ROBERT CIALDINI ~ INFLUENCE ~ 1984

~ TPOP ~ The Psychology Of Persuasion

~ PHUANOMSWEIMOEJ-JH-S-AFSTTWWMOTT-B-LUUT-OCM ~ Psychologists Have Uncovered A Number Of Mental Shortcuts We Employ In Making Our Everyday Judgments – Judgmental Heuristics – Shortcuts – Allowing For Simplified Thinking That Works Well Most Of The Time – But – Leaves Us Upon To – Occasional Costly Mistakes

~ TIAUTIOSTAUTSADOIWATBAOAT-TI-RTTAAEAABC(ON)-WFITAAAOTBCJBTESA-‘E’ ~ There Is An Unsettling Tendency In Our Society To Accept Unthinkingly The Statements And Directions Of Individuals Who Appear To Be Authorities On A Topic – That Is – Rather Than Thinking About An Expert’s Arguments And Being Convinced (Or Not) – We Frequently Ignore The Arguments And Allow Ourselves To Be Convinced Just By The Expert’s Status As – “Expert”

~ MOUKVLAO-ABP-PTISPBOT-M-U-M-IWTO ~ Most Of Us Know Very Little About Our – Automatic Behavior Patterns – Perhaps That Is So Precisely Because Of The – Mechanistic – Unthinking – Manner – In Which They Occur

~ SJAIIPTMTSBOWATBHOCDOTTOPPBOW-IIPTMTPOTSISHOLDOTPOAPPI ~ So Just As It Is Possible To Make The Same Bucket Of Water Appear To Be Hotter Or Colder Depending On The Temperature Of Previously Presented Buckets Of Water – It Is Possible To Make The Price Of The Same Item Seem Higher Or Lower Depending On The Price Of A Previously Presented Item

~ A-BP-TTBTBASFOTRIITS-T-SF-O-TF-COPVBAAITDOACCOAWHTACACEOTOPOIITS ~ Automatic-Behavior Patterns – Tend To Be Triggered By A Single Feature Of The Relevant Information In The Situation – This – Single Feature – Or – Trigger Feature – Can Often Prove Valuable By Allowing An Individual To Decide On A Correct Course Of Action Without Having To Analyze Carefully And Completely Each Of The Other Pieces Of Information In The Situation

~ R:TO-GAT ~ Reciprocation: The Old – Give And Take

~ OOTMPOTLOIAU-TROR ~ One Of The Most Potent Of The Levers Of Influence Around Us – The Rule Of Reciprocation

~ TPORCBBLAL ~ The Pull Of Reciprocity Can Be Both Lifesaving And Lifelong

~ LTANALNWTLTBROL-SA-R ~ Little Things Are Not Always Little – Not When They Link To Big Rules Of Life – Such As – Reciprocity

~ BTIAGDFTWTAMNETGIR-WWOGTGLTABCAF ~ Because There Is A General Distaste For Those Who Take And Make No Effort To Give In Return – We Will Often Go To Great Lengths To Avoid Being Considered A Freeloader

~ P-F-MNFAGTPA-P-F ~ Problem-Free – May Not Feel As Good To People As – Problem-Freed

~ SFF-OS-LRF ~ Small First Favors – Often Stimulate – Larger Return Favors

~ BRAASVIHSS-WHBCTFUWB ~ Because Reciprocal Arrangements Are So Vital In Human Social Systems – We Have Been Conditioned To Feel Uncomfortable When Beholden

~ T-R-T-R-O-D-I-T-F-T-RHOTPTRC-BSWAERSTBR-ARCTPRTASR9TODAA) ~ The – Rejection-Then-Retreat – Or – Door-In-The-Face – Technique – Relies Heavily On The Pressure To Reciprocate Concessions – By Starting With An Extreme Request Sure To Be Rejected – A Requester Can Then Profitably Retreat To A Smaller Request (The One Desired All Along)

~ APIAREOC-PFMRF-A-M-SWTO ~ After Participating In A Reciprocal Exchange Of Concessions – People Feel More Responsible For – And – More – Satisfied With The Outcome

~ OBDATUORPTGOCINSROTIOOO-R-WSAIFOCIGF-B-BRTRTATSTLBPAS-OTARITW-WSNLFANTRWAFOCOOO ~ Our Best Defense Agaisnt The Use Of Reciprocity Pressures To Gain Our Compliance Is Not Systematic Rejection Of The Initial Offers Of Others – Rather – We Should Accept Initial Favors Or Concessions In Good Faith – But – Be Ready To Redefine Them As Tricks Should They Later Be Proved As Such – Once They Are Redefined In This Way – We Should No Longer Feel A Need To Respond With A Favor Or Concession Of Our Own

~ L:TFT ~ Liking: The Friendly Thief

~ LFP ~ Liking For Profit

~ HE-WOPCOAPDTWHOSIVIMOR-PA-IOSAC ~ Halo Effect – When One Positive Characteristic Of A Person Dominates The Way He Or She Is Viewed In Most Other Respects – Physical Attractiveness – Is Often Such A Characteristic

~ WLPWALU ~ We Like People Who Are Like Us

~ WAMLTHTWWCATO ~ We Are More Likely To Help Those Who Wear Clothing Akin To Ours

~ W-BC-O-SS-A-LTWGTTU-WAPSFF ~ We – Believe Compliments – Of – Sundry Sorts – And – Like Those Who Give Them To Us – We Are Phenomenal Suckers For Flattery

~ PC-JAMLFTF-W-U-AW-T ~ Positive Comments – Just As Much Liking For The Flatterer – When – Untrue – As When – True

~ FAG-GC-YWTRTLUT ~ Find And Give – Genuine Compliments – You Want The Recipient To Live Up To

~ C-NJ-OTB-B-OTT-YPSMOI ~ Compliment – Not Just – On The Behavior – But – On The Trait – You’ll Probably See More Of It

~ WLTFTU ~ We Like Things Familiar To Us

~ E-F-FC-B-MBWR ~ Even – Far-Fetched Claims – Become – More Believable With Repetition

~ CETAPOO-UUC-LTLL ~ Continued Exposure To A Person Or Object – Under Unpleasant Conditions – Leads To Less Liking

~ GC/BC-BT-GC-HIROTSB-T-RR-PFARF-TMRTTIE-T-ITIGTSTITTISOH[/H]S ~ Good Cop / Bad Cop – Because The – Good Cop – Has Intervened Repeatedly On The Suspect’s Behalf – The – Reciprocity Rule – Pressures For A Return Favor – The Main Reason The Technique Is Effective – Though – Is That It Gives The Suspect The Idea That There Is Someone On His[/Her] Side

~ TIANHTTDAPWBUUI-EWTPDNCTBN-HE ~ There Is A Natural Human Tendency To Dislike A Person Who Brings Us Unpleasant Information – Even When That Person Did Not Cause The Bad News – Horns Effect

~ AIA-WEBTOGT-WIHPFAU ~ An Innocent Association – With Either Bad Things Or Good Things – Will Influence How People Feel About Us

~ O-SSTTECA-CSBI ~ Odors – So Slight That They Escape Conscious Awareness – Can Still Be Influential

~ SP:TAU ~ Social Proof: Truths Are Us

~ TDBMPBOTP ~ The Dishes Became More Popular Because Of Their Popularity

~ SP-WDWICBFOWOPTIC-WBWTPIPB-MOP ~ Social Proof – We Determine What Is Correct By Finding Out What Other People Think Is Correct – Works Best When The Proof Is Provided By – Many Other People

~ OAE-INOAE ~ Often An Emergency – Is Not Obviously An Emergency

~ ETDOMLISTDNDT ~ Explaining The Dangers Of Modern Life In Scientific Terms Does Not Dispel Them

~ WTACOTRFI-IACE-PAER ~ When They Are Confident Of Their Responsibilities For Intervening – In A Clear Emergency – People Are Exceedingly Responsive

~ BAPAPAYNFA ~ Be As Precise As Possible About Your Need For Aid

~ TUO-FM-LATLMFAL-AWATRHMF ~ The Use Of – Fabricated Merriment – Leads Audiences To Laugh More Frequently And Longer – As Well As To Rate Humorous Material Funnier

~ UF-RC-B-A ~ Unbounded Fears – Rendered Contagious – By – Algorithms

~ TWAWC-PB-DP-WALBA-CF ~ The World Abounds With Cults – Populated By – Dependent People – Who Are Led By A – Charismatic Figure

~ A:DD ~ Authority: Directed Deference

~ T-OS-O-PAA-MBC-WTFOM ~ The – Outward Signs – Of – Power And Authority – May Be Counterfeited – With The Flimsiest Of Materials

~ ITATAE?-TCPOI:TACATROTCTTTAH ~ Is This Authority Truly An Expert? – Two Crucial Pieces Of Information: The Authority’s Credentials And The Relevance Of Those Credentials To The Topic At Hand

– And – How Truthful Can We Expect This Expert To Be?

