RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ THE SLIPPERY SLOPE ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ S-MFT-OWA-MP-HII-WSF-T-O-M/C/B ~ Skeptics Might Fear That – Once We Accept – Modest Paternalism – Highly Intrusive Interventions – Will Surely Follow – To – Outright – Manipulation / Coercion / Bans

~ ROA-S-S-A-DTQOW-PHMIAOT-P-CTCTDRTTROOTFOAHSS-IOPAW-MPOT-A-DWITT-PSOTS ~ Reliance On A – Slippery-Slope – Argument – Ducks The Question Of Whether – Proposals Have Merit In And Of Themselves – Policies – Constructive To Criticize Them Directly Rather Than To Rely Only On The Fear Of A Hypothetical Slippery Slope – If Our Proposals Are Worthwhile – Make Progress On Those – And – Do Whatever It Takes To – Pour Sand On The Slope

~ LCOOR-RTSOTOSS-P-ED-T-RFOC-SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TRDBAAM ~ Low Cost Opt-Out Rights – Reduces The Steepness Of The Ostensibly Slippery Slope – Proposals – Emphatically Designed – To – Retain Freedom Of Choice – So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Risks Decried By Antipaternalists Are Modest

~ IMC-SKONII-A-CA-W-POP-MDS ~ In Many Cases – Some Kind Of Nudge Is Inevitable – And – Choice Architects – Whether – Private Or Public – Must Do Something

~ OLTUPTPDNA-B-PAP-I-NRTDHSSAH-WTRSI-IIBPFTOASSTTDNSTARAA-B-TRANT-A-STANSS ~ Often Life Turns Up Problems That People Did Not Anticipate – Both – Private And Public – Institutions – Need Rules To Determine How Such Situations Are Handled – When Those Rules Seem Invisible – It Is Because People Find Them Obvious And So Sensible That They Do Not See Them As Rules At All – But – The Rules Are Nonetheless There – And – Sometimes They Are Not So Sensible

~ TWMTA-SS-AI-TDTTSTB-CFNOFTS-TIAM ~ Those Who Make This Argument – Sometimes Speak – As If – The Default Terms That Set The Background – Come From Nature Or From The Sky – This Is A Mistake

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ CA-TRFOTCIWPMD ~ Choice Architect – The Responsibility For Organizing The Context In Which People Make Decisions

~ TINSTAA’N’-D ~ There Is Not Such Thing As A – “Neutral” – Design

~ SAD-HSI ~ Seemingly Arbitrary Decisions – Have Subtle Influences

~ SAAID-CH-MIOPB-A-‘EM’ ~ Small And Apparently Insignificant Details – Can Have – Major Impacts On People’s Behavior – Assume – “Everything Matters”

~ TIT-‘EM’-CBB-PAE ~ The Insight That – “Everything Matters” – Can Be Both – Paralyzing And Empowering

~ LP-TPWTTITTHBCBD-T-LA-LITSIT-IG-PSBFTDWTL-A-TOOOUAITWTDS-T-PA-LITCTIILFCATTTIPBIOTMTL-L/H/B-AJBT ~ Libertarian Paternalism – The Problem With The Terms Is That They Have Been Captured By Dogmatists – The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Do What They Like – And – To Opt Out Of Undesirable Arrangements If They Want To Do So – The – Paternalistic Aspect – Lies In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Choice Architects To Try To Influence People’s Behavior In Order To Make Their Lives – Longer / Healthier / Better – As Judged By Themselves

~ IMC-IMPBD-DTWNHM-IT-HPFA-A-P-CI-UCA-A-CS-C ~ In Many Cases – Individuals Make Pretty Bad Decisions – Decisions They Would Not Have Made – If They – Had Paid Full Attention – And – Possessed – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – Complete Self-Control

~ LP-IAR-W/S/N-TOP-B-CANB/FO/SB ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak / Soft / Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked / Fenced Off / Significantly Burdened

~ A-N-IAAOT-CA-TAPBIAPWWFAOOSCTEI-TCAAM-N-TIMBEACTA-NANM ~ A – Nudge – Is Any Aspect Of The – Choice Architecture – That Alters People’s Behavior In A Predictable Way Without Forbidding Any Options Or Significantly Changing Their Economic Incentives – To Count As A Mere – Nudge – The Intervention Must Be Easy And Cheap To Avoid – Nudges Are Not Mandates

~ PTFAEL-CAAN-BJF-DN ~ Putting The Fruit At Eye Level – Counts As A Nudge – Banning Junk Food – Does Not

~ TE-SOC-RHRSQATROMJADTPM-HOS-CTHFAFAB-HDMINSGE ~ The Emerging – Science Of Choice – Research Has Raised Serous Questions About The Rationality Of Many Judgments And Decisions That People Make – Hundreds Of Studies – Confirm That Human Forecasts Are Flawed And Biased – Human Decision Making Is Not So Great Either

~ ‘SQB’-AFNF-I-FAHOR-PHASTTGAWTSQODO-RSTWTDCA-MPSWT-EWTSAMH ~ “Status Quo Bias” – A Fancy Name For – Inertia – For A Host Of Reasons – People Have A Strong Tendency To Go Along With The Status Quo Or Default Option – Research Shows That Whatever The Default Choices Are – Many People Stick With Them – Even When The Stakes Are Much Higher

~ NUTPOI-TPCBH-SDO-A-OSST-M-CS-CHHEOO ~ Never Underestimate The Power Of Inertia – That Power Can Be Harnessed – Setting Default Options – And – Other Similar Seemingly Trivial – Menu-Changing Strategies – Can Have Huge Effects On Outcomes

~ BPDB-IAN-ACIOATIPLAHSMOSMP-A-WCDSWSTOEFTC ~ By Properly Deploying Both – Incentives And Nudges – We Can Improve Our Ability To Improve People’s Lives And Help Solve Many Of Society’s Major Problems – And – We Can Do So While Still Insisting On Everyone’s Freedom To Choose

~ T-FA-ITAAPAAOTTMCTAITBIOATVLABTTCTWBMBSE-TAIF-I-OF ~ The – False Assumption – Is That Almost All People Almost All Of The Time Make Choices That Are In Their Best Interest Or At The Very Least Are Better Than The Choices That Would Be Made By Someone Else – This Assumption Is False – Indeed – Obviously False

~ HWPCIAEQ-OWAILTVAD-ISRTSTPMGCICIW-TH-E/GI/PF-TDLWICIWTA-I/PI/FISOI ~ How Well People Choose Is An Empirical Question – One Whose Answer Is Likely To Vary Across Domains – It Seems Reasonable To Say That People Make Good Choices In Contexts In Which – They Have – Experience / Good Information / Prompt Feedback – They Do Less Well In Contexts In Which They Are – Inexperienced / Poorly Informed / Feedback Is Slow Or Infrequent

~ B-ITCRU-TROIOECDAR-FTC-ITBSABCA ~ By – Insisting That Choices Remain Unrestricted – The Risks Of Inept Or Even Corrupt Designs Are Reduced – Freedom To Choose – Is The Best Safeguard Against Bad Choice Architecture

~ CACMJITTLOOBDU-FE ~ Choice Architects Can Make Major Improvements To The Lives Of Others By Designing User-Friendly Environments

~ I-IAN-R-RAB-GWBBSAMM-N-BG-J-BG-IS-LP-I-NLNR ~ If – Incentives And Nudges – Replace – Requirements And Bans – Government Will Be Both Smaller And More Modest – Not – Bigger Government – Just – Better Governance – In Short – Libertarian Paternalism – Is – Neither Left Nor Right

~ W-S-CPAMC-AC-TRIASOBO ~ When – Self-Control Problems And Mindless Choosing – Are Combined – The Result Is A Series Of Bad Outcomes

~ S-MSC-I-MAP-A-SWA-SSN-H-AEIBTSADOO ~ Sometimes – Massive Social Changes – In – Markets And Politics – Alike – Start With A – Small Social Nudge – Humans – Are Easily Influenced By The Statements And Deeds Of Others

~ HAENBOH-OR-WLTC ~ Humans Are Easily Nudged By Other Humans – One Reason – We Like To Conform

