HENRIETTE KLAUSER ~ WITH PEN IN HAND ~ 2003

~ THPOW ~ The Healing Power Of Writing

~ AWEODF-WR-I-P-A-P-WFTPOOW-BTDOSOTPFOH-A-RIWH ~ As We Expressed Our Deepest Feelings – Without Reserve – In – Poetry – And – Prose – We Felt The Power Of Our Words – Begin To Draw Out Some Of The Pain From Our Hearts – And – Replace It With Hope

~ AST-ATAOU:W ~ A Simple Tool – Available To All Of Us: Writing

~ R;GIAD ~ Rapidwriting: Get It All Down

~ TW:YCHTT ~ Twilight Writing: You Can Handle The Truth

~ RHM:WPWTS ~ Resistance Has Meaning: Write Past Wanting To Stop

~ LFYPS:IYB ~ Learn From Your Physical Self: Interview Your Body

~ OHWTP ~ Others Have Walked This Path

~ WH ~ Writing Heals

~ WPG-MCM-OO-A-U-T-PG ~ Writing Provides Grounding – Making Concrete Marks – Out Of – Abstract – Unarticulated – Thoughts – Provides Grounding

~ WIT ~ Writing Is Therapeutic

~ TAOMTPATP-CBM-CACS ~ The Act Of Moving The Pen Across The Page – Can Be Meditative – Creating A Calming State

~ TINROWWTW ~ There Is No Right Or Wrong Way To Write

~ TT-I-CC-WW-A-IA ~ Taking Time – Is – Counter Culture – We Want – An – Instant Answer

~ SPW-T-BWTW ~ Some People Write – Then – Burn What They Wrote

~ UYPWAABOYP-LB-YWSHFYHC ~ Use Your Past Writing As A Benchmark Of Your Progress – Look Back – You Will See How Far You Have Come

~ WIPOTPTGYTTOS-YMNFLW-DIA ~ Writing Is Part Of The Process That Gets You To The Other Side – You May Not Feel Like Writing – Do It Anyway

~ RE-CTTS ~ Raw Emotions – Coming To The Surface

~ L-MI-C-A ~ Listing – Makes It – Concrete – Attainable

~ ASIP ~ A Shift In Perception

~ A-IO-A-ATD-EATSPUIFM-A-MLTAUB ~ Action – Is Often – An – Antidote To Depression – Even A Tiny Step Puts You In Forward Motion – And – May Lead To An Unpredictable Boon

~ OWTFYAOWIMIOY-I-TDAPOYH-A-PIOI-WYAFATPM ~ One Way To Focus Your Awareness On What Is Moving Inside Of You – Is – To Draw A Picture Of Your Heart – And – Pencil Inside Of It – Whatever You Are Feeling At This Precise Moment

~ KOW-A-LTPAFY ~ Keep On Writing – And – Let The Pen Answer For You

~ S-WMYS-HAMFY-IYWBPETLFI ~ Sometimes – What Makes You Sad – Has A Message For You – If You Will Be Patient Enough To Listen For It

~ WBAFTI-W-HTIOMA-WNA-B-WYWSD-ISBTY ~ Writing Brings A Fullness To Ideas – Which – Holding Them In Our Mind Alone – Will Never Accomplish – Because – When You Write Something Down – It Speaks Back To You

~ T-ATEOTD-WBYL-A-WMYS ~ Track – At The End Of The Day – What Brought You Light – And – What Made You Sad

~ LYWSBTY ~ Let Your Writing Speak Back To You

~ BGTBAN-WOSYAGW-A-SOI-PTPAAQ-A-DBFANKTA-LTQSIYC-FTINM-WUWCTM-DNBCINISIT-NTIOP-YBIWOI-YWBATTAWIPIDYD ~ Before Going To Bed At Night – Write Out Something You Are Grappling With – And – Sleep On It – Pose The Problem As A Question – And – Don’t Be Frantic About Not Knowing The Answer – Let The Question Seep Into Your Consciousness – First Thing In The Morning – Write Up Whatever Comes To Mind – Do Not Be Concerned If No Immediate Solution Is There – Now That It’s On Paper – Your Brain Is Working On It – You Will Be Alert To The Answer When It Presents Itself During Your Day

~ TIA-FAR-TCF-CWHBBUFY-T-P ~ There Is A – Freedom And Release – That Comes From – Consigning What Has Been Bottled Up For Years – To – Paper

~ WYHAROYW-IPAIIDP ~ When You Have A Record Of Your Whining – It Provides An Insight Into Destructive Patterns

~ LIP-FYP ~ Life Is Precious – Follow Your Passion

~ AJ-IAWTRI-ANH-S-TBTY-O-S-S ~ A Journal – Is A Way To Ramble Incessantly – And Not Have – Someone – Talk Back To You – Or – Say – Stop

~ WYH/GYT/PTP-O-SAV-AAII-YJ ~ Wring Your Hands / Gnash Your Teeth / Pound The Pillow – Or – Seethe And Vent – All About It In – Your Journal

~ APOA-CTD ~ A Pattern Of Abuse – Connecting The Dots

~ L-UAU-DV-E ~ Left – Unchecked And Unchallenged – Domestic Violence – Escalates

~ WGTTC ~ Writing Gets To The Core

~ CWAMAAIEIYL-NFP-B-FY-T-NWSY-A-P-TSWAFS-CF-A-F-BH-WCWWA-S/G-TMYW-TMYWR ~ Consider Writing A Memoir About An Important Event In Your Life – Not For Publication – But – For Yourself – To – Name What Shaped You – And – Perhaps – To Share With A Few Select – Close Friends – And – Family – Be Honest – Write Continuously Without Worrying About – Style / Grammar – The More You Write – The More You Will Remember

~ WAR ~ Writing And Ritual

~ BC-I-JW-WTCPI-IDHTBP ~ Be Creative – In – Journal Writing – Whatever That Creative Process Is – It Doesn’t Have To Be Perfect

~ T-A-ET ~ Thanks – And – Ever Thanks

ROY BAUMEISTER + JOHN TIERNEY ~ WILLPOWER ~ 2011

~ W-LAM-BFFO-B-CABSOTLTTE ~ Willpower – Like A Muscle – Becomes Fatigued From Overuse – But – Can Also Be Strengthened Over The Long Term Through Exercise

~ MMP-PAS-COFOS-C:CSAB/IV/UIS/PAW/AADA/UD/LOE/CA/EA ~ Most Major Problems – Personal And Social – Center On Failure Of Self-Control: Compulsive Spending And Borrowing / Impulsive Violence / Underachievement In School / Procrastination At Work / Alcohol And Drug Abuse / Unhealthy Diet / Lack Of Exercise / Chronic Anxiety / Explosive Anger

~ PS-C-CWJAEKOIT ~ Poor Self-Control Correlates With Just About Ever Kind Of Individual Trauma

~ TASATNM-RFASMEB ~ To Avoid Smirking At The Next Meeting – Refrain From Any – Strenuous Mental Exercises – Beforehand

~ WSRD-T-I-DW-WD-A-T-CE ~ What Stress Really Does – Though – Is – Deplete Willpower – Which Diminishes – Ability – To – Control Emotions

~ YHA-FAOW-T-BDAYUI-YUTS-SOW0FAMOT ~ You Have A – Finite Amount Of Willpower – That – Becomes Depleted As You Use It – You Use The Same – Stock Of Willpower – For All Manner Of Tasks

~ FOOPAAT ~ Focus On One Project At A Time

~ TWTT-QS-WA-RTE-O-CBOA-TTFAAT-TM-SD-O-W-ABP-IT-MORASTI ~ Those Who Try To – Quit Smoking – While Also – Restricting Their Eating – Or – Cutting Back On Alcohol – Tend To Fail At All Three – Too Many – Simultaneous Demands – On – Willpower – A Better Plan – Is To – Make One Resolution An Stick To It

