS-FW-A-‘ETU’-OATCOS-TG ~ Managing Systems For – Resilience – Instead Of – Efficiency – Maintaining Backup Systems – Fire Walls – And – “Expecting The Unexpected” – Often At The Cost Of Short-Term Gain

~ U-LA-R-GA-TWABAP ~ Until – Local Agriculture – Replaces – Global Agriculture – There Will Always Be Another Parasite

~ DIN ~ Diversity Is Needed

~ WBST-P-LT-PC-TA ~ We’d Better Start Treating – Pollinators – Like The – Precious Commodity – They Are

~ TINSTAUNL ~ There Is No Such Thing As Unproductive Natural Land

ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ THE ENERGY OF SLAVES ~ 2012

~ B-ITAO-WAT-EERBAMO-DRTS ~ But – In The Absence Of – Wisdom And Temperance – Every Energy Relationship Becomes A Matter Of – Dominion Rather Than Stewardship

~ ODOTEOS-WANSTPAIM ~ Once Dependent On The Energy Of Slaves – We Are Now Slaves To Petroleum And Its Masters

~ SHM-B/P/E-EFMTM-W-H-ETWFLC-TTYA-HD-DTAPWHOSES ~ Shackled Human Muscle – Built / Powered / Emboldened – Empires From Mesopotamia To Mexico – When – Hammurabi – Established The World’s First Legal Codes – Two Thousand Years Ago – He Decreed – Death To Any Person Who Helped Or Sheltered Escaping Slaves

~ OC-ACC-PAPRISTER-MCSTISTPTD ~ Orphaned Children – And – Convicted Criminals – Played A Prominent Role In Swelling The Energy Ranks – Many Citizens Sold Themselves Into Slavery To Pay Their Debts

~ ES-RLPALI-A-APAGMTTP ~ Escaped Slaves – Represented Lost Property And Lost Income – And – Also Posed A General Menace To The Public

~ WMT-WRTAEOHS-W-ANS-PBFF ~ Without Much Thought – We Replaced The Ancient Energy Of Human Slaves – With – A New Servitude – Powered By Fossil Fuels

~ G-RHCTFP-ATWPOKD-A-DIIR ~ Gasoline – Refiners Had Considered The Flammable Product – A Troublesome Waste Product Of Kerosene Distillation – And – Dumped It Into Rivers

~ TN-H-Y-GSFTTNMWAMSN-GR-DO-O-B-F/P-A-D-RIS ~ The New – High-Yielders – Grew So Fast That They Needed More Water And More Soil Nutrients – Green Revolution – Depended On – Oil-Based – Fertilizers / Pesticides – And – Diesel-Run Irrigation Systems

~ E-LC-AV-BS-AIWT-240KOO-NTMIT ~ Every – Laptop Computer – A Veritable – Brain Slave – Arrives Impregnated With The – 240 Kilograms Of Oil – Needed To Make It

~ EGOG-BIAV-RTPOEO-98T-O-PBPM ~ Every Gallon Of Gasoline – Burned In A Vehicle – Required The Pumping Or Excavation Of – 98 Tons – Of – Prehistoric Buried Plant Material

~ E-ES-CIO-SD-A-UD ~ Every – Energy System – Creates Its Own – Starling Dependencies – And – Unpredictable Dynamics

~ OOTRCOSAACOPITI ~ One Of The Remarkable Characteristics Of Slaveholders As A Class Of People Is Their Indebtedness

~ ATW-OAIS-HR-TNOG/TSOS/TWOP/TMOC-A-TPOE ~ Around The World – Oil And Its Servants – Have Reengineered – The Nature Of Government / The Scale Of Science / The Weight Of Populations / The Metabolism Of Cities – And – The Purpose Of Economics