~ PBMLTCWTKTOPWSWTHTS-SPWGAWTGEWTT-O-K-TEEHB ~ People Become More Likely To Conform When They Know That Other People Will See What They Have To Say – Sometimes People Will Go Along With The Group Even When They Think – Or – Know – That Everyone Else Has Blundered

~ IMD-PATTT-ATF-TAOWEP-A-TTS-WI-BOTT-SI-AE-C-AAKS-CPLVITO ~ In Many Domains – People Are Tempted To Think – After The Fact – That An Outcome Was Entirely Predictable – And – That The Success – Was Inevitable – Beware Of That Temptation – Small Interventions – And Even – Coincidences – At A Key Stage – Can Produce Large Variations In The Outcome

~ T-SF-CHA-PE ~ The – Specific Framing – Can Have A – Powerful Effect

~ SI-CITEWWCICTM-S-TMHOAIOCWTAATCSA-T-‘P’-OISSATECBSP ~ Subtle Influences – Can Increase The Ease With Which Certain Information Comes To Mind – Sometimes – The Merest Hint Of An Idea Or Concept Will Trigger An Association That Can Stimulate Action – These – “Primes” – Occur In Social Situations And Their Effects Can Be Surprisingly Powerful

~ MPWTWOR-TLE-O-TPOLR-WONIIGFT ~ Many People Will Take Whatever Option Requires – The Least Effort – Or – The Path Of Least Resistance – Whether Or Not It Is Good For Them

~ HMM-A-W-DS-EIUTEAIAFAP ~ Humans Make Mistakes – A – Well-Designed System – Expects Its Users To Err And Is As Forgiving As Possible

~ GF-TBWTHHITPITPF-W-DS-TPWTADWAWTAMM ~ Give Feedback – The Best Way To Help Humans Improve Their Performance Is To Provide Feedback – Well-Designed Systems – Tell People When They Are Doing Well And When They Are Making Mistakes

~ AITOFIAWTTAGW-O-EMH-AATGW ~ An Important Type Of Feedback Is A Warning That Things Are Going Wrong – Or – Even More Helpful – Are About To Go Wrong

~ WS-HTATPO-OSMWTTAI ~ Warning Systems – Have To Avoid The Problem Of – Offering So Many Warnings That They Are Ignored

~ A-FQ-A-CA-WU?/WC?/WP?/WP? ~ Ask – Four Questions – About – Choice Architecture – Who Uses? / Who Chooses? / Who Pays? / Who Profits?

~ HA-LA-RS-T-HLATAMATLG ~ Humans Are – Loss Averse – Roughly Speaking – They – Hate Losses About Twice As Much As They Like Gains

~ ENABN-CAMHTOA-LUIWWC-A-E-MAT-WWC ~ Evil Nudgers And Bad Nudges – Choice Architects May Have Their Own Agendas – Line Up Incentives When We Can – And – Employ – Monitoring And Transparency – When We Can’t

~ PCA-PCA-WAB-V/MP-APGSBT-IT ~ Public Choice Architects – Private Choice Architects – Worry About Both – Voters / Maximizing Profits – A Primary Goal Should Be To – Increase Transparency

~ FPTC-INAW-A-RNINAP-DWTS-A-WTCANAS(MLAP)-I-T ~ Forcing People To Choose – Is Not Always Wise – And – Remaining Neutral Is Not Always Possible – Deciding Where To Stop – And – When To Call A Nudge A Shove (Much Less A Prison) – Is – Tricky

DONALD PROTHERO ~ REALITY CHECK ~ 2013

~ A-S-IS-WDNBTJBSPT-B-TTAE-ITEIS-T-TSMATTCIR ~ A – Skeptic – Is Someone – Who Does Not Believe Things Just Because Someone Proclaims Them – But – Tests Them Against Evidence – If The Evidence Is Solid – Then – The Skeptic Must Acknowledge That The Claim Is Real

~ A-D-I-IC-T-AAOV-A-NAOEWCTM ~ A – Denier – Is – Ideologically Committed – To – Attacking An Opposing Viewpoint – And – No Amount Of Evidence Will Change Their Minds

~ CI-H-NC ~ Crazy Ideas – Have – Negative Consequences

~ JB-TEOT-DNM-TAROCC ~ Just Because – Two Events Occurred Together – Does Not Mean – They Are Related Or Causally Connected

~ CB-HTTSWTETS-A-FWTDNME-WHETATSOEBS-A-IOTTDETSWMBW ~ Confirmation Bias – Humans Tend To See What They Expect To See – And – Forget When Things Do Not Match Expectations – We Hear Evidence That Appears To Support Our Existing Belief Systems – And – Ignore Or Try To Discount Evidence That Suggests We Might Be Wrong

~ OSCTSITQOAAINTOOC-A-UTMTOOWIAI ~ One Should Check To See If The Quotation Of An Authority Is Not Taken Out Of Context – And – Used To Mean The Opposite Of What Its Author Intended

~ YPY-OTSOY-DAA-NB-FYD ~ You Prove Yourself – On The Strength Of Your – Data And Arguments – Not By – Flaunting Your Degree

~ EITAT ~ Expertise In The Appropriate Topic

~ COI ~ Conflict Of Interest

~ BOP-WSCHBR-A-ALAOESAPEOAP-T-TBOP-FOTDWSTOTC-IINE-TPOOSPOCD-O-T-NOLI-TMSTTPOTESTV ~ Burden Of Proof – When Scientific Consensus Has Been Reached – And – A Large Amount Of Evidence Supports A Particular Explanation Of A Phenomenon – Then – The Burden Of Proof – Falls On The Dissenter Who Seeks To Overthrow The Consensus – It Is Not Enough – To Point Out One Small Piece Of Contrary Data – Or – To – Nitpick One Little Inconsistency – They Must Show That The Preponderance Of The Evidence Supports Their View

~ CINC-IIHNTTTLTETCITAATOCTO-BWSTTEAR-WNTEMCOTEOOAOA-WMPSTTDWTCBTTEIR-O-JDTRC ~ Correlation Is Not Causation – It Is Human Nature To Try To Link Two Events That Coincide In Time And Assume That One Causes The Other – Before We Say That Two Events Are Related – We Need To Examine Many Cases Of These Events Occurring Over And Over Again – We Must Perform Statistical Tests To Determine Whether The Connection Between The Two Events Is Real – Or – Just Due To Random Chance

~ ADNMS ~ Anecdotes Do Not Make Science

~ B-PAEATTCI-A-WNGTUNMWEGAT ~ But – Pseudoscientists Are Emotionally Attached To Their Cherished Ideas – And – Will Not Give Them Up No Matter What Evidence Goes Against Them

~ LATTROTE ~ Look At The Track Record Of The Expert

~ OFPPDTC? ~ Our Fellow Planetary Passengers Do They Count?

~ BAP-RTTPFCAT-SE-BTRO-E-O-SOTP-I-TOTHTOAAOTPOT-BFME-OTP-600MY-BNETIT-TC-A-B-20,000-AA-M-S-W-E-TIEFTARSITGP-B-WRDNKHMCBLBT-EPE-C ~ Biologists And Paleontologists – Refer To The Past Few Centuries As The – Sixth Extinction – Because The Rate Of – Extinction – Of – Species On This Planet – Is – Thousands Of Times Higher Than Occurred At Any Of The Previous Of The – Big Five Mass Extinctions – Of The Past – 600 Million Years – Biologists Now Estimate That In The – Twentieth Century – Alone – Between – 20,000 – And A – Million – Species – Went – Extinct – This Is Enormously Faster Than Any Rate Seen In The Geologic Past – But – We Really Do Not Know How Many Can Be Lost Before The – Entire Planetary Ecosystem – Collapses

~ TDOS-TUA ~ The – Denial Of Science – Threatens Us All

~ ME-CE:ACGNTCATBANEADPOVOAORTFTSTROTIOHOSNS ~ Media Echo-Chamber Effect: Anyone Can Get News That Confirms All Their Biases And Never Encounter A Different Point Of View Or An Outside Reality That Falsifies The Stuff They Read On The Internet Or Hear On Some News Sources

~ ‘SI’-PWA-AEIAA-WE-A-SBASM-B-WH-SBWTHL-STC-AAR-IIIITDTCABS ~ “Smart Idiots” – People Who Are – Actively Engaged In An Argument – Well Educated – And – Smart By Any Standard Measure – But – Who Have – Selectively Biased What They Have Learned – So They Can – Argue Against Reality – If It Is Important To Defending Their Community And Belief System

JAMES FADIMAN ~ BE ALL THAT YOU CAN BE ~ 19??

