ELLEN MEIKSINS WOOD ~ THE ORIGIN OF CAPITALISM ~ 1999

~ ITP-C-HAPOOI-RC-B-NWLAFF-N-A-EW-O ~ In The Past – Capitalism – Has Always Pulled Out Of Its – Recurrent Crises – But – Never Without Laying A Foundation For – New – And – Even Worse – Ones

~ AAIIASIWTBOSWIDB-PL-WAOTSTL-PIEFAW-IOTGATTMOLAOLI ~ Above All It Is A System In Which The Bulk Of Society’s Work Is Done By – Propertyless Labourers – Who Are Obliged To Sell Their Labour-Power In Exchange For A Wage – In Order To Gain Access To The Means Of Life And Of Labour Itself

~ TBOOT-CS-ITPAS-EOC-TDWOSTMNOHB-SVDFAPWO-OML-A-SR-HEFAVST-BAFOHEOE-ETWMEIO-TSRIHN-A-INCWA-OHP-WNCTIREB-TEMP-A-TOI-WE ~ The Basic Objective Of The – Capitalist System – Is The Production And Self-Expansion Of Capital – This Distinctive Way Of Supplying The Material Needs Of Human Beings – So Very Different From All Preceding Ways Of – Organizing Material Life – And – Social Reproduction – Has Existed For A Very Short Time – Barely A Fraction Of Humanity’s Existence On Earth – Even Those Who Most Emphatically Insist On – The System’s Roots In Human Nature – And – Its Natural Continuity With Age-Old Human Practices – Would Not Claim That It Really Existed Before – The Early Modern Period – And – Then Only In – Western Europe

~ IMAOCAIO-TRINO-CSATBT-S-AIONTBRFIC-FIFTFOF-TBATGAM-TTFAP:TPPOLOTROAAS-STACOI:PTWR-TEOTEITSTCBN-CACS-A-TDOD-TSOC-CTTCAOHACA-EOI-A-HN-A-AHHBWBIOGTC ~ In Most Accounts Of Capitalism And Its Origin – There Really Is No Origin – Capitalism Seems Always To Be There – Somewhere – And It Only Needs To Be Released From Its Chains – For Instance From The Fetters Of Feudalism – To Be Allowed To Grow And Mature – Typically These Fetters Are Political: The Parasitic Power Of Lordship Or The Restriction Of An Autocratic State – Sometimes They Are Cultural Or Ideological: Perhaps The Wrong Religion – The Effect Of These Explanation Is To Stress The Continuity Between Non-Capitalist And Capitalist Societies – And – To Deny Or Disguise – The Specificity Of Capitalism – Central To These Conventional Accounts Of History Are Certain Assumptions – Explicit Or Implicit – About – Human Nature – And – About How Human Beings Will Behave If Only Given The Chance

~ I-CI-TMI-NCBF-B-WMNABSC-ITTDADCOTCM-INOOC-B-OTC-C-AIM-IOWOA-EI-MR-IOTGATT-MOL-TUSO-M-D-MTTDOTCM-IIO-C/A/P-M-A-I-L-P-R-NOA-ET-B-SR-IG ~ In – Capitalist Ideology – The Market Implies – Not Compulsion But Freedom – But – What May Not Always Be So Clear – Is That The Distinctive And Dominant Characteristic Of The Capitalist Market – Is Not Opportunity Or Choice – But – On The Contrary – Compulsion – All Individuals Must – In One Way Or Another – Enter Into – Market Relations – In Order To Gain Access To The – Means Of Life – This Unique System Of – Market-Dependence – Means That The Dictates Of The Capitalist Market – Its Imperatives Of – Competition / Accumulation / Profit-Maximization – And – Increasing – Labour-Productivity – Regulate – Not Only All – Economic Transactions – But – Social Relations – In General

~ C-RA-HS-SF-A-A-HR-W-EF-TNOC-WDI-S-A-TLAPHPTBIIB-LOUOTP-ATST-IROHAEFTF ~ Capitalism – Represents A – Historically Specific – Social Form – And – A – Historic Rupture – With – Earlier Forms – The – Naturalization Of Capitalism – Which Denies Its – Specificity – And – The Long And Painful Historical Processes That Brought It Into Being – Limits Our Understanding Of The Past – At The Same Time – It Restricts Our Hopes And Expectations For The Future

~ TQO-TOOC-MSA-B-IGTTHOA-DRIOC-WAD-I-AT-S-C-‘F-M’A-IBTH-ICW-D-SJ-A-ES ~ The Question Of – The Origin Of Capitalism – May Seem Arcane – But – It Goes To The Heart Of Assumptions – Deeply Rooted In Our Culture – Widespread And Dangerous – Illusions – About The – So-Called – “Free Market” – And – Its Benefits To Humanity – Its Compatibility With – Democracy – Social Justice – And – Ecological Sustainability

~ TMCWOETOOC-ITPTIDI-TNOOHPAAOATSI-WROTROEOTHIR-FFRTTMBCWIBC-TASTCEWTMWLFA-OC ~ The Most Common Way Of Explaining The Origin Of Capitalism – Is To Presuppose That Its Development Is – The Natural Outcome Of Human Practices Almost As Old As The Species Itself – Which Required Only The Removal Of External Obstacles That Hindered Its Realization – Far From Recognizing That The Market Became Capitalist When It Became Compulsory – These Accounts Suggest That Capitalism Emerged When The Market Was Liberated From Age-Old Constraints

~ T-NOTM-A-IL-INRQ ~ The – Nature Of The Market – And – Its Laws – Is Never Really Questioned

~ I-A-ES-‘E’-R-A-P-W-‘E’-O-S-I-N-E-K/C/R/P-R-THBOMDEAT-TP-‘E’-M-O-PAMG-SA-TAOSAP-O-TMOCS-THBOWOOELTTTMO-ME-IP-‘R’-A-‘R’-IG-C-W-DE-BITTDT ~ In – All – Earlier Societies – “Economic’ – Relations – And – Practices – Were – “Embedded” – Or – Submerged – In – Non-Economic – Kinship / Communal / Religious / Political – Relationships – There Have Been Other Motives Driving Economic Activity Than – The Purely – “Economic” – Motives – Of – Profit And Material Gain – Such As – The Achievement Of Status And Prestige – Or – The Maintenance Of Communal Solidarity – There Have Been Other Ways Of Organizing Economic Life Than Through The Mechanisms Of – Market Exchange – In Particular – “Reciprocity” – And – “Redistribution” – In General – Competition – Was – Deliberately Eliminated – Because It Tended To Disorganize Trade

~ T-IR-R-SI-T-PTSF ~ The – Industrial Revolution – Required – State Intervention – To – Preserve The Social Fabric

~ WCAT-CAC-AOATS-O-TOPITOBASPOG ~ We Cannot Assume That – Commerce And Capitalism – Are One And The Same – Or – That One Passed Into The Other By A Simple Process Of Growth

~ TDOFHMTOO ~ The Dissolution Of Feudalism Had More Than One Outcome

~ TDDOC-CIP-WPBM-D-A-T-STTIOC ~ The Distinctive Dynamics Of Capitalism – Come Into Play – When Producers Become Market-Dependent – And – Therefore – Subject To The Imperatives Of Competition

~ TNIO-PE-I-NCOP-A-TEOP-WIEB-SR-CBTS-WRTI-TCOTM ~ The New Ideology Of – Political Economy – Including – New Conceptions Of Property – And – The Ethic Of Profit – Was Increasingly Enforced By – State Repression – Coercion By The State – Was Required To Impose – The Coercion Of The Market

~ TDB-TMAO-A-TMAAI ~ The Difference Between – The Market As Opportunity – And – The Market As An Imperative

~ F-W-D-A-IPSDO-OOOWWC ~ Feudalism – Was – Diverse – And – It Produced Several Different Outcomes – Only One Of Which Was Capitalism

~ TCFITDOCFAOFO-CS-WTDOC-S-PR-TG-MI-A-C-‘LOM’-WITOP ~ The Critical Factor In The Divergence Of Capitalism From All Other Forms Of – Commercial Society – Was The Development Of Certain – Social Property Relationships – That Generated – Market Imperatives – And – Capitalist – “Laws Of Motion” – Which Imposed Themselves On Production

~ ELTT-SC-MOTW-W-FOMI-TDPOTE-WN-SVDFP-B-‘BCASD’ ~ Even Later Than The – Seventeenth Century – Most Of The World – Was – Free Of Market Imperatives – The Dominant Principle Of Trade Everywhere – Was Not – Surplus Value Derived From Production – But – “Buying Cheap And Selling Dear

~ C-R-NA-SEOE-O-BAE-B-ACTIT-MB-H-RAP-A-RIA-OP-O-HIWN ~ Capitalism – Required – Not A – Simple Extension Or Expansion – Of – Barter And Exchange – But – A Complete Transformation In The – Most Basic – Human – Relations And Practices – And – Rupture In Age-Old Patterns – Of – Human Interaction With Nature

~ VEICSIAC-PRTM ~ Virtually Everything In Capitalist Society Is A Commodity – Produced For The Market

~ TUSOMDHSSRACSBNOMOP:TIO:C/A/P-M-A-H-A-C-SN-T-A/SONM/III ~ This Unique System Of Market Dependence Has Specific Systemic Requirements And Compulsions Shared By No Other Mode Of Production: The Imperatives Of: Competition / Accumulation / Profit-Maximization – And – Hence – A – Constant – Systemic Need – To – Accumulate / Search Out New Markets / Impose Its Imperatives

~ EP-I-BARF-EOR ~ Enhancing Productivity – Itself – Became A Reason For – Excluding Other Rights

~ NDOCHEOWSKOVHR ~ No Development Of Capitalism Has Ever Occurred Without Some Kind Of Violent Historic Rupture

~ TVSLTDTSF-MIIST-EI-WR-C-‘E-E’-I-TCFTDE ~ The Very Same Logic That Drives The System Forward – Makes It Inevitably Susceptible To – Economic Instabilities – Which Require – Constant – “Extra-Economic” – Interventions – To Compensate For Their Destructive Effects

~ HOAA-H-TD-A-ES-C-IB-TU ~ Hope Of Achieving A – Humane – Truly Democratic – And – Ecologically Sustainable – Capitalism – Is Becoming – Transparently Unrealistic

CATHY O’NEIL ~ WEAPONS OF MATH DESTRUCTION ~ 2016

~ TC-MIATCT-M-WNODEITWP-BAFMOT-THC-TCOMFI/TROU-AHBAAAB-MWMF ~ The Crash – Made It All Too Clear That – Mathematics – Was Not Only Deeply Entangled In The World’s Problems – But Also Fueling Many Of Them – The Housing Crisis / The Collapse Of Major Financial Institutions / The Rise Of Unemployment – All Had Been Aided And Abetted By – Mathematicians Wielding Magic Formulas