~ A-F-OA-RE-MIAGMOGB-F/P/M-IBITSDTAMIMPOTWW-L-EO ~ As – Farming – Once A – Renewable Enterprise – Morphed Into A Giant Mining Operation Governed By – Fertilizers / Pesticides / Machines – It Became Impossible To Sit Down To A Meal In Many Parts Of The World Without – Literally – Eating Oil

~ M-VAC-NCF-P/M/V-TTDOHYA-RSTTSOPGHDTUOGN ~ Most – Vegetables And Cereals – Now Contain Fewer – Proteins / Minerals / Vitamins – Than They Did One Hundred Years Ago – Researchers Suspect That The Speed Of Plants Growth Has Diluted Their Uptake Of Good Nutrients

~ C-TUO-30%-OT-AF-TRWA ~ Crops – Take Up Only – 30 Percent – Of The – Applied Fertilizer – The Rest Washes Away

~ ETUEF ~ Enslavement To Unsustainable Energy Flows

~ OSAO-F-FF-HB-I-RC ~ One Striking Aspect Of – Fossil-Fueled Farming – Has Been – It’s – Relentless Concentration

~ R/B/I-O-CF-HOTWACY-GE-B-70,000-D-PAPD-DAAEO-$35B-O-P ~ Rusts / Blights / Insects – One-Crop Farms – Half Of The World’s Annual Crop Yield – Gets Eaten – By – 70,000 – Different – Pests And Plant Diseases – Despite An Annual Expenditure Of – $35 Billion – On – Pesticides

~ LD-HSSEDTPPFH-ABT-RD/ED/SC-ABRW-DD-H-Y-F-‘U’-SB-PI-CO-V-A-A-FAHFF ~ Livestock Diversity – Has Suffered Similar Erosion Due To Petroleum’s Preference For Homogenization – Animals Bred To – Resist Disease / Endure Drought / Survive Cold – Are Being Replaced With – Dumbed Down – High-Yield – Factory – “Units” – Shaped By – Petroleum Inputs – Consisting Of – Vaccines – Antibiotics – And – Formulated And Highly Fertilized Feeds

~ A-H-E-U-C-TRAADGFEIANW-UTET-NOLT ~ All – High-Energy-Use – Countries – Treat Rural Areas As Dumping Grounds For Exploitative Industries And Nuclear Waste – Using The Excuse That – No One Lives There

~ T-F-F-M-HNWO-LT-LF-A-LCD-ATG-WTBLTFTCCTQOMN ~ The – Factory-Farm – Model – Has Nearly Wiped Out – Local Traditions – Local Farmers – And – Local Crop Diversity – Around The Globe – With The Bold Lie That Factory Techniques Can Conquer The Quirks Of Mother Nature

~ T-FFS-DTFPANWOS-HA-SP-IHFTPMOA-F-FDAMMA ~ The – Factory Food System – Designed To Fatten Plants And Animals With Oil Subsidies – Has Also – Supersized People – It Has Fattened The Poor Most Of All – Fast-Food Diets Are Much More Affordable

~ AOPI-MPASF-AATS-C-GR-F-O-FH ~ As Oil Prices Increase – Many Peasants And Small Farmers – Are Abandoning The So-Called – Green Revolution – For – Old-Fashioned Husbandry

~ AMPBTFPMBITFTHM-HPGOFAAFOFA ~ Although Many People Believe That Food Production Must Be Increased To Feed The Hungry Masses – Human Population Grows Or Falls As A Function Of Food Availability

~ IINHTTTDB-C-BBH-A-T-CBM-TFSP;TLSEAIIC ~ It Is Not Hard To Tell The Difference Between – Cities – Built By Hand – And – Those – Constructed By Machines – The Former Served People ; The Latter Serve Energy And Its Inanimate Clients

~ A-S-R-STD-SS-A-W-LF ~ As – Skyscrapers – Rose – So Too Did – Sprawling Slums – And – Window-Less Factories

~ R-SAT-W-CAA-‘YHI’ ~ Replacing – Soil And Trees – With – Concrete And Asphalt – “Urban Heat Islands”