~ S:TROTF ~ Scarcity: The Rule Of The Few

~ UCORAU-TTOPL-PAEPRIHD-M ~ Under Conditions Of Risk And Uncertainty – The Threat Of Potential Loss – Plays An Especially Powerful Role In Human Decision-Making

~ CAC:HOTM ~ Commitment And Consistency: Hobgoblins Of The Mind

~ TMETGIAC-TGIATITAAAOTPWMI ~ The More Effort That Goes Into A Commitment – The Greater Its Ability To Influence The Attitudes And Actions Of The Person Who Made It

~ WBNSTUCWHCOT ~ We Build New Struts To Undergird Choices We Have Committed Ourselves To

~ U:T-‘W’-ITS-M ~ Unity: The – “We” – Is The Shared – Me

~ AFA-IGA ~ Asking For Advice – Is Good Advice

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ THE SLIPPERY SLOPE ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ S-MFT-OWA-MP-HII-WSF-T-O-M/C/B ~ Skeptics Might Fear That – Once We Accept – Modest Paternalism – Highly Intrusive Interventions – Will Surely Follow – To – Outright – Manipulation / Coercion / Bans

~ ROA-S-S-A-DTQOW-PHMIAOT-P-CTCTDRTTROOTFOAHSS-IOPAW-MPOT-A-DWITT-PSOTS ~ Reliance On A – Slippery-Slope – Argument – Ducks The Question Of Whether – Proposals Have Merit In And Of Themselves – Policies – Constructive To Criticize Them Directly Rather Than To Rely Only On The Fear Of A Hypothetical Slippery Slope – If Our Proposals Are Worthwhile – Make Progress On Those – And – Do Whatever It Takes To – Pour Sand On The Slope

~ LCOOR-RTSOTOSS-P-ED-T-RFOC-SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TRDBAAM ~ Low Cost Opt-Out Rights – Reduces The Steepness Of The Ostensibly Slippery Slope – Proposals – Emphatically Designed – To – Retain Freedom Of Choice – So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Risks Decried By Antipaternalists Are Modest

~ IMC-SKONII-A-CA-W-POP-MDS ~ In Many Cases – Some Kind Of Nudge Is Inevitable – And – Choice Architects – Whether – Private Or Public – Must Do Something

~ OLTUPTPDNA-B-PAP-I-NRTDHSSAH-WTRSI-IIBPFTOASSTTDNSTARAA-B-TRANT-A-STANSS ~ Often Life Turns Up Problems That People Did Not Anticipate – Both – Private And Public – Institutions – Need Rules To Determine How Such Situations Are Handled – When Those Rules Seem Invisible – It Is Because People Find Them Obvious And So Sensible That They Do Not See Them As Rules At All – But – The Rules Are Nonetheless There – And – Sometimes They Are Not So Sensible

~ TWMTA-SS-AI-TDTTSTB-CFNOFTS-TIAM ~ Those Who Make This Argument – Sometimes Speak – As If – The Default Terms That Set The Background – Come From Nature Or From The Sky – This Is A Mistake

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ CA-TRFOTCIWPMD ~ Choice Architect – The Responsibility For Organizing The Context In Which People Make Decisions

~ TINSTAA’N’-D ~ There Is Not Such Thing As A – “Neutral” – Design

~ SAD-HSI ~ Seemingly Arbitrary Decisions – Have Subtle Influences

~ SAAID-CH-MIOPB-A-‘EM’ ~ Small And Apparently Insignificant Details – Can Have – Major Impacts On People’s Behavior – Assume – “Everything Matters”

~ TIT-‘EM’-CBB-PAE ~ The Insight That – “Everything Matters” – Can Be Both – Paralyzing And Empowering

~ LP-TPWTTITTHBCBD-T-LA-LITSIT-IG-PSBFTDWTL-A-TOOOUAITWTDS-T-PA-LITCTIILFCATTTIPBIOTMTL-L/H/B-AJBT ~ Libertarian Paternalism – The Problem With The Terms Is That They Have Been Captured By Dogmatists – The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Do What They Like – And – To Opt Out Of Undesirable Arrangements If They Want To Do So – The – Paternalistic Aspect – Lies In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Choice Architects To Try To Influence People’s Behavior In Order To Make Their Lives – Longer / Healthier / Better – As Judged By Themselves

~ IMC-IMPBD-DTWNHM-IT-HPFA-A-P-CI-UCA-A-CS-C ~ In Many Cases – Individuals Make Pretty Bad Decisions – Decisions They Would Not Have Made – If They – Had Paid Full Attention – And – Possessed – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – Complete Self-Control

~ LP-IAR-W/S/N-TOP-B-CANB/FO/SB ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak / Soft / Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked / Fenced Off / Significantly Burdened

~ A-N-IAAOT-CA-TAPBIAPWWFAOOSCTEI-TCAAM-N-TIMBEACTA-NANM ~ A – Nudge – Is Any Aspect Of The – Choice Architecture – That Alters People’s Behavior In A Predictable Way Without Forbidding Any Options Or Significantly Changing Their Economic Incentives – To Count As A Mere – Nudge – The Intervention Must Be Easy And Cheap To Avoid – Nudges Are Not Mandates

~ PTFAEL-CAAN-BJF-DN ~ Putting The Fruit At Eye Level – Counts As A Nudge – Banning Junk Food – Does Not

~ TE-SOC-RHRSQATROMJADTPM-HOS-CTHFAFAB-HDMINSGE ~ The Emerging – Science Of Choice – Research Has Raised Serous Questions About The Rationality Of Many Judgments And Decisions That People Make – Hundreds Of Studies – Confirm That Human Forecasts Are Flawed And Biased – Human Decision Making Is Not So Great Either

~ ‘SQB’-AFNF-I-FAHOR-PHASTTGAWTSQODO-RSTWTDCA-MPSWT-EWTSAMH ~ “Status Quo Bias” – A Fancy Name For – Inertia – For A Host Of Reasons – People Have A Strong Tendency To Go Along With The Status Quo Or Default Option – Research Shows That Whatever The Default Choices Are – Many People Stick With Them – Even When The Stakes Are Much Higher

~ NUTPOI-TPCBH-SDO-A-OSST-M-CS-CHHEOO ~ Never Underestimate The Power Of Inertia – That Power Can Be Harnessed – Setting Default Options – And – Other Similar Seemingly Trivial – Menu-Changing Strategies – Can Have Huge Effects On Outcomes

~ BPDB-IAN-ACIOATIPLAHSMOSMP-A-WCDSWSTOEFTC ~ By Properly Deploying Both – Incentives And Nudges – We Can Improve Our Ability To Improve People’s Lives And Help Solve Many Of Society’s Major Problems – And – We Can Do So While Still Insisting On Everyone’s Freedom To Choose

~ T-FA-ITAAPAAOTTMCTAITBIOATVLABTTCTWBMBSE-TAIF-I-OF ~ The – False Assumption – Is That Almost All People Almost All Of The Time Make Choices That Are In Their Best Interest Or At The Very Least Are Better Than The Choices That Would Be Made By Someone Else – This Assumption Is False – Indeed – Obviously False