~ IWHBC-H-WAWHTASBATPTFOHMHBM-A-HWC-PASCITF-B-I-ITWOTC-NMT-WHTE-A-EISMD-MAS-W-SO-D/M/SP-TWPOT-A-COPA-S/W/L/C ~ If We Had Been Clear-Headed – We All Would Have Taken A Step Back At This Point To Figure Out How Math Had Been Misused – And – How We Could – Prevent A Similar Catastrophe In The Future – But – Instead – In The Wake Of The Crisis – New Mathematical Techniques – Were Hotter Than Ever – And – Expanding Into Still More Domains – Mathematicians And Statisticians – Were – Studying Our – Desires / Movements / Spending Power – They Were Predicting Our Trustworthiness – And –Calculating Our Potential As – Students / Workers / Lovers / Criminals

~ T-T-M-PA-PTDE-WBO-CMBFHB-SOTCWNDMWTBI-N-MOTME-H-P/M/B-IT-SS-TIMOL ~ Trouble – The – Math-Powered Applications – Powering The Data Economy – Were Based On – Choices Made By Fallible Human Beings – Some Of These Choices Were No Doubt Made With The Best Intentions – Nevertheless – Many Of These Models Encoded – Human – Prejudice / Misunderstanding / Bias – Into The – Software Systems – That Increasingly Managed Our Lives

LG-T-MM-W-O-TWITABTHPITD-TV-EW-WOH-W-BDOA-A-TTTPTPATOIOS-WMTRR ~ Like Gods – These – Mathematical Models – Were – Opaque – Their Workings Invisible To All But The Highest Priests In Their Domain – Their Verdicts – Even When – Wrong Or Harmful – Were – Beyond Dispute Or Appeal – And – They Tended To Punish The Poor And The Oppressed In Our Society – While Making The Rich Richer

~ ATR-H-B/P/P-T-A-I-NEJ Attempting To Reduce – Human – Behaviour / Performance / Potential – To – Algorithms – Is – No Easy Job

~ A-BD-C-R-RCT-MTOV ~ At – Big Data – Companies – Researchers – Run Constant Tests – And – Monitor Thousands Of Variables

~ WF-A-SE-CCSOFADA-WNLFIM ~ Without Feedback – A – Statistical Engine – Can Continue Spinning Out Faulty And Damaging Analysis – While Never Learning From Its Mistakes

~ DTOR-A-UITJTR-TTOM-I-S-P-HD-A-VC ~ Define Their Own Reality – And – Use It To Justify Their Results – This Type Of Model – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Highly Destructive – And – Very Common

~ P-DIAS-WCTSLUD-A-T-HV-AHTAFHSOETTAT ~ Probability – Distilled Into A Score – Which Can Turn Someone’s Life Upside Down – And – The – Human Victims – Are Held To A Far Higher Standard Of Evidence Than The Algorithms Themselves

~ TTIT-PEUSAA-SI-O-P-F-T-WSTDCCUAAA-THB-DS-ATOLSOTFOTREOTT ~ The Trouble Is That – Profits End Up Serving As A – Stand-In – Or – Proxy – For – Truth – We’ll See This Dangerous Confusion Crop Up Again And Again – This Happens Because – Data Scientists – All Too Often Lose Sight Of The Folks On The Receiving End Of The Transaction

~ BD-HPOE ~ Big Data – Has Plenty Of Evangelists

~ TCAM-WMCAWIETI-STWIA-TV-TCBEU-A-FWWCI-I-FAA ~ To Create A Model – We Make Choices About What’s Important Enough To Include – Simplifying The World Into A – Toy Version – That Can Be Easily Understood – And – From Which We Can Infer – Important – Facts And Actions

~ AM-BS-RT-JAP-OI-C ~ A Model’s – Blind Spots – Reflect The – Judgments And Priorities – Of Its – Creators

~ AMBFT-WWABWT-IWGSIINCU ~ A Model Built For Today – Will Work A Bit Worse Tomorrow – It Will Grow Stale If It’s Not Constantly Updated

~ R-I-TMSOPM-IIPB-HDG-A-SC-RB-II-A-PB-CB ~ Racism – Is – The Most Slovenly Of Predictive Models – It Is Powered By – Haphazard Data Gathering – And – Spurious Correlations – Reinforced By – Institutional Inequities – And – Polluted By – Confirmation Bias

~ T-PFL-T-DL-GRAR-A-ITP-TMBMAMU ~ The – Pernicious Feedback Loop – This – Destructive Loop – Goes Round And Round – And – In The Process – The Model Becomes More And More Unfair

~ B-TPINW-SPB-IT-SMS-TMPBA-SDITFOMOP-OFTFOR-A-ONA-TU ~ But – The Point Is Not Whether – Some People Benefit – It’s That – So Many Suffer – These Models Powered By Algorithms – Slam Doors In The Face Of Millions Of People – Often For The Flimsiest Of Reasons – And – Offer No Appeal – They’re Unfair

~ A-HOMTAA:TCL-FOFTTN-A-TOD ~ And – Here’s One More Thing About Algorithms: They Can Leap – From One Field To The Next – And – They Often Do

~ BA-TVSS-TTSTC ~ Bet Against – The Very Same Securities – That They’d Sold To Customers

~ TBWMAPWRWABS-UC-EA-U-TWTC ~ The Bonds Were Marketed As Products Whose Risk Was Assessed By Specialists – Using Cutting-Edge Algorithms – Unfortunately – This Wasn’t The Case

~ TMWDATCAASS ~ The Math Was Directed Against The Consumer As A Smoke Screen

~ B-O-T-O-U-IOU ~ Billions – Or – Trillions – Of – Unpayable – IOUs

~ VFPHT-EATIR-TKWWAGOS-A-MOTPWD-LTITSU ~ Very Few People Had The – Expertise And The Information Required – To Know What Was Actually Going On – And – Most Of The People Who Did – Lacked The Integrity To Speak Up

~ T-F-A-NMPWDATST-WBOT-T-STBD-T-DWL-RAU

~ The – False – Assumption – Not Many People Would Default At The Same Time – Was Based On The – Theory – Soon To Be Disproven – That – Defaults Were Largely – Random And Unrelated

~ TPO-MC-FF-AASUIH ~ The Power Of – Modern Computing – Fueled Fraud – At A Scale Unequalled In History

~ TWE-FSTPOTOSOTA ~ That’s When Everyone – Finally Saw The People On The Other Side Of The Algorithms

~ B-2009-IWCTTLOTMCHBNNDTTWOFAHINNV-TLS-FTMP-A-TGRTS:TRIDM-EFAFRTAAFHTJT ~ By – 2009 – It Was Clear That The Lessons Of The Market Collapse Had Brought No New Direction To The World Of Finance And Had Instilled No New Values – The Lobbyists Succeed – For The Most Part – And – *The Game Remained The Same: To Rope In Dumb Money – Except For A Few Regulations That Added A Few Hoops To Jump Through

~ TRTAR-RDIF ~ The Refusal To Acknowledge Risk – Runs Deep In – Finance

~ TAWMST-TD-L-WRTW ~ The Algorithms Would Make Sure That – Those Deemed – Losers – Would Remain That Way

~ ALM-WGEMCOT-DE-TI-OF-A-CTATW-TTDI ~ A Lucky Minority – Would Gain Ever More Control Over The – Data Economy – Taking In – Outrageous Fortunes – And – Convincing Themselves All The While – That They Deserved It

~ H-WUCAMFP-IIFST-GI-B-PAETMTTCRTR ~ However – When You Create A Model From Proxies – It Is Far Simpler To – Game It – Because – Proxies Are Easier To Manipulate Than The Complicated Reality They Represent

~ W-CP-BATW-TO-T-ANO-S-B-F ~ We – Criminalize Poverty – Believing All The While – That Our – Tools – Are Not Only – Scientific – But – Fair

~ J-CJBSTOPOSIUTO ~ Justice – Cannot Just Be Something That One Part Of Society Inflicts Upon The Other

~ OR ~ Operations Research

~ B-ITWFI ~ Bogus – Is The Word For It

~ C-GT ~ Computer-Generated Terrorism

~ B-AOTATP-HOMOP-F-TODS-IGTGALOTFW ~ But – Any Operation That Attempts To Profile – Hundreds Of Millions Of People – From – Thousands Of Different Sources – Is Going To Get A Lot Of The Facts Wrong

~ M-A-LO-ALA-TSRFOTE ~ Mistakes – Are – Learning Opportunities – As Long As – The System Receives Feedback On The Error

~ R-ISWU-TI-FMSF ~ Redlining – Is Still With Us – Though In – Far More Subtle Forms

~ IWGTB-EBTL-O-TEAV-WCSF-STDUIDC-A-TUD ~ If We’re Going To Be – Equal Before The Law – Or – Treated Equally As Voters – We Cannot Stand For – Systems That Drop Us Into Different Castes – And – Treat Us Differently

~ TG-OC-HAP-RR-TP ~ The Government – Of Course – Has A Powerful – Regulatory Role – To Play

~ MAC-NFD-B-FTCWM-A-WDTPAT-A-WTLO-TCANJA-L/P/E-TA-FM ~ Models Are Constructed – Not Just From Data – But – From The Choices We Make – About – Which Data To Pay Attention To – And – Which To Leave Out – Those Choices Are Not Just About – Logistics / Profits / Efficiency – They Are – Fundamentally Moral

JEFF GOODELL ~ THE WATER WILL COME ~ 2017

~ IT-TC-TORASI-B-TWBTHFBFFHMIOGAA-AHOTR-S-LR-IT-TC-CFTEOTWO-T-SARAMTTTRTDITLC ~ In The – Twentieth Century – The Oceans Rose About Six Inches – But – That Was Before The Heat From Burning Fossil Fuels Had Much Impact On Greenland And Antarctica – About Half Of The Recorded – Sea-Level Rise – In The – Twentieth Century – Came From The Expansion Of The Warming Oceans – Today – Seas Are Raising At More Than Twice The Rate They Did In The Last Century

~ IWCHTWTA-TD-F-APTWMOF-TF-O-S-LR-TC-GPMTTA~ If We Can Hold The Warming To About – Three Degrees – Fahrenheit – Above Preindustrial Temperatures We Might Only Face – Two Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – This Century – Giving People More Time To Adapt

~ H-IWDET-FFP-WHFMT-EDOW-A-WT-ABAO-WCG-FF-O-S-LR-BTEOTC-O-WCG-TF ~ However – If We Don’t End The – Fossil Fuel Party – We’re Headed For More Than – Eight Degrees Of Warming – And – With That – All Bets Are Off – We Could Get – Four Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – By The End Of The Century – Or – We Could Get – Thirteen Feet

~ IETKOTTWHAGIETDW-WANWTMDABPTTGAOT ~ It’s Exactly The Kind Of Threat That We Humans Are Genetically Ill Equipped To Deal With – We Are Not Wired To Make Decisions About Barely Perceptible Threats That Gradually Accelerate Over Time

~ AIASTBTGACMMI-ITWCWTM(ASTWLTTOY)-IWRTE-S-L-BA-THF-IAOGWTG(ASTCTSLT)-IWR-SL-A-TTF ~ Antarctica Is About Seven Times Bigger Than Greenland And Contains Much More Ice – If The Whole Continent Were To Melt (A Scenario That Would Likely Take Thousands Of Years) – It Would Raise The Earth’s – Sea Levels – By About – Two Hundred Feet – If All Of Greenland Were To Go (A Scenario That Could Take Significantly Less Time) – It Would Raise – Sea Levels – About – Twenty-Two Feet

~ RN-MFGCRTAMTSS-LRAA-B-TMCICD ~ Right Now – Melting From Greenland Contributes Roughly Twice As Much To Current Sea-Level Rise As Antarctica – But – That May Change In Coming Decades

~ T-BMO2012-TFTTR-WMHSMFTMHPMTSWMFTM-BW? ~ The – Big Melt Of 2012 – The Fact That The Real-World Melt Happened So Much Faster Than Models Had Predicted Meant That Something Was Missing From The Models – But What?