~ RSL-W-FS-PFA-A-FGM ~ Rising Sea Levels – Will – Flood Slums – Poison Freshwater Aquifers – And – Force Great Migrations

~ E-BAJF-CC ~ Economics – Became A Justification For – Conspicuous Consumption

~ T-TPOE-L-S-I-HPP-TIAUMEHBTMLG ~ Today – The Pseudoscience Of Economics – Like – Science – Itself – Has Probably Peaked – The Ideological Assumptions Undermining Modern Economics Have Begun To Melt Like Glaciers

~ PS ~ Peak Science

~ 26.5-POO-F-EPOC ~ 26.5 – Ponds Of Oil – For – Every Pound Of Computer

~ EN-EOT-STCM-TLTD-A-T-EPC-OTDLVAEFER ~ Each New – Extreme Oil Technique – Seems To Cost More – Takes Longer To Develop – And – Typically – Exceeds Predicted Costs – Only To Deliver Less Volume And Even Fewer Energy Returns

~ M-CO2C-WRMEAPF-FTOY-C-BS-AESTREME ~ Monitoring – CO2 Cemeteries – Would Require More Energy And Public Funds – For Thousands Of Years – Classic – Big Science – An Energy Solution That Requires Even More Energy

~ WMEWYCSRT? ~ Why Manage Emissions When You Can Simply Reduce Them?

~ M-L-T-A-E ~ Many – Low-Tech – Alternatives – Exist

~ OAG-BRAD-LTAEOBSOTP-AAC-MOTTCABIA-‘I’-IAB ~ Oil And Gas – Basic Research And Development – Less Than Almost Every Other Business Sector On The Planet – As A Consequence – Most Of The Technology Currently Advertised By Industry As – “Innovative” – Is Anything But

~ FE-ASP ~ Fugitive Emissions – Are So Prevalent

~ TM-OOH-DE-TMHANEB ~ The More – Oil Or Hydrocarbons – Dominate Exports – The More Hollow A National Economy Becomes

~ EROEI ~ Energy Return On Energy Invested

~ MCOE-SBCW-QOL ~ Massive Consumption Of Energy – Shouldn’t Be Confused With – Quality Of Life

BRIAN FAGAN ~ THE ATTACKING OCEAN ~ 2013

~ AP-ESLR-AAAROA-TM-AY-ICOAAOTPC-OTPFY-H-TARIA-TM-AY-A-ADART-GW ~ At Present – Eustatic Sea Level Rise – Advances At A Rate Of About – Two Millimeters – A Year – If Calculated On An Average Of The Past Century – Over The Past Fifteen Years – However – The Averaged Rate Is Around – Three Millimeters – A Year – Apparently – A Direct Accelerated Response To – Global Warming

~ T-AAG-IS-HCOATPTASLR-UR-ATSATTRIA-PD ~ The – Antarctic And Greenland – Ice Sheets – Have Contributed Only A Tiny Proportion To Annual Sea Level Rise – Until Recently – All The Signs Are That The Rate Is Accelerating – Perhaps Dramatically

~ T-GIS-C-4,550MSK-ITWTMC-GSL-WRB-SM ~ The – Greenland Ice Sheet – Covers – 4,550 Million Square Kilometers – If This Were To Melt Completely – Global Sea Levels – Would Rise By – Seven Meters

~ UA-2000-TAOAIWSI-B-RSMSTTISANLM ~ Until About – 2000 – The Amount Of Antarctic Ice Was Slowly Increasing – But – Recent Satellite Measurements Show That The Ice Sheets Are Now Losing Mass

~ T-EAIS-LASLAIRS-IIWTM-TR-SLR-WBITOO-FM ~ The – East Antarctic Ice Sheet – Lies Above Sea Level And Is Relatively Stable – If It Were To Melt – The Resulting – Sea Level Rise – Would Be In The Order Of – Fifty Meters