~ NHPMBOB-TFOL-M-A-K-P ~ Negative Habit Patterns May Be Overcome By – The Forces Of Liberation – Motivation – Awareness – Knowledge – Practice

~ TRBWTAROGMBTWAACOKAE ~ The Route Between Wishful Thinking And Realizing Our Goals Must Be Traveled With An Artful Combination Of Knowledge And Effort

~ WAY? ~ Who Are You?

~ OWYKWYACYKWYCB ~ Only When You Know Who You Are Can You Know Who You Can Become

~ TLOPEOTRPOYPIEETYCSC ~ The Level Of Personal Effectiveness Or The Realized Portion Of Your Potential Is Exactly Equal To Your Current Self Concept

~ YBTAIAWWYHBTAY ~ You Begin To Act In Accordance With What You Have Been Told About Yourself

~ ANHPIBC-IBY ~ A Negative Habit Pattern Is Beyond Control – It Behaves You

~ SMWBDAAHDCTPFM ~ Success Might Well Be Defined As A Highly Developed Capacity To Profit From Mistakes

~ POMTAUBNI-ANHP ~ Patterns Of Mistakes That Are Unchanged By New Information – Are Negative Habit Patterns

~ TANBIHOG ~ There Are No Benefits In Holding Onto Guilt

~ TROGIOOTGGTOPCGTTOTA ~ The Removal Of Guilt Is One Of The Great Gifts That One Person Can Give To Themselves Or To Another

~ EPGDOGICOOH ~ Effective Personal Growth Depends On Gaining Increased Control Over Our Habits

~ ETWTASU-WNTROMAROAAACI ~ Each Time We Take A Step Up – We Need To Reevaluate Our Motivation And Refine Our Awareness And Acquire Current Information

~ BTAMTROTNPANR ~ Being Truly Alive Means To Remain Open To New Possibilities And New Responses

~ TSFKTPITLATMCSICH ~ The Step From Knowledge To Practice Is The Last And The Most Critical Step In Changing Habits

~ K-‘A’-IG-B-K-‘O’-ITRN ~ Knowledge – “About” – Is Good – But Knowledge – “Of” – Is The Real Necessity

~ WANWTTFOOL ~ We Are Never Without The Tools For Our Own Liberation

~ TWSG-CTOF ~ Those Who Set Goals – Create Their Own Futures

~ BWTBHAYTATYAAPWDH ~ Being Willing To Be Happy Asks You To Accept That You Are A Person Who Deserves Happiness

~ TSTASONANAN ~ To See The Actual Situation Occurring Now And Now And Now

~ YNTDOAGWOEOTP-TBSYDIRN-AOEOTF-TBSTTAGWBC ~ You Need To Decide On A Goal With One Eye On The Present – To Be Sure You Desire It Right Now – And One Eye On The Future – To Be Sure That The Achieved Goal Will Bring Contentment

~ TMSTG-TEIWBA ~ The More Specific The Goal – The Easier It Will Be Achieved

~ SGFY-ANFO ~ Set Goals For Yourself – And Not For Others

~ RTSAGAETGAAB ~ Remember That Setting A Goal Also Establishes That Goal As A Boundary

~ LSIAIORTESATW ~ Learning Something Important Always Includes Our Reactions To Each Step Along The Way

~ FITVTLTCATITLOEFY ~ Freedom Is Too Valuable To Leave To Chance And Too Important To Let Others Establish For You

~ IITTBTTRB ~ It Is To The Bold That The Rewards Belong

~ TWSWTIFNTTSOEC ~ Those Who Stop With The Initial Failures Never Taste The Sweetness Of Eventual Completion

~ WDNGWWW-BWWTWD ~ We Do Not Get What We Wish – But What We Think We Deserve

~ TAAS-NACOES ~ There Are Always Solutions – Not Always Comfortable Or Easy Solutions

~ EIIBWREAPWMA ~ Every Ideas Is Born With Rough Edges And Peppered With Mistaken Assumptions

~ IIETBACTAC ~ It Is Easier To Be A Critic Than A Creator

~ ITGTBYLGI? ~ Is This Going To Be Your Last Good Idea?

~ DTPAFACAP ~ Define The Problem As Fully And Correctly As Possible

~ FITATCITMWIBFUTD ~ Freedom Is The Ability To Choose In The Moment What Is Best For Us To Do

~ CITATDWWC ~ Capacity Is The Ability To Do What We Choose

MORTIMER ADLER ~ WRITE BETWEEN THE LINES ~ HOW TO READ A BOOK ~ 1940

~ TP-TSOYAWYR-IIAOSTYHT-‘RBTL’-B’WBTL’-T ~ The Pencil – The Sign Of Your Alertness While You Read – It Is An Old Saying That You Have To – “Read Between The Lines” – To Get The Most Out Of Anything – But – “Write Between The Lines” – Too

~ U-O-MP/FS ~ Underlining – Of – Major Points / Forceful Statements

~ VL-ATM-T-EASAUOTPTAPTLTBU ~ Vertical Lines – At The Margin – To – Emphasize A Statement Already Underlined Or To Point To A Passage Too Long To Be Underlined

~ S/A/D-ATM-US-T-ET-TOD-MISOP ~ Star / Asterisk / Doodad – At The Margin – Used Sparingly – To – Emphasize The – Ten Or Dozen – Most Important Statements Or Passages

~ N-ITM-T-IASOPM-IDAA ~ Numbers – In The Margin – To – Indicate A Sequence Of Points Made – In Developing An Argument

~ COKWOP-TSMTSFAU ~ Circling Of Key Words Or Phrases – This Serves Much The Same Function As Underlining

~ W-ITM-O-ATTOBOTP-T-RQ(APA) ~ Writing – In The Margin – Or – At The Top Or Bottom Of The Page – To – Record Questions (And Perhaps Answers)

MORTIMER ADLER ~ HOW TO READ A BOOK ~ 1940

~ TISFNTRINANAIOW ~ There Is Some Feeling Nowadays That Reading Is Not As Necessary As It Once Was

~ R-CBMOL-A-TMATRTB ~ Reading – Can Be More Or Less – Active – The More Active The Reading The Better

~ T-AOR-IS-IAOTSSTAIITAOUD:KOO-RAM-ROI-A-OC-AITI-AAR ~ The – Art Of Reading – In Short – Includes All Of The Same Skills That Are Involved In The Art Of Unaided Discovery: Keenness Of Observation – Readily Available Memory – Range Of Imagination – And – Of Course – An Intellect Trained In – Analysis And Reflection

~ UHOARTBIMBTNUIAA ~ Understanding Half Of A Really Tough Book Is Much Better Than Not Understanding It At All

~ IYIOUEOEPBYGOTTN-YWNGVF ~ If You Insist On Understanding Everything On Every Page Before You Go On To The Next – You Will Not Get Very Far

~ B-WEHYGIYIYRSS?-IITTHST-B-WAC?-HTAI-OHISITP? ~ But – What Exactly Have You Gained If You Increase Your Reading Speed Significantly? – It Is True That You Have Saved Time – But – What About Comprehension? – Has That Also Increased – Or – Has It Suffered In The Process?