~ G-T-TEOTO-CBTERT-HCAHOTOS-LRITLFY-ITF-TPWDATEIDBIMRIGAA ~ Globally – The – Thermal Expansion Of The Oceans – Caused By The Earth’s Rising Temperature – Has Contributed About Half Of The Observed Sea-Level Rise In The Last Fifty Years – In The Future – That Percentage Will Decline As Thermal Expansion Is Dwarfed By Increasing Melt Rates In Greenland And Antarctica

~ TITSCHAPEOTMROSAIINN ~ The Idea That Soot Can Have A Powerful Effect On The Melt Rate Of Snow And Ice Is Not New

~ SL-TDBTFASFITDBAMCCAAD-LRD ~ Sea Level – The Difference Between Three Feet And Six Feet Is The Difference Between A Manageable Coastal Crisis And A Decades-Long Refugee Disaster

~ EY-WHSS-TQHOT-ITTY? ~ Every Year – When Hurricane Seasons Starts – The Question Hovers Out There – Is This The Year?

~ O-MACL-ATHNRFDFZAST-KTREMA ~ Often – Mayors And Civic Leaders – Argue To Have Neighborhoods Removed From Designated Flood Zone Areas Simply To – Keep The Real Estate Market Alive

~ B-TINQT-AWR-IRWGU-A-U-A-U ~ But – There Is No Question That –As Waters Rise – Insurance Rates Will Go Up – And – Up – And – Up

~ MP-HNTTWATF ~ Most People – Have No Time To Worry About The Future

~ WC ~ Walled Cities

~ WOPTPWABT ~ Walls Only Protect The People Who Are Behind Them

~ W/D/L-MPFS-EWTAN ~ Walls / Dikes / Levees – Make People Feel Safe – Even When They Are Not

~ LB ~ Living Breakwaters

~ YASDALAIWR ~ Yet Another Step Down A Long And Increasingly Wet Road

~ TBIOCC-IT-TPWALRFTPATOWWPTMDFI-WDWOT? ~ The Basic Injustice Of Climate Change – Is That – The People Who Are Least Responsible For The Problem Are The Ones Who Will Pay The Most Dearly For It – What Do We Owe Them?

~ MT-1BP-LI-L-ECZ-AFPOTPAIPCWLMTHWA ~ More Than – 1 Billion People – Live In – Low-Elevation Coastal Zones – A Fair Percentage Of These People Are In Poor Countries With Little Money To Help With Adaptation

~ OWTVTPTYOCT-IA-AEABPNTECFRNFSTF ~ One Way To View The Past Thirty Years Of Climate Talks – Is As – An Extended Attempt By Poor Nations To Extract Compensation From Rich Nations For Stealing Their Future

~ EY-A-20MP-AM-H-B-F/S/OD-RTTAMATDBCOV ~ Every Year – About – 20 Million People – Are Made – Homeless – By – Floods / Storms / Other Disasters – Roughly Three Times As Many As Those Displaced By Conflict Or Violence

~ CR-LLSUIL ~ Climate Refugees – Lack Legal Status Under International Law

~ CA ~ Climate Apartheid

~ S-LR-W-DALOP-A-TPAGTHTGS ~ Sea-Level Rise – Will – Displace A Lot Of People – And – Those People Are Going To Have To Go Somewhere

~ SOFS-A-CODW ~ Salinization Of The Soil – And – Contamination Of Drinking Water

~ IAGBP-I-UA-F-CBOAIC-I-V-A-HS ~ It Ain’t Gonna Be Pretty – In – Urban Areas – Floods – Contaminated By Organic An Inorganic Compounds – Including – Viruses – And – Human Shit

~ W-FO-S ~ Water – Full Of – Shit

~ CAB-A-W-WC-TSROOTG ~ Coffins Are Buoyant – And – When – Water Comes – They Sometimes Rise Out Of The Ground

~ G-CIBAIT-IT-W-TH-D-W-D-A-C-C-T ~ Geoengineering – Could Indeed Be An Important Tool – In The – What-The-Hell-Do-We-Do-About-Climate-Change – Toolbox

~ GS-F-TFFI-A-$1T-AY ~ Global Subsidies – For – The Fossil Fuel Industry – About – $1 Trillion – A Year

~ G-ABUCQA-G-WHCTT? ~ Geoengineering – Also Brings Up Complex Questions About – Governance – Whose Hand Controls The Thermostat?

~ G-O-E-TTOG-CLT-C-A-E-CW ~ Geoengineering – Or – Even – The Threat Of Geoengineering – Could Lead To – Conflict – And – Even – Climate Wars

~ OC-NOWBTAGAASTS-LR(OAE)-ITWHGSACGGE-TYA-WSFBTRTA ~ Of Course – No One Would Be Talking About Geoengineering As A Solution To Sea-Level Rise (Or Anything Else) – If The World Had Gotten Serious About Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Thirty Years Ago – When Scientists First Began To Raise The Alarm

~ MOWWKA-G-CF-CM-AWA-A-F-M-LE ~ Most Of What We Know About – Geoengineering – Comes From – Computer Models – As Well As – A – Few – Modest – Laboratory Experiments

~ PF ~ Planet Frankenstein

~ B-TFWNTCOI ~ But – The Future Will Not Take Care Of Itself

~ OAT-HD-PWLOVC-WHTF-TMDOITIO-R ~ Of All The – Hard Decisions – People Who Live On Vulnerable Coasts – Will Have To Face – The Most Difficult One Is The Idea Of – Retreat

~ IMW-R-ITOO-G-IOROSTTCOTPFY-IR-IA-TP-A-AWTCYL-MOA-IM-GU-TWWW-A-ATNHW ~ In Many Ways – Retreat – Is The Opposite Of – Geoengineering – Instead Of Relying On Scientists To Take Care Of The Problem For You – It Requires – Individual Action – Thoughtful Planning – And – A Willingness To Change Your Life – Most Of All – It Means – Giving Up – The War With Water – And – Admitting That Nature Has Won

~ DYHTRT-BASOYP-EI-ICFFYN? ~ Do You Have The Right To – Build A Seawall On Your Property – Even If – It Causes Flooding For Your Neighbor?

TERRY O’REILLY + MIKE TENNANT ~ THE AGE OF PERSUASION ~ 2016

~ DGAWE?-NOCS-TFDT-BACCLT ~ Does Great Advertising Win Elections? – No One Can Say – Though Few Doubt That – Bad Advertising Can Certainly Lose Them

~ A-GUC-A-G-S-IEF-A ~ A – Great Unwritten Contract – Advertisers – Give – Something – In Exchange For – Attention

~ A-OTSORAYMCFE ~ Advertising – Offered The Sort Of Remuneration Artistic Young Minds Couldn’t Find Elsewhere

~ MA-‘I’-IN-PP-PS-A-OAWLO-BL ~ Making An – “Impact” – Is Now – Part Product – Part Smarts – And – Often A Whole Lot Of – Blind Luck

~ YDAI ~ Your Daily Ad Intake

~ AY-‘E’-TA-A-IYSIWYEADCNI? ~ Are You – “Exposed” – To An – Ad – If You Scan It With Your Eyes And Don’t Consciously Notice It?

~ ‘T’-GWSTSTOAPOS ~ “Tribes” – Groups Who Share The Same Thinking On A Product Or Subject

~ NT:NKOC ~ New Technologies: New Kinds Of Clutter

~ AA-POTIS ~ Ambient Advertising – Part Of The Immediate Surroundings

~ A-DM-DOAF-S-O-A-OT-R ~ Ad-Driven Media – Media – Dependent On Advertising For – Some – Or – All – Of Their – Revenues

~ E-PTL ~ Ever-Present Transparent Logo

~ SB-TPO-L-S-T-EC-TOS-IOTUTOST-PAUS ~ Squeeze-Back – The Practice Of – Literally – Squeezing – The – End Credits – To One Side – In Order To Use The Other Side To – Promote An Upcoming Show

~ TV-B-HSPTA-MAMPH ~ TV – Broadcasters – Have Shrunk Programming To Accommodate – More Ad Messages Per Hour

~ BTC ~ Breaking The Contract

~ FA-B-O-IA-ST-S-D-S-T-SR-I-U/O ~ For Any – Brand – Overpromising – Is A – Short Term – Self-Destructive – Strategy – The – Smarter Route – Is – Underpromise / Overdeliver

~ TELI-EV ~ The Edge Lies In – Entertainment Value

~ AHOC-C-A-D-D-M-DAC ~ A – Handful Of Complaints – Can – And – Do – Derail – Multimillion-Dollar Ad Campaigns

~ R-CRAAPA-B-F-YHTATRQ ~ Research – Can Reveal Astounding And Powerful Answers – But – First – You Have To Ask The Right Questions

~ PP-TAOIABNOIIA-S/F/E/B ~ Product Placement – The Act Of Infusing A Brand Name Or Image Into A – Story / Film / Event / Broadcast

~ ‘Y’-TN-HGOM-T/T-A/YA ~ “Yoots” – The New – Holy Grail Of Marketing – Tweens / Teen-Agers / Young Adults

~ RIP-FOTPK-A-TGNEDO-T-BB-GUWTSWOCGSAT ~ Raised In Prosperity – Few Of Their Parents Knew – And – Their Grandparents Never Even Dreamed Of – The – Baby Boomers – Grew Up With The Strong Winds Of Consumerism Gathering Speed Around Them

~ OOTSCTCWTEOT-OW-WT-BTNGA-THICF ~ One Of The Sea Changes That Came With The Emergence Of The – Online World – Was That – Bad Things Never Go Away – They Hang In Cyberspace Forever

