LAWRENCE LESSIG ~ FREE CULTURE ~ 2004

~ ABBAAC ~ A Balance Between Anarchy And Control

~ FTFTIOT-TOWIWICASCFWTROTROTL-WHETDIICAVAOCACTINRB-TCITWALALA-FC-MAMA-PC ~ For The First Time In Our Tradition – The Ordinary Ways In Which Individuals Create And Share Culture Fall Within The Reach Of The Regulation Of The Law – Which Has Expanded To Draw Within Its Control A Vast Amount Of Culture And Creativity That It Never Reached Before – The Consequence Is That We Are Less And Less A – Free Culture – More And More A – Permission Culture

~ TINA-PTPA-IIIA-PTPCFOB ~ This Is Not A – Protectionism To Protect Artists – It Is Instead A – Protectionism To Protect Certain Forms Of Business

~ MOUTFGTEPCTTOO-‘IP’-NA ~ Most Of Us Take For Granted The Extraordinarily Powerful Claims That The Owners Of – “Intellectual Property” – Now Assert

~ R-M-A-B-TIAKOC-IACTWS-RAC-TASWWSTTINCETK ~ Rip – Mix – And – Burn – This Is A Kind Of Creativity – It’s A Creativity That We Should – Remember And Celebrate – There Are Some Who Would Say That There Is No Creativity Except This Kind

~ ATEOACT-AWPIT-PD-NPITNTDUOUTW-NP-A-H-NL-T-PD-IA-‘L-FZ’ ~ At The End Of A Copyright Term – A Work Passes Into The – Public Domain – No Permission Is Then Needed To Draw Upon Or Use That Work – No Permission – And – Hence – No Lawyers – The – Public Domain – Is A – “Lawyer-free Zone”

~ A-L-D-S-CSWP;A-L-D-A-M-S-CFWIP-B-TIPOVOTT-‘P’-DC ~ A – Large – Diverse – Society – Cannot Survive Without Property; A – Large – Diverse – And – Modern – Society – Cannot Flourish Without Intellectual Property – But – There Is Plenty Of Value Out There That – “Property” – Doesn’t Capture

~ CHAEAAAAATBUTCTWBATSTN-TBIAAEALPDWPAWCTOC-ESHLACBOICFFTT-FSMFTU-P-B-ASTSD ~ Creators Here And Everywhere Are Always And At All Times Building Upon The Creativity That Went Before And That Surrounds Them Now – That Building Is Always And Everywhere At Least Partially Done Without Permission And Without Compensating The Original Creator – Every Society Has Left A Certain Bit Of Its Culture Free For The Taking – Free Societies More Fully Than Unfree – Perhaps – But – All Societies To Some Degree

~ ‘HFITC?’-‘HM-A-HB-ITCFFOTTABU?’ ~ “How Free Is This Culture?” – “How Much – And – How Broadly – Is The Culture Free For Others To Take And Build Upon?”

~ B-TAATMIFOUPDTWH ~ Blogs – They Are Arguably The Most Important Form Of Unchoreographed Public Discourse That We Have

~ WITMIALLT?-WITVIS? ~ Where Is The Morality In A Lawsuit Like This? – What Is The Virtue In Scapegoatism?

~ THOTCHIAHO-P-F-R-R-CTV-BOAKOPSD-TCSIHLGPJTGCC-UN-I-‘P’-MUVFSECPWPFTC ~ The History Of The Content Industry Is A History Of – Piracy – Film – Records – Radio – Cable TV – Born Of A Kind Of Piracy So Defined – The Consistent Story Is How Last Generation’s Pirates Join This Generation’s Country Club – Until Now – If – “Piracy” – Means Using Value From Someone Else’s Creative Property Without Permission From That Creator

~ TPOPOTIADFTPOPOTT ~ The Physics Of Piracy Of The Intangible Are Different From The Physics Of Piracy Of The Tangible

~ MKO-‘P’-AUAP-TPENCONWODB ~ Many Kinds Of – “Piracy” – Are Useful And Productive – To Produce Either New Content Or New Ways Of Doing Business

~ TQIOOB-ZHHNBOH-IHNPTCITWKT ~ The Question Is One Of Balance – Zero Tolerance Has Not Been Our History – It Has Not Produced The Content Industry That We Know Today

~ HMCINMJBTCOCTRASH? ~ How Much Creativity Is Never Made Just Because The Costs Of Clearing The Rights Are So High?

