ELLEN MEIKSINS WOOD ~ THE ORIGIN OF CAPITALISM ~ 1999

~ ITP-C-HAPOOI-RC-B-NWLAFF-N-A-EW-O ~ In The Past – Capitalism – Has Always Pulled Out Of Its – Recurrent Crises – But – Never Without Laying A Foundation For – New – And – Even Worse – Ones

~ AAIIASIWTBOSWIDB-PL-WAOTSTL-PIEFAW-IOTGATTMOLAOLI ~ Above All It Is A System In Which The Bulk Of Society’s Work Is Done By – Propertyless Labourers – Who Are Obliged To Sell Their Labour-Power In Exchange For A Wage – In Order To Gain Access To The Means Of Life And Of Labour Itself

~ TBOOT-CS-ITPAS-EOC-TDWOSTMNOHB-SVDFAPWO-OML-A-SR-HEFAVST-BAFOHEOE-ETWMEIO-TSRIHN-A-INCWA-OHP-WNCTIREB-TEMP-A-TOI-WE ~ The Basic Objective Of The – Capitalist System – Is The Production And Self-Expansion Of Capital – This Distinctive Way Of Supplying The Material Needs Of Human Beings – So Very Different From All Preceding Ways Of – Organizing Material Life – And – Social Reproduction – Has Existed For A Very Short Time – Barely A Fraction Of Humanity’s Existence On Earth – Even Those Who Most Emphatically Insist On – The System’s Roots In Human Nature – And – Its Natural Continuity With Age-Old Human Practices – Would Not Claim That It Really Existed Before – The Early Modern Period – And – Then Only In – Western Europe

~ IMAOCAIO-TRINO-CSATBT-S-AIONTBRFIC-FIFTFOF-TBATGAM-TTFAP:TPPOLOTROAAS-STACOI:PTWR-TEOTEITSTCBN-CACS-A-TDOD-TSOC-CTTCAOHACA-EOI-A-HN-A-AHHBWBIOGTC ~ In Most Accounts Of Capitalism And Its Origin – There Really Is No Origin – Capitalism Seems Always To Be There – Somewhere – And It Only Needs To Be Released From Its Chains – For Instance From The Fetters Of Feudalism – To Be Allowed To Grow And Mature – Typically These Fetters Are Political: The Parasitic Power Of Lordship Or The Restriction Of An Autocratic State – Sometimes They Are Cultural Or Ideological: Perhaps The Wrong Religion – The Effect Of These Explanation Is To Stress The Continuity Between Non-Capitalist And Capitalist Societies – And – To Deny Or Disguise – The Specificity Of Capitalism – Central To These Conventional Accounts Of History Are Certain Assumptions – Explicit Or Implicit – About – Human Nature – And – About How Human Beings Will Behave If Only Given The Chance

~ I-CI-TMI-NCBF-B-WMNABSC-ITTDADCOTCM-INOOC-B-OTC-C-AIM-IOWOA-EI-MR-IOTGATT-MOL-TUSO-M-D-MTTDOTCM-IIO-C/A/P-M-A-I-L-P-R-NOA-ET-B-SR-IG ~ In – Capitalist Ideology – The Market Implies – Not Compulsion But Freedom – But – What May Not Always Be So Clear – Is That The Distinctive And Dominant Characteristic Of The Capitalist Market – Is Not Opportunity Or Choice – But – On The Contrary – Compulsion – All Individuals Must – In One Way Or Another – Enter Into – Market Relations – In Order To Gain Access To The – Means Of Life – This Unique System Of – Market-Dependence – Means That The Dictates Of The Capitalist Market – Its Imperatives Of – Competition / Accumulation / Profit-Maximization – And – Increasing – Labour-Productivity – Regulate – Not Only All – Economic Transactions – But – Social Relations – In General

~ C-RA-HS-SF-A-A-HR-W-EF-TNOC-WDI-S-A-TLAPHPTBIIB-LOUOTP-ATST-IROHAEFTF ~ Capitalism – Represents A – Historically Specific – Social Form – And – A – Historic Rupture – With – Earlier Forms – The – Naturalization Of Capitalism – Which Denies Its – Specificity – And – The Long And Painful Historical Processes That Brought It Into Being – Limits Our Understanding Of The Past – At The Same Time – It Restricts Our Hopes And Expectations For The Future

~ TQO-TOOC-MSA-B-IGTTHOA-DRIOC-WAD-I-AT-S-C-‘F-M’A-IBTH-ICW-D-SJ-A-ES ~ The Question Of – The Origin Of Capitalism – May Seem Arcane – But – It Goes To The Heart Of Assumptions – Deeply Rooted In Our Culture – Widespread And Dangerous – Illusions – About The – So-Called – “Free Market” – And – Its Benefits To Humanity – Its Compatibility With – Democracy – Social Justice – And – Ecological Sustainability

~ TMCWOETOOC-ITPTIDI-TNOOHPAAOATSI-WROTROEOTHIR-FFRTTMBCWIBC-TASTCEWTMWLFA-OC ~ The Most Common Way Of Explaining The Origin Of Capitalism – Is To Presuppose That Its Development Is – The Natural Outcome Of Human Practices Almost As Old As The Species Itself – Which Required Only The Removal Of External Obstacles That Hindered Its Realization – Far From Recognizing That The Market Became Capitalist When It Became Compulsory – These Accounts Suggest That Capitalism Emerged When The Market Was Liberated From Age-Old Constraints