~ HWPCIAEQ-OWAILTVAD-ISRTSTPMGCICIW-TH-E/GI/PF-TDLWICIWTA-I/PI/FISOI ~ How Well People Choose Is An Empirical Question – One Whose Answer Is Likely To Vary Across Domains – It Seems Reasonable To Say That People Make Good Choices In Contexts In Which – They Have – Experience / Good Information / Prompt Feedback – They Do Less Well In Contexts In Which They Are – Inexperienced / Poorly Informed / Feedback Is Slow Or Infrequent

~ B-ITCRU-TROIOECDAR-FTC-ITBSABCA ~ By – Insisting That Choices Remain Unrestricted – The Risks Of Inept Or Even Corrupt Designs Are Reduced – Freedom To Choose – Is The Best Safeguard Against Bad Choice Architecture

~ CACMJITTLOOBDU-FE ~ Choice Architects Can Make Major Improvements To The Lives Of Others By Designing User-Friendly Environments

~ I-IAN-R-RAB-GWBBSAMM-N-BG-J-BG-IS-LP-I-NLNR ~ If – Incentives And Nudges – Replace – Requirements And Bans – Government Will Be Both Smaller And More Modest – Not – Bigger Government – Just – Better Governance – In Short – Libertarian Paternalism – Is – Neither Left Nor Right

~ W-S-CPAMC-AC-TRIASOBO ~ When – Self-Control Problems And Mindless Choosing – Are Combined – The Result Is A Series Of Bad Outcomes

~ S-MSC-I-MAP-A-SWA-SSN-H-AEIBTSADOO ~ Sometimes – Massive Social Changes – In – Markets And Politics – Alike – Start With A – Small Social Nudge – Humans – Are Easily Influenced By The Statements And Deeds Of Others

~ HAENBOH-OR-WLTC ~ Humans Are Easily Nudged By Other Humans – One Reason – We Like To Conform

~ PBMLTCWTKTOPWSWTHTS-SPWGAWTGEWTT-O-K-TEEHB ~ People Become More Likely To Conform When They Know That Other People Will See What They Have To Say – Sometimes People Will Go Along With The Group Even When They Think – Or – Know – That Everyone Else Has Blundered

~ IMD-PATTT-ATF-TAOWEP-A-TTS-WI-BOTT-SI-AE-C-AAKS-CPLVITO ~ In Many Domains – People Are Tempted To Think – After The Fact – That An Outcome Was Entirely Predictable – And – That The Success – Was Inevitable – Beware Of That Temptation – Small Interventions – And Even – Coincidences – At A Key Stage – Can Produce Large Variations In The Outcome

~ T-SF-CHA-PE ~ The – Specific Framing – Can Have A – Powerful Effect

~ SI-CITEWWCICTM-S-TMHOAIOCWTAATCSA-T-‘P’-OISSATECBSP ~ Subtle Influences – Can Increase The Ease With Which Certain Information Comes To Mind – Sometimes – The Merest Hint Of An Idea Or Concept Will Trigger An Association That Can Stimulate Action – These – “Primes” – Occur In Social Situations And Their Effects Can Be Surprisingly Powerful

~ MPWTWOR-TLE-O-TPOLR-WONIIGFT ~ Many People Will Take Whatever Option Requires – The Least Effort – Or – The Path Of Least Resistance – Whether Or Not It Is Good For Them

~ HMM-A-W-DS-EIUTEAIAFAP ~ Humans Make Mistakes – A – Well-Designed System – Expects Its Users To Err And Is As Forgiving As Possible

~ GF-TBWTHHITPITPF-W-DS-TPWTADWAWTAMM ~ Give Feedback – The Best Way To Help Humans Improve Their Performance Is To Provide Feedback – Well-Designed Systems – Tell People When They Are Doing Well And When They Are Making Mistakes

~ AITOFIAWTTAGW-O-EMH-AATGW ~ An Important Type Of Feedback Is A Warning That Things Are Going Wrong – Or – Even More Helpful – Are About To Go Wrong

~ WS-HTATPO-OSMWTTAI ~ Warning Systems – Have To Avoid The Problem Of – Offering So Many Warnings That They Are Ignored

~ A-FQ-A-CA-WU?/WC?/WP?/WP? ~ Ask – Four Questions – About – Choice Architecture – Who Uses? / Who Chooses? / Who Pays? / Who Profits?

~ HA-LA-RS-T-HLATAMATLG ~ Humans Are – Loss Averse – Roughly Speaking – They – Hate Losses About Twice As Much As They Like Gains

~ ENABN-CAMHTOA-LUIWWC-A-E-MAT-WWC ~ Evil Nudgers And Bad Nudges – Choice Architects May Have Their Own Agendas – Line Up Incentives When We Can – And – Employ – Monitoring And Transparency – When We Can’t

~ PCA-PCA-WAB-V/MP-APGSBT-IT ~ Public Choice Architects – Private Choice Architects – Worry About Both – Voters / Maximizing Profits – A Primary Goal Should Be To – Increase Transparency

~ FPTC-INAW-A-RNINAP-DWTS-A-WTCANAS(MLAP)-I-T ~ Forcing People To Choose – Is Not Always Wise – And – Remaining Neutral Is Not Always Possible – Deciding Where To Stop – And – When To Call A Nudge A Shove (Much Less A Prison) – Is – Tricky

JAMES FADIMAN ~ BE ALL THAT YOU CAN BE ~ 19??

~ NHPMBOB-TFOL-M-A-K-P ~ Negative Habit Patterns May Be Overcome By – The Forces Of Liberation – Motivation – Awareness – Knowledge – Practice

~ TRBWTAROGMBTWAACOKAE ~ The Route Between Wishful Thinking And Realizing Our Goals Must Be Traveled With An Artful Combination Of Knowledge And Effort

~ WAY? ~ Who Are You?

~ OWYKWYACYKWYCB ~ Only When You Know Who You Are Can You Know Who You Can Become

~ TLOPEOTRPOYPIEETYCSC ~ The Level Of Personal Effectiveness Or The Realized Portion Of Your Potential Is Exactly Equal To Your Current Self Concept

~ YBTAIAWWYHBTAY ~ You Begin To Act In Accordance With What You Have Been Told About Yourself

~ ANHPIBC-IBY ~ A Negative Habit Pattern Is Beyond Control – It Behaves You

~ SMWBDAAHDCTPFM ~ Success Might Well Be Defined As A Highly Developed Capacity To Profit From Mistakes

~ POMTAUBNI-ANHP ~ Patterns Of Mistakes That Are Unchanged By New Information – Are Negative Habit Patterns

~ TANBIHOG ~ There Are No Benefits In Holding Onto Guilt

~ TROGIOOTGGTOPCGTTOTA ~ The Removal Of Guilt Is One Of The Great Gifts That One Person Can Give To Themselves Or To Another

~ EPGDOGICOOH ~ Effective Personal Growth Depends On Gaining Increased Control Over Our Habits

~ ETWTASU-WNTROMAROAAACI ~ Each Time We Take A Step Up – We Need To Reevaluate Our Motivation And Refine Our Awareness And Acquire Current Information

~ BTAMTROTNPANR ~ Being Truly Alive Means To Remain Open To New Possibilities And New Responses

~ TSFKTPITLATMCSICH ~ The Step From Knowledge To Practice Is The Last And The Most Critical Step In Changing Habits

~ K-‘A’-IG-B-K-‘O’-ITRN ~ Knowledge – “About” – Is Good – But Knowledge – “Of” – Is The Real Necessity

~ WANWTTFOOL ~ We Are Never Without The Tools For Our Own Liberation

~ TWSG-CTOF ~ Those Who Set Goals – Create Their Own Futures

~ BWTBHAYTATYAAPWDH ~ Being Willing To Be Happy Asks You To Accept That You Are A Person Who Deserves Happiness

~ TSTASONANAN ~ To See The Actual Situation Occurring Now And Now And Now

~ YNTDOAGWOEOTP-TBSYDIRN-AOEOTF-TBSTTAGWBC ~ You Need To Decide On A Goal With One Eye On The Present – To Be Sure You Desire It Right Now – And One Eye On The Future – To Be Sure That The Achieved Goal Will Bring Contentment