~ LTTTMTTA ~ Life Tends To Take More Time Than Art

~ TSO-VM:TADTW ~ The Secret Of – Viral Marketing: The Audience Does The Work

~ I-N-SOLOC-A-THNCITAOP ~ Ideas – Not – Slogans Or Logos Or Catchphrases – Are – The Hot New Currency In The Age Of Persuasion

~ GM:T-PS ~ Guerrilla Marketing: The – Publicity Stunt

~ POTTOOWIM ~ People Opposed To The Objectification Of Women In Marketing

~ AIB-GM-ATPNAFTLGATNATG ~ At Its Best – Guerrilla Marketing – Appeals To People’s Natural Affinity For The Little Guy And Their Natural Aversion To Giants

~ BI:H-HO-A-EOPC-TGIA ~ Borrowed Interest: Hitch-Hiking On – An – Element Of Popular Culture – To Get Immediate Attention

~ AMSI-F/A/M/L-ICTRBTAAA ~ As Marketing Seeps Into – Films / Arts / Music / Literature – It Changes The Relationship Between The Arts And Audiences

~ IEBQTEAOTC-SBTCOC ~ In Each Brand’s Quest To Elbow Ahead Of The Competition – Superlatives Became The Cheapest Of Commodities

~ T-‘AW-B-NOM’-M ~ The – “Advertising Works – But – Not On Me” – Myth

~ PATETB-TTODRI ~ People Attache Themselves Emotionally To Brands – Though They Often Don’t Realize It

~ S-T-RASI-BA ~ Story-Telling – Remains A Staple In – Broadcast Ads

ALICIA ELER ~ THE SELFIE GENERATION ~ 2017

~ TSG ~ The Selfie Generation

~ DTUF-SM-ISAINOIP-DP ~ Despite The Uses For – Social Media – It Seems As If No One Is Protecting – Digital Privacy

~ IV-A-ALOPB-GC-A-U-R-BTGIASY-EIYNPTSM-TTE-IF-ITBTS-AS-SAC-ATBTOWTS ~ Internet Visibility – And – A Lack Of Personal Boundaries – Get Conflated – And – Ultimately– Rationalized – Because The Government Is Already Surveilling You – Even If You Never Post To Social Media – To This Extent – It Feels – Impossible To Beat The System – And So – Submission And Complacency – Appear To Be The Only Way To Survive

~ RTS-T-PS-IT-AOS-S-IAW-S-IITAO-ROTSOWPPT ~ Responding To Surveillance – Through – Planned Sousveillance – In The – Age Of Surveillance – Sousveillance – Is Associated With – Selfie-Ing – It Is The Act Of – Recording Oneself Through Small Or Wearable Portable Personal Technologies

~ U-IDMHTWO-IMWHATTD-A-WTPTDWI ~ Ultimately – It Doesn’t Matter How The Watching Occurs – It Matters Who Has Access To The Data – And – What They Plan To Do With It

~ P-INA-IR ~ Privacy – Is Not An – Inalienable Right

~ BAWP?-IT-SS-SM-IV-ET-A-PA-KOU-BTO ~ But At What Price? – In The – Surveillance State – Social Media – Is Very – Easily Trackable – And – People Are – Knowingly Or Unknowingly – Branding Themselves Online

~ DB-ABT-CPIAC-A-STDO-WCP-TOBOB ~ Data Brokers – Are Businesses That – Collect Personal Information About Consumers – And – Sell That Data Off – Without Consumers’ Permission – To Other Brokers Or Businesses

~ SMU-MT-T-V-A-S ~ Social Media Users – Make Themselves – Trackable – Visible – And – Searchable

~ TAA-BSW-CTTCBUAAMO-VI-O-AWTBV ~ The Argument Against – Ballot Selfies – Claimed That They Could Be Used As A Means Of – Voter Intimidation – Or – A Way To Buy Votes

~ NEISE ~ Not Everyone Is Surveilled Equally

~ P-UTS-‘T’-L-T-JTSTTAD-ELAAT-TIA-A-IIH ~ Police – Use The Same – “Terrorism” – Language – To – Justify The Spying That They Are Doing – Effectively Labeling Activists As Terrorists – This Is Alarming – And – It Is Happening

~ CTTI ~ Consent To The Image

~ IOTASTFAITSE-O-PITTI ~ It Only Takes A Second To Forward An Image To Someone Else – Or – Post It To The Internet

~ AP-CEB-UAR-B-AE ~ Anything Posted – Can Easily Be – Used And Reused – By – Another Entity

~ B-PTTS-UGTALTUIIPAWTSF-A-FAPPTWL-YATTBSUFTS-TDNTPYOELYKITCIBUE ~ By – Posting To Their Site – You Grant Them A License To Use It In Practically Any Way They See Fit – And – For Any Promotional Purposes They Would Like – You Agree To This By Signing Up For The Service – They Don’t Need To Pay You Or Even Let You Know If The Content Is Being Used Elsewhere

~ TEFA-FS-OC-ITYPFIWYD-ATNTUIHTW ~ The Exchange For A – Free Service – Of Course – Is That You Pay For It With Your Data – Allowing The Network To Use It However They Want

~ TMST-AOU-CGIT-F-RAM ~ The Most Shocking Thing – Any Of Us – Could Get In Trouble – For – Retweeting A Meme

~ TA-CT-WEBMIBO-BU-LAP-FTPOGACITEMFT ~ There Are – Copyright Trolls – Whose Entire Business Model Is Based On – Buying Up – Licenses And Patents – For The Purpose Of Going After Copyright Infringers To Extort Money From Them

~ WYDK-WHY-UID ~ What You Don’t Know – Won’t Hurt You – Until It Does

~ RP-I-RC ~ Revenge Porn – Is – Rape Culture

~ ALLSFH ~ A Limited Licensing Scenario From Hell

~ DTFTTPWTANSITCOOTI-TTOTI-IAAO-CS-ICEUA-SBA-SINC ~ Despite The Fact That The Person Who Takes A Nude Selfie Is The Copyright Owner Of The Image – The Transmission Of That Image – Is An Act Of – Consensual Sharing – It Could End Up Anywhere – Seen By Anyone – Sharing Is Not Caring

~ T24/7SNC ~ The 24/7 Selfie News Cycle

~ MMN-TSS-OFO-YWAHTL-TIUBYWASTTTS-WDOTA-BT-TARTA-‘V’-A-‘N’-ITSTMTTAPS ~ Mainstream Media Narratives – That Surround Selfies – Often Focus On – Young Women And How They Look – This Is Uncomfortable Because Young Women Are Simultaneously Told That Their Self-Worth Depends On Their Appearance – But Then – They Are Referred To As – “Vain” – And – “Narcissistic” – If They Spend Too Much Time Taking And Posting Selfies

~ TSHMC-IDNJEIA-VS-SFT-‘RW’ ~ The Selfie Has Material Consequences – It Does Not Just Exist In A – Virtual Space – Separate From The – “Real World

~ TSTRID:K ~ The Selfie That Results In Death: Killfie

~ SATWD ~ Selfie-Ing And Texting While Driving

~ TGUWTIABTS-A-AIATOR-TAPOSI ~ Teens Grow Up With The Internet Always By Their Side – And – Adolescence Is A Time Of Risk-Taking And Proving One’s Social Identity

~ TMETS-TMAAVIWG ~ The More Extreme The Selfie – The More Attention And Virality It Will Garner

~ FTES ~ Faking The Extreme Selfie

~ FITNR ~ Fake Is The New Real

~ M-SA ~ Meta-Selfie Advertising

~ ASIAA ~ A Selfie Is An Advertisement

~ TSTTLBVAP-COTSIB ~ The Selfie Tows The Line Between Vulnerability And Publicity – Capitalizing On The Space In Between

~ A-A-TPIY ~ And – Always – The Product Is You

~ IA-S-IOPA-‘C’-A-WAEO-‘F’-I-IAETCBEC ~ In Advertising – Selfie-Ing – Is Often Presented As – “Carefree” – And – With An Element Of – “Fun” – Involved – It’s An Experience That Can Be Easily Commodified

~ T-SML-I-S-P-EIIMI-AA-SM ~ The – Social Media Loop – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Even If Its Message Is – Anti-Social Media

~ SG ~ Selfie Gazing

~ SDWE ~ Selfies Don’t Win Elections

~ ‘SJ’ ~ “Selfie Journalism”

~ TAFUWIKWWTR ~ The Algorithms Feed Us What It Knows We Want To Read

~ IGSMTHAMT-YWCF ~ It Got Shared More Than Half A Million Times – Yet Was Completely False

~ PPFI-A-N-F-C-LTSR-‘P-T’-TITWALIACTHNGOWIH ~ People Posting False Information – And – Not – Fact-Checking – Leads To Something Resembling – “Post-Truth” – The Idea That We Are Living In A Culture That Has No Grasp On What Is Happening

~ TSIA-AI-NBHIB-E/C/F-TSWWWTB ~ The Selfie Is An – Aspirational Image – Never Before Has It Been – Easier / Cheaper / Faster – To Share What We Want To Be

~ WBAAS ~ Woman’s Bodies Are Always Sexualized

~ S-I-UCDT-AD-PEAN-TSO-NFSEE-B-JFO-TBS-IIAMFS-ATSNAI-AAAE ~ Self-Imaging – Ultimately Comes Down To – A Desire – Perhaps Even A Need – To See Oneself – Not For Someone Else’s Enjoyment – But – Just For Oneself – To Be Seen – It Is A Mechanism For Survival – A Truly Stark Negation Agaisnt Invisibility – An Action Agaisnt Erasure

~ GS-A ~ Get Selfie-Aware

ANNA LOWENHAUPT TSING ~ THE MUSHROOM AT THE END OF THE WORLD ~ 2015

~ P-OSTFOTLF-NISTAOLAP-EW-FTM-OPAL-NMOU-NAS-CTCO-TWE ~ Precarity – Once Seemed The Fate Of The Less Fortunate – Now It Seems That All Our Lives Are Precarious – Even When – For The Moment – Our Pockets Are Lined – Now Many Of Us – North And South – Confront The Condition Of – Trouble Without End

~ TLWPRMTRATWPUH-ATSUT ~ To Live With Precarity Requires More Than Railing At Those Who Put Us Here – Although That Seems Useful Too

~ TCOWIP-B-VPIUP-I-AFC ~ The Concentration Of Wealth Is Possible – Because – Value Produced In Unplanned Patches – Is – Appropriated For Capital

~ AON ~ Arts Of Noticing

~ TIASWNTK-IT-TOTBA-BOP-FBLLADL-AY-IWETSWD-WAAH-O-TOATOSO-PAR-PAR ~ This Is A Story We Need To Know – Industrial Transformation – Turned Out To Be A – Bubble Of Promise – Followed By Lost Livelihoods And Damaged Landscapes – And Yet – If We End The Story With Decay – We Abandon All Hope – Or – Turn Our Attention To Other Sites Of – Promise And Ruin – Promise And Ruin

~ AFYIT-NC-TIOAT-FBJATE-SLC-WOWC-TWF-‘J’-WASWTPOLDEAER ~ A Few Years Into The – New Century – The Idea Of A Trade-Off Between Jobs And The Environment – Seemed Less Convincing – With Or Without Conservation – There Were Fewer – “Jobs” – We Are Stuck With The Problem Of Living Despite Economic And Ecological Ruination

~ WI-P-I-A-WWIA-T-AT-COTS-WS? ~ What If – Precarity – Indeterminacy – And – What We Imagine As – Trivial – Are The – Center Of The Systematicity – We Seek?