~ T-NOTM-A-IL-INRQ ~ The – Nature Of The Market – And – Its Laws – Is Never Really Questioned

~ I-A-ES-‘E’-R-A-P-W-‘E’-O-S-I-N-E-K/C/R/P-R-THBOMDEAT-TP-‘E’-M-O-PAMG-SA-TAOSAP-O-TMOCS-THBOWOOELTTTMO-ME-IP-‘R’-A-‘R’-IG-C-W-DE-BITTDT ~ In – All – Earlier Societies – “Economic’ – Relations – And – Practices – Were – “Embedded” – Or – Submerged – In – Non-Economic – Kinship / Communal / Religious / Political – Relationships – There Have Been Other Motives Driving Economic Activity Than – The Purely – “Economic” – Motives – Of – Profit And Material Gain – Such As – The Achievement Of Status And Prestige – Or – The Maintenance Of Communal Solidarity – There Have Been Other Ways Of Organizing Economic Life Than Through The Mechanisms Of – Market Exchange – In Particular – “Reciprocity” – And – “Redistribution” – In General – Competition – Was – Deliberately Eliminated – Because It Tended To Disorganize Trade

~ T-IR-R-SI-T-PTSF ~ The – Industrial Revolution – Required – State Intervention – To – Preserve The Social Fabric

~ WCAT-CAC-AOATS-O-TOPITOBASPOG ~ We Cannot Assume That – Commerce And Capitalism – Are One And The Same – Or – That One Passed Into The Other By A Simple Process Of Growth

~ TDOFHMTOO ~ The Dissolution Of Feudalism Had More Than One Outcome

~ TDDOC-CIP-WPBM-D-A-T-STTIOC ~ The Distinctive Dynamics Of Capitalism – Come Into Play – When Producers Become Market-Dependent – And – Therefore – Subject To The Imperatives Of Competition

~ TNIO-PE-I-NCOP-A-TEOP-WIEB-SR-CBTS-WRTI-TCOTM ~ The New Ideology Of – Political Economy – Including – New Conceptions Of Property – And – The Ethic Of Profit – Was Increasingly Enforced By – State Repression – Coercion By The State – Was Required To Impose – The Coercion Of The Market

~ TDB-TMAO-A-TMAAI ~ The Difference Between – The Market As Opportunity – And – The Market As An Imperative

~ F-W-D-A-IPSDO-OOOWWC ~ Feudalism – Was – Diverse – And – It Produced Several Different Outcomes – Only One Of Which Was Capitalism

~ TCFITDOCFAOFO-CS-WTDOC-S-PR-TG-MI-A-C-‘LOM’-WITOP ~ The Critical Factor In The Divergence Of Capitalism From All Other Forms Of – Commercial Society – Was The Development Of Certain – Social Property Relationships – That Generated – Market Imperatives – And – Capitalist – “Laws Of Motion” – Which Imposed Themselves On Production

~ ELTT-SC-MOTW-W-FOMI-TDPOTE-WN-SVDFP-B-‘BCASD’ ~ Even Later Than The – Seventeenth Century – Most Of The World – Was – Free Of Market Imperatives – The Dominant Principle Of Trade Everywhere – Was Not – Surplus Value Derived From Production – But – “Buying Cheap And Selling Dear

~ C-R-NA-SEOE-O-BAE-B-ACTIT-MB-H-RAP-A-RIA-OP-O-HIWN ~ Capitalism – Required – Not A – Simple Extension Or Expansion – Of – Barter And Exchange – But – A Complete Transformation In The – Most Basic – Human – Relations And Practices – And – Rupture In Age-Old Patterns – Of – Human Interaction With Nature

~ VEICSIAC-PRTM ~ Virtually Everything In Capitalist Society Is A Commodity – Produced For The Market

~ TUSOMDHSSRACSBNOMOP:TIO:C/A/P-M-A-H-A-C-SN-T-A/SONM/III ~ This Unique System Of Market Dependence Has Specific Systemic Requirements And Compulsions Shared By No Other Mode Of Production: The Imperatives Of: Competition / Accumulation / Profit-Maximization – And – Hence – A – Constant – Systemic Need – To – Accumulate / Search Out New Markets / Impose Its Imperatives

~ EP-I-BARF-EOR ~ Enhancing Productivity – Itself – Became A Reason For – Excluding Other Rights

~ NDOCHEOWSKOVHR ~ No Development Of Capitalism Has Ever Occurred Without Some Kind Of Violent Historic Rupture

~ TVSLTDTSF-MIIST-EI-WR-C-‘E-E’-I-TCFTDE ~ The Very Same Logic That Drives The System Forward – Makes It Inevitably Susceptible To – Economic Instabilities – Which Require – Constant – “Extra-Economic” – Interventions – To Compensate For Their Destructive Effects

~ HOAA-H-TD-A-ES-C-IB-TU ~ Hope Of Achieving A – Humane – Truly Democratic – And – Ecologically Sustainable – Capitalism – Is Becoming – Transparently Unrealistic