~ WITBAAAW?-WIBSID?-ITBT-IWOP?-WOI?-ITBHGYI-YMAAIS ~ What Is The Book About As A Whole? – What Is Being Said In Detail? – Is The Book True – In Whole Of Part? – What Of It? – If The Book Has Given You Information – You Must Ask About Its Significance

~ IYHTHOAABQAYR-YAABRTIYDN-AQINE-YHTTTAT ~ If You Have The Habit Of Asking A Book Questions As You Read – You Are A Better Reader Than If You Do Not – Asking Questions Is Not Enough – You Have To Try To Answer Them

~ TMKPWMCII-ROO ~ To Make Knowledge Practical We Must Convert It Into – Rules Of Operation

~ ABIAWOA ~ A Book Is A Work Of Art

~ T-MRB-IAAAOTPOTA ~ The – Most Readable Book – Is An Architectural Achievement On The Part Of The Author

~ RAW-AR-AA-TABT ~ Reading And Writing – Are Reciprocal – As Are – Teaching And Being Taught

~ YSBATSTMQTTBTTA ~ You Should Be Able To State The Main Question That The Book Tries To Answer

~ B-AWCHMM-EAIW ~ But – A Word Can Have Many Meanings – Especially An Important Word

~ A-T-IAW-UU-CTT-ITI-TWWARSS ~ A – Term – Is A Word – Used Unambiguously – Coming To Terms – Is The Ideal – Toward Which Writer And Reader Should Strive

~ TO-T-A-ASUOW-FTSO-CK ~ Think Of – Terms – As – A Skilled Use Of Words – For The Sake Of – Communicating Knowledge

~ W-ITBOWILFBAWAFN ~ Wonder – Is The Beginning Of Wisdom In Learning From Books As Well As From Nature

~ ‘V’:TBHOUWWRFTTTSCAWAOTETWTSR ~ “Verbalism: The Bad Habit Of Using Words Without Regard For The Thoughts They Should Convey And Without Awareness Of The Experiences To Which They Should Refer

~ TIOSJ:YMBATS-WRC-“IU”-BYCS-“IA”-O-“ID”-TAWUII-TDWUII ~ The Importance Of Suspending Judgment: You Must Be Able To Say – With Reasonable Certainty – “I Understand” – Before You Can Say – “I Agree” – Or – “I Disagree” – To Agree Without Understanding Is Inane – To Disagree Without Understanding Is Impudent

~ SJ-IAA-AOC-IITTPTSHNBS-YASTYANCOPOWOTO ~ Suspending Judgment – Is Also An – Act Of Criticism – It Is Taking The Position That Something Has Not Been Shown – You Are Saying That You Are Not Convinced Or Persuaded One Way Or The Other

~ WYD-DS-R-A-NDOC ~ When You Disagree – Do So – Reasonably – And – Not Disputatiously Or Contentiously

~ IAA-DNG-R-F-P-TCBTOAEO-PO ~ If – An Author – Does Not Give – Reasons – For – Propositions – They Can Be Treated Only As Expressions Of – Personal Opinions

~ RTDB-K-AM-PO-BGRFACJYM ~ Respect The Difference Between – Knowledge – And Mere – Personal Opinion – By Giving Reasons For Any Critical Judgment You Make

~ IINT-ATE-YBTADOTTAITCOI-O-YALTB-GVTFNSR-YMETYHR-WAYHASF ~ It Is Necessary To – Acknowledge The Emotions – You Bring To A Dispute Or Those That Arise In The Course Of It – Otherwise – You Are Likely To Be – Giving Vent To Feelings Not Stating Reasons – You May Even Think You Have Reasons – When All You Have Are Strong Feelings

~ YMKWY-P-TI-P-A-OYANLTATYOMBEETDA ~ You Must Know What Your – Prejudices – That Is – Your – Prejudgments – Are – Otherwise You Are Not Likely To Admit That Your Opponent May Be Equally Entitle To Different Assumptions

~ A-AAI-IAGAFTBTIAIIP-CWP-I-OC-I-B-TBSTTI-MLIIALH-EOTDSALTTTTO-POV ~ An – Attempt At Impartiality – Is A Good Antidote For The Blindness That Is Almost Inevitable In Partisanship – Controversy Without Partisanship – Is – Of Course – Impossible – But – To Be Sure That There Is – More Light In It And Less Heat – Each Of The Disputants Should At Least Try To Take The Other – Point Of View

~ FSCUWSI-EOI-TIETIYR-DOI-T-NSTFAT-SEOTS-SPOI-A-IYARFE-TIRNETTITAESOLIRBTQ:WOI? ~ Facts Seldom Come To Us Without Some Interpretation – Explicit Or Implied – This Is Especially True If You’re Reading – Digests Of Information – That – Necessarily Select The Facts According To – Some Evaluation Of Their Significance – Some Principle Of Interpretation – And – If You Are Reading For Enlightenment – There Is Really No End To The Inquiry That At Every Stage Of Learning Is Renewed By The Question: What Of It?

~ T-GW-HAB-GR-WTDR-TRW-ITNCOE-AGSFBAT-A-ST-AGRBAA ~ The – Great Writers – Have Always Been – Great Readers – What They Did Read – They Read Well – In The Natural Course Of Events – A Good Student Frequently Becomes A Teacher – And – So Too – A Good Reader Becomes An Author

~ TA-OC-MBWRW ~ There Are – Of Course – Many Books Worth Reading Well

~ SE-MBAS-A-IAOTTWGTTTOAI ~ Special Experience – Must Be Actively Sought – And – Is Available Only To Those Who Go To The Trouble Of Acquiring It

~ ETIRAS-SBSAEACAP ~ Everything That Is Relevant And Statable – Should Be Said As Explicitly And Clearly As Possible

~ A-GH-DN-OC-MUTP ~ A – Good Historian – Does Not – Of Course – Make Up The Past

~ T-MITTK-WR-ARO-CH-I-WIWTR ~ The – Most Important Thing To Know – When Reading – Any Report Of – Current Happenings – Is – Who Is Writing The Report

~ A GB-CTY-ATW-A-AY ~ A Good Book – Can Teach You – About The World – And – About Yourself

ANDY NORMAN ~ WHAT YOU CAN DO ~ MENTAL IMMUNITY ~ 2021

~ PWI-TT-AQ-PC-EUNWFBAHTWC-IIPU ~ Play With Ideas – Test Them – Ask Questions – Pose Challenges – Explore Unsettling Notions Without Fear But Also Handle Them With Care – Information Is Profoundly Unruly

~ UTMANPKR-WBIAEDFOF-FAICHAMAWIBR ~ Understand That Minds Are Not Passive Knowledge Receptacles – Willful Belief Is An Especially Dangerous Form Of Folly – For An Ideology Can Hijack A Mind And Warp It Beyond Recognition

~ GPTS-IITYETYO-WYBATW-BOO-SBR-DYKTTBT?-H?-IYMOKTTR?-SSEATSMTAAACYD-WYBOWT?-IN-R ~ Get Past The Self-Indulgent Idea That You’re Entitled To Your Opinions – What You Believe Affects The Well-Being Of Others – So Believe Responsibly – Do You Know Them To Be True? – How? – Is Your Method Of Knowing Them Truly Reliable? – Suppose Someone Else Applied The Same Method To Arrive At A Conclusion You Deplore – Would You Be Okay With That? – If Not – Rethink

~ DB-GABF-INJ-‘U’-ETM-T-‘D’-COMSMT ~ Distinguish Between – Good And Bad Faith – It’s Not Just – “Upstream” – Evidence That Matters – The – “Downstream” – Consequences Of Mental States Matter Too

~ GUTITLIMAMOATTMKS-Y-IITL-NF-B-IAITU-‘AF’-IGI-B-WATUBI-NAIIYB?-TTTAI ~ Give Up The Idea That Learning Is Merely A Matter Of Adding To The Mind’s Knowledge Stockpile – Yes – It’s Important To Learn – New Facts – But – It’s Also Important To Unlearn – “Alternative Facts” – Install Good Information – But – Work Also To Uninstall Bad Information – Notice An Inconsistency In Your Beliefs? – Take Time To Address It

~ DU-‘WTS’-TCSUI-‘C-WTS;WEWT-R?’-IINOTKKTHQDTR ~ Don’t Use – “Who’s To Say? – To Cut Short Unsettling Inquires – “Clearly – We’re To Say; Who Else Will Take – Responsibility?” – It Is Not Okay To Keep Kicking The Hard Questions Down The Road