~ TVO-‘FU’-YEPALTDYFUROPALTTDPSYDHTRUFUR-EW-TCPIAPOPY-AAP-OPAC-RFTF ~ The Vagueness Of – “Fair Use” – You Either Pay A Lawyer To Defend Your Fair Use Rights Or Pay A Lawyer To Track Down Permissions So You Don’t Have To Rely Upon Fair Use Rights – Either Way – The Creative Process Is A Process Of Paying Lawyers – Again A Privilege – Or Perhaps A Curse – Reserved For The Few

~ AWIWCWNIMFNOTMBATGIAWIWCWNIWNS-IIAWOSAICS ~ A World In Which Competitors With New Ideas Must Fight Not Only The Market But Also The Government Is A World In Which Competitors With New Ideas Will Not Succeed – It Is A World Of Stasis And Increasingly Concentrated Stagnation

~ WWBTSAWO-UA-NBTMINP-OBTSIC-B-BTVAOCTAILF ~ We Will Begin To See A World Of – Underground Art – Not Because The Message Is Necessarily Political – Or Because The Subject Is Controversial – But – Because The Very Act Of Creating The Art Is Legally Fraught

~ TIA-HR-M-M-I-CI

~ There Is A – Highly Regulated – Monopolized – Market – In – Cultural Icons

~ ORSC-ISI-IGDAVOTF ~ OverRegulation Stifles Creativity – It Smothers Innovation – It Gives Dinosaurs A Veto Over The Future

~ ORCCAWTROL-A-WOP-AWE-WOP-IITATBOAVLNOC-TROLDUPOTL-TMO-A-MR-WACEVTL-TLWRTL ~ OverRegulation Corrupts Citizens And Weakens The Rule Of Law – A – War Of Prohibition – As With Every – War Of Prohibition – It Is Targeted Against The Behavior Of A Very Large Number Of Citizens – The Rule Of Law Depends Upon People Obeying The Law – The More Often – And – More Repeatedly – We As Citizens Experience Violating The Law – The Less We Respect The Law

~ WASRTAJ-A-WANTTCAA-TIOAIUIR ~ With A Simple Request To A Judge – And – Without Any Notice To The Customer At All – The Identity Of An Internet User Is Revealed

~ RCWIIDNEBAATSOK ~ Remove Copyright Where It Is Doing Nothing Except Blocking Access And The Spread Of Knowledge

~ TLSAHWO-FIM-TINRCLCAW ~ The Law Should Always Have Ways Of – Forgiving Innocent Mistakes – There Is No Reason Copyright Law Couldn’t As Well

~ WNIAWTSS-ITM-N-‘ARR’-N-‘NRR’-B-‘SRR-AT-AWTRCBECTFCATSF ~ What’s Needed Is A Way To Say Something – In The Middle – Neither – “All Rights Reserved” – Nor – “No Rights Reserved” – But – “Some Rights Reserved” – And Thus – A Way To Respect Copyrights But Enable Creators To Free Content As They See Fit

~ WNAWTRASOFTWCJTFGB ~ We Need A Way To Restore A Set Of Freedoms That We Could Just Take For Granted Before

~ RFPP ~ Rebuilding Freedoms Previously Presumed

~ T-TINSWTK-WOW-O-WWOMD-IOTUOBUTCWOO-TANR-TINSTT-TINSWTKHTGP-WSRF:MCW-RC-A-RTCTC-TOOFITMTC-IWBSTIWCIPF-STIWCTRFAPKOC

~ Today – There Is No Simple Way To Know – Who Owns What – Or – With Whom One Must Deal – In Order To Use Or Build Upon The Creative Work Of Others – There Are No Records – There Is No System To Trace – There Is No Simple Way To Know How To Get Permission – We Should Require Formalities: Marking Copyrighted Work – Registering Copyrights – And – Renewing The Claim To Copyright – The Objective Of Formalities Is To Make Things Clear – It Would Be Simple To Identify What Content Is Presumptively Free – Simply To Identify Who Controls The Rights For A Particular Kind Of Content