~ TMSTG-TEIWBA ~ The More Specific The Goal – The Easier It Will Be Achieved

~ SGFY-ANFO ~ Set Goals For Yourself – And Not For Others

~ RTSAGAETGAAB ~ Remember That Setting A Goal Also Establishes That Goal As A Boundary

~ LSIAIORTESATW ~ Learning Something Important Always Includes Our Reactions To Each Step Along The Way

~ FITVTLTCATITLOEFY ~ Freedom Is Too Valuable To Leave To Chance And Too Important To Let Others Establish For You

~ IITTBTTRB ~ It Is To The Bold That The Rewards Belong

~ TWSWTIFNTTSOEC ~ Those Who Stop With The Initial Failures Never Taste The Sweetness Of Eventual Completion

~ WDNGWWW-BWWTWD ~ We Do Not Get What We Wish – But What We Think We Deserve

~ TAAS-NACOES ~ There Are Always Solutions – Not Always Comfortable Or Easy Solutions

~ EIIBWREAPWMA ~ Every Ideas Is Born With Rough Edges And Peppered With Mistaken Assumptions

~ IIETBACTAC ~ It Is Easier To Be A Critic Than A Creator

~ ITGTBYLGI? ~ Is This Going To Be Your Last Good Idea?

~ DTPAFACAP ~ Define The Problem As Fully And Correctly As Possible

~ FITATCITMWIBFUTD ~ Freedom Is The Ability To Choose In The Moment What Is Best For Us To Do

~ CITATDWWC ~ Capacity Is The Ability To Do What We Choose

ANDY NORMAN ~ WHAT YOU CAN DO ~ MENTAL IMMUNITY ~ 2021

~ PWI-TT-AQ-PC-EUNWFBAHTWC-IIPU ~ Play With Ideas – Test Them – Ask Questions – Pose Challenges – Explore Unsettling Notions Without Fear But Also Handle Them With Care – Information Is Profoundly Unruly

~ UTMANPKR-WBIAEDFOF-FAICHAMAWIBR ~ Understand That Minds Are Not Passive Knowledge Receptacles – Willful Belief Is An Especially Dangerous Form Of Folly – For An Ideology Can Hijack A Mind And Warp It Beyond Recognition

~ GPTS-IITYETYO-WYBATW-BOO-SBR-DYKTTBT?-H?-IYMOKTTR?-SSEATSMTAAACYD-WYBOWT?-IN-R ~ Get Past The Self-Indulgent Idea That You’re Entitled To Your Opinions – What You Believe Affects The Well-Being Of Others – So Believe Responsibly – Do You Know Them To Be True? – How? – Is Your Method Of Knowing Them Truly Reliable? – Suppose Someone Else Applied The Same Method To Arrive At A Conclusion You Deplore – Would You Be Okay With That? – If Not – Rethink

~ DB-GABF-INJ-‘U’-ETM-T-‘D’-COMSMT ~ Distinguish Between – Good And Bad Faith – It’s Not Just – “Upstream” – Evidence That Matters – The – “Downstream” – Consequences Of Mental States Matter Too

~ GUTITLIMAMOATTMKS-Y-IITL-NF-B-IAITU-‘AF’-IGI-B-WATUBI-NAIIYB?-TTTAI ~ Give Up The Idea That Learning Is Merely A Matter Of Adding To The Mind’s Knowledge Stockpile – Yes – It’s Important To Learn – New Facts – But – It’s Also Important To Unlearn – “Alternative Facts” – Install Good Information – But – Work Also To Uninstall Bad Information – Notice An Inconsistency In Your Beliefs? – Take Time To Address It

~ DU-‘WTS’-TCSUI-‘C-WTS;WEWT-R?’-IINOTKKTHQDTR ~ Don’t Use – “Who’s To Say? – To Cut Short Unsettling Inquires – “Clearly – We’re To Say; Who Else Will Take – Responsibility?” – It Is Not Okay To Keep Kicking The Hard Questions Down The Road

LGOTITVJCBO-KRIAV-A-CRIAV:TTAACAAMT-TNTWCD-RSUOWGAR-I-M-LIG ~ Let Go Of The Idea That Value Judgments Can’t Be Objective – Kindness Really Is A Virtue – And – Cruelty Really Is A Vice: These Truths Are As Certain As Any Mathematical Theorem – The Notion That We Can’t Develop – Responsible Shared Understanding Of What’s Good And Right – Is – Mistaken – Let It Go

~ TCTYBAORTT-T-B/A/I-OY-TAY-ACTTINWDYW-SDGD;ITOYCABALOTYA-HET-EY-EITPITETBM-D-E-TDTHATUTL ~ Treat Challenges To Your Beliefs As Opportunities Rather Than Threats – Those – Beliefs / Assumptions / Ideas – Of Yours – They Aren’t You – A Challenge To Them In No Way Diminishes Your Worth – So Don’t Get Defensive; Instead Think Of Your Challenger As Bringing A Learning Opportunity To Your Attention – Honor Efforts To – Enlighten You – Even If They Prove In The End To Be Misguided – De-Escalate – Turn Down The Heat And Turn Up The Light

~ PDOD-EO-MIAT ~ Promote Dialogue Over Dogma – Encourage Open-Mindedness In All Things

~ UYUO-RB-TBSHAIPOTUC-HYCUVQ? ~ Upgrade Your Understanding Of – Reasonable Belief – The Best-Supported Hypotheses Are In Principle Open To Unanticipated Challenges – Has Your Conviction Undergone Vigorous Questioning?

~ DUTVOITHSS-B-BR-WN-TRADT-T-TPYVIA ~ Don’t Underestimate The Value Of Ideas That Have Survived Scrutiny – But – Be Ready – When Needed – To Reexamine And Discard Them – Think – Then Put Your Values Into Action

ANDY NORMAN ~ MENTAL IMMUNITY ~ 2021

~ APOI ~ A Plague Of Ideologies

~ BI-A-MP-PTQL-IM ~ Bad Ideas – Are – Mind Parasites – Pathogens That Quite Literally – Infect Minds

~ H-M-H-IS:OT-KBIAB-S-TSDAPW-S-BIOTATDM-IF-AMDCCUCKOS-ETKOSISTT ~ Happily – Minds – Have – Immune Systems: Operations That – Keep Bad Ideas At Bay – Sadly – These Systems Don’t Always Perform Well – Sometimes – Bad Ideas Overrun Them And Thoroughly Disorder Minds – In Fact – A Mind’s Defenses Can Collapse Under Certain Kinds Of Stress – Especially The Kind Of Stresses Ideologies Subject Them To

~ T-EOU-WWT?-IRIACID ~ That – Epidemic Of Unreason – We’re Witnessing Today? – It’s Rooted In A Cultural Immune Disorder

~ WAO-C-‘T’-IMTST-OTBEB-DAP-ETV:TSJ-WFAMTOL ~ When An Out-Group – “Them” – Is Made To Seem Threatening – Our Thinking Becomes Especially Bent – Demagogues And Propagandists – Exploit These Vulnerabilities: They Stoke Judgment-Warping Fears And Manipulate Their Own Loyalists

~ WFTA-BQ-ES-SB-A-SOWTC ~ We Fail To Ask – Basic Questions – Embrace Self-Serving Beliefs – And – Saddle Others With The Costs

~ T-GV-IT-O-ODP-PTWFE-TIAHPFH-A-AHB-BN-W-IC-IHBA-ET ~ The – Garden-Variety – Irresponsible Thinking – Of – Otherwise Decent People – Paves The Way For Extremism – This Is A Huge Problem For Humanity – And – Always Has Been – But Now – With – Internet Connectivity – It Has Become An – Existential Threat

~ MM ~ Mental Malware

~ P-IIVTPI-ICSDB-F/D/D-BI-UPTP ~ Propaganda – Induces Its Victims To Propagate It – Ideas Can Spread Despite Being – False / Delusional / Destructive – Bad Ideas – Use People To Proliferate