CATHY O’NEIL ~ WEAPONS OF MATH DESTRUCTION ~ 2016

~ TC-MIATCT-M-WNODEITWP-BAFMOT-THC-TCOMFI/TROU-AHBAAAB-MWMF ~ The Crash – Made It All Too Clear That – Mathematics – Was Not Only Deeply Entangled In The World’s Problems – But Also Fueling Many Of Them – The Housing Crisis / The Collapse Of Major Financial Institutions / The Rise Of Unemployment – All Had Been Aided And Abetted By – Mathematicians Wielding Magic Formulas

~ IWHBC-H-WAWHTASBATPTFOHMHBM-A-HWC-PASCITF-B-I-ITWOTC-NMT-WHTE-A-EISMD-MAS-W-SO-D/M/SP-TWPOT-A-COPA-S/W/L/C ~ If We Had Been Clear-Headed – We All Would Have Taken A Step Back At This Point To Figure Out How Math Had Been Misused – And – How We Could – Prevent A Similar Catastrophe In The Future – But – Instead – In The Wake Of The Crisis – New Mathematical Techniques – Were Hotter Than Ever – And – Expanding Into Still More Domains – Mathematicians And Statisticians – Were – Studying Our – Desires / Movements / Spending Power – They Were Predicting Our Trustworthiness – And –Calculating Our Potential As – Students / Workers / Lovers / Criminals

~ T-T-M-PA-PTDE-WBO-CMBFHB-SOTCWNDMWTBI-N-MOTME-H-P/M/B-IT-SS-TIMOL ~ Trouble – The – Math-Powered Applications – Powering The Data Economy – Were Based On – Choices Made By Fallible Human Beings – Some Of These Choices Were No Doubt Made With The Best Intentions – Nevertheless – Many Of These Models Encoded – Human – Prejudice / Misunderstanding / Bias – Into The – Software Systems – That Increasingly Managed Our Lives

LG-T-MM-W-O-TWITABTHPITD-TV-EW-WOH-W-BDOA-A-TTTPTPATOIOS-WMTRR ~ Like Gods – These – Mathematical Models – Were – Opaque – Their Workings Invisible To All But The Highest Priests In Their Domain – Their Verdicts – Even When – Wrong Or Harmful – Were – Beyond Dispute Or Appeal – And – They Tended To Punish The Poor And The Oppressed In Our Society – While Making The Rich Richer

~ ATR-H-B/P/P-T-A-I-NEJ Attempting To Reduce – Human – Behaviour / Performance / Potential – To – Algorithms – Is – No Easy Job

~ A-BD-C-R-RCT-MTOV ~ At – Big Data – Companies – Researchers – Run Constant Tests – And – Monitor Thousands Of Variables

~ WF-A-SE-CCSOFADA-WNLFIM ~ Without Feedback – A – Statistical Engine – Can Continue Spinning Out Faulty And Damaging Analysis – While Never Learning From Its Mistakes

~ DTOR-A-UITJTR-TTOM-I-S-P-HD-A-VC ~ Define Their Own Reality – And – Use It To Justify Their Results – This Type Of Model – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Highly Destructive – And – Very Common

~ P-DIAS-WCTSLUD-A-T-HV-AHTAFHSOETTAT ~ Probability – Distilled Into A Score – Which Can Turn Someone’s Life Upside Down – And – The – Human Victims – Are Held To A Far Higher Standard Of Evidence Than The Algorithms Themselves

~ TTIT-PEUSAA-SI-O-P-F-T-WSTDCCUAAA-THB-DS-ATOLSOTFOTREOTT ~ The Trouble Is That – Profits End Up Serving As A – Stand-In – Or – Proxy – For – Truth – We’ll See This Dangerous Confusion Crop Up Again And Again – This Happens Because – Data Scientists – All Too Often Lose Sight Of The Folks On The Receiving End Of The Transaction

~ BD-HPOE ~ Big Data – Has Plenty Of Evangelists

~ TCAM-WMCAWIETI-STWIA-TV-TCBEU-A-FWWCI-I-FAA ~ To Create A Model – We Make Choices About What’s Important Enough To Include – Simplifying The World Into A – Toy Version – That Can Be Easily Understood – And – From Which We Can Infer – Important – Facts And Actions

~ AM-BS-RT-JAP-OI-C ~ A Model’s – Blind Spots – Reflect The – Judgments And Priorities – Of Its – Creators

~ AMBFT-WWABWT-IWGSIINCU ~ A Model Built For Today – Will Work A Bit Worse Tomorrow – It Will Grow Stale If It’s Not Constantly Updated

~ R-I-TMSOPM-IIPB-HDG-A-SC-RB-II-A-PB-CB ~ Racism – Is – The Most Slovenly Of Predictive Models – It Is Powered By – Haphazard Data Gathering – And – Spurious Correlations – Reinforced By – Institutional Inequities – And – Polluted By – Confirmation Bias

~ T-PFL-T-DL-GRAR-A-ITP-TMBMAMU ~ The – Pernicious Feedback Loop – This – Destructive Loop – Goes Round And Round – And – In The Process – The Model Becomes More And More Unfair

~ B-TPINW-SPB-IT-SMS-TMPBA-SDITFOMOP-OFTFOR-A-ONA-TU ~ But – The Point Is Not Whether – Some People Benefit – It’s That – So Many Suffer – These Models Powered By Algorithms – Slam Doors In The Face Of Millions Of People – Often For The Flimsiest Of Reasons – And – Offer No Appeal – They’re Unfair