~ NMWWDT-WWNI-TNOAWWI1923 ~ No Matter What We Do Today – We Will Not Increase – The Number Of Authors Who Wrote In 1923

~ STMEFYTFASF ~ Spend Ten Minutes Every Fifty Years To File A Single Form

~ NDT-E-WCTI-‘R’ ~ No Doubt The – Extremists – Will Call These Ideas – “Radical”

~ TQISB-HTATAGP-DTTB-T-CMFDB-A-T-FCT ~ The Question Instead Should Be – How To Assure That Artists Get Paid – During This Transition Between – Twentieth-Century Models For Doing Business – And – Twenty-First Century Technologies

~ WSA-‘W’-SMWYROCIN-SNHIDG-A-UYCSMB-KYLA ~ We Should Ask – “Why?” – Show Me Why Your Regulation Of Culture Is Needed – Show Me How It Does Good – And – Until You Can Show Me Both – Keep Your Lawyers Away

GEORGE TYLER ~ BILLIONAIRE DEMOCRACY ~ 2018

~ P-T-P ~ Pay-To-Play

~ A-AOTMA-TTGODCBBM-BTEOIEBTL ~ Aristole – Argued Over Two Millennia Ago – That The Quality Of Democracy Can Best Be Measured – By The Extent Of Influence Enjoyed By The Landless – Aristole – Also Observed – That Oligarchs Are Naturally Displeased By Democracy

~ DEIEOTLM-EAVFRBIBI1430-HBASMB-R-R-A-D-A-KAERBC ~ Democracy’s Evolution In Europe Over The Last Millennium – Especially After Voting For Representatives Began In Britain In 1430 – Has Been A Struggle Marked By – Revolution – Regicide – And – Debate – As – Kings And Elites Resisted Being Corralled

~ D-LA-H-QD-HHBATC-IIUCTF-PAA-A-IS-HWAHTS ~ Democracy – Let Alone – High-Quality Democracy – Has Historically Been A Tenuous Condition – It Is Under Continuous Threat From – Plutocrats And Authoritarians – And – Is Thus – Hard Won And Hard To Sustain

~ IB-ASWPPOREPRTBHP ~ Income Bias – A Society Where Public Policy Outcomes Reflect Elite Preferences Rather Than Broadly Held Preferences

~ PDDWRTFOC-H-QDSTFB ~ Political Decisions Determine Who Receives The Fruits Of Capitalism – High-Quality Democracies Spread Those Fruits Broadly

~ FN-ICMWT-FN ~ Fake News – Is Circulated More Widely Than – Factual News

~ FN-IWB ~ Fake News – Is Widely Believed

~ CT-‘HF’ ~ Closing The – “Hate Factories”

~ VS-RF ~ Voluntary Self-Regulation Failed

DAVID BOLLIER ~ THINK LIKE A COMMONER ~ 2014

~ C-PAG-B-ADGOPDTODSPABOKFMAR-ECIS-BEHEIRTAS-R-L-LH-A-SOT ~ Commons – Persist And Grow – Because – A Defined Group Of People Develop Their Own Distinctive Social Practices And Bodies Of Knowledge For Managing A Resource – Each Commons Is Special – Because Each Has Evolved In Relationship To A Specific – Resource – Landscape – Local History – And – Set Of Traditions

~ TIN-SF-O-B-FCAC-NITCSPOU ~ There Is No – Standard Formula – Or – Blueprint – For Creating A Commons – Nor Is The Commons Some Panacea Or Utopia

~ TC-IA-PP-F-S-G-RM-A-‘LW’ ~ The Commons – Is A – Practical Paradigm – For – Self-Governance – Resource Management – And – “Living Well”