~ AICB-S-TB-B-L-TH ~ An Idea Can Be – Short-Term Beneficial – But – Long-Term Harmful

~ AIC-BIH-W-HO ~ An Idea Can – Benefit Its Host – While – Harming Others

~ IUT-U-TFOBI-WNTCO-PI-JAWCO-PB ~ It’s Up To – Us – To Filter Out Bad Ideas – We Need To Call Out – Problematic Ideas – Just As We Call Out – Problematic Behaviours

~ I-C-S/A/C/D/D-COATTICAIW ~ Ideas – Can – Seduce / Addict / Confuse / Disorient / Derange – Compromise Our Ability To Think In Clear And Impartial Ways

~ I-A-CROB-A-FBOW-ROM ~ Ideas – Are – Constantly Rewiring Our Brains – And – For Better Or Worse – Remaking Our Minds

~ CI ~ Cognitive Immunology

~ U-QAR-TTI-A-PCATWH ~ Use – Questions And Reasons – To Test Ideas – And – Pay Close Attention To What Happens

~ ‘WTSWAIIGOB?”-TAIS-WA-WWFTAI-TBOPAEUCH ~ “Who’s To Say Whether An Idea Is Good Or Bad?” – The Answer Is Simple – We Are – When We Fail To Assess Ideas – The Bad Ones Proliferate And End Up Causing Harm

~ CID ~ Cognitive Immune Disrupter

~ WITR-TTTBRT-RR-T-SDCT-O-ECTFCS ~ When Ideologies Take Root – They Tend To Become Resistant To – Rational Revision – They – Shut Down Critical Thinking – Or – Exempt Core Tenets From Critical Scrutiny

~ MI ~ Mental Immunity

~ BYHATA-IWTHNTUBI ~ Believing You Have All The Answers – Interferes With The Humility Needed To Unlearn Bad Ideas

~ A-WF-WT-CPI-OD ~ A – Weakness For – Wishful Thinking – Can Progress Into – Outright Derangement

~ NYST-YOATU-A-ICCI-TP ~ Nurse Your Sense That – Your Opinions Are Treated Unfairly – And – It Can Curdle Into – Toxic Partisanship

~ IIT-A-YWCDAFR ~ Ignore Inconvenient Truths – And – Your Worldview Can Drift Away From Reality

~ FTRTIIYO-A-YSTSOMC ~ Fail To Resolve The Inconsistencies In Your Outlook – And – You Sow The Seed Of Moral Confusion

~ ATO-T-S-S-O-S-S-A~ Accept Things On – The – Say-So – Of – Self-Styled – Authorities – Increases Susceptibility To Demagoguery

~ HM ~ Hijacked Minds

~ WWCYM? ~ What Would Change Your Mind?

~ C-WU-C-ATTRRW? ~ Can – Willful Unreason – Compromise – Ability To Tell Right From Wrong?

~ BDT-RC-A-Y-MC-ILTGH ~ Become Deaf To – Reason’s Call – And – Your – Moral Compass – Is Likely To Go Haywire

~ ‘IPT’-WITI-IVHTTI-F-MW ~ “Identity-Protective Thinking” – When Information Threatens Identity – It’s Very Hard To Think In – Fair-Minded Ways

~ HCTS-INGTYAT-O-ATWAC ~ Having – Critical Thinking Skills – Is No Guarantee That You’ll Apply Them – Or – Apply Them With Any Consistency

~ A-GHM-IOTP-IDBRAR-IHITTSSIATO ~ A – Genuinely Healthy Mind – Is Open To Persuasion – It Distinguishes Between Reasoning And Rationalizing – It Holds Itself To The Same Standards It Applies To Others

~ WN-MN-T-R-MTTLHNBR ~ We Need – Moral Norms – To – Regulate – Many Things The Law Has No Business Regulating

~ T-‘VAS’-I-HR-OD-PCI-‘R’-II-F-T-VIIP-I-DIQ-I-KC-A-BAFM ~ The – “Values Are Subjective” – Idea – Hamstrings Resolution-Oriented Dialogue – Philosophers Call It – “Relativism” – It Implies – Falsely – That – Value Inquiry Is Pointless – It – Delegitimates Important Questions – It – Kills Curiosity – And – Breeds A Fixed Mindset

~ IIUTBAIO-SVF-WSPOTYIDOMSAM-TADYAK-IWSSDTAU-CTGSITFOQ ~ It Is Unwise To Build An Identity On – Shaky Value Foundations – When Someone Points Out That You’re In Danger Of Making Such A Mistake – They’re Arguably Doing You A Kindness – It’s Worth Suffering Some Discomfort To Acquire Understanding – Conviction That’s Genuinely Stable In The Face Of Questioning

~ IAIFU-MWCTI-EAIEAB ~ If An Idea Feels Useful – Many Will Cling To It – Even After It’s Exposed As Baseless

~ B-WAYBEOTW-BOO?-ATIT? ~ But – What About Your Beliefs’ Effect On The Well-Being Of Others? – Aren’t They Important Too?

~ DORSOOR? ~ Don’t Our Responsibilities Sometimes Override Our Rights?

~ A-WLDV-‘T’-T-E/I/T-D ~ Authoritarians – Will Label Dissenting Views – “Traitorous” – Then – Exile / Imprison / Torture – Dissidents

~ HTT-CBR-DEW ~ History Teaches That – Coercive Belief Regulation – Doesn’t End Well

~ CW-T-LTEIIOATGOIMOTOT ~ Culture Warriors – Typically – Locate The Evil Ideas In Others And The Good Ones In Members Of Their Own Tribe

~ PF-AT-IE-OAB-ILATTCD:ITTB-IA-A-R-A-IT ~ Pointing Fingers – At The – Ideological Elements – Of Another’s Beliefs – Is Like Admonishing Them To Calm Down: It Tends To Backfire – It Arouses – Anger – Resentment – And – Irrational Tenacity

~ RSU ~ Responsible Shared Understanding

~ IT-A-RLTOA-W-OM-PR-A-ADS ~ Inquiring Together – And – Really Listening To One Another – Was – Opening Minds – Provoking Reflection – And – Altering Deep Sensibilities

~ RT-DW-DB-T-EOI-CI ~ Real Thinkers – Don’t Wage – Dialectical Battle – They – Engage Others In – Collaborative Inquiry

~ TP-TWOI-YNT-CQI-B-YGTRTTTATWHTI-VTSAA-LO-PYWL-PTO-EW-AOHATBSU ~ To Practice – The Way Of Inquiry – You Need To – Challenge Questionable Ideas – But – You’ve Got To Resist The Temptation To Attack Those Who Host Those Ideas – View The Situation As A – Learning Opportunity – Perhaps You Will Learn – Perhaps The Other – Either Way – An Opportunity Has Arisen To Build Shared Understanding

~ MP ~ Mind-Parasites

~ OBHIFTW-BOO-TICB-LOS-HOB-ABBECBHTT-B-TVN-BAODTBICW ~ Our Beliefs Have Implications For The Well-Being Of Others – These Implications Can Be – Large Or Small – Harmful Or Beneficial – A Belief’s Behavioral Effects Can Be Hard To Trace – But – By Their Very Nature – Beliefs Alter Our Disposition To Behave In Characteristic Ways

~ OIAH-B-UCDOIO ~ Overregulation Is A Hazard – But – Underregulation Carries Dangers Of Its Own

~ O-M-A-MC-CTOE-T-PSIAE ~ Our – Minds – Are – Makeshift Contraptions – Cobbled Together Over Eons – To – Promote Survival In Ancestral Environments

~ O-BS-AWB-TA ~ Our – Belief Systems – Are Warped By – Tribal Allegiance

~ WCTIARAW-B-AOT-WOT-DPI-A-OWTPF ~ We Can Test Ideas About Right And Wrong – By – Among Other Things – Working Out Their – Downstream Pragmatic Implications – And – Observing Whether They Promote Flourishing

~ RF ~ Reason’s Fulcrum

~ IYT-Y-BR-I-Y-YTM ~ I’ll Yield To – Your – Better Reasons – If – You – Yield To Mine

~ DWADCBOP ~ Dialogue With A Detractor Can Broaden Our Perspective

~ I ~ Ideodemic

~ UTBR-IJAFOBUTSTF-IAAFOBUTYTT ~ Unresponsiveness To Better Reasons – Isn’t Just A Function Of Being Unable To See Their Force – It’s Also A Function Of Being Unwilling To Yield To Them

~ WATTTTTOCI ~ We’re Averse To Thinking Thoughts That Threaten Our Chosen Identities

~ S-WOSRATAO-ES-I-WSORF-F-T-A-P ~ Sadly – We Often Sacrifice Reason At The Altar Of – Economic Self-Interest – We Sell Out Reason For – Fame – Too – And – Power

~ IDTRW-W-YNTRPTFLADHB ~ It’s Difficult To Reason Well – When – You Need To Reason Poorly To Feel Like A Decent Human Being

~ RBCWQ ~ Reasonable Beliefs Can Withstand Questioning

MICHAEL SANDEL ~ THE TYRANNY OF MERIT ~ 2020

~ WBOTCG? ~ What’s Become Of The Common Good?