~ MOT-WAIS-IAOTS-WCOTATSOIF-STE-WAIS-M-WSLWRA-FM ~ Much Of The – West Antarctic Ice Sheet – Is Aground On The Seabed – Where Changing Ocean Temperatures Affect The Stability Of Its Foundations – Should The Entire – West Antarctic Ice Sheet – Melt – World Sea Levels Would Rise About – Five Meters

~ MEBT-AT-MRB2100-SBTBFFP ~ Many Experts Believe That – A Two-Meter Rise By 2100 – Should Be The Basis For Future Planning

~ NTSHCS ~ Now The Situation Has Changed Significantly

~ T-W-CITM-A-BOCDLASLOCTI-TL-TCOASLRAAMTFIAMMVW ~ Today – With – Cities In The Millions – And – Billions Of Coastal Dwellers Living At Sea Level Or Close To It – The Long-Term Challenges Of Accelerated Sea Level Rise Are Already Making Themselves Felt In A Much More Vulnerable World

~ A-STYA-TWOHRMOLML ~ Around – Six Thousand Years Ago – The World’s Oceans Had Reached More Or Less Modern Levels

~ LBSLAFTL-AFIACIP-RSS-WNVG-TL-TEORSI-DLIB-DOFAL-SODW-DIFFP-A-STTL-TFS ~ Long Before Seal Levels Actually Flood The Landscape – Another Factor Is Already Coming Into Play – Rising Soil Salinity – Where No Vegetation Grows – The Long-Term Effects Of Rising Salinity Include – Drastic Losses In Biodiversity – Degradation Of Fertile Agricultural Land – Scarcities Of Drinkable Water – Decreases In Freshwater Fish Populations – And – Serious Threat To Long-Term Food Security

~ SLR-IAS-L-TP-WIWMPDTT ~ Sea Level Rise – Is A Seemingly – Long-Term Problem – Which Is Why Many People Discount The Threat

~ GWHRSLA20CS1880ATRORIA-MSEARO20TO203CTC-DOTROGGAOPITA ~ Global Warming Has Raised Sea Levels About 20 Centimeters Since 1880 And The Rate Of Rise Is Accelerating – Many Scientists Expect A Rise Of 20 To 203 Centimeters This Century – Depending On The Release Of Greenhouse Gases And Other Pollutants Into The Atmosphere

~ ICRO-GGE-C-GTWRTAAO-13DC-WTT-B-2100-TWLUIAL-4T6M-O-SLR-ISC ~ If Current Rates Of – Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Continue – Global Temperatures Will Rise To An Average Of – Thirteen Degrees Celsius – Warmer Than Today – By – 2100 – This Would Lock Us Into At Least – 4 To 6 Meters – Of – Sea Level Rise – In Subsequent Centuries

~ AFSLRFUA-TITAIOVT-S-C-H-YS ~ Apart From Seal Level Rises Flooding Urban Acreage – There Is The Additional Issue Of Vulnerability To – So-Called – Hundred-Year Storms

~ WNAAPWWCNLBLOWOHITS ~ We’re Now At A Point Where We Can No Longer Behave Like Ostriches With Our Heads In The Sand

~ TOALAAIDE ~ The Options Are Limited And Almost Invariably Dauntingly Expensive

~ WWDIGTBE ~ Whatever We Do Is Going To Be Expensive

~ WAAAT-PW-HAC-W-CCASLR-WFMOPTMTHG-TB-CR ~ We Are Approaching A Time – Perhaps Within – Half A Century – When – Climate Change And Sea Level Rise – Will Force Millions Of People To Move To Higher Ground – To Become – Climatic Refugees

~ TATMOUOE ~ There Are Too Many Of Us On Earth

~ WFA-F-L-T-C-TWCAODROIAO ~ We Face A – Frightening – Long-Term – Crisis – That Will Challenge All Our Deep Reservoirs Of Ingenuity And Opportunism