~ P-ITCOBVTO ~ Precarity – Is The Condition Of Being Vulnerable To Others

~ UETU:WANIC-EOO ~ Unpredictable Encounters Transform Us: We Are Not In Control – Even Of Ourselves

~ I-TUNOT-I-F-B-TTPMIET-IAMLP ~ Indeterminacy – The Unplanned Nature Of Time – Is – Frightening – But – Thinking Through Precarity Makes It Evident That – Indeterminacy Also Makes Life Possible

~ P-IAFM-DOKOTIIR-WTDB-WMNOTP ~ Progress – Is A Forward March – Drawing Other Kinds Of Time Into Its Rhythms – Without That Driving Beat – We Might Notice Other Temporal Patterns

~ P-O-UC-DI-A-TNSPM-WTIOTRASITDLTG-S-TTOTBAMTMR-PE-AWA-ES ~ Patterns – Of – Unintentional Coordination – Develop In – Assemblages – To Notice Such Patterns Means – Watching The Interplay Of Temporal Rhythms And Scales In The Divergent Lifeways That Gather – Surprisingly – This Turns Out To Be A Method That Might Revitalize – Political Economy – As Well As – Environmental Studies

~ TPIT-PSMS-MAMOULUODART-TEHNC-IIITDTNTFNSSI-I-LOESAS ~ The Problem Is That – Progress Stopped Making Sense – More And More Of Us Looked Up One Day And Realized That – The Emperor Had No Clothes – It Is In This Dilemma That New Tools For Noticing Seem So Important – Indeed – Life On Earth Seems At Stake

~ DOCS ~ Dilemmas Of Collaborative Survival

~ CAS ~ Contamination As Collaboration

~ WACBOE;TCWWAAWMWFO-ECAHOC;PINAO ~ We Are Contaminated By Our Encounters; They Change Who We Are As We Make Way For Others – Everyone Carries A History Of Contamination; Purity Is Not An Option

~ OVOKPIMITIMURT-CWCITSOS ~ One Value Of Keeping Precarity In Mind Is That It Makes Us Remember That – Changing With Circumstances Is The Stuff Of Survival

~ SPWS ~ Some Problems With Scale

~ TLTATAROS-IA-M-A-WNMTSCACIA-S-A-ATK? ~ To Listen To And Tell A Rush Of Stories – Is A – Method – And – Why Not Make The Strong Claim And Call It A – Science – An – Addition To Knowledge?

~ S-IF-ACOMC-SP-UTS-A-I-AOS-WSWP-TT-WANKOS:MFUG-WMI-A-TAHBMAAW ~ Scientific-Industrial Forestry – A Creature Of Many Compromises – Scalable Plantations – Unwanted Trees Species – And – Indeed – All Other Species – Were Sprayed With Poison – Timber Trees – Were A New Kind Of Sugarcane: Managed For Uniform Growth – Without Multispecies Interference – And – Thinned And Harvested By Machines And Anonymous Workers

~ E-AF-SCP-WBFTCTE-B-TTCAMOTBT-HAL ~ Environmentalists – Asking For – Stricter Conservation Protections – Were Blamed For The Crashing Timber Economy – But – The Timber Companies And Most Of The Big Trees – Had Already Left

~ A-ADB-TSOWTG-AMAT-A-PD ~ Assemblages – Are Defined By – The Strength Of What They Gather – As Much As Their – Always-Possible Dissipation

~ NCBPTGU ~ Nostalgia Can Be Put To Good Uses

~ AP:SA ~ After Progress: Salvage Accumulation

~ LAGB-C-ATFTETIS-Y-MOTETPIRDS ~ Like A Giant Bulldozer – Capitalism – Appears To Flatten The Earth To Its Specifications – Yet – Much Of The Economy Takes Place In Radically Different Scenes

~ S-INAOOOCP-IIAFOHCW-SFSASIAOC-‘P’ ~ Salvage – Is Not An Ornament On Ordinary Capitalist Processes – It Is A Feature Of How Capitalism Works – Sites For Salvage Are Simultaneously Inside And Outside Capitalism – “Pericapitalist”

~ ‘SC’-ACCTTVTTBODF;TBNACVSIWTD ~ “Supply Chains” – Are Commodity Chains That Translate Value To The Benefit Of Dominate Firms; Translation Between Noncapitalist And Capitalist Value Systems Is What They Do

~ ‘TRTTB’:TRO-GSC-IP-CL/DS/PSI-W-LF-PSTPCACP-SPCAPO ~ “The Race To The Bottom”: The Role Of – Global Supply Chains – In Promoting – Coerced Labor / Dangerous Sweatshops / Poisonous Substitute Ingredients – Where – Lead Firms – Pressure Suppliers To Provide Cheaper And Cheaper Products – Such Production Conditions Are Predictable Outcomes

~ PEF-CBSFRTUAOCIOL-ATVL-D-OACOMWF-NJO ~ Pericapitalist Economic Forms – Can Be Sites For Rethinking The Unquestioned Authority Of Capitalism In Our Lives – At The Very Least – Diversity – Offers A Chance Of Multiple Ways Forward – Not Just One

~NE-OW-CD ~ Noncapitalist Elements – On Which – Capitalism Depends

~ TLAAA-OUIK ~ To Learn About An Assemblage – One Unravels Its Knots

~ In – Supply Chains – Goods Gathered From Many Arrangements Can Lead To Profits For The Lead Firms; Commitments To – Jobs / Education / Well-Being – Are Not Longer Even Theoretically Necessary – Instead – Labor Would Be Outsourced Elsewhere – Into More And More Precarious Situations

~ F-GTC-A-B ~ From – Gifts To Commodities – And – Back

~ C-TA-TFTL-W-TB-OOE-TP:’A’ ~ Commodification – Things Are – Torn From Their Life-Worlds – To Become – Objects Of Exchange – The Process: “Alienation”

~ SA:COCVFNVR ~ Salvage Accumulation: Creation Of Capitalist Value From Noncapitalist Value Regimes

~ T-ES-IPTUAA-SOA-SBTEOTA-FTIITTA-CL-ATWTESSO-IITTRO-UOTE-W-AON ~ The – Economic System – Is Presented To Us As A – Set Of Abstractions – Seduce By The Elegance Of These Abstractions – Few Think It Important To Take A – Closer Look – At The World The Economic System Supposedly Organizes – It Is Time To Reimbue Our – Understanding Of The Economy – With – Arts Of Noticing

~ T-BOP-DOCAIRN-T-AAS-I-N-HT-F-A-E-F-NW-EHRTGWTCBTGRO-W-CDCTSS ~ The – Business Of Progress – Depended On Conquering An Infinitely Rich Nature – Through – Alienation And Scalability – If – Nature – Has Turned – Finite – And – Even – Fragile – No Wonder – Entrepreneurs Have Rushed To Get What They Can Before The Goods Run Out – While – Conservationists Desperately Contrive To Save Scraps

~ DB:UD ~ Disturbed Beginnings: Unintentional Design

~ D-RP-F-TE ~ Disturbance – Realigns Possibilities – For – Transformative Encounter

~ WFTCSRC-SC ~ We Forget That Collaborative Survival Requires Cross-Species Coordinations

~ IWWTKWMPL-WSBS-PA-GOWOB-AAPOL ~ If We Want To Know What Makes Places Livable – We Should Be Studying – Polyphonic Assemblages – Gatherings Of Ways Of Being – Assemblages Are Performances Of Livability

~ DFOD ~ Disturbances Follow Other Disturbances

~ D:AO-EROUP ~ Disturbance: An Open-Ended Range Of Unsettling Phenomena

~ WITL-TMOTM? ~ Where Is The Line – That Marks Off Too Much?

~ PLIAAA ~ Precarious Living Is Always An Adventure

~ OOTMMTAFITTSGBATHBD ~ One Of The Most Miraculous Things About Forests Is That They Sometimes Grow Back After They Have Been Destroyed

~ FS-IBMWTHON ~ Future Sustainability – Is Best Modeled With The Help Of Nostalgia

~ RH-KOS ~ Reckless Harvesting – Kills Off Species

~ IP-MMOTMBMTF ~ Inexperienced Pickers – Miss Most Of The Mushrooms By Moving Too Fast

~ PAON ~ Practice Arts Of Noticing

~ P-MNBATP-B-IASN-AOWWWIA ~ Precarity – Means Not Being Able To Plan – But – It Also Stimulates Noticing – As One Works With What Is Available

ROBERT CIALDINI ~ INFLUENCE ~ 1984

~ TPOP ~ The Psychology Of Persuasion

~ PHUANOMSWEIMOEJ-JH-S-AFSTTWWMOTT-B-LUUT-OCM ~ Psychologists Have Uncovered A Number Of Mental Shortcuts We Employ In Making Our Everyday Judgments – Judgmental Heuristics – Shortcuts – Allowing For Simplified Thinking That Works Well Most Of The Time – But – Leaves Us Upon To – Occasional Costly Mistakes

~ TIAUTIOSTAUTSADOIWATBAOAT-TI-RTTAAEAABC(ON)-WFITAAAOTBCJBTESA-‘E’ ~ There Is An Unsettling Tendency In Our Society To Accept Unthinkingly The Statements And Directions Of Individuals Who Appear To Be Authorities On A Topic – That Is – Rather Than Thinking About An Expert’s Arguments And Being Convinced (Or Not) – We Frequently Ignore The Arguments And Allow Ourselves To Be Convinced Just By The Expert’s Status As – “Expert”

~ MOUKVLAO-ABP-PTISPBOT-M-U-M-IWTO ~ Most Of Us Know Very Little About Our – Automatic Behavior Patterns – Perhaps That Is So Precisely Because Of The – Mechanistic – Unthinking – Manner – In Which They Occur

~ SJAIIPTMTSBOWATBHOCDOTTOPPBOW-IIPTMTPOTSISHOLDOTPOAPPI ~ So Just As It Is Possible To Make The Same Bucket Of Water Appear To Be Hotter Or Colder Depending On The Temperature Of Previously Presented Buckets Of Water – It Is Possible To Make The Price Of The Same Item Seem Higher Or Lower Depending On The Price Of A Previously Presented Item