~ WNTAWTSTOFP-ITLMFB-TPOM-O-TSACGBTSATS ~ We Need To Ask Whether The Solution To Our Fractious Politics – Is To Live More Faithfully By – The Principle Of Merit – Or – To Seek A Common Good Beyond The Sorting And The Striving

~ B-TRORNRH-ITE-IINETR-MWNERTTMC ~ But – The Rhetoric Of Rising Now Rings Hollow – In Today’s Economy – It Is Not Easy To Rise – Most Will Not Even Rise To The Middle Class

~ T-TCWT-HM-TTBTWT-GE-TATR-IS-DLO-TSOP-TOAT=E=HC-A-OR-TEPTSITWOW ~ Today – The Countries With The – Highest Mobility – Tend To Be Those With The – Greatest Equality – The Ability To Rise – It Seems – Depends Less On – The Spur Of Poverty – Than On Access To – Education – Health Care – And – Other Resources – That Equip People To Succeed In The World Of Work

~ ASRTTGBRAPMRDWIOPAW-RT-RCWTPOHPSUALWRGFAFA ~ Any Serous Response To The Gap Between Rich And Poor Must Reckon Directly With Inequalities Of Power And Wealth – Rather Than – Rest Content With The Project Of Helping People Scramble Up A Ladder Whose Rungs Grow Father And Farther Apart

~ M-IIUWTTDTORTM-DSLOTS-TWCTMI-A-MITCOTPP-OTMQ-TAISMPP:TMAATMEP-ATWAAATL-ATW-IGH-ATL-HAR ~ Morally – It Is Unclear Why The Talented Deserve The Outsize Rewards That Market-Driven Societies Lavish On The Successful – Those Who Celebrate The Meritocratic Ideal – And – Make It The Center Of Their Political Project – Overlook This Moral Question – They Also Ignore Something More Politically Potent: The Morally Attractive Attitudes The Meritocratic Ethic Promotes – Among The Winners And Also Among The Losers – Among The Winners – It Generates Hubris – Among The Losers – Humiliation And Resentment

~ TPCIATTOM-A-TCIJ ~ The Populist Complaint Is About The Tyranny Of Merit – And – The Complaint Is Justified

~ TNT-TSR-TAHW-ETW-TCTSTOD-AMOTV-A-TLDUTLFTT-MH-RTTOWTITDOTS-TFT-CAGF-THTOTW-IIT-SC-OT-WLOT-TTDTF-A-T-TOTB-DTT ~ The Notion That – The System Rewards – Talent And Hard Work – Encourages The Winners – To Consider Their Success Their Own Doing – A Measure Of Their Virtue – And – To Look Down Upon Those Less Fortunate Than Themselves – Meritocratic Hubris – Reflects The Tendency Of Winners To Inhale Too Deeply Of Their Success – To Forget The – Luck And Good Fortune – That Helped Them On Their Way – It Is The – Smug Conviction – Of Those – Who Land On Top – That They Deserve Their Fate – And – That – Those On The Bottom – Deserve Theirs Too

~ T- T-CG-IUMI-ET-IILACSODTBOC-TA-SCP-AMBT-GDP-TMFA-IPD ~ Today – The – Common Good – Is Understood Mainly In – Economic Terms – It Is Less About Cultivating Solidarity Or Deepening The Bonds Of Citizenship – Than About – Satisfying Consumer Preferences – As Measured By The – Gross Domestic Product – This Makes For An – Impoverished Public Discourse

~ WPF-PA-TD-CEO-NMTT-WINO-OE-SM-IWPTPOAWRL-C-ATPS-FT-EPD-FAD-TRSTTAO-RPD-DNMTNPABD-ISMTABDE-OOPV-B-AA(OCBTITR)-B-CBABM-B-CL-W-CC-BIWPO ~ What Passes For – Political Argument – These Days – Consists Either Of – Narrow Managerial Technocratic Talk – Which Inspires No One – Or Else – Shouting Matches – In Which Partisans Talk Past One Another Without Really Listening – Citizens – Across The Political Spectrum – Find This – Empty Public Discourse – Frustrating And Disempowering – They Rightly Sense That The Absence Of – Robust Public Debate – Does Not Mean That No Policies Are Being Decided – It Simply Means They Are Being Decided Elsewhere – Out Of Public View – By – Administrative Agencies (Often Captured By The Industries They Regulate) – By – Central Banks And Bond Markets – By – Corporate Lobbyists – Whose – Campaign Contributions – Buy Influence With Public Officials

~ FD-O-M-DG-H-HOPD-DOC-A-PAPB ~ Four Decades – Of – Market-Driven Globalization – Have – Hollowed Out Public Discourse – Disempowered Ordinary Citizens – And – Prompted A Populist Backlash

~ B-IIOTTHPRFAM;IISETATWA-EOU-WRFOLIL ~ But – It Is One Thing To Hold People Responsible For Acting Morally; It Is Something Else To Assume That We Are – Each Of Us – Wholly Responsible For Our Lot In Life

~ TNTOFROM-RDIT-MI-O-WC-IRTBTTMUIAIAWTAPWMASWW-T-MWOT-GRTHATTWSM-TMATS-TGTSTTVHBIOH[H]~ The Notion That Our Fate Reflects Our Merit – Runs Deep In The – Moral Intuitions – Of – Western Culture – It Reflects The Belief That The Moral Universe Is Arranged In A Way That Aligns Prosperity With Merit And Suffering With Wrongdoing – This – Meritocratic Way Of Thinking – Gives Rise To Harsh Attitudes Toward Those Who Suffer Misfortune – The More Acute The Suffering – The Greater The Suspicion That The Victim Has Brought It On Himself[/Herself]

~ MOTF-TS-WFL-AAFAMPOV ~ Many Of The Factors – That Separate – Winners From Losers – Are Arbitrary From A Moral Point Of View

~ TMWVOAS-MAS-S-TLLWATCFTFOTLFTO-IMSIMOD-TFMBTF-TLMMCOC-TSANOPRFOFMIHTIOIOPS ~ The More We View Ourselves As Self-Made And Self-Sufficient – The Less Likely We Are To Care For The Fate Of Those Less Fortunate Than Ourselves – If My Success Is My Own Doing – Their Failure Must Be Their Fault – This Logic Makes Meritocracy Corrosive Of Commonality – Too Strenuous A Notion Of Personal Responsibility For Our Fate Makes It Hard To Imagine Ourselves In Other People’s Shoes

~ TROR ~ The Rhetoric Of Responsibility

~ FD-ME-ITMT-TW-WHAPBTR-CRAFATTWTT-TDNNTFT-SATBOSTSA-T-ROR-WLAPTAT ~ For Decades – Meritocratic Elites – Intoned The Mantra That – Those Who – Work Hard And Play By The Rules – Can Rise As Far As Their Talents Will Take Them – They Did Not Notice That For Those – Stuck At The Bottom Or Struggling To Stay Afloat – The – Rhetoric Of Rising – Was Less A Promise Than A Taunt