~ ACCITTOSPT’D’FACAAUPSTWOBE-TCLTPPFACR-O-W-AC-F-F-A-TDTR-TIKAA-‘CAP’ ~ A Constant Challenge Is The Tendency Of Some People To “Defect” From A Common Agreement And Undermine Potential Schemes That Would Otherwise Benefit Everyone – This Can Lead To Private Profiteering From A Collective Resource – Or – Worse – A Chaotic – Free-For-All – That Destroys The Resource – This Is Known As A – “Collective Action Problem”

~ ACI:AR+AC+ASOSP ~ A Commons Is: A Resource + A Community + A Set Of Social Protocols

~ WCIIA?-A-WA-TF-ME-MFPI? ~ Whose Commons Is It Anyway? – And – What Are – The Fairest – Most Effective – Means For Protecting It?

~ T-‘DWU’-PTCEIWMTCPSVAP-A-SCTCEAP ~ The – “Diversity Within Unity” – Principle That Commons Embody Is What Makes The Commons Paradigm So Versatile And Powerful – And – So Confusing To Conventional Economists And Policymakers

~ TC-INOASR;IMATSPAVTWDTMT ~ The Commons – Is Not Only About Shared Resources; It’s Mostly About The Social Practices And Values That We Devise To Manage Them

~ WPCT-STSEAP-A-AABOPKAT-ASOPSCE ~ When People Come Together – Share The Same Experiences And Practices – And – Accumulate A Body Of Practical Knowledge And Traditions – A Set Of Productive Social Circuits Emerges

~ ACH-B-R-SN-A-SAF-R ~ A Commons Has – Boundaries – Rules – Social Norms – And – Sanctions Against Free Riders

~ ACRTTBACWTAAACSOAR ~ A Commons Requires That There Be A Community Willing To Act As A Conscientious Steward Of A Resource

~ ‘CPR’ ~ “Common Pool Resources”

~ WDA-CMHEAT-CRM ~ When Disputes Arise – Commoners Must Have Easy Access To – Conflict-Resolution Mechanisms

~ TGINTMMGAAM-B-TMSTOFHE-TC-PU-IATPAEOS ~ The Goal Is Not To Maximize Market Gains And Amass Money – But – To Make Sure That One’s Family Has Enough – The Commons – Properly Understood – Is About The Practice And Ethic Of Sufficiency

~ TFOMEACARIDADC;TDLTC ~ The Forces Of Market Enclosure Are Cruel And Relentless In Deconstructing And Destroying Commons; They Don’t Like The Competition

~ GGPTMRTSSSOC-TT-C-ATBA-TI-IAU-EITASOCRTP ~ Governments Generally Prefer To Manage Resources Through Strict Standardized Systems Of Control – To Them – Commoning – Appears To Be Altogether – Too Informal – Irregular And Unreliable – Even If The Actual Successes Of Commons Refute That Prejudice

~ ABUOTCMITAOTDAMOE ~ Any Basic Understanding Of The Commons Must Inevitably Take Account Of The Dynamics And Meaning Of Enclosure

~ E-ASFOTTALN-IPB-GOPAKRILT-BIAC-RT-B-TAOU-O-TDC-ABTI-C-OPAFWD ~ Enclosures – A Special Form Of Theft That Attracts Little Notice – In Part Because – Governments Often Play A Key Role In Legitimizing Them – But In All Cases – Resources That – Belong – To All Of Us – Or – To Distinct Communities – Are Being Transformed Into – Corporate-Owned Properties And Free Waste Dumps

~ NS-E-TTIWTAOPT-S-OACTOG-MTON-A-PTCAWOL ~ Not Surprisingly – Enclosures – Tend To Interfere With The Ability Of People To – Self-Organize And Control Their Own Governance – Meet Their Own Needs – And – Protect Their Culture And Way Of Life