~ NG-NW-ATBUGDS-C-ISTCSTTE-WPHMDFS-C-THFSI-EJETHTES-CSTMPHFSF ~ No Glucose – No Willpower – As The Body Uses Glucose During Self-Control – It Starts To Crave Sweet Things To Eat – When People Have More Demands For Self-Control – Their Hunger For Sweets Increases – Even Just Expecting To Have To Exert Self-Control Seems To Make People Hungry For Sweet Foods

~ IYH-A-T-A-IM-O-A-VP-DTIOWG ~ If You Have – A – Test – An – Important Meeting – Or – A – Vital Project – Don’t Take It On Without Glucose

~ DACWABC-HBFTB-EMDT-DWMI-Y0IS-IUSMOYGTFTC-T-TNELFTB ~ Driving A Car With A Bad Cold – Has Been Found To Be – Even More Dangerous Than – Driving When Mildly Intoxicated – Your – Immune System – Is Using So Much Of Your Glucose To Fight The Cold – That – There’s Not Enough Left For The Brain

~ WYT-S ~ When You’re Tired – Sleep

~ SD-HBSTITPOG-W-PICF-S-C ~ Sleep Deprivation – Has Been Shown To Impair The Processing Of Glucose – Which – Produces Immediate Consequences For Self-Control

~ TGTMOOOW-UITSAETTS ~ To Get The Most Out Of Our Willpower – Use It To Set Aside Enough Time To Sleep

~ TFSI-S-C-I-TSA-CG ~ The First Step In – Self-Control – Is – To Set A – Clear Goal

~ TRO-CG-I-U-IO-A ~ The Result Of – Conflicting Goals – Is – Unhappiness – Instead Of – Action

~ YIN ~ Your Inner Nag

~ UT-A-UG-TTPIOM ~ Uncompleted Tasks – And – Unmet Goals – Tend To Pop Into One’s Mind

~ TPO-DT-INAITTUIWTFTT-I-TUIATCM-T-MAP-OTPIM-TUCSN ~ The Persistence Of – Distracting Thoughts – Is Not An Indication That The Unconscious Is Working To Finish The Task – Instead – The Unconscious Is Asking The Conscious Mind – To – Make A Plan – Once The Plan Is Made – The Unconscious Can Stop Nagging

~ DF ~ Decision Fatigue

~ S-TT-I-NAGSFL ~ Short-Term Thinking – Is – Not A Great Strategy For Life

~ SYFO-HFYC-O-HMRTBD?-TS-MAA-F-I-O-TRA ~ Should You Focus On – How Far You’ve Come – Or – How Much Remains To Be Done? – To Stoke – Motivation And Ambition – Focus – Instead – On – The Road Ahead

~ WW ~ Willpower Workouts

~ ISRFHTBITF-YOIA-C/C-S-SYM-UC ~ In Setting Rules For How To Behave In The Future – You’re Often In A – Calm / Cool – State – So You Make – Unrealistic Commitments

~ TA-MT-TEYTCWFTMWII-TTRWTI-B-ITLRTLYLDFTMWITASCTS ~ There Are – Mental Tricks – That Enable You To Conserve Willpower For Those Moments When It’s Indispensable – These Techniques Require Willpower To Implement – But – In The Long Run They Leave You Less Depleted For Those Moments When It Takes A Strong Core To Survive

~ P:LYIAVP-MI-I/UD/S-T-LTP ~ Precommitment: Lock Yourself Into A Virtuous Path – Make It – Impossible / Unthinkably Disgraceful / Sinful – To – Leave The Path

~ TBAF-YW-A-AP-I-WED ~ The Best Advice For – Young Writers – And – Aspiring Professors – Is – Write Every Day

~ H(LH)-I-OP ~ Heaven (Like Hell) – Is – Other People

~ PORST-BAITWIS ~ Plenty Of Research Suggests That – Being Alone In The World Is Stressful

~ L-A-LP-TTHMO-JAEKO-MAPI-T-PWLIRSN ~ Loners – And – Lonely People – Tend To Have More Of – Just About Every Kind Of – Mental And Physical Illness – Than – People Who Live In Rich Social Networks

~ POTGPCFTPAOSTAL ~ Part Of The Group’s Power Comes From The Passive Act Of Sitting There And Listening

~ APGCSMROYSIOL-P-IYKTAWBMY ~ A Personal Goal Can Seem More Real Once You Speak It Out Loud – Particularly – If You Know The Audience Will Be Monitoring You

~ TB-RIN-I-TPCOTS-EM-A-IINTL-TCAS-B-TMPDTETINMCBM-S-H-O-OBC ~ The Broad – Rise In Narcissism – Is – The Problem Child Of The Self-Esteem Movement – And – It Is Not Too Likely – To Change Anytime Soon – Because – The Movement Persists Despite The Evidence That It’s Not Making Children Become More – Successful – Honest – Or – Otherwise Better Citizens

~ WTGGT-PWHS-EODTSB ~ When The Going Gets Tough – People With High Self-Esteem Often Decide They Shouldn’t Bother

~ NAEAT-CNAWCR-AT-BHAFOTR-I-AVFOHD ~ Nearly All Experts Agree That – Children Need And Want Clear Rules – And That – Being Held Accountable For Obeying The Rules – Is – A Vital Feature Of Healthy Development

~ ALOASDTTT-TOTBOOTSPO-CB ~ A Lack Of Adult Supervision During The Teenage Years – Turned Out To Be One Of The Strongest Predictors Of – Criminal Behavior

~ TCWMTHO-WWFMIOTGTM-T-SBDT ~ The Children Who Manged To Hold Out – Who Waited Fifteen Minutes In Order To Get Two Marshmallows – Typically – Succeeded By Distracting Themselves

~Y-CAII-B-YNWTCA ~ Yes – Controlling Attention Is Important – But – You Need Willpower To Control Attention

~ TFSI-S-C-IT-ERG ~ The First Step In – Self-Control Is To – Establish Realistic Goals

~ T-CB-WPOTOSOTR-A-HWETR ~ The – Candy Bowl – Was Placed On The Other Side Of The Room – And – Hence Was Easier To Resist

~ ITWTTDD-B-A-ILSOTMTS-L-RT-N ~ It Takes Willpower To Turn Down Dessert – But – Apparently – It’s Less Stressful On The Mind To Say – Later – Rather Than – Never

~ WTDCA-DGLAFT-VTYWEAOT-SOL-B-JNT ~ When The Dessert Cart Arrives – Don’t Gaze Longingly At Forbidden Treats – Vow That You Will Eat All Of Them – Sooner Or Latter – But – Just Not Tonight

~ TBWTRSIYLIT-SSU ~ The Best Way To Reduce Stress In Your Life Is To – Stop Screwing Up

~ OOTMOYWIR:DKPIO ~ One Of The Most Obvious Yet Widely Ignored Rules: Don’t Keep Putting It Off

~ BOM-BD-W-YEID-B-YTTFO-W-S-TG-A-DC ~ Beware Of Making – Binding Decisions – When – Your Energy Is Down – Because – You’ll Tend To Favor Options – With – Short-Term Gains – And – Delayed Costs

~ TNA-YM-FI-RTSYD-W-NM-DT-YMIG-WNI ~ The Nothing Alternative – You Might – For Instance – Resolve To Start Your Day – With – Ninety Minutes – Devoted To – Your Most Important Goal – With No Interruptions

~ KT-M-I-CFAKOP-A-ICEWIYDMAPAA ~ Keep Track – Monitoring – Is – Crucial For Any Kind Of Plan – And – It Can Even Work If You Don’t Make A Plan At All

TORKEL KLINGBERG ~ THE OVERFLOWING BRAIN ~ 2009

~ T-SAB-M-T-IF ~ The – Stone Age Brain – Meets – The – Information Flood

~ OBHLCFPI-AAIITACSUWIAAEAR-TLOOBBATMO ~ Our Brains Have Limited Capacity For Processing Information – As Advances In Information Technology And Communication Supply Us With Information At An Ever Accelerating Rate – The Limitations Of Our Brains Become All The More Obvious

~ WIIOBTDWWCCAITD? ~ What Is In Our Brains That Determines Whether We Can Concentrate And Ignore The Distractions?