LGOTITVJCBO-KRIAV-A-CRIAV:TTAACAAMT-TNTWCD-RSUOWGAR-I-M-LIG ~ Let Go Of The Idea That Value Judgments Can’t Be Objective – Kindness Really Is A Virtue – And – Cruelty Really Is A Vice: These Truths Are As Certain As Any Mathematical Theorem – The Notion That We Can’t Develop – Responsible Shared Understanding Of What’s Good And Right – Is – Mistaken – Let It Go

~ TCTYBAORTT-T-B/A/I-OY-TAY-ACTTINWDYW-SDGD;ITOYCABALOTYA-HET-EY-EITPITETBM-D-E-TDTHATUTL ~ Treat Challenges To Your Beliefs As Opportunities Rather Than Threats – Those – Beliefs / Assumptions / Ideas – Of Yours – They Aren’t You – A Challenge To Them In No Way Diminishes Your Worth – So Don’t Get Defensive; Instead Think Of Your Challenger As Bringing A Learning Opportunity To Your Attention – Honor Efforts To – Enlighten You – Even If They Prove In The End To Be Misguided – De-Escalate – Turn Down The Heat And Turn Up The Light

~ PDOD-EO-MIAT ~ Promote Dialogue Over Dogma – Encourage Open-Mindedness In All Things

~ UYUO-RB-TBSHAIPOTUC-HYCUVQ? ~ Upgrade Your Understanding Of – Reasonable Belief – The Best-Supported Hypotheses Are In Principle Open To Unanticipated Challenges – Has Your Conviction Undergone Vigorous Questioning?

~ DUTVOITHSS-B-BR-WN-TRADT-T-TPYVIA ~ Don’t Underestimate The Value Of Ideas That Have Survived Scrutiny – But – Be Ready – When Needed – To Reexamine And Discard Them – Think – Then Put Your Values Into Action

ANDY NORMAN ~ MENTAL IMMUNITY ~ 2021

~ APOI ~ A Plague Of Ideologies

~ BI-A-MP-PTQL-IM ~ Bad Ideas – Are – Mind Parasites – Pathogens That Quite Literally – Infect Minds

~ H-M-H-IS:OT-KBIAB-S-TSDAPW-S-BIOTATDM-IF-AMDCCUCKOS-ETKOSISTT ~ Happily – Minds – Have – Immune Systems: Operations That – Keep Bad Ideas At Bay – Sadly – These Systems Don’t Always Perform Well – Sometimes – Bad Ideas Overrun Them And Thoroughly Disorder Minds – In Fact – A Mind’s Defenses Can Collapse Under Certain Kinds Of Stress – Especially The Kind Of Stresses Ideologies Subject Them To

~ T-EOU-WWT?-IRIACID ~ That – Epidemic Of Unreason – We’re Witnessing Today? – It’s Rooted In A Cultural Immune Disorder

~ WAO-C-‘T’-IMTST-OTBEB-DAP-ETV:TSJ-WFAMTOL ~ When An Out-Group – “Them” – Is Made To Seem Threatening – Our Thinking Becomes Especially Bent – Demagogues And Propagandists – Exploit These Vulnerabilities: They Stoke Judgment-Warping Fears And Manipulate Their Own Loyalists

~ WFTA-BQ-ES-SB-A-SOWTC ~ We Fail To Ask – Basic Questions – Embrace Self-Serving Beliefs – And – Saddle Others With The Costs

~ T-GV-IT-O-ODP-PTWFE-TIAHPFH-A-AHB-BN-W-IC-IHBA-ET ~ The – Garden-Variety – Irresponsible Thinking – Of – Otherwise Decent People – Paves The Way For Extremism – This Is A Huge Problem For Humanity – And – Always Has Been – But Now – With – Internet Connectivity – It Has Become An – Existential Threat

~ MM ~ Mental Malware

~ P-IIVTPI-ICSDB-F/D/D-BI-UPTP ~ Propaganda – Induces Its Victims To Propagate It – Ideas Can Spread Despite Being – False / Delusional / Destructive – Bad Ideas – Use People To Proliferate

~ AICB-S-TB-B-L-TH ~ An Idea Can Be – Short-Term Beneficial – But – Long-Term Harmful

~ AIC-BIH-W-HO ~ An Idea Can – Benefit Its Host – While – Harming Others

~ IUT-U-TFOBI-WNTCO-PI-JAWCO-PB ~ It’s Up To – Us – To Filter Out Bad Ideas – We Need To Call Out – Problematic Ideas – Just As We Call Out – Problematic Behaviours

~ I-C-S/A/C/D/D-COATTICAIW ~ Ideas – Can – Seduce / Addict / Confuse / Disorient / Derange – Compromise Our Ability To Think In Clear And Impartial Ways

~ I-A-CROB-A-FBOW-ROM ~ Ideas – Are – Constantly Rewiring Our Brains – And – For Better Or Worse – Remaking Our Minds

~ CI ~ Cognitive Immunology

~ U-QAR-TTI-A-PCATWH ~ Use – Questions And Reasons – To Test Ideas – And – Pay Close Attention To What Happens

~ ‘WTSWAIIGOB?”-TAIS-WA-WWFTAI-TBOPAEUCH ~ “Who’s To Say Whether An Idea Is Good Or Bad?” – The Answer Is Simple – We Are – When We Fail To Assess Ideas – The Bad Ones Proliferate And End Up Causing Harm

~ CID ~ Cognitive Immune Disrupter

~ WITR-TTTBRT-RR-T-SDCT-O-ECTFCS ~ When Ideologies Take Root – They Tend To Become Resistant To – Rational Revision – They – Shut Down Critical Thinking – Or – Exempt Core Tenets From Critical Scrutiny

~ MI ~ Mental Immunity

~ BYHATA-IWTHNTUBI ~ Believing You Have All The Answers – Interferes With The Humility Needed To Unlearn Bad Ideas

~ A-WF-WT-CPI-OD ~ A – Weakness For – Wishful Thinking – Can Progress Into – Outright Derangement

~ NYST-YOATU-A-ICCI-TP ~ Nurse Your Sense That – Your Opinions Are Treated Unfairly – And – It Can Curdle Into – Toxic Partisanship

~ IIT-A-YWCDAFR ~ Ignore Inconvenient Truths – And – Your Worldview Can Drift Away From Reality

~ FTRTIIYO-A-YSTSOMC ~ Fail To Resolve The Inconsistencies In Your Outlook – And – You Sow The Seed Of Moral Confusion

~ ATO-T-S-S-O-S-S-A~ Accept Things On – The – Say-So – Of – Self-Styled – Authorities – Increases Susceptibility To Demagoguery

~ HM ~ Hijacked Minds

~ WWCYM? ~ What Would Change Your Mind?

~ C-WU-C-ATTRRW? ~ Can – Willful Unreason – Compromise – Ability To Tell Right From Wrong?

~ BDT-RC-A-Y-MC-ILTGH ~ Become Deaf To – Reason’s Call – And – Your – Moral Compass – Is Likely To Go Haywire

~ ‘IPT’-WITI-IVHTTI-F-MW ~ “Identity-Protective Thinking” – When Information Threatens Identity – It’s Very Hard To Think In – Fair-Minded Ways

~ HCTS-INGTYAT-O-ATWAC ~ Having – Critical Thinking Skills – Is No Guarantee That You’ll Apply Them – Or – Apply Them With Any Consistency

~ A-GHM-IOTP-IDBRAR-IHITTSSIATO ~ A – Genuinely Healthy Mind – Is Open To Persuasion – It Distinguishes Between Reasoning And Rationalizing – It Holds Itself To The Same Standards It Applies To Others

~ WN-MN-T-R-MTTLHNBR ~ We Need – Moral Norms – To – Regulate – Many Things The Law Has No Business Regulating

~ T-‘VAS’-I-HR-OD-PCI-‘R’-II-F-T-VIIP-I-DIQ-I-KC-A-BAFM ~ The – “Values Are Subjective” – Idea – Hamstrings Resolution-Oriented Dialogue – Philosophers Call It – “Relativism” – It Implies – Falsely – That – Value Inquiry Is Pointless – It – Delegitimates Important Questions – It – Kills Curiosity – And – Breeds A Fixed Mindset

~ IIUTBAIO-SVF-WSPOTYIDOMSAM-TADYAK-IWSSDTAU-CTGSITFOQ ~ It Is Unwise To Build An Identity On – Shaky Value Foundations – When Someone Points Out That You’re In Danger Of Making Such A Mistake – They’re Arguably Doing You A Kindness – It’s Worth Suffering Some Discomfort To Acquire Understanding – Conviction That’s Genuinely Stable In The Face Of Questioning

~ IAIFU-MWCTI-EAIEAB ~ If An Idea Feels Useful – Many Will Cling To It – Even After It’s Exposed As Baseless

~ B-WAYBEOTW-BOO?-ATIT? ~ But – What About Your Beliefs’ Effect On The Well-Being Of Others? – Aren’t They Important Too?