~ A-HOMTAA:TCL-FOFTTN-A-TOD ~ And – Here’s One More Thing About Algorithms: They Can Leap – From One Field To The Next – And – They Often Do

~ BA-TVSS-TTSTC ~ Bet Against – The Very Same Securities – That They’d Sold To Customers

~ TBWMAPWRWABS-UC-EA-U-TWTC ~ The Bonds Were Marketed As Products Whose Risk Was Assessed By Specialists – Using Cutting-Edge Algorithms – Unfortunately – This Wasn’t The Case

~ TMWDATCAASS ~ The Math Was Directed Against The Consumer As A Smoke Screen

~ B-O-T-O-U-IOU ~ Billions – Or – Trillions – Of – Unpayable – IOUs

~ VFPHT-EATIR-TKWWAGOS-A-MOTPWD-LTITSU ~ Very Few People Had The – Expertise And The Information Required – To Know What Was Actually Going On – And – Most Of The People Who Did – Lacked The Integrity To Speak Up

~ T-F-A-NMPWDATST-WBOT-T-STBD-T-DWL-RAU

~ The – False – Assumption – Not Many People Would Default At The Same Time – Was Based On The – Theory – Soon To Be Disproven – That – Defaults Were Largely – Random And Unrelated

~ TPO-MC-FF-AASUIH ~ The Power Of – Modern Computing – Fueled Fraud – At A Scale Unequalled In History

~ TWE-FSTPOTOSOTA ~ That’s When Everyone – Finally Saw The People On The Other Side Of The Algorithms

~ B-2009-IWCTTLOTMCHBNNDTTWOFAHINNV-TLS-FTMP-A-TGRTS:TRIDM-EFAFRTAAFHTJT ~ By – 2009 – It Was Clear That The Lessons Of The Market Collapse Had Brought No New Direction To The World Of Finance And Had Instilled No New Values – The Lobbyists Succeed – For The Most Part – And – *The Game Remained The Same: To Rope In Dumb Money – Except For A Few Regulations That Added A Few Hoops To Jump Through

~ TRTAR-RDIF ~ The Refusal To Acknowledge Risk – Runs Deep In – Finance

~ TAWMST-TD-L-WRTW ~ The Algorithms Would Make Sure That – Those Deemed – Losers – Would Remain That Way

~ ALM-WGEMCOT-DE-TI-OF-A-CTATW-TTDI ~ A Lucky Minority – Would Gain Ever More Control Over The – Data Economy – Taking In – Outrageous Fortunes – And – Convincing Themselves All The While – That They Deserved It

~ H-WUCAMFP-IIFST-GI-B-PAETMTTCRTR ~ However – When You Create A Model From Proxies – It Is Far Simpler To – Game It – Because – Proxies Are Easier To Manipulate Than The Complicated Reality They Represent

~ W-CP-BATW-TO-T-ANO-S-B-F ~ We – Criminalize Poverty – Believing All The While – That Our – Tools – Are Not Only – Scientific – But – Fair

~ J-CJBSTOPOSIUTO ~ Justice – Cannot Just Be Something That One Part Of Society Inflicts Upon The Other

~ OR ~ Operations Research

~ B-ITWFI ~ Bogus – Is The Word For It

~ C-GT ~ Computer-Generated Terrorism

~ B-AOTATP-HOMOP-F-TODS-IGTGALOTFW ~ But – Any Operation That Attempts To Profile – Hundreds Of Millions Of People – From – Thousands Of Different Sources – Is Going To Get A Lot Of The Facts Wrong

~ M-A-LO-ALA-TSRFOTE ~ Mistakes – Are – Learning Opportunities – As Long As – The System Receives Feedback On The Error

~ R-ISWU-TI-FMSF ~ Redlining – Is Still With Us – Though In – Far More Subtle Forms

~ IWGTB-EBTL-O-TEAV-WCSF-STDUIDC-A-TUD ~ If We’re Going To Be – Equal Before The Law – Or – Treated Equally As Voters – We Cannot Stand For – Systems That Drop Us Into Different Castes – And – Treat Us Differently

~ TG-OC-HAP-RR-TP ~ The Government – Of Course – Has A Powerful – Regulatory Role – To Play

~ MAC-NFD-B-FTCWM-A-WDTPAT-A-WTLO-TCANJA-L/P/E-TA-FM ~ Models Are Constructed – Not Just From Data – But – From The Choices We Make – About – Which Data To Pay Attention To – And – Which To Leave Out – Those Choices Are Not Just About – Logistics / Profits / Efficiency – They Are – Fundamentally Moral

JEFF GOODELL ~ THE WATER WILL COME ~ 2017

~ IT-TC-TORASI-B-TWBTHFBFFHMIOGAA-AHOTR-S-LR-IT-TC-CFTEOTWO-T-SARAMTTTRTDITLC ~ In The – Twentieth Century – The Oceans Rose About Six Inches – But – That Was Before The Heat From Burning Fossil Fuels Had Much Impact On Greenland And Antarctica – About Half Of The Recorded – Sea-Level Rise – In The – Twentieth Century – Came From The Expansion Of The Warming Oceans – Today – Seas Are Raising At More Than Twice The Rate They Did In The Last Century

~ IWCHTWTA-TD-F-APTWMOF-TF-O-S-LR-TC-GPMTTA~ If We Can Hold The Warming To About – Three Degrees – Fahrenheit – Above Preindustrial Temperatures We Might Only Face – Two Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – This Century – Giving People More Time To Adapt