~ T-MNS-TIAFCFTHATRI-A-TLLAASI ~ The – Magical Number Seven – There Is A Fixed Capacity For The Human Ability To Receive Information – And – This Limit Lies At Around Seven Items

~ ‘CC’ ~ “Channel Capacity”

~ IWDNFOAOS-WWNRI ~ If We Do Not Focus Our Attention On Something – We Will Not Remember It

~ MAIM ~ Measuring Attention In Milliseconds

~ WM:OATRIFALPOT-U-A-MOS ~ Working Memory: Our Ability To Remember Information For A Limited Period Of Time – Usually – A Matter Of Seconds

~ L-TM:WMEIWWHBI-WCARFUWASLO-SATMOAW ~ Long-Term Memory: We Memorize Events In Which We Have Been Involved – We Can Also Remember Facts Unassociated With A Specific Learning Occasion – Such As The Meaning Of A Word

~ WMC-CHW-RC ~ Working Memory Capacity – Correlates Highly With – Reading Comprehension

JAMES KUNSTLER ~ THE LONG EMERGENCY ~ 2005

~ SWITF ~ Sleepwalking Into The Future

~ EITFO-ED-TIALWCDTA-TRODLA-A-L-C-BO-BLE/PA/ACOICWR ~ Even In The Face Of – Epochal Discontinuity – There Is A Lot We Can Do To Assure – The Refashioning Of Daily Life Around – Authentic-Local – Communities – Based On – Balanced Local Economies / Purposeful Activity / A Culture Of Ideas Consistent With Reality

~ IIIFCTBAT-IAHF-EITOMXAC ~ It Is Imperative For Citizens To Be Able To – Imagine A Hopeful Future – Especially In Times Of Maximum Stress And Change

~ YRCIITM ~ Your Reality Check Is In The Mail

~ AA-A-MI-WFTEOTCFFE-IINETSTRSOCOANGUEWIAABOML ~ Above All – And – Most Immediately – We Face The End Of The Cheap Fossil Fuel Era – It Is No Exaggeration To State That Reliable Supplies Of Cheap Oil And Natural Gas Underlie Everything We Identify As A Benefit Of Modern Life

~ TBOCOAGWSS-A-ISTOMC-TWCPATTENOTMGFTE:TTEI-F-N-S-UDATW ~ The Blandishments Of Cheap Oil And Gas Were So Seductive – And – Induced Such Transports Of Mesmerizing Contentment – That We Ceased Paying Attention To The Essential Nature Of These Miraculous Gifts From The Earth: That They Exist In – Finite – Nonrenewable – Supplies – Unevenly Distributed Around The World

~ C-OAG-EMTMDIEPOSWCOEAMTLODLI ~ Cheap – Oil And Gas – Even Mild To Moderate Deviations In Either Price Or Supply Will Crush Our Economy And Make The Logistics Of Daily Life Impossible

~ T-DOFF-ICTICSBNCTRS-T-RW-HAB ~ The – Decline Of Fossil Fuels – Is Certain To Ignite Chronic Strife Between Nations Contesting The Remaining Supplies – The – Resource Wars – Have Already Begun

~ TPT-IC-WNB-R-B-TI ~ The Possibility That – Industrial Civilization – Will Not Be – Rescued – By – Technological Innovation

~ WFA-DAU-POD-IT-T-FC ~ We Face A – Dire And Unprecedented – Period Of Difficulty – In The – Twenty-First Century

~ HE-I-LC-O-EAC-SAF-LAD-BAS-IIGTAT-OTISS-ATT-EOAC ~ Human Existence – Involves – Long Cycles – Of – Expansion And Contraction – Success And Failure – Light And Darkness – Brilliance And Stupidity – It Is Grandiose To Assert That – Our Time Is So Special – As To The – End Of All Cycles

~ T-‘GR’-MA-MAO-FAP-MOOFF-AWA-IAAFS-MPBAOAG ~ The – “Green Revolution” – Mostly About – Massive Amounts Of – Fertilizers And Pesticides – Made Out Of Fossil Fuels – As Well As – Irrigation At A Fantastic Scale – Made Possible By Abundant Oil And Gas

~ TWIOFA-E-IE ~ The World Is Overdue For An – Extreme – Influenza Epidemic

~ DWCPALRITLE-TMCNI ~ Disease Will Certainly Play A Larger Role In The Long Emergency – Than Many Can Now Imagine

~ ST-1970-AMAFFIPTM-FOACHO-RV-RTBPTAFMOV-SAG-FUG-TOTCOA-WPR ~ Since The – 1970s – All Monies And Fungible Financial Instruments Pegged To Money – Floated On A Collective Hallucination Of – Relative Value – Rather Than Being Pegged To A Fixed Medium Of Value – Such As Gold – Finance Under Globalism – Took On The Characteristics Of A – Worldwide Pyramid Racket

~ TCOTWNLBN-IA-P-C-O-A-LWB-IAIL ~ The Cost Of Transport Will No Longer Be Negligible – In A – Post-Cheap-Oil – Age – Life Will Become – Intensely And Increasingly Local

~ SS-HNF ~ Suburban Sprawl – Has No Future

~ THY-O-M-CBBTIKBA-WPS ~ Two Hundred Years – Of – Modernity – Can Be Brought To Its Knees By A – Worldwide Power Shortage

~ T-AOFF-IATE-TINRFTAH ~ The – Age Of Fossil Fuels – Is About To End – There Is No Replacement For Them At Hand

~ CI-CD/CAC ~ Cultural Inertia / Collective Delusion / Comfort And Complacency

~ TSD-AO-TN-FFES-ADOAU-FFE ~ To Some Degree – All Of – The Non-Fossil Fuel Energy Sources – Actually Depend On An Underlying – Fossil Fuel Economy

~ TBT-‘ME’-WADARFFFI-ATO-MT ~ The Belief That – “Market Economics” – Will Automatically Deliver A Replacement For Fossil Fuels Is – A Type Of – Magical Thinking

~ THE-M-H-U-NGOM-WP-CD-JLAT-ITMETMHTTHIP ~ The – Hydrogen Economy – Making – Hydrogen – Using – Natural Gas Or Methanol – Would Produce – Carbon Dioxide – Just Like Any Tailpipe – It Takes More Energy To Manufacture Hydrogen Than The Hydrogen Itself Produces

~ IOF-ANFTRS-AFMSAIRMB-T-LI-TWC-SBPT ~ Instead Of Finding – A New Fuel To Run Suburbia – A Far More Sane And Intelligent Response Might Be –To – Live In – Traditional Walkaway Committees – Serveed By Public Transit

~ C-WHAMMOT-B-QC-TWCTTSAETG-ALOWRMBSHTGTIWBWTEENTGI

~ Coal – We Have Already Mined Much Of The – Best-Quality Coal – That Was Closest To The Surface And Easiest To Get – A Lot Of What Remains May Be So Hard To Get That It Won’t Be Worth The Energy Expenditure Necessary Tot Get It

~ BC-IST-GSOOTAP-CM-IA-VD-TT-LAH ~ Burning Coal – Is Still The – Greatest Source Of Overall Toxic Air Pollution – Coal Mining – Is Also – Very Destructive – To The – Landscape And Habitats

~ SP-B-CWMTTITFW-O/G/C?-B/P/E/W/P ~ Solar Power – But – Can We Make Thee Things In The Future Without – Oil / Gas / Coal? – Batteries / Panels / Electronics / Wires / Plastics

~ CTTBDFTFFPST? ~ Can These Technologies Be Detached From The Fossil Fuel Platform Supporting Them?