~ C:TLAP ~ Credentialism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice

~ ‘SVD’- BTD-EOI-C-L-‘JVU’-O-‘RVW’ ~ “Smart Versus Dumb” – Began To Displace – Ethical Or Ideological – Contrasts – Like – “Just Versus Unjust” – Or – “Right Versus Wrong”

~ T-‘STTD’-A-PTA-POS-IR-TDNDO-MC ~ The – “Smart Thing To Do” – Always – Pointed To A – Prudential Or Self-Interested Reason – That Did Not Depend On – Moral Considerations

~ TNT-‘TBATB’-ABAG-TT-L-C-FC-I-AMBOMH ~ The Notion That – “The Best And The Brightest” – Are – Better At Governing – Than Their – Less-Credentialed – Fellow Citizens – Is – A Myth Born Of Meritocratic Hubris

~ P-TO-RW-I-RME ~ Parties – That Once – Represented Workers – Increasingly – Represented Meritocratic Elites

~ WMFAMITEHAECTCTLOS;IHNTSAHFATROTLSB-T-MI-INA-ROI-IIA-JOI ~ What Matters For A Meritocracy Is That Everyone Has An Equal Chance To Climb The Ladder Of Success; It Has Nothing To Say About How Far Apart The Rungs On The Ladder Should Be – The – Meritocratic Ideal – Is Not A – Remedy Of Inequality – It Is A – Justification Of Inequality

~ AT-AOG-BRWTT-W-C-IDNFMOW-PI-B-WRASASSOWTP-W-EASCALS ~ Although The – Age Of Globalization – Brought Rich Rewards To – The Well-Credentialed – It Did Not Nothing For Most Ordinary Workers – Productivity Increased – But – Workers Reaped A Smaller And Smaller Share Of What They Produced – While – Executives And Shareholders Captured A Larger Share

~ OTLSD-TIT-TMWMRTVOOSC-HBDE ~ Over The Last Several Decades – The Idea That – The Money We Make Reflects The Value Of Our Social Contribution – Has Become Deeply Embedded

~ M-FA-HRTP-EG-TDPATEI-SP-MTDOTWEAL-P-U-GAS-IT-RE ~Much – Financial Activity – Hinders Rather Than Promotes – Economic Growth – The Disproportionate Prestige Accorded Those Engaged In – Speculative Pursuits – Mocks The Dignity Of Those Who Earn A Living – Producing – Useful – Goods And Services – In The – Real Economy

~ A-PA-TRT-DOW-WUT-TS-TRTEOEB-DS-A-HPL ~ A – Political Agenda – That Recognizes The – Dignity Of Work – Would Use The – Tax System – To Reconfigure The Economy Of Esteem By – Discouraging Speculation – And – Honoring Productive Labor

MARCEL DANESI ~ THE ART OF THE LIE ~ 2020

~ SLAD-THTATTWIWTCDPAEO ~ Skilful Liars Are Dangerous – They Have The Ability To Twist Words Into Weapons That Can Divide People Against Each Other

~ DPEAIAOTAOAAC? ~ Do Political Expediency And Ideological Agendas Override Truth And Objectivity At Any Cost?

~ TSOLLFUTTD-LIATFITFOAP ~ The Stories Of Legendary Liars Fascinate Us To This Day – Lying Is A Theme Found In The Folklore Of All Peoples

~ TH-DBTALHBACOOPAT ~ Throughout History – Distinguishing Between Truth And Lies Has Been A Central Objective Of Philosophy And Theology

~ P-ANOTIHH-H-M-FSAFG-F-SPAH-AITCWO-SM ~ Perhaps – At Not Other Time In Human History – Has – Mendacity – Found Such A Fertile Ground – For – Stoking Prejudice And Hatred – As In The Contemporary World Of – Social Media

~ TINRWANFI ~ There Is No Reality Without A Name For It

~ TD-ATUO-L-TAMOI-TASTBRTNTT-IT-L ~ Truthful Discourse – And The Use Of – Logic – To Argue Matters Of Importance – These Are Still The Best Remedies To Neutralize The Tactics – In The – Lie

~ SA-UAV-DWFTNM-TSTFL ~ Semantic Ambiguity – Uncertainty And Vagueness – Disconnecting Words From Their Normal Meanings – To Snatch Truth From Language

~ FE ~ False Equivalency

~ WAH-DIB-TCAF-TIWG-F-SI ~ We All Harbor – Deeply Ingrained Beliefs – That Color And Filter – The Information We Glean – From – Social Interactions

~ CN-APTO-MC-STADTS-DEB ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Are Powerful Tools Of – Mind Control – Since They Are Designed To Stoke – Deeply Engrained Beliefs

~ CN-ROTBPO-M-NHBA-NIAIS-EIC ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Rely On Three Basic Principles Of – Mythos – Nothing Happens By Accident – Nothing Is As It Seems – Everything Is Connected

~ CN-WP-BTABO-ASUOM ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Work Psychologically – Because They Are Based On – A Strategic Use Of Metaphor

~ LC-A-I-TAPATWOT-‘E’-ATED ~ Logical Counterarguments – Are – Ineffectual – Because They Are Perceived As The Words Of The – “Enemy” – And Thus Easily Dismissed

~ TIN-MC-W-VC ~ There Is No – Mind Control – Without – Vocabulary Control

~ CS ~ Confabulated Stories

~ OOT-PT-O-PR:TAO-‘O’ ~ One Of The – Primary Tactics – Of – Political Repression: The Attack On – “Otherness”

~ “Enemies From Within”

WAL-STBD-I-TSII-TLIPAI-A-ITUSWSMBHFU ~ We Are All – Susceptible To Being Deceived – If – The Story Is Interesting – The Language Is Persuasive And Immediate – And – It Tells Us Something We Suspect May Be Hidden From Us

~ IAIR ~ Innuendo And Indirect Reference

~ PAMT-ED-B-WAG ~ People Are Much Too – Easily Deceived – By – Words And Gifts

~ S-B-TM-A-ATH-DAKO-A-RM ~ Saying – B – To Mean – A – And Then – Denying Any Knowledge Of – A’s – Real Meaning

~ TGP ~ The Great Pretender

~ B-TDIT-WLTA ~ But – The Danger Is That – Words Lead To Actions

~ CW-CHWP-T ~ Changing Words – Changes How We Perceive – Things

~ AN ~ AttackoNyms

~ HCALCSEAL-P-A/D-DA-TM-ML-IA-MP ~ How Can A Liar Call Someone Else A Liar – Projection – Attack / Defensive – Deflect Attention – The Master – Machiavellian Liar – Is A – Master Projector

~ D/D/D ~ Denial / Deflection / Distraction

~ ‘W’-AODC-B-CT-OO-OTSTOWTAAY-WRTIAODIIAW ~ “Whataboutism” – Attack Or Discredit Critics – By – Charging Them – Or Others – Of The Same Thing Of Which They Are Accusing You – Without Refuting The Initial Attack Or Disproving It In Any Way

~ LCTWWSTIOM ~ Language Conditions The Way We See Things In Our Mind

~ TFO-BD-IS-DE-TIIET-DTF-OE-ETA-IS-S-I-W-TTAT ~ The Feeling Of – Being Duped – Is So – Destructive Emotionally – That It Is Easier To – Deny The Facts – Or Else – Explain Them Away – In Some – Self-Illusory – Way – Than To Accept Them

JEFF FAUX ~ THE SERVANT ECONOMY ~ 2012

~ FASTCPO-WASATDODF ~ For A Society That Constantly Promotes Optimism – We Are Surprisingly Addicted To Depictions Of Dystopian Futures

~ M-DE-T-CNHBF-A-RTWCA ~ Major – Dislocating Events – That – Could Not Have Been Foretold – Are – Rarer Than We Commonly Acknowledge

~ HACS-DNATT-TW-‘E’ ~ History And Common Sense – Did Not Apply To Them – They Were – “Exceptional”

~ B-TWDTEOTC-DNEUSOPB ~ But – Those Who Drove The Economy Off The Cliff – Did Not End Up Sleeping On Park Benches