~ H-IWDET-FFP-WHFMT-EDOW-A-WT-ABAO-WCG-FF-O-S-LR-BTEOTC-O-WCG-TF ~ However – If We Don’t End The – Fossil Fuel Party – We’re Headed For More Than – Eight Degrees Of Warming – And – With That – All Bets Are Off – We Could Get – Four Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – By The End Of The Century – Or – We Could Get – Thirteen Feet

~ IETKOTTWHAGIETDW-WANWTMDABPTTGAOT ~ It’s Exactly The Kind Of Threat That We Humans Are Genetically Ill Equipped To Deal With – We Are Not Wired To Make Decisions About Barely Perceptible Threats That Gradually Accelerate Over Time

~ AIASTBTGACMMI-ITWCWTM(ASTWLTTOY)-IWRTE-S-L-BA-THF-IAOGWTG(ASTCTSLT)-IWR-SL-A-TTF ~ Antarctica Is About Seven Times Bigger Than Greenland And Contains Much More Ice – If The Whole Continent Were To Melt (A Scenario That Would Likely Take Thousands Of Years) – It Would Raise The Earth’s – Sea Levels – By About – Two Hundred Feet – If All Of Greenland Were To Go (A Scenario That Could Take Significantly Less Time) – It Would Raise – Sea Levels – About – Twenty-Two Feet

~ RN-MFGCRTAMTSS-LRAA-B-TMCICD ~ Right Now – Melting From Greenland Contributes Roughly Twice As Much To Current Sea-Level Rise As Antarctica – But – That May Change In Coming Decades

~ T-BMO2012-TFTTR-WMHSMFTMHPMTSWMFTM-BW? ~ The – Big Melt Of 2012 – The Fact That The Real-World Melt Happened So Much Faster Than Models Had Predicted Meant That Something Was Missing From The Models – But What?

~ G-T-TEOTO-CBTERT-HCAHOTOS-LRITLFY-ITF-TPWDATEIDBIMRIGAA ~ Globally – The – Thermal Expansion Of The Oceans – Caused By The Earth’s Rising Temperature – Has Contributed About Half Of The Observed Sea-Level Rise In The Last Fifty Years – In The Future – That Percentage Will Decline As Thermal Expansion Is Dwarfed By Increasing Melt Rates In Greenland And Antarctica

~ TITSCHAPEOTMROSAIINN ~ The Idea That Soot Can Have A Powerful Effect On The Melt Rate Of Snow And Ice Is Not New

~ SL-TDBTFASFITDBAMCCAAD-LRD ~ Sea Level – The Difference Between Three Feet And Six Feet Is The Difference Between A Manageable Coastal Crisis And A Decades-Long Refugee Disaster

~ EY-WHSS-TQHOT-ITTY? ~ Every Year – When Hurricane Seasons Starts – The Question Hovers Out There – Is This The Year?

~ O-MACL-ATHNRFDFZAST-KTREMA ~ Often – Mayors And Civic Leaders – Argue To Have Neighborhoods Removed From Designated Flood Zone Areas Simply To – Keep The Real Estate Market Alive

~ B-TINQT-AWR-IRWGU-A-U-A-U ~ But – There Is No Question That –As Waters Rise – Insurance Rates Will Go Up – And – Up – And – Up

~ MP-HNTTWATF ~ Most People – Have No Time To Worry About The Future

~ WC ~ Walled Cities

~ WOPTPWABT ~ Walls Only Protect The People Who Are Behind Them

~ W/D/L-MPFS-EWTAN ~ Walls / Dikes / Levees – Make People Feel Safe – Even When They Are Not

~ LB ~ Living Breakwaters

~ YASDALAIWR ~ Yet Another Step Down A Long And Increasingly Wet Road

~ TBIOCC-IT-TPWALRFTPATOWWPTMDFI-WDWOT? ~ The Basic Injustice Of Climate Change – Is That – The People Who Are Least Responsible For The Problem Are The Ones Who Will Pay The Most Dearly For It – What Do We Owe Them?

~ MT-1BP-LI-L-ECZ-AFPOTPAIPCWLMTHWA ~ More Than – 1 Billion People – Live In – Low-Elevation Coastal Zones – A Fair Percentage Of These People Are In Poor Countries With Little Money To Help With Adaptation

~ OWTVTPTYOCT-IA-AEABPNTECFRNFSTF ~ One Way To View The Past Thirty Years Of Climate Talks – Is As – An Extended Attempt By Poor Nations To Extract Compensation From Rich Nations For Stealing Their Future

~ EY-A-20MP-AM-H-B-F/S/OD-RTTAMATDBCOV ~ Every Year – About – 20 Million People – Are Made – Homeless – By – Floods / Storms / Other Disasters – Roughly Three Times As Many As Those Displaced By Conflict Or Violence

~ CR-LLSUIL ~ Climate Refugees – Lack Legal Status Under International Law

~ CA ~ Climate Apartheid

~ S-LR-W-DALOP-A-TPAGTHTGS ~ Sea-Level Rise – Will – Displace A Lot Of People – And – Those People Are Going To Have To Go Somewhere

~ SOFS-A-CODW ~ Salinization Of The Soil – And – Contamination Of Drinking Water

~ IAGBP-I-UA-F-CBOAIC-I-V-A-HS ~ It Ain’t Gonna Be Pretty – In – Urban Areas – Floods – Contaminated By Organic An Inorganic Compounds – Including – Viruses – And – Human Shit