~ TAOWO-UT-S-A-W-TDRO-H-TG ~ There Are Other Ways Of – Using The – Sun – And – Wind – That Don’t Rely On – High-Tech Gadgets

~ TD-WANGT-REOF-W/J/G-TKR-ASAOT ~ Thermal Deploymerization – We Are Not Going To – Recover Enough Oil From – Waste / Junk / Garbage – To Keep Running – Any Significant Amount Of Time

~ MH-VDTR-BU-AH-GG ~ Methane Hydrates – Very Difficult To Recover – Basically Uneconomical – Also Hazardous – Greenhouse Gas

~ NE-S-T-MT-IMBAWRHTFBO-WTFFPTS-C/M/M/M/P ~ Nuclear Energy – Short-To-Medium Term – It Might Be All We Really Have To Fall Back On – Without The Fossil Fuel Platform To Support – Construction / Manufacture / Maintenance / Mining / Processing

~ NBB ~ Nature Bites Back

~ CATFS ~ Climate And The Food Supply

~ WCAFFTPOIPAPD-B-T-IAD-O-IAPAD ~ Warmer Conditions Are Favorable For The Proliferation Of Insect Pest And Plant Disease – Both – The – Intensity And Diversity – Of – Invading Agriculture Pests And Disease

~ ED:BCWC-HWW-SWE-TAWWP ~ Environmental Destruction: Biological Complexity Was Compromised – Habitats Were Wrecked – Species Were Exterminated – Terrain And Water Were Poisoned

~ TLE-FLS-WCTPAMAA ~ The Long Emergency – Falling Life Spans – Will Characterize This Period As Much As Anything

~ FMC-ENAT-IA-EYC-NS-VDTHL-TWIOFANOOS ~ Flu Mutates Continually – Every Now And Then – In About – Eighty Year Cycles – New Strains – Violently Destructive To Human Life – The World Is Overdue For A New Outbreak Of Supervirus

~ ROF ~ Running On Fumes

~ G-WPAWO-PTP-OBA-W-STC-TWAB-DDTFFTSOS-TB-CO-STWS-A-TSWHBIWI ~ Globalism – Was Primarily A Way Of – Privatizing The Profits – Of Business Activity – While – Socializing The Costs – This Was Achieved By – Discreetly Discounting The Future For The Sake Of Short-Term Benefits – Cheap Oil – Subsidized The Whole System – And – The System Would Have Been Impossible Without It

~ T-H-EE ~ The – High-Entropy Economy

~ EITSPTH ~ Efficiency Is The Straightest Path To Hell

~ F-O-AE ~ Finance – Or – Abstracted Economy

~ AMWSCT-‘DE’ ~ Another Myth Was Something Called The – “Digital Economy”

~ IWBITSTITWCGSFN ~ It Will Be Impossible To Sustain The Illusion That We Can Get Something For Nothing

~ LITLE ~ Living In The Long Emergency

~ F-WHTS-WWWF-F-WWAD-A-WCBD ~ First – We Have To Separate – What We Wish For – From – What We’re Actually Doing – And – What Can Be Done

~ PF-WBAPO-SU-AOA-WBST-FP ~ Producing Food – Will Become A Problem Of – Supreme Urgency – All Other Activities – Will Be Secondary To – Food Production

~ THO-IF-HBRS-Y-TLOKATP-ST-HBS ~ The History Of – Industrialized Farming – Has Been Remarkable Short – Yet – The Loss Of Knowledge And Traditional Practice – Since Then – Has Been Stupendous

~ IWDQKWWAG-ALWHTSOKWWB ~ If We Don’t Quite Know Where We Are Going – At Least We Have The Satisfaction Of Knowing Where We’ve Been

JEFF GOODELL ~ THE WATER WILL COME ~ 2017

~ IT-TC-TORASI-B-TWBTHFBFFHMIOGAA-AHOTR-S-LR-IT-TC-CFTEOTWO-T-SARAMTTTRTDITLC ~ In The – Twentieth Century – The Oceans Rose About Six Inches – But – That Was Before The Heat From Burning Fossil Fuels Had Much Impact On Greenland And Antarctica – About Half Of The Recorded – Sea-Level Rise – In The – Twentieth Century – Came From The Expansion Of The Warming Oceans – Today – Seas Are Raising At More Than Twice The Rate They Did In The Last Century

~ IWCHTWTA-TD-F-APTWMOF-TF-O-S-LR-TC-GPMTTA~ If We Can Hold The Warming To About – Three Degrees – Fahrenheit – Above Preindustrial Temperatures We Might Only Face – Two Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – This Century – Giving People More Time To Adapt

~ H-IWDET-FFP-WHFMT-EDOW-A-WT-ABAO-WCG-FF-O-S-LR-BTEOTC-O-WCG-TF ~ However – If We Don’t End The – Fossil Fuel Party – We’re Headed For More Than – Eight Degrees Of Warming – And – With That – All Bets Are Off – We Could Get – Four Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – By The End Of The Century – Or – We Could Get – Thirteen Feet

~ IETKOTTWHAGIETDW-WANWTMDABPTTGAOT ~ It’s Exactly The Kind Of Threat That We Humans Are Genetically Ill Equipped To Deal With – We Are Not Wired To Make Decisions About Barely Perceptible Threats That Gradually Accelerate Over Time

~ AIASTBTGACMMI-ITWCWTM(ASTWLTTOY)-IWRTE-S-L-BA-THF-IAOGWTG(ASTCTSLT)-IWR-SL-A-TTF ~ Antarctica Is About Seven Times Bigger Than Greenland And Contains Much More Ice – If The Whole Continent Were To Melt (A Scenario That Would Likely Take Thousands Of Years) – It Would Raise The Earth’s – Sea Levels – By About – Two Hundred Feet – If All Of Greenland Were To Go (A Scenario That Could Take Significantly Less Time) – It Would Raise – Sea Levels – About – Twenty-Two Feet

~ RN-MFGCRTAMTSS-LRAA-B-TMCICD ~ Right Now – Melting From Greenland Contributes Roughly Twice As Much To Current Sea-Level Rise As Antarctica – But – That May Change In Coming Decades

~ T-BMO2012-TFTTR-WMHSMFTMHPMTSWMFTM-BW? ~ The – Big Melt Of 2012 – The Fact That The Real-World Melt Happened So Much Faster Than Models Had Predicted Meant That Something Was Missing From The Models – But What?

~ G-T-TEOTO-CBTERT-HCAHOTOS-LRITLFY-ITF-TPWDATEIDBIMRIGAA ~ Globally – The – Thermal Expansion Of The Oceans – Caused By The Earth’s Rising Temperature – Has Contributed About Half Of The Observed Sea-Level Rise In The Last Fifty Years – In The Future – That Percentage Will Decline As Thermal Expansion Is Dwarfed By Increasing Melt Rates In Greenland And Antarctica

~ TITSCHAPEOTMROSAIINN ~ The Idea That Soot Can Have A Powerful Effect On The Melt Rate Of Snow And Ice Is Not New

~ SL-TDBTFASFITDBAMCCAAD-LRD ~ Sea Level – The Difference Between Three Feet And Six Feet Is The Difference Between A Manageable Coastal Crisis And A Decades-Long Refugee Disaster

~ EY-WHSS-TQHOT-ITTY? ~ Every Year – When Hurricane Seasons Starts – The Question Hovers Out There – Is This The Year?