MARY GRAY + SIDDHARTH SURI ~ GHOST WORK ~ 2019

~ TSWT-PCCMGFTTAGWAM-RPAUI-CMPFT-TCAPL ~ The Same Way That – Poker Chips Can Make Gamblers Forget That The Are Gambling With Actual Money – Representing People As Unique Indentifiers – Can Make Programmers Forget That – Their Code Affects People’s Lives

~ HIANFTE-TD-GW-WMTMM-SHMTD-A-STPUPOJP ~ Hypervigilance Is A Necessity For Top Earners – Those Doing – Ghost Work – Who Make The Most Money – Spend Hours Monitoring Their Dashboards – And – Scrolling Through Pages Upon Pages Of Job Postings

~ APD-GW-MW-FIS ~ All People Doing – Ghost Work – Must Weather – Fluctuating Income Streams

~ WE ~ Weaponized Ignorance

~ HITL-AI-IT-D-HZ-FCTSGWHAIWMUTWR-SOTECBCUTL-TCITBTSIF-B-EIA-PF-RTA-EB-OT-GWE ~ Humans In The Loop – Appear Interchangeable – In This De-Humanized Zone – Few Companies That Sell Ghost Work Have Any Idea Who Makes Up Their Workforce Ranks – Some Of This Erasure Can Be Chalked Up To Logistics – The Crowd Is Too Big To See Individual Faces – But – Erasure Is A – Purposeful Feature – Rather Than An – Errant Bug – Of The – Ghost Work Economy

~ TA-LR-WA-O-DP-MNWT-K-O-CTM-AIW ~ There Are – Legal Reasons – Why An – On-Demand Platform – Might Not Want To – Know – Or – Care Too Much – About Its Workers

~ IIHTIHNHHBITGSO-AI ~ It Is Hard To Ignore How Necessary Humans Have Become In The Growing Shadow Of – AI

~ SFAFELR ~ Shielded From A Formal Employers Legal Responsibilities

~ WYWHNC ~ When Your Work Has No Category

~ MWOEC ~ Murky Waters Of Employment Classification

~ TA-HADO-ETLP ~ Technological Advancement – Has Always Depended On – Expendable Temporary Labor Pools

~ CL-TITFOABPL-HFS-A-ITFCOV ~ Contingent Labor – Tucked In The Folds Of A Busy Production Loop – Hidden From Sight – And – Impossible To Fully Credit Or Value

~ SB-T-WWCL-O-TS-SELR ~ Some Believed – That – Workers Were Costly Liabilities – Outsourcing – Temporary Staffing – Soon Everyone Looked Replaceable

~ TGEWNLDBBS ~ The Global Economy Was No Longer Driven By Building Stuff

~ AC-A-T-HC-O-GW ~ Algorithmic Cruelty – And – The – Hidden Costs – Of – Ghost Work

~ ID-A-I-UC ~ Indifferent Design – And – Its – Unintended Consequences

~ TBOAAWTWFAR-WIADDTMPM-HTUCOEA ~ The Benefit Of Allowing Any Worker To Work For Any Requester – Which Is A Design Decision That Most Platforms Make – Has The Unintended Consequence Of Eroding Accountability

~ T-BOTC-UTFOC-B-N-IFSOTPDGW-MWHZRISHTTAATAPFTW

~ The – Burden Of Transaction Costs – Used To Fall On Companies – But – Now – It Fall Squarely On The People Doing Ghost Work – Most Workers Have Zero Recourse If Something Happens To Their Account And They Aren’t Paid For Their Work

~ H-SA-F ~ Hypervigilance – Spun As – Flexibility

~ IR-FAAM-WCFAF-WTBOCDAN ~ In Reality – Flexibility Is A Myth – Work Comes Faster And Faster – Workers To Be On Call Day And Night