~ DORSOOR? ~ Don’t Our Responsibilities Sometimes Override Our Rights?

~ A-WLDV-‘T’-T-E/I/T-D ~ Authoritarians – Will Label Dissenting Views – “Traitorous” – Then – Exile / Imprison / Torture – Dissidents

~ HTT-CBR-DEW ~ History Teaches That – Coercive Belief Regulation – Doesn’t End Well

~ CW-T-LTEIIOATGOIMOTOT ~ Culture Warriors – Typically – Locate The Evil Ideas In Others And The Good Ones In Members Of Their Own Tribe

~ PF-AT-IE-OAB-ILATTCD:ITTB-IA-A-R-A-IT ~ Pointing Fingers – At The – Ideological Elements – Of Another’s Beliefs – Is Like Admonishing Them To Calm Down: It Tends To Backfire – It Arouses – Anger – Resentment – And – Irrational Tenacity

~ RSU ~ Responsible Shared Understanding

~ IT-A-RLTOA-W-OM-PR-A-ADS ~ Inquiring Together – And – Really Listening To One Another – Was – Opening Minds – Provoking Reflection – And – Altering Deep Sensibilities

~ RT-DW-DB-T-EOI-CI ~ Real Thinkers – Don’t Wage – Dialectical Battle – They – Engage Others In – Collaborative Inquiry

~ TP-TWOI-YNT-CQI-B-YGTRTTTATWHTI-VTSAA-LO-PYWL-PTO-EW-AOHATBSU ~ To Practice – The Way Of Inquiry – You Need To – Challenge Questionable Ideas – But – You’ve Got To Resist The Temptation To Attack Those Who Host Those Ideas – View The Situation As A – Learning Opportunity – Perhaps You Will Learn – Perhaps The Other – Either Way – An Opportunity Has Arisen To Build Shared Understanding

~ MP ~ Mind-Parasites

~ OBHIFTW-BOO-TICB-LOS-HOB-ABBECBHTT-B-TVN-BAODTBICW ~ Our Beliefs Have Implications For The Well-Being Of Others – These Implications Can Be – Large Or Small – Harmful Or Beneficial – A Belief’s Behavioral Effects Can Be Hard To Trace – But – By Their Very Nature – Beliefs Alter Our Disposition To Behave In Characteristic Ways

~ OIAH-B-UCDOIO ~ Overregulation Is A Hazard – But – Underregulation Carries Dangers Of Its Own

~ O-M-A-MC-CTOE-T-PSIAE ~ Our – Minds – Are – Makeshift Contraptions – Cobbled Together Over Eons – To – Promote Survival In Ancestral Environments

~ O-BS-AWB-TA ~ Our – Belief Systems – Are Warped By – Tribal Allegiance

~ WCTIARAW-B-AOT-WOT-DPI-A-OWTPF ~ We Can Test Ideas About Right And Wrong – By – Among Other Things – Working Out Their – Downstream Pragmatic Implications – And – Observing Whether They Promote Flourishing

~ RF ~ Reason’s Fulcrum

~ IYT-Y-BR-I-Y-YTM ~ I’ll Yield To – Your – Better Reasons – If – You – Yield To Mine

~ DWADCBOP ~ Dialogue With A Detractor Can Broaden Our Perspective

~ I ~ Ideodemic

~ UTBR-IJAFOBUTSTF-IAAFOBUTYTT ~ Unresponsiveness To Better Reasons – Isn’t Just A Function Of Being Unable To See Their Force – It’s Also A Function Of Being Unwilling To Yield To Them

~ WATTTTTOCI ~ We’re Averse To Thinking Thoughts That Threaten Our Chosen Identities

~ S-WOSRATAO-ES-I-WSORF-F-T-A-P ~ Sadly – We Often Sacrifice Reason At The Altar Of – Economic Self-Interest – We Sell Out Reason For – Fame – Too – And – Power

~ IDTRW-W-YNTRPTFLADHB ~ It’s Difficult To Reason Well – When – You Need To Reason Poorly To Feel Like A Decent Human Being

~ RBCWQ ~ Reasonable Beliefs Can Withstand Questioning

MARK GOULSTON ~ JUST LISTEN ~ 2010

~ JL ~ Just Listen

~ PC:FRTL;FLTC;FCTWTD;FWTDTD;FDTGTDACTD ~ Persuasion Cycle: From Resisting To Listening; From Listening To Considering; From Considering To Willing To Do; From Willing To Do To Doing; From Doing To Glad They Did And Continuing To Do

~ YGTTPBHT-‘BI’-‘BI’-OWPMF-‘R’-T-‘L’-T-‘C’-WYAS ~ You Get Through To People By Having Them – “Buy In” – “Buy-In” – Occurs When People Move From – “Resisting” – To – “Listening” – To – “Considering” – What You Are Saying

~ I-TKTG-‘B-IA-TMPTTROTCINWYTT-B-WYGTTTY-A-WHITMITP ~ Ironically – The Key To Gaining – “Buy-In” – And – Then Moving People Through The Rest Of The Cycle Is Not What You Tell Them – But – What You Get Them To Tell You – And – What Happens In Their Minds In The Process

~ T-RW-H-TPTH ~ The – Right Words – Have – Tremendous Power To Heal

~ WOLAOPAVD-OB-WISW ~ While Our Lives And Our Problems Are Very Different – Our Brains – Work In Similar Ways

~ Y-A-ASADIYB-FIAIISATTY-TT-D-NTBP-EACTYE-CLIOAW-S-WYRS-YA-ISOY-HB-CYTAOPI-AH-YBIASP-T-FC-INLIC-YATRDD-YWMF-SHFYS-IMTHFTFETF ~ Your – Amygdala – A Small Area Deep In Your Brain – Flies Into Action If It Senses A Threat To You – This Threat – Doesn’t – Need To Be Physical – Even A Challenge To Your Ego – Can Light It Off As Well – Sometimes – When You’re Really Scared – Your Amygdala – Instantly Shuts Out Your – Higher Brain – Causing You To Act On Primitive Instinct – Amygdala Hijack – Your Brain’s Intelligent And Sensible Pilot – The – Frontal Cortex – Is No Longer In Control – Your Ability To Reason Drops Drastically – Your Working Memory Falters – Stress Hormones Flood Your System – It Make Take Hours For The Full Effects To Fade

~ IYTTTFARWAPWI-FAH-Y-WYT-B-I-B-TAHTBP-A-TPHBCSIC ~ If You’re Trying To Talk Facts And Reason With A Person Who’s In – Full Amygdala Hijack – You’re – Wasting Your Time – But – Intervene – Before – The Amygdala Hits The Boiling Point – And – The Person’s Higher Brain Can Stay In Control

~ MN ~ Mirror Neurons

~ WC-MTW-CTIN-TTWI-LAA-A-ETWMTW-ICALRHTBMB ~ We Constantly – Mirror The World – Conforming To Its Needs – Trying To Win Its – Love And Approval – And – Each Time We Mirror The World – It Creates A Little Reciprocal Hunger To Be Mirrored Back

~ MNRC ~ Mirror Neuron Receptor Deficits

~ GTTYF-B-ICOYOWAE-B-MOTT-TWSCS-S-T-FAMIR-F-TCIASS-I-GYUCF ~ Get Through To Yourself First – Be – In Control Of Your Own Thoughts And Emotions – Because – Most Of The Time – That’s Where Successful Communicating Starts – So – The – First And Most Important Rule – For – Taking Control In A Stressful Situation – Is – Getting Yourself Under Control First