~ O-MACL-ATHNRFDFZAST-KTREMA ~ Often – Mayors And Civic Leaders – Argue To Have Neighborhoods Removed From Designated Flood Zone Areas Simply To – Keep The Real Estate Market Alive

~ B-TINQT-AWR-IRWGU-A-U-A-U ~ But – There Is No Question That –As Waters Rise – Insurance Rates Will Go Up – And – Up – And – Up

~ MP-HNTTWATF ~ Most People – Have No Time To Worry About The Future

~ WC ~ Walled Cities

~ WOPTPWABT ~ Walls Only Protect The People Who Are Behind Them

~ W/D/L-MPFS-EWTAN ~ Walls / Dikes / Levees – Make People Feel Safe – Even When They Are Not

~ LB ~ Living Breakwaters

~ YASDALAIWR ~ Yet Another Step Down A Long And Increasingly Wet Road

~ TBIOCC-IT-TPWALRFTPATOWWPTMDFI-WDWOT? ~ The Basic Injustice Of Climate Change – Is That – The People Who Are Least Responsible For The Problem Are The Ones Who Will Pay The Most Dearly For It – What Do We Owe Them?

~ MT-1BP-LI-L-ECZ-AFPOTPAIPCWLMTHWA ~ More Than – 1 Billion People – Live In – Low-Elevation Coastal Zones – A Fair Percentage Of These People Are In Poor Countries With Little Money To Help With Adaptation

~ OWTVTPTYOCT-IA-AEABPNTECFRNFSTF ~ One Way To View The Past Thirty Years Of Climate Talks – Is As – An Extended Attempt By Poor Nations To Extract Compensation From Rich Nations For Stealing Their Future

~ EY-A-20MP-AM-H-B-F/S/OD-RTTAMATDBCOV ~ Every Year – About – 20 Million People – Are Made – Homeless – By – Floods / Storms / Other Disasters – Roughly Three Times As Many As Those Displaced By Conflict Or Violence

~ CR-LLSUIL ~ Climate Refugees – Lack Legal Status Under International Law

~ CA ~ Climate Apartheid

~ S-LR-W-DALOP-A-TPAGTHTGS ~ Sea-Level Rise – Will – Displace A Lot Of People – And – Those People Are Going To Have To Go Somewhere

~ SOFS-A-CODW ~ Salinization Of The Soil – And – Contamination Of Drinking Water

~ IAGBP-I-UA-F-CBOAIC-I-V-A-HS ~ It Ain’t Gonna Be Pretty – In – Urban Areas – Floods – Contaminated By Organic An Inorganic Compounds – Including – Viruses – And – Human Shit

~ W-FO-S ~ Water – Full Of – Shit

~ CAB-A-W-WC-TSROOTG ~ Coffins Are Buoyant – And – When – Water Comes – They Sometimes Rise Out Of The Ground

~ G-CIBAIT-IT-W-TH-D-W-D-A-C-C-T ~ Geoengineering – Could Indeed Be An Important Tool – In The – What-The-Hell-Do-We-Do-About-Climate-Change – Toolbox

~ GS-F-TFFI-A-$1T-AY ~ Global Subsidies – For – The Fossil Fuel Industry – About – $1 Trillion – A Year

~ G-ABUCQA-G-WHCTT? ~ Geoengineering – Also Brings Up Complex Questions About – Governance – Whose Hand Controls The Thermostat?

~ G-O-E-TTOG-CLT-C-A-E-CW ~ Geoengineering – Or – Even – The Threat Of Geoengineering – Could Lead To – Conflict – And – Even – Climate Wars

~ OC-NOWBTAGAASTS-LR(OAE)-ITWHGSACGGE-TYA-WSFBTRTA ~ Of Course – No One Would Be Talking About Geoengineering As A Solution To Sea-Level Rise (Or Anything Else) – If The World Had Gotten Serious About Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Thirty Years Ago – When Scientists First Began To Raise The Alarm

~ MOWWKA-G-CF-CM-AWA-A-F-M-LE ~ Most Of What We Know About – Geoengineering – Comes From – Computer Models – As Well As – A – Few – Modest – Laboratory Experiments

~ PF ~ Planet Frankenstein

~ B-TFWNTCOI ~ But – The Future Will Not Take Care Of Itself

~ OAT-HD-PWLOVC-WHTF-TMDOITIO-R ~ Of All The – Hard Decisions – People Who Live On Vulnerable Coasts – Will Have To Face – The Most Difficult One Is The Idea Of – Retreat

~ IMW-R-ITOO-G-IOROSTTCOTPFY-IR-IA-TP-A-AWTCYL-MOA-IM-GU-TWWW-A-ATNHW ~ In Many Ways – Retreat – Is The Opposite Of – Geoengineering – Instead Of Relying On Scientists To Take Care Of The Problem For You – It Requires – Individual Action – Thoughtful Planning – And – A Willingness To Change Your Life – Most Of All – It Means – Giving Up – The War With Water – And – Admitting That Nature Has Won

~ DYHTRT-BASOYP-EI-ICFFYN? ~ Do You Have The Right To – Build A Seawall On Your Property – Even If – It Causes Flooding For Your Neighbor?

ROBERT CIALDINI ~ INFLUENCE ~ 1984

~ TPOP ~ The Psychology Of Persuasion

~ PHUANOMSWEIMOEJ-JH-S-AFSTTWWMOTT-B-LUUT-OCM ~ Psychologists Have Uncovered A Number Of Mental Shortcuts We Employ In Making Our Everyday Judgments – Judgmental Heuristics – Shortcuts – Allowing For Simplified Thinking That Works Well Most Of The Time – But – Leaves Us Upon To – Occasional Costly Mistakes

~ TIAUTIOSTAUTSADOIWATBAOAT-TI-RTTAAEAABC(ON)-WFITAAAOTBCJBTESA-‘E’ ~ There Is An Unsettling Tendency In Our Society To Accept Unthinkingly The Statements And Directions Of Individuals Who Appear To Be Authorities On A Topic – That Is – Rather Than Thinking About An Expert’s Arguments And Being Convinced (Or Not) – We Frequently Ignore The Arguments And Allow Ourselves To Be Convinced Just By The Expert’s Status As – “Expert”

~ MOUKVLAO-ABP-PTISPBOT-M-U-M-IWTO ~ Most Of Us Know Very Little About Our – Automatic Behavior Patterns – Perhaps That Is So Precisely Because Of The – Mechanistic – Unthinking – Manner – In Which They Occur

~ SJAIIPTMTSBOWATBHOCDOTTOPPBOW-IIPTMTPOTSISHOLDOTPOAPPI ~ So Just As It Is Possible To Make The Same Bucket Of Water Appear To Be Hotter Or Colder Depending On The Temperature Of Previously Presented Buckets Of Water – It Is Possible To Make The Price Of The Same Item Seem Higher Or Lower Depending On The Price Of A Previously Presented Item

~ A-BP-TTBTBASFOTRIITS-T-SF-O-TF-COPVBAAITDOACCOAWHTACACEOTOPOIITS ~ Automatic-Behavior Patterns – Tend To Be Triggered By A Single Feature Of The Relevant Information In The Situation – This – Single Feature – Or – Trigger Feature – Can Often Prove Valuable By Allowing An Individual To Decide On A Correct Course Of Action Without Having To Analyze Carefully And Completely Each Of The Other Pieces Of Information In The Situation

~ R:TO-GAT ~ Reciprocation: The Old – Give And Take

~ OOTMPOTLOIAU-TROR ~ One Of The Most Potent Of The Levers Of Influence Around Us – The Rule Of Reciprocation

~ TPORCBBLAL ~ The Pull Of Reciprocity Can Be Both Lifesaving And Lifelong

~ LTANALNWTLTBROL-SA-R ~ Little Things Are Not Always Little – Not When They Link To Big Rules Of Life – Such As – Reciprocity

~ BTIAGDFTWTAMNETGIR-WWOGTGLTABCAF ~ Because There Is A General Distaste For Those Who Take And Make No Effort To Give In Return – We Will Often Go To Great Lengths To Avoid Being Considered A Freeloader