~ IALOG-SA-A ~ Isolation And Lack Of Guidance – Spun As – Autonomy

~ IMC-PDGWALTTODTNTIAOOAJ-I-AAQMRIADTCAWTJ ~ In Most Cases – People Doing Ghost Work Are Left To Their Own Devices To Navigate The Ins And Outs Of A Job – Indeed – Asking A Question May Result In A Delay That Costs A Worker Their Job

~ TDGWBTCOLHTNNOTTBATWC-A-THNCTAQOGFFR ~ Those Doing Ghost Work Bear The Costs Of Learning How To Navigate Not Only The Task But Also The Work Culture – And – They Have No Chance To Ask Questions Or Get Feedback From Requesters

~ NGPWTFOH-SA-M ~ Not Getting Paid When Technical Failure Or Hustle – Spun As – Malfeasance

~ PWDO-DJSAWHFBCARPS ~ People Who Design On-Demand Job Sites Assume Workers Have Fast Broadband Connections And Reliable Power Sources

~ OWSCTBUAWCOGP ~ One Wrong Step Can Totally Blow Up A Worker’s Chance Of Getting Paid

~ GP-CBTHPOTJ ~ Getting Paid – Can Be The Hardest Part Of The Job

~ NBIP-NIC ~ No Boss Is Perfect – Neither Is Code

~ O-DW-HLAT-PAWFE ~ On-Demand Workers – Have Little Access To – Protections Associated With Formal Employment

~ SS-OWETOI-ACPAHORS ~ Statistics Show – Once Women Earn Their Own Income – A Country’s Prosperity And Health Outcomes Rise Steadily

~ O-DW-C-AWARIC-OOTP ~ On-Demand Work – Cuts – Anyone Without A Reliable Internet Connection – Out Of The Picture

~ OOTMCWPMTENOWM-I-TSCAC ~ One Of The Most Common Ways People Make The Economic Necessity Of Work Meaningful – Is – Through Social Connections And Camaraderie

~ TBTR ~ Talking Back To Robots

~ TKOSATPOC ~ The Kindness Of Strangers And The Power Of Collaboration

~ MJ-POAFC-B-YHTIYDE-TPWAU ~ Most Jobs – Pay Only A Few Cents – But – You Hope That If You Do Enough – The Pennies Will Add Up

~ WCTOSATPSFTPTWO-S-TC-TRTTCIOTBTP-TGTWD-A-PSSTOA ~ Workers Collaborate To Overcome Social And Technical Problems Stemming From The Platforms They Work On – Specifically – They Collaborate – To Reduce The Transaction Costs Imposed On Them By The Platforms – To Get The Work Done – And – Provide Social Support To One Another

~ RCA ~ Reimagining Collective Action

~ W2.0 ~ Watercooler 2.0

~ TKACOWHOA-A-A-TDEMVI-Y-M-GWP-SDTDI ~ The Kindness And Collaborations Of Workers Helping One Another – Are – Arguably – The Digital Economy’s Most Valuable Ingredient – Yet – Most – Ghost Work Platforms – Seem Determined To Delete It

~ NSCEWNF-C/V/R/F-WDBTWAWTP ~ No System Can Erase Workers’ Need For – Connection / Validation / Recognition / Feedback – Without Damaging Both The Worker And What They Produce

~ RTR-WC-PD-MWTCT-‘S’-TFTW ~ Rather Than Resist – Worker Collaboration – Platform Designers – Might Want To Consider Taking – “Scafolding” – Tips From The Workers

~ TDBL-PW-TWLGF-IN-AGONEO-O-DS ~ The Double Bottom Line – Prioritize Workers – Treating Workers Like Ghostly Figures – Is Not – A Given Or Necessary Element Of – On-Demand Services