~ O-ACE-IMYBFPTO-IT-PWTWYF-AES ~ One – Absolutely Crucial Element – In Moving Your Brain From Panic To Logic – Is To – Put Words To What You’re Feeling – At Each Stage

~ RYTL ~ Rewire Yourself To Listen

~ GROTF-TSYTYAKAS-‘L’/’L’/’W’/’H’/’I’-I-IR-BOWYNTK-RT-MB-A-YRTSRPYTWU ~ Get Rid Of The Filter – The Stuff You Think You Already Know About Someone – “Lazy” / “Loser” / “Whinny” / “Hostile” / “Impossible” – Is – In Reality – Blocking Out What You Need To Know – Remove The – Mental Block – And – You’re Ready To Start Reaching People You Thought Were Unreachable

~ OYM-A-LFTRBTB-A-YTTFSTBDB-A-CWA-‘I’-P ~ Open Your Mind – And – Look For The Reasons Behind The Behavior – And – You’ll Take The First Step Toward Breaking Down Barriers – And – Communicating With An – “Impossible” – Person

~ MTOPF-‘F’-WPF-F-TFLA-A-WTFLA-TFLAAA-A-TOTUTTMYTTS ~ Make The Other Person Feel – “Felt” – When People Feel – Felt – They Feel Less Alone – And – When They Fell Less Alone – They Feel Less Anxious And Afraid – And – That Opens Them Up To The Message You’re Trying To Send

~ BE-I-T-I-DJ-AI-BI ~ Be More – Interested – Than – Interesting – Don’t Just – Act Interested – Be Interested

~ TMOS-A-I-HDASIYAIO;TMOI-I-HMYTTITWY ~ The Measure Of Self-Assurance – Is – How Deeply And Sincerely Interested You Are In Others; The Measure Of Insecurity – Is – How Much You Try To Impress Them With You

~ MPFV ~ Make People Feel Valuable

~ ‘IMADTYH’ ~ “It Makes A Difference That You’re Here”

~ ISTGOOYWTMTAPIYL-C/K/O-FI-OTMOTH-M-E-T-U-P-HIC-IT-TFAITWITTWE-IS-TPADYCFT-SR-TNTM-WTTSDYC?-TYNTSTN ~ It’s Smart To Go Out Of Your Way To Make The Annoying People In Your Life – Complainers / Kvetchers / Obstructers – Feel Important – One Thing Most Of These High-Maintenance – Easy-To-Upset – People – Have In Common – Is That – They Feel As If The World Isn’t Treating Them Well Enough – In Short – These People Are Driving You Crazy For The – Simple Reason – They Need To Matter – Want Them To Stop Driving You Crazy? – Then You’ll Need To Satisfy That Need

~ T-GP-IYL-NADRTTV-A-T-AP-IYL-MNDIBTNIEM-GBOTWTW-AFTTM-A-TGYWYN ~ The – Good People – In Your Life – Need And Deserve Reassurance That They’re Valued – And – The – Annoying People – In Your Life – May Not Deserve It But They Need It Even More – Give Both Of Them What They Want – A Feeling That They Matter – And – They’ll Give You What You Need

~ ECFT-B-NOSNTCFI ~ Everyone Competes For Time – But – No One Should Need To Compete For Importance

~ HPT-E-EAM ~ Help People To – Exhale – Emotionally And Mentally

~ MAPAFD-IWSCOIDTWLSOOIL-TG-A-I-LFWWRUN-ATP-WTBLFAEEFOPTBEROR ~ Moving A Person Away From Distress – It’s When Stress Crosses Over Into Distress That We Lose Sight Of Our Important Long-Term Goals – And – Instead – Look For What Will Relieve Us Now – At That Point – We’re Too Busy Looking For An Emergency Exit From Our Pain To Be Either Rational Or Reachable

~ YCRAPW-V-B-YWUDYOC ~ You Can’t Reach A Person Who’s – Venting – Because – You Wind Up Defending Yourself Or Counterattacking

~ WYGA-DP-BR-APAASTE-YDJGTSBTN-YAIOI-B-IATGAPTCD-YBA-MB-BTPAY-A-WYBTB-YCCAI ~ When You Give A – Distressed Person – Breathing Room – A Place And A Space To Exhale – You Don’t Just Get The Situation Back To Normal – You Actually Improve On It – Because – In Addition To Getting A Person To Calm Down – You Build A – Mental Bridge – Between The Person And Yourself – And – When You Build That Bridge – You Can Communicate Across It

~ TBTTDWSI-V/W/C-IT-AI ~ The Best Thing To Do When Someone Is – Venting / Whining / Complaining – Is To – Avoid Interrupting

~ CYDATD ~ Check Your Dissonance At The Door

~ WASL-BYN-WYACAEIYMYFL-BYT-RDIY-FYF-A-BYN-I ~ When All Seems Lost – Bare Your Neck – When You Are Cornered And Everything Inside You Makes You Feel Like – Baring Your Teeth – Reach Deeper Into Yourself – Feel Your Fear – And – Bare Your Neck – Instead

~ SC-O-TP ~ Steer Clear – Of – Toxic People

~ YCBCAOTAATSM ~ You Can’t Be Curious And On The Attack At The Same Moment

~ BYWASSEP-FOITRIAP ~ Before You Worry About Solving Someone Else’s Problem – Find Out If There Really Is A Problem

~ DGD;GD ~ Don’t Get Defensive; Go Deeper

~ SPBOETMPHAYATBMLTGYTPAUA ~ Show Poise By Openly Expressing The Misgivings People Have About You And They’ll Be More Likely To Give You Their Positive And Undivided Attention

~ WYAPQ-RTA ~ When You Ask People Questions – Respect Their Answers

~ WYCGT-FTF-T-SBS ~ When You Can’t Get Through – Face To Face – Try – Side By Side

~ DQ-MPTY-TAT-LT-FITB-A-TFYTWT ~ Direct Questions – Make People Think You’re – Talking At Them – Let Them – Fill In The Blanks – And – They’ll Feel You’re Talking With Them

~ ATBTYC-AT-BTP-T-AY-WWTLT ~ Assemble The Best Team You Can – And Then – Become The Person – They – And You – Would Want To Lead Them

MICHAEL SANDEL ~ THE TYRANNY OF MERIT ~ 2020

~ WBOTCG? ~ What’s Become Of The Common Good?

~ WNTAWTSTOFP-ITLMFB-TPOM-O-TSACGBTSATS ~ We Need To Ask Whether The Solution To Our Fractious Politics – Is To Live More Faithfully By – The Principle Of Merit – Or – To Seek A Common Good Beyond The Sorting And The Striving

~ B-TRORNRH-ITE-IINETR-MWNERTTMC ~ But – The Rhetoric Of Rising Now Rings Hollow – In Today’s Economy – It Is Not Easy To Rise – Most Will Not Even Rise To The Middle Class

~ T-TCWT-HM-TTBTWT-GE-TATR-IS-DLO-TSOP-TOAT=E=HC-A-OR-TEPTSITWOW ~ Today – The Countries With The – Highest Mobility – Tend To Be Those With The – Greatest Equality – The Ability To Rise – It Seems – Depends Less On – The Spur Of Poverty – Than On Access To – Education – Health Care – And – Other Resources – That Equip People To Succeed In The World Of Work

~ ASRTTGBRAPMRDWIOPAW-RT-RCWTPOHPSUALWRGFAFA ~ Any Serous Response To The Gap Between Rich And Poor Must Reckon Directly With Inequalities Of Power And Wealth – Rather Than – Rest Content With The Project Of Helping People Scramble Up A Ladder Whose Rungs Grow Father And Farther Apart