~ P-F-MNFAGTPA-P-F ~ Problem-Free – May Not Feel As Good To People As – Problem-Freed

~ SFF-OS-LRF ~ Small First Favors – Often Stimulate – Larger Return Favors

~ BRAASVIHSS-WHBCTFUWB ~ Because Reciprocal Arrangements Are So Vital In Human Social Systems – We Have Been Conditioned To Feel Uncomfortable When Beholden

~ T-R-T-R-O-D-I-T-F-T-RHOTPTRC-BSWAERSTBR-ARCTPRTASR9TODAA) ~ The – Rejection-Then-Retreat – Or – Door-In-The-Face – Technique – Relies Heavily On The Pressure To Reciprocate Concessions – By Starting With An Extreme Request Sure To Be Rejected – A Requester Can Then Profitably Retreat To A Smaller Request (The One Desired All Along)

~ APIAREOC-PFMRF-A-M-SWTO ~ After Participating In A Reciprocal Exchange Of Concessions – People Feel More Responsible For – And – More – Satisfied With The Outcome

~ OBDATUORPTGOCINSROTIOOO-R-WSAIFOCIGF-B-BRTRTATSTLBPAS-OTARITW-WSNLFANTRWAFOCOOO ~ Our Best Defense Agaisnt The Use Of Reciprocity Pressures To Gain Our Compliance Is Not Systematic Rejection Of The Initial Offers Of Others – Rather – We Should Accept Initial Favors Or Concessions In Good Faith – But – Be Ready To Redefine Them As Tricks Should They Later Be Proved As Such – Once They Are Redefined In This Way – We Should No Longer Feel A Need To Respond With A Favor Or Concession Of Our Own

~ L:TFT ~ Liking: The Friendly Thief

~ LFP ~ Liking For Profit

~ HE-WOPCOAPDTWHOSIVIMOR-PA-IOSAC ~ Halo Effect – When One Positive Characteristic Of A Person Dominates The Way He Or She Is Viewed In Most Other Respects – Physical Attractiveness – Is Often Such A Characteristic

~ WLPWALU ~ We Like People Who Are Like Us

~ WAMLTHTWWCATO ~ We Are More Likely To Help Those Who Wear Clothing Akin To Ours

~ W-BC-O-SS-A-LTWGTTU-WAPSFF ~ We – Believe Compliments – Of – Sundry Sorts – And – Like Those Who Give Them To Us – We Are Phenomenal Suckers For Flattery

~ PC-JAMLFTF-W-U-AW-T ~ Positive Comments – Just As Much Liking For The Flatterer – When – Untrue – As When – True

~ FAG-GC-YWTRTLUT ~ Find And Give – Genuine Compliments – You Want The Recipient To Live Up To

~ C-NJ-OTB-B-OTT-YPSMOI ~ Compliment – Not Just – On The Behavior – But – On The Trait – You’ll Probably See More Of It

~ WLTFTU ~ We Like Things Familiar To Us

~ E-F-FC-B-MBWR ~ Even – Far-Fetched Claims – Become – More Believable With Repetition

~ CETAPOO-UUC-LTLL ~ Continued Exposure To A Person Or Object – Under Unpleasant Conditions – Leads To Less Liking

~ GC/BC-BT-GC-HIROTSB-T-RR-PFARF-TMRTTIE-T-ITIGTSTITTISOH[/H]S ~ Good Cop / Bad Cop – Because The – Good Cop – Has Intervened Repeatedly On The Suspect’s Behalf – The – Reciprocity Rule – Pressures For A Return Favor – The Main Reason The Technique Is Effective – Though – Is That It Gives The Suspect The Idea That There Is Someone On His[/Her] Side

~ TIANHTTDAPWBUUI-EWTPDNCTBN-HE ~ There Is A Natural Human Tendency To Dislike A Person Who Brings Us Unpleasant Information – Even When That Person Did Not Cause The Bad News – Horns Effect

~ AIA-WEBTOGT-WIHPFAU ~ An Innocent Association – With Either Bad Things Or Good Things – Will Influence How People Feel About Us

~ O-SSTTECA-CSBI ~ Odors – So Slight That They Escape Conscious Awareness – Can Still Be Influential

~ SP:TAU ~ Social Proof: Truths Are Us

~ TDBMPBOTP ~ The Dishes Became More Popular Because Of Their Popularity

~ SP-WDWICBFOWOPTIC-WBWTPIPB-MOP ~ Social Proof – We Determine What Is Correct By Finding Out What Other People Think Is Correct – Works Best When The Proof Is Provided By – Many Other People

~ OAE-INOAE ~ Often An Emergency – Is Not Obviously An Emergency

~ ETDOMLISTDNDT ~ Explaining The Dangers Of Modern Life In Scientific Terms Does Not Dispel Them

~ WTACOTRFI-IACE-PAER ~ When They Are Confident Of Their Responsibilities For Intervening – In A Clear Emergency – People Are Exceedingly Responsive

~ BAPAPAYNFA ~ Be As Precise As Possible About Your Need For Aid

~ TUO-FM-LATLMFAL-AWATRHMF ~ The Use Of – Fabricated Merriment – Leads Audiences To Laugh More Frequently And Longer – As Well As To Rate Humorous Material Funnier

~ UF-RC-B-A ~ Unbounded Fears – Rendered Contagious – By – Algorithms

~ TWAWC-PB-DP-WALBA-CF ~ The World Abounds With Cults – Populated By – Dependent People – Who Are Led By A – Charismatic Figure

~ A:DD ~ Authority: Directed Deference

~ T-OS-O-PAA-MBC-WTFOM ~ The – Outward Signs – Of – Power And Authority – May Be Counterfeited – With The Flimsiest Of Materials

~ ITATAE?-TCPOI:TACATROTCTTTAH ~ Is This Authority Truly An Expert? – Two Crucial Pieces Of Information: The Authority’s Credentials And The Relevance Of Those Credentials To The Topic At Hand

– And – How Truthful Can We Expect This Expert To Be?

~ S:TROTF ~ Scarcity: The Rule Of The Few

~ UCORAU-TTOPL-PAEPRIHD-M ~ Under Conditions Of Risk And Uncertainty – The Threat Of Potential Loss – Plays An Especially Powerful Role In Human Decision-Making

~ CAC:HOTM ~ Commitment And Consistency: Hobgoblins Of The Mind

~ TMETGIAC-TGIATITAAAOTPWMI ~ The More Effort That Goes Into A Commitment – The Greater Its Ability To Influence The Attitudes And Actions Of The Person Who Made It

~ WBNSTUCWHCOT ~ We Build New Struts To Undergird Choices We Have Committed Ourselves To

~ U:T-‘W’-ITS-M ~ Unity: The – “We” – Is The Shared – Me

~ AFA-IGA ~ Asking For Advice – Is Good Advice

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ THE SLIPPERY SLOPE ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ S-MFT-OWA-MP-HII-WSF-T-O-M/C/B ~ Skeptics Might Fear That – Once We Accept – Modest Paternalism – Highly Intrusive Interventions – Will Surely Follow – To – Outright – Manipulation / Coercion / Bans

~ ROA-S-S-A-DTQOW-PHMIAOT-P-CTCTDRTTROOTFOAHSS-IOPAW-MPOT-A-DWITT-PSOTS ~ Reliance On A – Slippery-Slope – Argument – Ducks The Question Of Whether – Proposals Have Merit In And Of Themselves – Policies – Constructive To Criticize Them Directly Rather Than To Rely Only On The Fear Of A Hypothetical Slippery Slope – If Our Proposals Are Worthwhile – Make Progress On Those – And – Do Whatever It Takes To – Pour Sand On The Slope