~ A-BP-TTBTBASFOTRIITS-T-SF-O-TF-COPVBAAITDOACCOAWHTACACEOTOPOIITS ~ Automatic-Behavior Patterns – Tend To Be Triggered By A Single Feature Of The Relevant Information In The Situation – This – Single Feature – Or – Trigger Feature – Can Often Prove Valuable By Allowing An Individual To Decide On A Correct Course Of Action Without Having To Analyze Carefully And Completely Each Of The Other Pieces Of Information In The Situation

~ R:TO-GAT ~ Reciprocation: The Old – Give And Take

~ OOTMPOTLOIAU-TROR ~ One Of The Most Potent Of The Levers Of Influence Around Us – The Rule Of Reciprocation

~ TPORCBBLAL ~ The Pull Of Reciprocity Can Be Both Lifesaving And Lifelong

~ LTANALNWTLTBROL-SA-R ~ Little Things Are Not Always Little – Not When They Link To Big Rules Of Life – Such As – Reciprocity

~ BTIAGDFTWTAMNETGIR-WWOGTGLTABCAF ~ Because There Is A General Distaste For Those Who Take And Make No Effort To Give In Return – We Will Often Go To Great Lengths To Avoid Being Considered A Freeloader

~ P-F-MNFAGTPA-P-F ~ Problem-Free – May Not Feel As Good To People As – Problem-Freed

~ SFF-OS-LRF ~ Small First Favors – Often Stimulate – Larger Return Favors

~ BRAASVIHSS-WHBCTFUWB ~ Because Reciprocal Arrangements Are So Vital In Human Social Systems – We Have Been Conditioned To Feel Uncomfortable When Beholden

~ T-R-T-R-O-D-I-T-F-T-RHOTPTRC-BSWAERSTBR-ARCTPRTASR9TODAA) ~ The – Rejection-Then-Retreat – Or – Door-In-The-Face – Technique – Relies Heavily On The Pressure To Reciprocate Concessions – By Starting With An Extreme Request Sure To Be Rejected – A Requester Can Then Profitably Retreat To A Smaller Request (The One Desired All Along)

~ APIAREOC-PFMRF-A-M-SWTO ~ After Participating In A Reciprocal Exchange Of Concessions – People Feel More Responsible For – And – More – Satisfied With The Outcome

~ OBDATUORPTGOCINSROTIOOO-R-WSAIFOCIGF-B-BRTRTATSTLBPAS-OTARITW-WSNLFANTRWAFOCOOO ~ Our Best Defense Agaisnt The Use Of Reciprocity Pressures To Gain Our Compliance Is Not Systematic Rejection Of The Initial Offers Of Others – Rather – We Should Accept Initial Favors Or Concessions In Good Faith – But – Be Ready To Redefine Them As Tricks Should They Later Be Proved As Such – Once They Are Redefined In This Way – We Should No Longer Feel A Need To Respond With A Favor Or Concession Of Our Own

~ L:TFT ~ Liking: The Friendly Thief

~ LFP ~ Liking For Profit

~ HE-WOPCOAPDTWHOSIVIMOR-PA-IOSAC ~ Halo Effect – When One Positive Characteristic Of A Person Dominates The Way He Or She Is Viewed In Most Other Respects – Physical Attractiveness – Is Often Such A Characteristic

~ WLPWALU ~ We Like People Who Are Like Us

~ WAMLTHTWWCATO ~ We Are More Likely To Help Those Who Wear Clothing Akin To Ours

~ W-BC-O-SS-A-LTWGTTU-WAPSFF ~ We – Believe Compliments – Of – Sundry Sorts – And – Like Those Who Give Them To Us – We Are Phenomenal Suckers For Flattery

~ PC-JAMLFTF-W-U-AW-T ~ Positive Comments – Just As Much Liking For The Flatterer – When – Untrue – As When – True

~ FAG-GC-YWTRTLUT ~ Find And Give – Genuine Compliments – You Want The Recipient To Live Up To

~ C-NJ-OTB-B-OTT-YPSMOI ~ Compliment – Not Just – On The Behavior – But – On The Trait – You’ll Probably See More Of It

~ WLTFTU ~ We Like Things Familiar To Us

~ E-F-FC-B-MBWR ~ Even – Far-Fetched Claims – Become – More Believable With Repetition

~ CETAPOO-UUC-LTLL ~ Continued Exposure To A Person Or Object – Under Unpleasant Conditions – Leads To Less Liking

~ GC/BC-BT-GC-HIROTSB-T-RR-PFARF-TMRTTIE-T-ITIGTSTITTISOH[/H]S ~ Good Cop / Bad Cop – Because The – Good Cop – Has Intervened Repeatedly On The Suspect’s Behalf – The – Reciprocity Rule – Pressures For A Return Favor – The Main Reason The Technique Is Effective – Though – Is That It Gives The Suspect The Idea That There Is Someone On His[/Her] Side

~ TIANHTTDAPWBUUI-EWTPDNCTBN-HE ~ There Is A Natural Human Tendency To Dislike A Person Who Brings Us Unpleasant Information – Even When That Person Did Not Cause The Bad News – Horns Effect

~ AIA-WEBTOGT-WIHPFAU ~ An Innocent Association – With Either Bad Things Or Good Things – Will Influence How People Feel About Us

~ O-SSTTECA-CSBI ~ Odors – So Slight That They Escape Conscious Awareness – Can Still Be Influential

~ SP:TAU ~ Social Proof: Truths Are Us

~ TDBMPBOTP ~ The Dishes Became More Popular Because Of Their Popularity

~ SP-WDWICBFOWOPTIC-WBWTPIPB-MOP ~ Social Proof – We Determine What Is Correct By Finding Out What Other People Think Is Correct – Works Best When The Proof Is Provided By – Many Other People

~ OAE-INOAE ~ Often An Emergency – Is Not Obviously An Emergency

~ ETDOMLISTDNDT ~ Explaining The Dangers Of Modern Life In Scientific Terms Does Not Dispel Them

~ WTACOTRFI-IACE-PAER ~ When They Are Confident Of Their Responsibilities For Intervening – In A Clear Emergency – People Are Exceedingly Responsive

~ BAPAPAYNFA ~ Be As Precise As Possible About Your Need For Aid

~ TUO-FM-LATLMFAL-AWATRHMF ~ The Use Of – Fabricated Merriment – Leads Audiences To Laugh More Frequently And Longer – As Well As To Rate Humorous Material Funnier

~ UF-RC-B-A ~ Unbounded Fears – Rendered Contagious – By – Algorithms

~ TWAWC-PB-DP-WALBA-CF ~ The World Abounds With Cults – Populated By – Dependent People – Who Are Led By A – Charismatic Figure

~ A:DD ~ Authority: Directed Deference

~ T-OS-O-PAA-MBC-WTFOM ~ The – Outward Signs – Of – Power And Authority – May Be Counterfeited – With The Flimsiest Of Materials

~ ITATAE?-TCPOI:TACATROTCTTTAH ~ Is This Authority Truly An Expert? – Two Crucial Pieces Of Information: The Authority’s Credentials And The Relevance Of Those Credentials To The Topic At Hand

– And – How Truthful Can We Expect This Expert To Be?

~ S:TROTF ~ Scarcity: The Rule Of The Few

~ UCORAU-TTOPL-PAEPRIHD-M ~ Under Conditions Of Risk And Uncertainty – The Threat Of Potential Loss – Plays An Especially Powerful Role In Human Decision-Making

~ CAC:HOTM ~ Commitment And Consistency: Hobgoblins Of The Mind

~ TMETGIAC-TGIATITAAAOTPWMI ~ The More Effort That Goes Into A Commitment – The Greater Its Ability To Influence The Attitudes And Actions Of The Person Who Made It

~ WBNSTUCWHCOT ~ We Build New Struts To Undergird Choices We Have Committed Ourselves To

~ U:T-‘W’-ITS-M ~ Unity: The – “We” – Is The Shared – Me

~ AFA-IGA ~ Asking For Advice – Is Good Advice

LINDA MCQUAIG ~ THE SPORT & PREY OF CAPITALISTS ~ 2019

~ ATCAPHF-RC-IDOCPTOACKAO-OE-OC-A-OL-TSODCAAN-TSCHBUTITWBOIWLOEAOLITHOTPM-AIBFNHBTWCNLATWMTADA-ETWAAVRCT-IR-WHMTCBOTISOTMODTFN-R-WMTBOTPEBPFIWHBKTTOLPOOPDSTCOTAMTFP ~ All This Cutting And Privatizing Has Far-Reaching Consequences – It Diminishes Our Collective Power To Own And Control Key Aspects Of – Our Economy – Our Country – And – Our Lives – Thereby Shrinking Our Democratic Capacity As A Nation – These Sweeping Changes Have Been Made Under The Illusion That We’re Better Off If We Leave Our Economy And Our Lives In The Hands Of The Private Marketplace – Another Influential But False Notion Has Been That We Can No Longer Afford Things We Managed To Afford Decades Ago – Even Though We Are A Vastly Richer Country Today – In Reality – We Haven’t Made These Changes Because Of The Inherent Superiority Of The Marketplace Or Due To Financial Necessity – Rather – We’ve Made Them Because Of The Pressure Exerted By Powerful Financial Interests Who Have Been Keen To Take Over Lucrative Parts Of Our Public Domain So They Can Own Them And Milk Them For Profits

~ TCWHSUWIATEOPEWDGAIAI ~ The Corporate World Has Saturated Us With Ideas About The Effectiveness Of Private Enterprise While Depicting Government As Inefficient And Intrusive

~ TMDAOONITWASA ~ The Most Dominant Aspect Of Our Nature Is That We Are Social Animals

~ TAOMPHB-FTMPTH-CALIMODASTTDOOT-SA-L/H/D/B/S/DOD ~ The Attainment Of Material Possessions Has Been – For The Most Part Throughout History – Considered A Less Important Mark Of Distinction And Status Than The Demonstration Of Other Traits – Such As – Loyalty / Honour / Devotion / Bravery / Service / Dedication Of Duty

~ IWAA-AA-SA-TSWNTSOSBAOCABOCTDTADF-ICGAR-OFSCBOBA-S-MF-A-MISO-RTOUASIA ~ If We Are Actually – Above All – Social Animals – Then Surely We Need To Strengthen Our Social Bonds And Our Communities And Bolster Our Capacity To Defend Them Agaisnt Disrupting Forces – Including Corporate Greed And Rapaciousness – Our Focus Should Clearly Be On Building A – Stronger – More Functional – And – More Inclusive Social Order – Rather Than On Unleashing And Stimulating Individual Acquisitiveness

~ FWSA-PO-HSRV-CAIDWBAASITC ~ For We Social Animals – Public Ownership – Has Some Real Virtues – Coming As It Does With Benefits And A Stake In The Community

~ TOIAIS-ASPURT-GETWUOC ~ The Oil Industry And Its Supporters – Are Still Putting Up Resistance To – Global Efforts To Wean Us Off Carbon