~ W-FO-S ~ Water – Full Of – Shit

~ CAB-A-W-WC-TSROOTG ~ Coffins Are Buoyant – And – When – Water Comes – They Sometimes Rise Out Of The Ground

~ G-CIBAIT-IT-W-TH-D-W-D-A-C-C-T ~ Geoengineering – Could Indeed Be An Important Tool – In The – What-The-Hell-Do-We-Do-About-Climate-Change – Toolbox

~ GS-F-TFFI-A-$1T-AY ~ Global Subsidies – For – The Fossil Fuel Industry – About – $1 Trillion – A Year

~ G-ABUCQA-G-WHCTT? ~ Geoengineering – Also Brings Up Complex Questions About – Governance – Whose Hand Controls The Thermostat?

~ G-O-E-TTOG-CLT-C-A-E-CW ~ Geoengineering – Or – Even – The Threat Of Geoengineering – Could Lead To – Conflict – And – Even – Climate Wars

~ OC-NOWBTAGAASTS-LR(OAE)-ITWHGSACGGE-TYA-WSFBTRTA ~ Of Course – No One Would Be Talking About Geoengineering As A Solution To Sea-Level Rise (Or Anything Else) – If The World Had Gotten Serious About Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Thirty Years Ago – When Scientists First Began To Raise The Alarm

~ MOWWKA-G-CF-CM-AWA-A-F-M-LE ~ Most Of What We Know About – Geoengineering – Comes From – Computer Models – As Well As – A – Few – Modest – Laboratory Experiments

~ PF ~ Planet Frankenstein

~ B-TFWNTCOI ~ But – The Future Will Not Take Care Of Itself

~ OAT-HD-PWLOVC-WHTF-TMDOITIO-R ~ Of All The – Hard Decisions – People Who Live On Vulnerable Coasts – Will Have To Face – The Most Difficult One Is The Idea Of – Retreat

~ IMW-R-ITOO-G-IOROSTTCOTPFY-IR-IA-TP-A-AWTCYL-MOA-IM-GU-TWWW-A-ATNHW ~ In Many Ways – Retreat – Is The Opposite Of – Geoengineering – Instead Of Relying On Scientists To Take Care Of The Problem For You – It Requires – Individual Action – Thoughtful Planning – And – A Willingness To Change Your Life – Most Of All – It Means – Giving Up – The War With Water – And – Admitting That Nature Has Won

~ DYHTRT-BASOYP-EI-ICFFYN? ~ Do You Have The Right To – Build A Seawall On Your Property – Even If – It Causes Flooding For Your Neighbor?

TERRY O’REILLY + MIKE TENNANT ~ THE AGE OF PERSUASION ~ 2016

~ DGAWE?-NOCS-TFDT-BACCLT ~ Does Great Advertising Win Elections? – No One Can Say – Though Few Doubt That – Bad Advertising Can Certainly Lose Them

~ A-GUC-A-G-S-IEF-A ~ A – Great Unwritten Contract – Advertisers – Give – Something – In Exchange For – Attention

~ A-OTSORAYMCFE ~ Advertising – Offered The Sort Of Remuneration Artistic Young Minds Couldn’t Find Elsewhere

~ MA-‘I’-IN-PP-PS-A-OAWLO-BL ~ Making An – “Impact” – Is Now – Part Product – Part Smarts – And – Often A Whole Lot Of – Blind Luck

~ YDAI ~ Your Daily Ad Intake

~ AY-‘E’-TA-A-IYSIWYEADCNI? ~ Are You – “Exposed” – To An – Ad – If You Scan It With Your Eyes And Don’t Consciously Notice It?

~ ‘T’-GWSTSTOAPOS ~ “Tribes” – Groups Who Share The Same Thinking On A Product Or Subject

~ NT:NKOC ~ New Technologies: New Kinds Of Clutter

~ AA-POTIS ~ Ambient Advertising – Part Of The Immediate Surroundings

~ A-DM-DOAF-S-O-A-OT-R ~ Ad-Driven Media – Media – Dependent On Advertising For – Some – Or – All – Of Their – Revenues

~ E-PTL ~ Ever-Present Transparent Logo

~ SB-TPO-L-S-T-EC-TOS-IOTUTOST-PAUS ~ Squeeze-Back – The Practice Of – Literally – Squeezing – The – End Credits – To One Side – In Order To Use The Other Side To – Promote An Upcoming Show

~ TV-B-HSPTA-MAMPH ~ TV – Broadcasters – Have Shrunk Programming To Accommodate – More Ad Messages Per Hour

~ BTC ~ Breaking The Contract

~ FA-B-O-IA-ST-S-D-S-T-SR-I-U/O ~ For Any – Brand – Overpromising – Is A – Short Term – Self-Destructive – Strategy – The – Smarter Route – Is – Underpromise / Overdeliver

~ TELI-EV ~ The Edge Lies In – Entertainment Value

~ AHOC-C-A-D-D-M-DAC ~ A – Handful Of Complaints – Can – And – Do – Derail – Multimillion-Dollar Ad Campaigns

~ R-CRAAPA-B-F-YHTATRQ ~ Research – Can Reveal Astounding And Powerful Answers – But – First – You Have To Ask The Right Questions