~ LCOOR-RTSOTOSS-P-ED-T-RFOC-SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TRDBAAM ~ Low Cost Opt-Out Rights – Reduces The Steepness Of The Ostensibly Slippery Slope – Proposals – Emphatically Designed – To – Retain Freedom Of Choice – So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Risks Decried By Antipaternalists Are Modest

~ IMC-SKONII-A-CA-W-POP-MDS ~ In Many Cases – Some Kind Of Nudge Is Inevitable – And – Choice Architects – Whether – Private Or Public – Must Do Something

~ OLTUPTPDNA-B-PAP-I-NRTDHSSAH-WTRSI-IIBPFTOASSTTDNSTARAA-B-TRANT-A-STANSS ~ Often Life Turns Up Problems That People Did Not Anticipate – Both – Private And Public – Institutions – Need Rules To Determine How Such Situations Are Handled – When Those Rules Seem Invisible – It Is Because People Find Them Obvious And So Sensible That They Do Not See Them As Rules At All – But – The Rules Are Nonetheless There – And – Sometimes They Are Not So Sensible

~ TWMTA-SS-AI-TDTTSTB-CFNOFTS-TIAM ~ Those Who Make This Argument – Sometimes Speak – As If – The Default Terms That Set The Background – Come From Nature Or From The Sky – This Is A Mistake

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ CA-TRFOTCIWPMD ~ Choice Architect – The Responsibility For Organizing The Context In Which People Make Decisions

~ TINSTAA’N’-D ~ There Is Not Such Thing As A – “Neutral” – Design

~ SAD-HSI ~ Seemingly Arbitrary Decisions – Have Subtle Influences

~ SAAID-CH-MIOPB-A-‘EM’ ~ Small And Apparently Insignificant Details – Can Have – Major Impacts On People’s Behavior – Assume – “Everything Matters”

~ TIT-‘EM’-CBB-PAE ~ The Insight That – “Everything Matters” – Can Be Both – Paralyzing And Empowering

~ LP-TPWTTITTHBCBD-T-LA-LITSIT-IG-PSBFTDWTL-A-TOOOUAITWTDS-T-PA-LITCTIILFCATTTIPBIOTMTL-L/H/B-AJBT ~ Libertarian Paternalism – The Problem With The Terms Is That They Have Been Captured By Dogmatists – The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Do What They Like – And – To Opt Out Of Undesirable Arrangements If They Want To Do So – The – Paternalistic Aspect – Lies In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Choice Architects To Try To Influence People’s Behavior In Order To Make Their Lives – Longer / Healthier / Better – As Judged By Themselves

~ IMC-IMPBD-DTWNHM-IT-HPFA-A-P-CI-UCA-A-CS-C ~ In Many Cases – Individuals Make Pretty Bad Decisions – Decisions They Would Not Have Made – If They – Had Paid Full Attention – And – Possessed – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – Complete Self-Control

~ LP-IAR-W/S/N-TOP-B-CANB/FO/SB ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak / Soft / Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked / Fenced Off / Significantly Burdened

~ A-N-IAAOT-CA-TAPBIAPWWFAOOSCTEI-TCAAM-N-TIMBEACTA-NANM ~ A – Nudge – Is Any Aspect Of The – Choice Architecture – That Alters People’s Behavior In A Predictable Way Without Forbidding Any Options Or Significantly Changing Their Economic Incentives – To Count As A Mere – Nudge – The Intervention Must Be Easy And Cheap To Avoid – Nudges Are Not Mandates

~ PTFAEL-CAAN-BJF-DN ~ Putting The Fruit At Eye Level – Counts As A Nudge – Banning Junk Food – Does Not

~ TE-SOC-RHRSQATROMJADTPM-HOS-CTHFAFAB-HDMINSGE ~ The Emerging – Science Of Choice – Research Has Raised Serous Questions About The Rationality Of Many Judgments And Decisions That People Make – Hundreds Of Studies – Confirm That Human Forecasts Are Flawed And Biased – Human Decision Making Is Not So Great Either

~ ‘SQB’-AFNF-I-FAHOR-PHASTTGAWTSQODO-RSTWTDCA-MPSWT-EWTSAMH ~ “Status Quo Bias” – A Fancy Name For – Inertia – For A Host Of Reasons – People Have A Strong Tendency To Go Along With The Status Quo Or Default Option – Research Shows That Whatever The Default Choices Are – Many People Stick With Them – Even When The Stakes Are Much Higher

~ NUTPOI-TPCBH-SDO-A-OSST-M-CS-CHHEOO ~ Never Underestimate The Power Of Inertia – That Power Can Be Harnessed – Setting Default Options – And – Other Similar Seemingly Trivial – Menu-Changing Strategies – Can Have Huge Effects On Outcomes

~ BPDB-IAN-ACIOATIPLAHSMOSMP-A-WCDSWSTOEFTC ~ By Properly Deploying Both – Incentives And Nudges – We Can Improve Our Ability To Improve People’s Lives And Help Solve Many Of Society’s Major Problems – And – We Can Do So While Still Insisting On Everyone’s Freedom To Choose

~ T-FA-ITAAPAAOTTMCTAITBIOATVLABTTCTWBMBSE-TAIF-I-OF ~ The – False Assumption – Is That Almost All People Almost All Of The Time Make Choices That Are In Their Best Interest Or At The Very Least Are Better Than The Choices That Would Be Made By Someone Else – This Assumption Is False – Indeed – Obviously False

~ HWPCIAEQ-OWAILTVAD-ISRTSTPMGCICIW-TH-E/GI/PF-TDLWICIWTA-I/PI/FISOI ~ How Well People Choose Is An Empirical Question – One Whose Answer Is Likely To Vary Across Domains – It Seems Reasonable To Say That People Make Good Choices In Contexts In Which – They Have – Experience / Good Information / Prompt Feedback – They Do Less Well In Contexts In Which They Are – Inexperienced / Poorly Informed / Feedback Is Slow Or Infrequent

~ B-ITCRU-TROIOECDAR-FTC-ITBSABCA ~ By – Insisting That Choices Remain Unrestricted – The Risks Of Inept Or Even Corrupt Designs Are Reduced – Freedom To Choose – Is The Best Safeguard Against Bad Choice Architecture

~ CACMJITTLOOBDU-FE ~ Choice Architects Can Make Major Improvements To The Lives Of Others By Designing User-Friendly Environments

~ I-IAN-R-RAB-GWBBSAMM-N-BG-J-BG-IS-LP-I-NLNR ~ If – Incentives And Nudges – Replace – Requirements And Bans – Government Will Be Both Smaller And More Modest – Not – Bigger Government – Just – Better Governance – In Short – Libertarian Paternalism – Is – Neither Left Nor Right

~ W-S-CPAMC-AC-TRIASOBO ~ When – Self-Control Problems And Mindless Choosing – Are Combined – The Result Is A Series Of Bad Outcomes

~ S-MSC-I-MAP-A-SWA-SSN-H-AEIBTSADOO ~ Sometimes – Massive Social Changes – In – Markets And Politics – Alike – Start With A – Small Social Nudge – Humans – Are Easily Influenced By The Statements And Deeds Of Others

~ HAENBOH-OR-WLTC ~ Humans Are Easily Nudged By Other Humans – One Reason – We Like To Conform

~ PBMLTCWTKTOPWSWTHTS-SPWGAWTGEWTT-O-K-TEEHB ~ People Become More Likely To Conform When They Know That Other People Will See What They Have To Say – Sometimes People Will Go Along With The Group Even When They Think – Or – Know – That Everyone Else Has Blundered

~ IMD-PATTT-ATF-TAOWEP-A-TTS-WI-BOTT-SI-AE-C-AAKS-CPLVITO ~ In Many Domains – People Are Tempted To Think – After The Fact – That An Outcome Was Entirely Predictable – And – That The Success – Was Inevitable – Beware Of That Temptation – Small Interventions – And Even – Coincidences – At A Key Stage – Can Produce Large Variations In The Outcome