~ PO-IAPPTVFND ~ Public Ownership – Is A Potentially Powerful Transformative Vehicle For National Development

~ TNTTWSBATBPTTTILATHO-PCT ~ The Notion That The Wealthy Should Be Able To Block Policies That Threaten Their Interests Lies At The Heart Of – Public Choice Theory

~ MOEHTFOI-‘MF’-TDHGICCSP ~ Much Of Economics Has Traditionally Focused On Identifying – “Market Failure” – To Determine How Government Intervention Could Correct Such Problems

~ MO-PCT-DJWOOOHN-B-APCTSIW-IPUBC-TPTPSDFAPAA-MOTN-PSTLTD-TCECIOS ~ Much Of – Public Choice Theory – Doesn’t Jibe With Our Observation Of Human Nature – But – Although Public Choice Theory Seems Intellectually Weak – Its Political Usefulness Became Clear – The Push To Privatize Seems Disconnected From Any Practical Advantage Achieved – More Often Than Not – Privatization Seems To Lead To Disadvantage – To Considerable Extra Costs Imposed On Society

~ AOT-OWITWPP-EBWTSATSOTPSS-OITMBDT-SS-I-TIAGDO-MTBM-IPFTWEU-OOO-CPI-AWAFTIIDUTC-P-PP-D-O-PR-F/L/A-A ~ Among Other Things – One Wonders If Those Who Promote Privatization – Even Believe What They Say About The Superiority Of The Private Sector – Or If Their Motivation Boils Down To – Simple Self-Interest – There Is A Great Deal Of – Money To Be Made – In Privatization For Those Who End Up – Owning Or Operating – Crucial Public Infrastructure – As Well As For Those Involved In Drawing Up The Complex – Public-Private Partnership – Deals – Or – Providing Related – Financial / Legal / Accounting – Advice

~ TTOTC-HCCMTUOSR-B-CR-A-HDSTH ~ The Triumph Of The Commons – Humans Can Collectively Manage Their Use Of Shared Resources – By– Creating Rules – And – Have Done So Throughout History

~ TSCAPOWBD-‘TN-LA’-ASOPBO-FP-T-TBDTTSNT-TPSIIHATPSIIB-TRHBAMTOSRFOPTASSOWIAC ~ These Substantial Changes Are Part Of What’s Been Dubbed – “The Neo-Liberal Agenda” – A Set Of Polices Based On – Flimsy Pseudo-Theories – That Boil Down To The Simplistic Notion That – The Private Sector Is Inherently Good And The Public Sector Is Inherently Bad – The Result Has Been A Massive Transfer Of Society’s Resources From Ordinary People To A Small Set Of Wealthy Individuals And Corporations

~ TR-P-B-M-ORY-HBUFPUAAIOI-WSFOTTBAWIRIOI-A-NBIIOCDFWTCF-TBC-WDPD ~ The Rigid – Pro-Business – Mindset – Of Recent Years – Has Blocked Us From Properly Understanding And Acting In Our Own Interests – We Should Free Ourselves To Think Boldly About What Is Really In Our Interest – And – Not Be Intimidated If Our Conclusions Don’t Fit With Those Coming From – The Business Commentators – Who Dominate Public Debate

JAMES SCOTT ~ TWO CHEERS FOR ANARCHISM ~ 2012

~ DI-H-TAGE-B-CT-OUFATTHB ~ Democratic Institutions – Have – To A Great Extent – Become – Commodities – Offered Up For Auction To The Highest Bidder

~ D-IACH-WRE ~ Democracy – Is A Cruel Hoax – Without Relative Equality

~ I-RE-I-ANCOMAF-HCIBGETTS?-B-TAP-TAOTSINAO ~ If – Relative Equality – Is – A Necessary Condition Of Mutuality And Freedom – How Can It Be Guaranteed Except Through The State? – Both – Theoretically And Practically – The Abolition Of The State Is Not An Option

~ TS-HH-TL-CO-LA-PD ~ The State – Has Historically – Thwarted Lower-Class Organization – Let Alone – Public Defiance

~ IP:F-D/P/P/D/S/D/A/S/F ~ InfraPolitics: Foot-Dragging / Poaching / Pilfering / Dissimulation / Sabotage / Desertion / Absenteeism / Squatting / Flight

~ AY-TAOTOEMOSPACHME ~ And Yet – The Accumulation Of Thousands Or Even Millions Of Such Petty Acts Can Have Massive Effect

~ SC-HHNHTLO-OPO-THNPTFW-M/C/C-A-M-A-PCFB ~ Subordinate Classes – Have Historically Not Had The Luxury Of – Open Political Organization – That Has Not Prevented Them From Working – Microscopically / Cooperatively / Complicitly – And – Massively – At – Political Change From Below

~ FO-I-C/C/A-TE-MWH-ATQEOMP ~ Forms Of – Informal – Cooperation / Coordination / Action – That Embody – Mutuality Without Hierarchy – Are The Quotidian Experience Of Most People

~ LMHGBTIOJ ~ Leviathan May Have Given Birth To Its Own Justification

~ YCST-HTG-O-PASC-HBT-SOOTA-WTDMAA-YCBPSTSHGTW ~ You Could Say That – Historically The Goal – Of – Peasants And Subaltern Classes – Has Been To – Stay Out Of The Archives – When They Do Make An Appearance – You Can Be Pretty Sure That Something Has Gone Terribly Wrong

~ MOT-GPR-O-TNATW-HBABEEO-CD/R/L/TDOPO-A-ATL-CW ~ Most Of The – Great Political Reforms – Of – The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries – Have Been Accompanied By Massive Episodes Of – Civil Disobedience / Riots / Lawbreaking / The Disruption Of Public Order – And – At The Limit – Civil War

~PTGFO-LD-ITHFTSPTVEASIOTLADTTI-TFTDPARAITDVOMEO-E-ID-IMICTTPODAT-IOPC-IWBW-A-IF-D-TCTS-L-SP-AOEGLTMSR-TMILTGR-TROCR-A-IEC-TOORD-N-IIUTMEOMRHNBIWMDATROETCANT ~ Perhaps The Greatest Failure Of – Liberal Democracies – Is Their Historical Failure To Successfully Protect The Vital Economic And Security Interests Of Their Less Advantaged Citizens Though Their Institutions – The Fact That Democratic Progress And Renewal Appear Instead To Depend Vitally On Major Episodes Of – Extra-Institutional Disorder – Is Massively In Contradiction To The Promise Of Democracy As The – Institutionalization Of Peaceful Change – It Would Be Wrong – And – In Fact – Dangerous – To Claim That Such – Large-Scale Provocations – Always Or Even Generally Lead To Major Structural Reform – They May Instead Lead To Growing Repression – The Restriction Of Civil Rights – And – In Extreme Cases – The Overthrow Of Representative Democracy – Nevertheless – It Is Undeniable That Most Episodes Of Major Reform Have Not Been Initiated Without Major Disorder And The Rush Of Elites To Contain And Normalize Them

~ OOTCOGP-I-NHTL-TATBOTHA-IG-BTTTATT ~ One Of The Characteristics Of Great Power Is – Not Having To Listen – Those At The Bottom Of The Heap Are – In General – Better Listeners Than Those At The Top

~ TM-H-P/R/F-ASOEOI-TMLIITB-POIP-TTFSDNRAWWICNCTE-FPTTFOCACAM ~ The More – Highly – Planned / Regulated / Formal – A Social Or Economic Order Is – The More Likely It Is To Be – Parasitic On Informal Processes – That The Formal Scheme Does Not Recognize And Without Which It Could Not Continue To Exist – Formal Processes That The Formal Order Cannot Alone Create And Maintain

~ TROT-M-AN-H-PM-OT-N-S-DATC=AHOVPF:SB/T/FC/LCOT/MC/E ~ The Rise Of The – Modern – And Now – Hegemonic – Political Module – Of The – Nation-State – Displaced And Then Crushed – A Host Of Vernacular Political Forms: Stateless Bands / Tribes / Free Cities / Loose Confederations Of Towns / Maroon Communities / Empires

~ OIP-TM-(N-)S-SA-HIP-AT-P-D/V-P-TEAGPOH-AHVOLAD-OMU-W-LTS-STA-SNL-OTDOTDR-TLTTDO-L/LL/M/L/WWOM-TDOSVNHBM-OWNWTSTTDOAVAAU-TRIAMDI-C/P/E-D-AMHI-L/C/PS/PF-AAA-MOSATLTST ~ Once In Place – The Modern – (Nation-) State – Set About – Homogenizing Its Population – And The – People’s – Deviant / Vernacular – Practices – This Entailed A Great Project Of Homogenization – A Huge Variety Of Languages And Dialects – Often Mutually Unintelligible – Were – Largely Through Schooling – Subordinated To A – Standardized National Language – Often The Dialect Of The Dominant Region – This Led To The Disappearance Of – Languages / Local Literatures / Music / Legends / Whole Worlds Of Meaning – The Disappearance Of Some Vernaculars Need Hardly Be Mourned – One Would Not Want To Spring To The Defense Of All Vernaculars Against All Universals – The Result Is A Massive Diminution In – Cultural / Political / Economic – Diversity – A Massive Homogenization In – Languages / Cultures / Property Systems / Political Forms – And Above All – Modes Of Sensibility And The Lifewords That Sustain Them

~ T-IAL-IF-TWPOT-T-A-MA-BTDOL-OTL-WTBDTWPITOMSTCEBL-IWDDTE-A-CK-A-TPTKCOW-TL-WPOA-D/S-W-IW-O-‘H’-CBESFA-ID-IOW-OWWMLC-T-‘S’-OTW ~ The – Industrial Assembly Line – In Fact – The Whole Point Of The – Time-And-Motion Analysis – Behind The Division Of Labor – On The Line – Was To Break Down The Work Process Into Thousands Of Minute Steps That Could Easily Be Learned – It Was Deliberately Designed To Eliminate – Artisanal-Craft Knowledge – And – The Power This Knowledge Conferred On Workers – The Line – Was Premised On A – Deskilled / Standardized – Workforce – In Which – One – “Hand” – Could Be Easily Substituted For Another – It Depended – In Other Words – On What We Might Legitimately Call – The – “Stupidification” – Of The Workforce

~ ST-IR-A-HU-AVISOTP-HB-P-A-DOLHOFTL ~ Since The – Industrial Revolution – And – Headlong Urbanization – A Vastly Increasing Share Of The Population – Has Become – Propertyless – And – Dependent On Large Hierarchical Organizations For Their Livelihood

~ AS-D-OC-SPIPW ~ Authoritarian Settings – Do – Of Course – Shape Personalities In Profound Ways

~ TDF-A-F-COTWD-A-TSOFAS-RSCP-IA-VUSA ~ The Desire For – Autonomy – For – Control Over The Working Day – And – The Sense Of Freedom And Self-Respect Such Control Provides – Is A – Vastly Underestimated Social Aspiration