~ SAABS ~ Scaffolding As A Business Strategy

~ CASOA ~ Creating A Seal Of Approval

~ WWANITCOAO-DSD-TPSAEWNAWAJ-LB-TT-TP-A-TP-DTW ~ When Workers Are Not Intentionally The Center Of An On-Demand Service’s Design – The Platform Strips Away Everything We Now Associate With A Job – Leaving Behind – The Task – The Pay – And – The Person – Doing The Work

~ A-V-HL-IA-FD ~ Automation – Vs – Human Labor – Is A – False Dichotomy

~ GW-ARNFO-CP-TC-TSAPOS-W-HI ~ Ghost Work – A Relatively New Form Of – Computing Power – That Combines – The Speed And Precision Of Software – With – Human Ingenuity

~ WFMRT-O-DPAJS-TA-B/D-OLM-TCO-H-OBSOTM ~ We First Must Recognize That – On-Demand Platforms Aren’t Just Software – They Are – Bustling / Dynamic – Online Labor Markets – That Consist Of – Humans – On Both Sides Of The Market

ANNE APPLEBAUM ~ TWILIGHT OF DEMOCRACY ~ 2020

~ ‘OA-IITAOT-IOOPH-IWBOOICCTNITMHOH’ ~ “Our Age – Is Indeed The Age Of The – Intellectual Organization Of Political Hatreds – It Will Be One Of Its Chief Claims To Notice In The Moral History Of Humanity” ~ Julien Benda ~ The Betrayal Of The Intellectuals ~ [La Trahson Des Clercs] ~ 1927

~ A-FT-IT-FPAWRO-CT ~ A – Full-Time – Internet Troll – Fanatically Promoting A Whole Range Of – Conspiracy Theories

~ TRIM-MIETE ~ They Repeat Its Mantras – Make Its Enemies Their Enemies

~ GTRCASCTAD-I-IHIATGB-AOOSEW ~ Given The Right Conditions Any Society Can Turn Against Democracy – Indeed – If History Is Anything To Go By – All Of Our Societies Eventually Will

~ APSBOLAR-AARFAOOTI ~ Any Political System Built On Logic And Rationality – Always At Risk From An Outburst Of The Irrational

~ IIH-T-FOLD-IOOT-WNLAIDIT1920SO1930S-B-IWSRA-NE-A-NGOC-TBIA ~ If It Happens – The – Fall Of Liberal Democracy – In Our Own Time – Will Not Look As It Did In The 1920s Or 1930s – But – It Will Still Require A – New Elite – A – New Generation Of Clercs – To Bring It About

~ TATRODSTTNLP ~ To Alter The Rules Of Democracy So That They Never Lose Power

~ HDW ~ How Demagogues Win

~ SD-DNRMVTSIP-IIRUA-COE-TR-TB-TSM-TC-A-ISP-SC ~ Soft Dictatorship – Does Not Require Mass Violence To Stay In Power – Instead – It Relies Upon A – Cadre Of Elites – To Run – The Bureaucracy – The State Media – The Courts – And – In Some Places – State Companies

~ T-M-DC-UTR-WIT-DTL-HDTS-HGTC-A-HDTIOOPAI-IC-TKTTWB-RAA ~ These – Modern-Day Clercs – Understand Their Role – Which Is To – Defend The Leaders – However Dishonest Their Statements – However Great Their Corruption – And – However Disastrous Their Impact On Ordinary People And Institutions – In Change – They Know That They Will Be – Rewarded And Advanced

~ ATW-TAMVOT-IO-PS ~ Around The World – There Are Many Versions Of The – Illiberal One-Party State

~ NATTCDOHMIAA ~ No Acknowledgement That The Constant Drumbeat Of Hatred Might Inspire Another Assassination

~ B-NE-CBF ~ But – New Enemies – Can Be Found

~ TEAOACTIIIS-I-EACP-AFCAA-OTBTSSOHSPATTT ~ The Emotional Appeal Of A Conspiracy Theory Is In Its Simplicity – It – Explains Away Complex Phenomena – Accounts For Chance And Accidents – Offers The Believer The Satisfying Sense Of Having Special Privileged Access To The Truth