~ M-IIUWTTDTORTM-DSLOTS-TWCTMI-A-MITCOTPP-OTMQ-TAISMPP:TMAATMEP-ATWAAATL-ATW-IGH-ATL-HAR ~ Morally – It Is Unclear Why The Talented Deserve The Outsize Rewards That Market-Driven Societies Lavish On The Successful – Those Who Celebrate The Meritocratic Ideal – And – Make It The Center Of Their Political Project – Overlook This Moral Question – They Also Ignore Something More Politically Potent: The Morally Attractive Attitudes The Meritocratic Ethic Promotes – Among The Winners And Also Among The Losers – Among The Winners – It Generates Hubris – Among The Losers – Humiliation And Resentment

~ TPCIATTOM-A-TCIJ ~ The Populist Complaint Is About The Tyranny Of Merit – And – The Complaint Is Justified

~ TNT-TSR-TAHW-ETW-TCTSTOD-AMOTV-A-TLDUTLFTT-MH-RTTOWTITDOTS-TFT-CAGF-THTOTW-IIT-SC-OT-WLOT-TTDTF-A-T-TOTB-DTT ~ The Notion That – The System Rewards – Talent And Hard Work – Encourages The Winners – To Consider Their Success Their Own Doing – A Measure Of Their Virtue – And – To Look Down Upon Those Less Fortunate Than Themselves – Meritocratic Hubris – Reflects The Tendency Of Winners To Inhale Too Deeply Of Their Success – To Forget The – Luck And Good Fortune – That Helped Them On Their Way – It Is The – Smug Conviction – Of Those – Who Land On Top – That They Deserve Their Fate – And – That – Those On The Bottom – Deserve Theirs Too

~ T- T-CG-IUMI-ET-IILACSODTBOC-TA-SCP-AMBT-GDP-TMFA-IPD ~ Today – The – Common Good – Is Understood Mainly In – Economic Terms – It Is Less About Cultivating Solidarity Or Deepening The Bonds Of Citizenship – Than About – Satisfying Consumer Preferences – As Measured By The – Gross Domestic Product – This Makes For An – Impoverished Public Discourse

~ WPF-PA-TD-CEO-NMTT-WINO-OE-SM-IWPTPOAWRL-C-ATPS-FT-EPD-FAD-TRSTTAO-RPD-DNMTNPABD-ISMTABDE-OOPV-B-AA(OCBTITR)-B-CBABM-B-CL-W-CC-BIWPO ~ What Passes For – Political Argument – These Days – Consists Either Of – Narrow Managerial Technocratic Talk – Which Inspires No One – Or Else – Shouting Matches – In Which Partisans Talk Past One Another Without Really Listening – Citizens – Across The Political Spectrum – Find This – Empty Public Discourse – Frustrating And Disempowering – They Rightly Sense That The Absence Of – Robust Public Debate – Does Not Mean That No Policies Are Being Decided – It Simply Means They Are Being Decided Elsewhere – Out Of Public View – By – Administrative Agencies (Often Captured By The Industries They Regulate) – By – Central Banks And Bond Markets – By – Corporate Lobbyists – Whose – Campaign Contributions – Buy Influence With Public Officials

~ FD-O-M-DG-H-HOPD-DOC-A-PAPB ~ Four Decades – Of – Market-Driven Globalization – Have – Hollowed Out Public Discourse – Disempowered Ordinary Citizens – And – Prompted A Populist Backlash

~ B-IIOTTHPRFAM;IISETATWA-EOU-WRFOLIL ~ But – It Is One Thing To Hold People Responsible For Acting Morally; It Is Something Else To Assume That We Are – Each Of Us – Wholly Responsible For Our Lot In Life

~ TNTOFROM-RDIT-MI-O-WC-IRTBTTMUIAIAWTAPWMASWW-T-MWOT-GRTHATTWSM-TMATS-TGTSTTVHBIOH[H]~ The Notion That Our Fate Reflects Our Merit – Runs Deep In The – Moral Intuitions – Of – Western Culture – It Reflects The Belief That The Moral Universe Is Arranged In A Way That Aligns Prosperity With Merit And Suffering With Wrongdoing – This – Meritocratic Way Of Thinking – Gives Rise To Harsh Attitudes Toward Those Who Suffer Misfortune – The More Acute The Suffering – The Greater The Suspicion That The Victim Has Brought It On Himself[/Herself]

~ MOTF-TS-WFL-AAFAMPOV ~ Many Of The Factors – That Separate – Winners From Losers – Are Arbitrary From A Moral Point Of View

~ TMWVOAS-MAS-S-TLLWATCFTFOTLFTO-IMSIMOD-TFMBTF-TLMMCOC-TSANOPRFOFMIHTIOIOPS ~ The More We View Ourselves As Self-Made And Self-Sufficient – The Less Likely We Are To Care For The Fate Of Those Less Fortunate Than Ourselves – If My Success Is My Own Doing – Their Failure Must Be Their Fault – This Logic Makes Meritocracy Corrosive Of Commonality – Too Strenuous A Notion Of Personal Responsibility For Our Fate Makes It Hard To Imagine Ourselves In Other People’s Shoes

~ TROR ~ The Rhetoric Of Responsibility

~ FD-ME-ITMT-TW-WHAPBTR-CRAFATTWTT-TDNNTFT-SATBOSTSA-T-ROR-WLAPTAT ~ For Decades – Meritocratic Elites – Intoned The Mantra That – Those Who – Work Hard And Play By The Rules – Can Rise As Far As Their Talents Will Take Them – They Did Not Notice That For Those – Stuck At The Bottom Or Struggling To Stay Afloat – The – Rhetoric Of Rising – Was Less A Promise Than A Taunt

~ C:TLAP ~ Credentialism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice

~ ‘SVD’- BTD-EOI-C-L-‘JVU’-O-‘RVW’ ~ “Smart Versus Dumb” – Began To Displace – Ethical Or Ideological – Contrasts – Like – “Just Versus Unjust” – Or – “Right Versus Wrong”

~ T-‘STTD’-A-PTA-POS-IR-TDNDO-MC ~ The – “Smart Thing To Do” – Always – Pointed To A – Prudential Or Self-Interested Reason – That Did Not Depend On – Moral Considerations

~ TNT-‘TBATB’-ABAG-TT-L-C-FC-I-AMBOMH ~ The Notion That – “The Best And The Brightest” – Are – Better At Governing – Than Their – Less-Credentialed – Fellow Citizens – Is – A Myth Born Of Meritocratic Hubris

~ P-TO-RW-I-RME ~ Parties – That Once – Represented Workers – Increasingly – Represented Meritocratic Elites

~ WMFAMITEHAECTCTLOS;IHNTSAHFATROTLSB-T-MI-INA-ROI-IIA-JOI ~ What Matters For A Meritocracy Is That Everyone Has An Equal Chance To Climb The Ladder Of Success; It Has Nothing To Say About How Far Apart The Rungs On The Ladder Should Be – The – Meritocratic Ideal – Is Not A – Remedy Of Inequality – It Is A – Justification Of Inequality

~ AT-AOG-BRWTT-W-C-IDNFMOW-PI-B-WRASASSOWTP-W-EASCALS ~ Although The – Age Of Globalization – Brought Rich Rewards To – The Well-Credentialed – It Did Not Nothing For Most Ordinary Workers – Productivity Increased – But – Workers Reaped A Smaller And Smaller Share Of What They Produced – While – Executives And Shareholders Captured A Larger Share

~ OTLSD-TIT-TMWMRTVOOSC-HBDE ~ Over The Last Several Decades – The Idea That – The Money We Make Reflects The Value Of Our Social Contribution – Has Become Deeply Embedded

~ M-FA-HRTP-EG-TDPATEI-SP-MTDOTWEAL-P-U-GAS-IT-RE ~Much – Financial Activity – Hinders Rather Than Promotes – Economic Growth – The Disproportionate Prestige Accorded Those Engaged In – Speculative Pursuits – Mocks The Dignity Of Those Who Earn A Living – Producing – Useful – Goods And Services – In The – Real Economy

~ A-PA-TRT-DOW-WUT-TS-TRTEOEB-DS-A-HPL ~ A – Political Agenda – That Recognizes The – Dignity Of Work – Would Use The – Tax System – To Reconfigure The Economy Of Esteem By – Discouraging Speculation – And – Honoring Productive Labor