~ TCFPASSFTFHCFTGTTWGTNF ~ The Call For Patience And Shared Sacrifice For The Future Has Costs For The Governed That Those Who Govern Typically Never Face

~ WTFW-A-U-W-TBOA-FB-O-A-ED-O-COO-HBGAFT-TATT-T-GC-PNTDOI-PM-R-IUUTMOTA-BT ~ Whether The Folly Was – An – Unnecessary – War – The Bursting Of A – Financial Bubble – Or – An – Environmental Disaster – Our – Culture Of Optimism – Has Been Generous And Forgiving To – Those At The Top – The – Governing Class – Prefers Not To Dwell On Its – Past Mistakes – Rather – It Urges Us To Move On To A – Better Tomorrow

~ YDBAMOT-GC-B-CTSQ ~ You Don’t Become A Member Of The – Governing Class – By – Challenging The Status Quo

~ TROGIFM-NLWTRT-CTTOTMTSAB-NWITDTBBTP-IWT-IOATDHBD-DTRO-L-F-TGRITERC-B-TRHC-IPNW-TIATDHC-T-PUTP-PTBT-A-HTROTCPFTD ~ The Role Of Government In Financial Markets – No Longer Was That Role To – Control The Tendency Of The Markets Toward Speculative Asset Bubbles – Nor Was It To Diffuse The Bubbles Before They Popped – It Was To – Intervene Only After The Damage Had Been Done – Despite The Rhetoric Of – Laissez-Faire – The Government’s Role In The Economy Remained Critical – But – That Role Had Changed – Its Purpose Now Was – To Intervene After The Damage Had Occurred – To – Pick Up The Pieces – Put Them Back Together – And – Have The Rest Of The Country Pay For The Damage

~ T-HFDALTI-IA-EUM ~ That – High Federal Deficits Always Lead To Inflation – Is An – Economic Urban Myth

~ T-L-BAIF-A-TBTF-TGTM-A-TPTR ~ The – Largest – Banks And Investment Firms – Are – Too Big To Fail – Too Global To Monitor – And – Too Powerful To Regulate

~ PS-B-D-I-LA-STBPW-TW-WBEMOADCT-S-E ~ Personal Service – By – Definition – Is – Largely About – Satisfying The Boss’s Personal Whims – The Workplace – Will Become Even More Of A Daily Challenge To – Self-Esteem

~ WCET-M-B/T/H-W-FOB ~ We Can Expect That – More – Bridges / Tunnels / Highways – Will – Fall Or Breakdown

~ NOD-YBYJ-OT-YTTSTEWTTLOTWYD ~ Not Only Do – You Become Your Job – Over Time – You Tend To See The Economic World Through The Lens Of The Work You Do

~ N-EP-TI-DO-M-F-T-RR-A-T-GC-WATAOET ~ No – Established Party – That Is – Dependent On – Money – From – The – Reactionary Rich – And – The – Globalizing Corporations – Will Act To Alter Our Economic Trajectory

~ T-IOMIP-ETT-G-WIOBOCI-N-T-MC ~ The – Influence Of Money In Politics – Ensures That The – Government – Will Intervene On Behalf Of Corporate Interests – Not – The – Middle Class

THOMAS HOMER DIXON ~ COMMANDING HOPE ~ 2020

~ TPWHTRAWIP ~ The Power We Have To Renew A World In Peril

~ A-‘S’-G-OT-CAS-T-ES-T-OAO-AT-CBAWC ~ A – “Superordinate” – Goal – One That’s – Clear And Specific – That – Everyone Shares – That – Overrides All Others – And That – Can’t Be Achieved Without Cooperation

~ WBT-1.5D-T-IN-I-IWBOOT-S-P-SF-PSHFP ~ Warming Beyond The – 1.5 Degree – Threshold – Is Now – Inevitable – It Will Be One Of The – Slow-Process – Structural Factors – Profoundly Shaping Humanity’s Future Possibilities

~ OC-CAFMDFSTO-B-ITDCWUCU-AOU-TWI-WEFO-BNC ~ Of Course – Conditions Are Far More Dire For Some Than Others – But – If The Dangerous Changes We’ve Unleashed Continue Unabated – All Of Us – The Wealthiest Included – Will Eventually Find Our – Basic Needs Compromised

~ IWGTPT-WN-PAG-TCTFA-IAC-VOTF-T-PE-CTTH-AICWEO-A-RA-AT-WWETTR ~ If We’re Going To Pull Together – We Need – Principles And Goals – That Combine To Form An – Inspiring And Coherent – Vision Of The Future – That – People Everywhere – Can Take To Heart – Affirm In Conversation With Each Other – And – Rally Around – And Then – Work With Excitement Together To Reach

~ RPTH ~ ~ The Path To Hope

~ HB-CCNAOT-SR-SB-BTTR-CTBAT-A-TACTOT ~ Human Beings – Can Create New Aspects Of Their – Social Reality – Simply By – Believing That They’re Real – Communicating Those Beliefs Among Themselves – And – Then Acting Concretely Together On Them

~ IOCADETDUTAMUS-TCATCOTSMR-HUT-VAOD-THAO-PAB-TC-A-EE-TTTPUAAMUD ~ Instead Of Creating A Digital Environment That Draws Us Together And Makes Us Smarter – The Companies At The Core Of The Social Media Revolution – Have Used The – Vast Amounts Of Data – They Harvest About Our – Preferences And Behaviors – To Create – An – Emotional Environment – That Tends To Pull Us Apart And Make Us Dumber

~ M-E-O-S-A-C-O-L-GMR-B-CA-AIE-O-C-CAE-S-A-ATETWBA-O-A-(S)A-SEMUFCI-EUTCIGOL-MFPP-A-DTTBDPTEFACOW-TAU-TA-S-EOFITF ~ More – Eyeballs – On – Sites – And – Clicks – On – Links – Generate More Revenue – By – Creating An – Addictive Information Environment – Of – Constant – Cognitive And Emotional – Stimulus – And – Among The Emotions That Work Best Are – Outrage – And – (Social) Anxiety – Such Emotions Make Us Feel Chronically Insecure – Encourage Us To Coalesce Into Groups Of The Like-Minded For Psychological Protection – And – Dissolve The Trust Between Divers Peoples That’s Essential For A Consensus On What’s – True And Untrue – They Also – Subtly – Erode Our Faith In The Future

~ MME-A-PC-A-T-C-WPITRD-CB-AEFFG ~ Modern Market Economies – Are – Prodigiously Creative – And – That – Creativity – When Pointed In The Right Direction – Can Be – An Extraordinary Force For Good

~ ‘MI’ ~ “Motivated Inference”

~ HIDEIN-A-S-IDOI ~ Humanity Is Deeply Enmeshed In Nature – And – So – Intimately Dependent On It

~ B-MOUSWOCW-EWAESINBU-B-IOOR-A-GOLM ~ But – Most Of Us Stick With Our Current Worldview – Even When Abundant Evidence Shows It’s Not Benefiting Us – Because – It Orders Our Reality – And – Gives Our Lives Meaning

~ IISITHOCBTCMAD ~ It’s So Important To Help Our Children Believe They Can Make A Difference

~ H-IIF-D-O-I-W-C-CTBD ~ Humanity – If In Fact – Doomed – Only – If – We – Collectively – Choose To Be Doomed

~ H-CAW-AIUP-UEOU-FABROC-TOOAFTPT-AMOAC-‘W’ ~ Humanity – Can’t And Won’t – Address Its Urgent Problems – Until Enough Of Us – From A Broad Range Of Cultures – Think Of Ourselves As Facing These Problems Together – As Members Of A Common – “We”

~ BO-CP-AN-GIBTCAS-WN-BCA-ATWS-TATS ~ Because Our – Critical Problems – Are Now – Global – In Both Their Causes And Scope – We Need – Broad Collective Action – Across The World’s Societies – To Address Them Successfully

~ ‘POC’-MB-OOO-B-LI ~ “Protect Our Children” – Must Be – One Of Our – Bottom-Line Injunctions