~ T-SF-CHA-PE ~ The – Specific Framing – Can Have A – Powerful Effect

~ SI-CITEWWCICTM-S-TMHOAIOCWTAATCSA-T-‘P’-OISSATECBSP ~ Subtle Influences – Can Increase The Ease With Which Certain Information Comes To Mind – Sometimes – The Merest Hint Of An Idea Or Concept Will Trigger An Association That Can Stimulate Action – These – “Primes” – Occur In Social Situations And Their Effects Can Be Surprisingly Powerful

~ MPWTWOR-TLE-O-TPOLR-WONIIGFT ~ Many People Will Take Whatever Option Requires – The Least Effort – Or – The Path Of Least Resistance – Whether Or Not It Is Good For Them

~ HMM-A-W-DS-EIUTEAIAFAP ~ Humans Make Mistakes – A – Well-Designed System – Expects Its Users To Err And Is As Forgiving As Possible

~ GF-TBWTHHITPITPF-W-DS-TPWTADWAWTAMM ~ Give Feedback – The Best Way To Help Humans Improve Their Performance Is To Provide Feedback – Well-Designed Systems – Tell People When They Are Doing Well And When They Are Making Mistakes

~ AITOFIAWTTAGW-O-EMH-AATGW ~ An Important Type Of Feedback Is A Warning That Things Are Going Wrong – Or – Even More Helpful – Are About To Go Wrong

~ WS-HTATPO-OSMWTTAI ~ Warning Systems – Have To Avoid The Problem Of – Offering So Many Warnings That They Are Ignored

~ A-FQ-A-CA-WU?/WC?/WP?/WP? ~ Ask – Four Questions – About – Choice Architecture – Who Uses? / Who Chooses? / Who Pays? / Who Profits?

~ HA-LA-RS-T-HLATAMATLG ~ Humans Are – Loss Averse – Roughly Speaking – They – Hate Losses About Twice As Much As They Like Gains

~ ENABN-CAMHTOA-LUIWWC-A-E-MAT-WWC ~ Evil Nudgers And Bad Nudges – Choice Architects May Have Their Own Agendas – Line Up Incentives When We Can – And – Employ – Monitoring And Transparency – When We Can’t

~ PCA-PCA-WAB-V/MP-APGSBT-IT ~ Public Choice Architects – Private Choice Architects – Worry About Both – Voters / Maximizing Profits – A Primary Goal Should Be To – Increase Transparency

~ FPTC-INAW-A-RNINAP-DWTS-A-WTCANAS(MLAP)-I-T ~ Forcing People To Choose – Is Not Always Wise – And – Remaining Neutral Is Not Always Possible – Deciding Where To Stop – And – When To Call A Nudge A Shove (Much Less A Prison) – Is – Tricky

DONALD PROTHERO ~ REALITY CHECK ~ 2013

~ A-S-IS-WDNBTJBSPT-B-TTAE-ITEIS-T-TSMATTCIR ~ A – Skeptic – Is Someone – Who Does Not Believe Things Just Because Someone Proclaims Them – But – Tests Them Against Evidence – If The Evidence Is Solid – Then – The Skeptic Must Acknowledge That The Claim Is Real

~ A-D-I-IC-T-AAOV-A-NAOEWCTM ~ A – Denier – Is – Ideologically Committed – To – Attacking An Opposing Viewpoint – And – No Amount Of Evidence Will Change Their Minds

~ CI-H-NC ~ Crazy Ideas – Have – Negative Consequences

~ JB-TEOT-DNM-TAROCC ~ Just Because – Two Events Occurred Together – Does Not Mean – They Are Related Or Causally Connected

~ CB-HTTSWTETS-A-FWTDNME-WHETATSOEBS-A-IOTTDETSWMBW ~ Confirmation Bias – Humans Tend To See What They Expect To See – And – Forget When Things Do Not Match Expectations – We Hear Evidence That Appears To Support Our Existing Belief Systems – And – Ignore Or Try To Discount Evidence That Suggests We Might Be Wrong

~ OSCTSITQOAAINTOOC-A-UTMTOOWIAI ~ One Should Check To See If The Quotation Of An Authority Is Not Taken Out Of Context – And – Used To Mean The Opposite Of What Its Author Intended

~ YPY-OTSOY-DAA-NB-FYD ~ You Prove Yourself – On The Strength Of Your – Data And Arguments – Not By – Flaunting Your Degree

~ EITAT ~ Expertise In The Appropriate Topic

~ COI ~ Conflict Of Interest

~ BOP-WSCHBR-A-ALAOESAPEOAP-T-TBOP-FOTDWSTOTC-IINE-TPOOSPOCD-O-T-NOLI-TMSTTPOTESTV ~ Burden Of Proof – When Scientific Consensus Has Been Reached – And – A Large Amount Of Evidence Supports A Particular Explanation Of A Phenomenon – Then – The Burden Of Proof – Falls On The Dissenter Who Seeks To Overthrow The Consensus – It Is Not Enough – To Point Out One Small Piece Of Contrary Data – Or – To – Nitpick One Little Inconsistency – They Must Show That The Preponderance Of The Evidence Supports Their View

~ CINC-IIHNTTTLTETCITAATOCTO-BWSTTEAR-WNTEMCOTEOOAOA-WMPSTTDWTCBTTEIR-O-JDTRC ~ Correlation Is Not Causation – It Is Human Nature To Try To Link Two Events That Coincide In Time And Assume That One Causes The Other – Before We Say That Two Events Are Related – We Need To Examine Many Cases Of These Events Occurring Over And Over Again – We Must Perform Statistical Tests To Determine Whether The Connection Between The Two Events Is Real – Or – Just Due To Random Chance

~ ADNMS ~ Anecdotes Do Not Make Science

~ B-PAEATTCI-A-WNGTUNMWEGAT ~ But – Pseudoscientists Are Emotionally Attached To Their Cherished Ideas – And – Will Not Give Them Up No Matter What Evidence Goes Against Them

~ LATTROTE ~ Look At The Track Record Of The Expert

~ OFPPDTC? ~ Our Fellow Planetary Passengers Do They Count?

~ BAP-RTTPFCAT-SE-BTRO-E-O-SOTP-I-TOTHTOAAOTPOT-BFME-OTP-600MY-BNETIT-TC-A-B-20,000-AA-M-S-W-E-TIEFTARSITGP-B-WRDNKHMCBLBT-EPE-C ~ Biologists And Paleontologists – Refer To The Past Few Centuries As The – Sixth Extinction – Because The Rate Of – Extinction – Of – Species On This Planet – Is – Thousands Of Times Higher Than Occurred At Any Of The Previous Of The – Big Five Mass Extinctions – Of The Past – 600 Million Years – Biologists Now Estimate That In The – Twentieth Century – Alone – Between – 20,000 – And A – Million – Species – Went – Extinct – This Is Enormously Faster Than Any Rate Seen In The Geologic Past – But – We Really Do Not Know How Many Can Be Lost Before The – Entire Planetary Ecosystem – Collapses

~ TDOS-TUA ~ The – Denial Of Science – Threatens Us All

~ ME-CE:ACGNTCATBANEADPOVOAORTFTSTROTIOHOSNS ~ Media Echo-Chamber Effect: Anyone Can Get News That Confirms All Their Biases And Never Encounter A Different Point Of View Or An Outside Reality That Falsifies The Stuff They Read On The Internet Or Hear On Some News Sources

~ ‘SI’-PWA-AEIAA-WE-A-SBASM-B-WH-SBWTHL-STC-AAR-IIIITDTCABS ~ “Smart Idiots” – People Who Are – Actively Engaged In An Argument – Well Educated – And – Smart By Any Standard Measure – But – Who Have – Selectively Biased What They Have Learned – So They Can – Argue Against Reality – If It Is Important To Defending Their Community And Belief System