~ AAFO-SP-IHT-M/T/P-I-RRAE-B-TV-C/V/M-OIA ~ Almost All Forms Of – Small Property – Is Hard To – Monitor / Tax / Police – It – Resists Regulation And Enforcement – By – The Very – Complexity / Variety / Mobility – Of Its Activities

~ OKTT-OP-OTLF-LPITPT-EOS-PR-IDS-TUSALAMIATF ~ One Key To The – Oligopoly Position – Of The Largest Firms – Lies Precisely In Their Power To – Eliminate Or Swallow – Potential Rivals – In Doing So – They Undoubtedly Stifle At Lest As Much Innovation As They Facilitate

~ A-S-DB-SAS-CCT-E-AT-POOTMOP-TAESYD ~ A – Society – Dominated By – Smallholders And Shopkeepers – Comes Closer To – Equality – And To – Popular Ownership Of The Means Of Production – Than Any Economic System Yet Devised

~ C-BA-ISDAOATN:O/N/PS-BTA-OC-C-BAIDP-IPABDITTOC:WTM-HTMI-CO-‘D’-‘A’-‘C’-HOATINV-A-HTNVAUIDM ~ Cost-Benefit Analysis – Its Success Depends Absolutely On Appearing Totally Nonpolitical: Objective / Nonpartisan / Palpably Scientific – Beneath This Appearance – Of Course – Cost-Benefit Analysis Is Deeply Political – It’s Politics Are Buried Deep In The Techniques Of Calculation: What To Measure – How To Measure It – Conventions Of – “Discounting” – And – “Commensuration” – How Observations Are Translated Into Numerical Values – And – How These Numerical Values Are Used In Decision Making

~ DAP-AMTDBTTAAB-CSWDCAPA-NSEFPV Discretion And Politics – Are Made To Disappear By Techniques That Are At Bottom – Completely Saturated With Discretionary Choices And Political Assumptions – Now Shielded Effectively From Public View

~ T-GEG-F-HF-HNBTRO-OIP-BO-D/U/S-A-COTSOFB ~ The – Great Emancipatory Gains – For – Human Freedom – Have Not Been The Result Of – Orderly Institutional Procedures – But Of – Disorderly / Unpredictable / Spontaneous – Action – Cracking Open The Social Order From Below

CHARLES SEIFE ~ PROOFINESS ~ 2010

~ NCBPW-I-SH-PD-BS-A-BM-CM-TMFD-TMOF-ST-TCBUT-BE-T-DC-AT-SD ~ Numbers Can Be Powerful Weapons – In – Skilful Hands – Phony Data – Bogus Statistics – And – Bad Mathematics – Can Make – The Most Fanciful Data – The Most Outrageous Falsehood – Seem True – They Can Be Used To – Bludgeon Enemies – To – Destroy Critics – And To – Squelch Debate

~ P:TAO-UBMATPS-T-YKIYHIT-EWIN ~ Proofiness: The Art Of – Using Bogus Mathematical Arguments To Prove Something – That – You Know In Your Heart Is True – Even When It’s Not

~ OS-IN-AIP-TINLTHAPCB ~ Our Society – Is Now – Awash In Proofiness – There Is No Limit To How Absurd Proofiness Can Be

~ OYKTMPUTTNIF-TAPAY-WYLTSPOOTW-SOTMCTBSAS ~ Once You Know The Methods People Use To Turn Numbers Into Falsehoods – They Are Powerless Against You – When You Learn To Shovel Proofiness Out Of The Way – Some Of The Most Controversial Topics Become Simple And Straightforward

~ IYWTGPTB-S-R-R-S-JSANOI-ETSASPTMTTEINT ~ If You Want To Get People To Believe – Something – Really – Really – Stupid – Just Stick A Number On It – Even The Silliest Absurdities Seem Plausible The Moment That They’re Expressed In Numerical Terms

~ NMH-I-HU-AII-NCGIC ~ No Matter How – Idiotic – How Unbelievable – An Idea Is – Numbers Can Give It Credibility

~ BTANATAN ~ But There Are Numbers And There Are Numbers

~ ORF-IW-AMATGSTI-D-FE-IHTM-POH-TINSTAA-POAH-TCGYADARRAWASIF-PAJ-A-SE

~ One Red Flag – Is When – A Measurement Attempts To Gauge Something That’s Ill-Defined – For Example – It’s Hard To Measure – Pain Or Happiness – There Is No Such Thing As A – Painometer Or A Happyscope – That Can Give You A Direct And Repeatable Reading About What A Subject Is Feeling – Pain And Joy – Are – Subjective Experiences

~ NMHRAI-PIINFMISR-EITIMITA ~ No Matter How Ridiculous An Idea – Putting It Into Numerical Form Makes It Sound Respectable – Even If The Implied Measurement Is Transparently Absurd

~ LADUILC ~ Like Actors Dressed Up In Lab Coats

~ PN-ATMEO-PV-TNFTLLRD-ALI-ETABOOANM-O-TNTTAGMAA-SFFFFAFH ~ Potemkin Numbers – Are The Mathematical Equivalent Of – Potemkin Villages – They’re Numerical Facades That Look Like Real Data – At Least Implicitly – Either They Are Born Out Of A Nonsensical Measurement – Or – They’re Not Tied To A Genuine Measurement At All – Springing Forth Fully Formed From A Fabricator’s Head

~ CP: TCSOD-CTTSTAYWTM-W-UOIDTUI ~ Cherry-Picking: The Careful Selection Of Data – Choosing Those That Support The Argument You Wish To Make – While – Underplaying Or Ignoring Data That Undermine It

~ CATO-WYCTNTSWOBTTO-IITETTUATS-OTCIM-A-OCCBRTTS-BUCBFC-SOTCTMOT ~ Comparing Apples To Oranges – When You Compare Two Numbers To See Which One’s Bigger Than The Other – It’s Important To Ensure That The Units Are The Same – Otherwise The Comparison Is Meaningless – Apple-Orange Comparisons Can Be Really Tough To Spot – Because Units Can Be Fluid Creatures – Some Of Them Change Their Meaning Over Time

~ A-P:TPTFTOD-MTSTAMFTTAA ~ Apple-Polishing: To Put The Finishing Touches On Data – Manipulating Them So They Appear More Favorable Than They Actually Are

~ WHA-IARP-TDTTSP-MA-IT-WGOSPEWTNT ~ We Humans Are – Incredible At Recognizing Patterns – The Downside To This Spectacular Pattern-Matching Ability – Is That – We Go Overboard Seeing Patterns Even When They’re Not There

~ ACIDCCLJLAE ~ A Change In Diagnostic Criteria Can Look Just Like An Epidemic

~ ATWSTTTACISW-OB-LTTCTOTMCTO-IONS-SWMCFEAVV-STHFNAR-JOO-SRC-ITOCTWHHAHTU-I-R ~ Any Time We See Two Things That Are Correlated In Some Way – Our Brains – Leap To The Conclusion That One Thing Must Cause The Other – It’s Often Not So – Sometimes We Mistake Cause For Effect And Vice Versa – Sometimes Things Happen For No Apparent Reason – Just Out Of – Sheer Random Chance – If There’s One Concept That We Humans Have A Hard Time Understanding – It’s – Randomness

~ R:ITTIOWTIOC-CAPWTIN ~ Randumbness: Insisting That There Is Order Where There Is Only Chaos – Creating A Pattern Where There Is None

~ IYT-ARCOD-A-SHE-YSAPOSS ~ If You Take – Any – Random Collection Of Data – And – Squint Hard Enough – You’ll See A Pattern Of Some Sort

~ RAT-WPBAET-WDHAIGOWBATDAWA ~ Risks Are Tricky – We’re Pretty Bad At Estimating Them – We Don’t Have An Internal Gauge Of What Behaviors Are Truly Dangerous And What Aren’t

~ MCIW-CE-MAHRSWT-O-AIRSD ~ Minor Changes In Wording – Can Easily – Make A Huge Risk Seem Worth Taking – Or – An Insignificant Risk Seem Dangerous

~ TSTS-TBTA ~ The Scarier The Story – The Bigger The Audience

~ ER-A-TFTRC-IAPT-STAITMTSBTTA ~ Exaggerating Risk – And – The Fear These Risks Cause – Is A Potent Tool – So There’s An Incentive To Make Threats Seem Bigger Than They Are

~ TGHTSITST-ATCOTOTD-YMOTBMWWUITPOTWCTCITFP-MH-WFGIDFTRIIMTG-VBTH ~ The Government Had To Step In To Save Them – At The Cost Of Trillions Of Taxpayer Dollars – Yet Much Of That Bailout Money Would Wind Up In The Pockets Of Those Who Caused The Crisis In The First Place – Moral Hazard – When Financial Gain Is Divorced From The Risks Involved In Making That Gain – Very Bad Things Happen

~ RW-IA-LON ~ Random Weirdness – Is A – Law Of Nature

~ APCBA-QD-B-TWOTQITS-TCOWIETMN-SP-SSSASTAIAPW ~ A Poll Can Be Affected – Quite Dramatically – By – The Wording Of The Questions In The Survey – The Choice Of Words In Even The Most Neutral-Sounding Phrase – Sometimes Subtly Steers A Subject To Answer In A Particular Way

~ AM-W-A-NO-PSTIKIF-O-AWRDFTT ~ Absolute Malice – When – A – News Organization – Publishes Something That It Knows Is False – Or – Acts With Reckless Disregard For The Truth

~ IP-A-W-Y-SPRMTN ~ Internet Polls – Are – Worthless – Yet – Such Polls Regularly Make The News

~ MAM-PSTBSONOTRTBWCT-WNLHTCITFUTROP-I-WCOLTTOWAAW-WCWIOM-UBTIOD ~ More And More – People Seem To Be Seeking Out News Outlets That Reinforce Their Beliefs Without Challenging Them – We No Longer Have To Confront Ideas That Force Us To Reevaluate Our Positions – Instead – We Can Only Listen To The Ones We Already Agree With – We Can Wallow In Our Myths – Undisturbed By The Inconvenience Of Doubt

~ P-I-T-TA-D-BNHAHOU-TAP-AM-B-WTNRT-IHFUTITANCBMTL ~ Proofiness – Is – Toxic – To A – Democracy – Because Numbers Have A Hold On Us – They Are Powerful – Almost Mystical – Because – We Think That Numbers Represent Truth – It’s Hard For Us To Imagine That A Number Can Be Made To Lie

~ MS-ITOAT-P-A-ODOKWDWWSTPOFAI-IMTMR;ODMWROFBTN ~ Mathematical Sophistication – Is The Only Antidote To – Proofiness – And – Our Degree Of Knowledge Will Determine Whether We Succumb To Proofiness Or Fight Against It – It’s More Than Mere Rhetoric; Our Democracy May Well Rise Or Fall By The Numbers