~ PP-TAOIABNOIIA-S/F/E/B ~ Product Placement – The Act Of Infusing A Brand Name Or Image Into A – Story / Film / Event / Broadcast

~ ‘Y’-TN-HGOM-T/T-A/YA ~ “Yoots” – The New – Holy Grail Of Marketing – Tweens / Teen-Agers / Young Adults

~ RIP-FOTPK-A-TGNEDO-T-BB-GUWTSWOCGSAT ~ Raised In Prosperity – Few Of Their Parents Knew – And – Their Grandparents Never Even Dreamed Of – The – Baby Boomers – Grew Up With The Strong Winds Of Consumerism Gathering Speed Around Them

~ OOTSCTCWTEOT-OW-WT-BTNGA-THICF ~ One Of The Sea Changes That Came With The Emergence Of The – Online World – Was That – Bad Things Never Go Away – They Hang In Cyberspace Forever

~ LTTTMTTA ~ Life Tends To Take More Time Than Art

~ TSO-VM:TADTW ~ The Secret Of – Viral Marketing: The Audience Does The Work

~ I-N-SOLOC-A-THNCITAOP ~ Ideas – Not – Slogans Or Logos Or Catchphrases – Are – The Hot New Currency In The Age Of Persuasion

~ GM:T-PS ~ Guerrilla Marketing: The – Publicity Stunt

~ POTTOOWIM ~ People Opposed To The Objectification Of Women In Marketing

~ AIB-GM-ATPNAFTLGATNATG ~ At Its Best – Guerrilla Marketing – Appeals To People’s Natural Affinity For The Little Guy And Their Natural Aversion To Giants

~ BI:H-HO-A-EOPC-TGIA ~ Borrowed Interest: Hitch-Hiking On – An – Element Of Popular Culture – To Get Immediate Attention

~ AMSI-F/A/M/L-ICTRBTAAA ~ As Marketing Seeps Into – Films / Arts / Music / Literature – It Changes The Relationship Between The Arts And Audiences

~ IEBQTEAOTC-SBTCOC ~ In Each Brand’s Quest To Elbow Ahead Of The Competition – Superlatives Became The Cheapest Of Commodities

~ T-‘AW-B-NOM’-M ~ The – “Advertising Works – But – Not On Me” – Myth

~ PATETB-TTODRI ~ People Attache Themselves Emotionally To Brands – Though They Often Don’t Realize It

~ S-T-RASI-BA ~ Story-Telling – Remains A Staple In – Broadcast Ads

ALICIA ELER ~ THE SELFIE GENERATION ~ 2017

~ TSG ~ The Selfie Generation

~ DTUF-SM-ISAINOIP-DP ~ Despite The Uses For – Social Media – It Seems As If No One Is Protecting – Digital Privacy

~ IV-A-ALOPB-GC-A-U-R-BTGIASY-EIYNPTSM-TTE-IF-ITBTS-AS-SAC-ATBTOWTS ~ Internet Visibility – And – A Lack Of Personal Boundaries – Get Conflated – And – Ultimately– Rationalized – Because The Government Is Already Surveilling You – Even If You Never Post To Social Media – To This Extent – It Feels – Impossible To Beat The System – And So – Submission And Complacency – Appear To Be The Only Way To Survive

~ RTS-T-PS-IT-AOS-S-IAW-S-IITAO-ROTSOWPPT ~ Responding To Surveillance – Through – Planned Sousveillance – In The – Age Of Surveillance – Sousveillance – Is Associated With – Selfie-Ing – It Is The Act Of – Recording Oneself Through Small Or Wearable Portable Personal Technologies

~ U-IDMHTWO-IMWHATTD-A-WTPTDWI ~ Ultimately – It Doesn’t Matter How The Watching Occurs – It Matters Who Has Access To The Data – And – What They Plan To Do With It

~ P-INA-IR ~ Privacy – Is Not An – Inalienable Right

~ BAWP?-IT-SS-SM-IV-ET-A-PA-KOU-BTO ~ But At What Price? – In The – Surveillance State – Social Media – Is Very – Easily Trackable – And – People Are – Knowingly Or Unknowingly – Branding Themselves Online

~ DB-ABT-CPIAC-A-STDO-WCP-TOBOB ~ Data Brokers – Are Businesses That – Collect Personal Information About Consumers – And – Sell That Data Off – Without Consumers’ Permission – To Other Brokers Or Businesses

~ SMU-MT-T-V-A-S ~ Social Media Users – Make Themselves – Trackable – Visible – And – Searchable

~ TAA-BSW-CTTCBUAAMO-VI-O-AWTBV ~ The Argument Against – Ballot Selfies – Claimed That They Could Be Used As A Means Of – Voter Intimidation – Or – A Way To Buy Votes

~ NEISE ~ Not Everyone Is Surveilled Equally

~ P-UTS-‘T’-L-T-JTSTTAD-ELAAT-TIA-A-IIH ~ Police – Use The Same – “Terrorism” – Language – To – Justify The Spying That They Are Doing – Effectively Labeling Activists As Terrorists – This Is Alarming – And – It Is Happening

~ CTTI ~ Consent To The Image

~ IOTASTFAITSE-O-PITTI ~ It Only Takes A Second To Forward An Image To Someone Else – Or – Post It To The Internet