~ FTWB-TO-PS-G-TROTCTABAR:P ~ For Those Who Become – The One-Party State’s – Gatekeepers – The Repetition Of These Conspiracy Theories Also Brings Another Reward: Power

~ TFON ~ The Future Of Nostalgia

~ WPHR-A-NLBTLIIAB-NLATTRCIEBG-TAAWGTR-WITE0INO ~ When People Have Rejected – Aristocracy – No Longer Believe That Leadership Is Inherited At Birth – No Longer Assume That The Ruling Class Is Endorsed By God – The Argument About Who Gets To Rule – Who Is The Elite – Is Never Over

~ DAFM-CPUO-EWBROWNTTROWPAETCFVDSP-TLOTCWA-SOL-GTCTVOTCI ~ Democracy And Free Markets – Can Produce Unsatisfying Outcomes – Especially When Badly Regulated Or When Nobody Trusts The Regulators Or When People Are Entering The Contest From Very Different Starting Points – The Losers Of These Competitions Were Always – Sooner Or Later – Going To Challenge The Value Of The Competition Itself

~ TDOST-BTASC-AUC-ASC-CHI-TOAMSDITW ~ The Desire Of Some To – Belong To A Special Community – A Unique Community – A Superior Community – Can Happen In – The Oldest And Most Secure Democracies In The World

~ TIB-NRTR-IWV-515,000-T ~ Though It Bore – No Relation To Reality – It Was Viewed – 515,000 – Times

~ OWBH-EEWSHTA ~ Oligarchs Would Be Happy – Everyone Else Would Simply Have To Adjust

~ COF ~ Cascades Of Falsehood

~ WALTARSITWPTARPI-ETSOCRTHHPPCITP ~ We Now Are Living Through A Rapid Shift In The Way People Transmit And Receive Politic Information – Exactly The Sort Of Communication Revolution That Has Had Profound Political Consequences In The Past

~ TRSIAMTICH-WAD-SDTAOBNABTCAPI ~ The Rapid Shift In Advertising Money To Internet Companies Has – Within A Decade – Severely Damaged The Ability Of Both Newspapers And Broadcasters To Collect And Present Information

~ PHA-HDO-N-THDF ~ People Have Always – Had Different Opinions – Now – They Have Different Facts

~ TSMATEFPOTW-PCOTNTWTH-TARTWUTT-BTHBDTKYO-TAAFE-E-AAF-A-BTSAA-TAPIWTDE-ABAH-DBN-PHMFTOWIR ~ The Social Media Algorithms Themselves Encourage False Perceptions Of The World – People Click On The News They Want To Hear – The Algorithms Radicalize Those Who Use Them Too – Because They Have Been Designed To Keep You Online – The Algorithms Also Favor Emotions – Especially – Anger And Fear – And – Because The Sites Are Addictive – They Affect People In Ways They Don’t Expect – Anger Becomes A Habit – Divisiveness Become Normal – Polarization Has Moved From The Online World Into Reality

~ W-PTB-LNS ~ Websites – Purporting To Be – Local News Sites

~ HIAND?-WGTDI?-AAW?-FALT-WHITSQWS-B-WSTEB? ~ How Is A Nation Defined? – Who Gets To Define It? – Who Are We? – For A Long Time – We Have Imagined That Such Questions Were Settled – But – Why Should They Ever Be?

~ M-NIT-WCT-UC-DPF-A-IP ~ Maybe – New Information Technology – Will Continue To – Undermine Consensus – Divide People Further – And – Increase Polarization

~ B-A-A-D/P/SP-I-WC-TFATR-NC-TWCFBALAL ~ Because – All – Authoritarianisms – Divide / Polarize / Separate People – Into – Warring Camps – The Fight Against Them Requires – New Coalitions – Together We Can Fight Back Against Lies And Liars