~ AP-CEB-UAR-B-AE ~ Anything Posted – Can Easily Be – Used And Reused – By – Another Entity

~ B-PTTS-UGTALTUIIPAWTSF-A-FAPPTWL-YATTBSUFTS-TDNTPYOELYKITCIBUE ~ By – Posting To Their Site – You Grant Them A License To Use It In Practically Any Way They See Fit – And – For Any Promotional Purposes They Would Like – You Agree To This By Signing Up For The Service – They Don’t Need To Pay You Or Even Let You Know If The Content Is Being Used Elsewhere

~ TEFA-FS-OC-ITYPFIWYD-ATNTUIHTW ~ The Exchange For A – Free Service – Of Course – Is That You Pay For It With Your Data – Allowing The Network To Use It However They Want

~ TMST-AOU-CGIT-F-RAM ~ The Most Shocking Thing – Any Of Us – Could Get In Trouble – For – Retweeting A Meme

~ TA-CT-WEBMIBO-BU-LAP-FTPOGACITEMFT ~ There Are – Copyright Trolls – Whose Entire Business Model Is Based On – Buying Up – Licenses And Patents – For The Purpose Of Going After Copyright Infringers To Extort Money From Them

~ WYDK-WHY-UID ~ What You Don’t Know – Won’t Hurt You – Until It Does

~ RP-I-RC ~ Revenge Porn – Is – Rape Culture

~ ALLSFH ~ A Limited Licensing Scenario From Hell

~ DTFTTPWTANSITCOOTI-TTOTI-IAAO-CS-ICEUA-SBA-SINC ~ Despite The Fact That The Person Who Takes A Nude Selfie Is The Copyright Owner Of The Image – The Transmission Of That Image – Is An Act Of – Consensual Sharing – It Could End Up Anywhere – Seen By Anyone – Sharing Is Not Caring

~ T24/7SNC ~ The 24/7 Selfie News Cycle

~ MMN-TSS-OFO-YWAHTL-TIUBYWASTTTS-WDOTA-BT-TARTA-‘V’-A-‘N’-ITSTMTTAPS ~ Mainstream Media Narratives – That Surround Selfies – Often Focus On – Young Women And How They Look – This Is Uncomfortable Because Young Women Are Simultaneously Told That Their Self-Worth Depends On Their Appearance – But Then – They Are Referred To As – “Vain” – And – “Narcissistic” – If They Spend Too Much Time Taking And Posting Selfies

~ TSHMC-IDNJEIA-VS-SFT-‘RW’ ~ The Selfie Has Material Consequences – It Does Not Just Exist In A – Virtual Space – Separate From The – “Real World

~ TSTRID:K ~ The Selfie That Results In Death: Killfie

~ SATWD ~ Selfie-Ing And Texting While Driving

~ TGUWTIABTS-A-AIATOR-TAPOSI ~ Teens Grow Up With The Internet Always By Their Side – And – Adolescence Is A Time Of Risk-Taking And Proving One’s Social Identity

~ TMETS-TMAAVIWG ~ The More Extreme The Selfie – The More Attention And Virality It Will Garner

~ FTES ~ Faking The Extreme Selfie

~ FITNR ~ Fake Is The New Real

~ M-SA ~ Meta-Selfie Advertising

~ ASIAA ~ A Selfie Is An Advertisement

~ TSTTLBVAP-COTSIB ~ The Selfie Tows The Line Between Vulnerability And Publicity – Capitalizing On The Space In Between

~ A-A-TPIY ~ And – Always – The Product Is You

~ IA-S-IOPA-‘C’-A-WAEO-‘F’-I-IAETCBEC ~ In Advertising – Selfie-Ing – Is Often Presented As – “Carefree” – And – With An Element Of – “Fun” – Involved – It’s An Experience That Can Be Easily Commodified

~ T-SML-I-S-P-EIIMI-AA-SM ~ The – Social Media Loop – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Even If Its Message Is – Anti-Social Media

~ SG ~ Selfie Gazing

~ SDWE ~ Selfies Don’t Win Elections

~ ‘SJ’ ~ “Selfie Journalism”

~ TAFUWIKWWTR ~ The Algorithms Feed Us What It Knows We Want To Read

~ IGSMTHAMT-YWCF ~ It Got Shared More Than Half A Million Times – Yet Was Completely False

~ PPFI-A-N-F-C-LTSR-‘P-T’-TITWALIACTHNGOWIH ~ People Posting False Information – And – Not – Fact-Checking – Leads To Something Resembling – “Post-Truth” – The Idea That We Are Living In A Culture That Has No Grasp On What Is Happening

~ TSIA-AI-NBHIB-E/C/F-TSWWWTB ~ The Selfie Is An – Aspirational Image – Never Before Has It Been – Easier / Cheaper / Faster – To Share What We Want To Be

~ WBAAS ~ Woman’s Bodies Are Always Sexualized

~ S-I-UCDT-AD-PEAN-TSO-NFSEE-B-JFO-TBS-IIAMFS-ATSNAI-AAAE ~ Self-Imaging – Ultimately Comes Down To – A Desire – Perhaps Even A Need – To See Oneself – Not For Someone Else’s Enjoyment – But – Just For Oneself – To Be Seen – It Is A Mechanism For Survival – A Truly Stark Negation Agaisnt Invisibility – An Action Agaisnt Erasure

~ GS-A ~ Get Selfie-Aware