~ VPO-A-A-LA-ACRFAFILG-CRHFPD-TSOEOCLIM-A-SITDOC-OTLAS-CCNL-GAHTOF-DW-O-HWG-EASTCAC ~ Vast Portions Of – Africa – Asia – And – Latin America – Are Currently Reeling From A Fierce International Land Grab – Commoners Rarely Have Formal Property Deeds – The Scale Of Enclosure Of Customary Lands Is Massive – And – So Is The Displacement Of Commoners – Once Their Lands Are Seized – Commoners Can No Longer – Grow And Harvest Their Own Food – Draw Water – Or – Hunt Wild Game – Enclosures Are Shattering Their Communities And Cultures

~ WCBMLTTPSOTPEAABP? ~ What Could Be More Lucrative Than The Private Sale Of The Public’s Equity Assets At Bargain Prices?

~ GBIAEFO-E’I’ ~ Genetic Biodiversity Is An Important Form Of – Ecological “Insurance”

~ P-P-S-AIIE-D ~ Public – Physical – Spaces – Are Important In Enacting – Democracy

~ ITIK-OAATA-CHGTTI-CAIITM-TI-MBTMSPOINE ~ Infrastructure That Is Kept – Open And Accessible To All – Can Help Guarantee That There Is – Competition And Innovation In The Marketplace – The Internet – May Be The Most Significant Piece Of Infrastructure Now Endangered

~ FTI-HBHFSTCWEO-CHABAI-E-A-T-ECW ~ From Time Immemorial – Human Beings Have Freely Shared Their Creativity With Each Other – Culture Has Always Been About Imitation – Extending – And – Transforming – Earlier Creative Works

~ A-HABA-C-I-AOB ~ Art – Has Always Been A – Communal – Intergenerational Act Of Borrowing

~ -CCTWACOSC ~ Culture Cannot Thrive Without A Commons Of Shared Creativity

~IAS-CGOOTM-V-DC-IB-ANKOCTM-BC ~ In A Sense – Creativity Generated Outside Of The Marketplace – Via – Digital Commons – Is Becoming – A Robust New Kind Of Competition To Market-Based Culture

~ IIEPF-MAC-T-‘PNT’ ~ It Is Entirely Possible For – Markets And Commons – To – “Play Nicely Together”

~ B-ITMSPIDTF-MTTSNBGAP-PATBRTEN-EHCR-EAD-CADOVR ~ But – If The Market System Presses Its Demands Too Far – Monetizing Things That Should Not Be Given A Price – Privatizing Access To Basic Resources That Everyone Needs – Enormous Harm Can Result – Ecosystems Are Damaged – Commoners Are Dispossessed Of Vital Resources

~ CTTBNWOSOPAIR-A-T-ANWI-TIOADCTBTLOTCATIOIHE-TIWMCTIT-IOP-I-‘PZ’-T-O-O-BPARFI ~ Commons Tend To Be Nested Within Other Systems Of Power And Institutional Relationships – And – Therefore – Are Not Wholly Independent – There Is Often A Deep Creative Tension Between The Logic Of The Commons And The Imperatives Of Its Host Environment – This Is Why Many Commons Thrive In The – Interstices Of Power – In – “Protect Zones” – Tolerated – Or – Overlooked – By Power Accidentally Remote From It

~ HRACGBM ~ Human Reciprocity And Cooperation Go Back Millennia

~ ETWLTC-‘I’-A-‘C’-A-O-ITCTTTBAIICW-TTANME-BR-DY-A-YC ~ Even Though We Like To Contrast – “Individualism” – And – “Collectivism” – As – Opposites – In The Commons They Tend To Blur And Intermingle In Complicated Ways – The Two Are Not Mutually Exclusive – But Rather – Dynamic Yin-And-Yang Complements

~ H-C-R-A-N-RB-AJASFA-‘CR’-A-‘UM’ ~ Human – Cooperation – Reciprocity – And – Non-Rational Behavior – Are Just As Significant Forces As – “Competitive Rationality” – And – “Utility Maximization”

~ IS-RSE-LATHO-H-I-C-A-C ~ In Short – Reciprocal Social Exchange – Lies At The Heart Of – Human – Identity – Community – And – Culture

~ L-INJ-FW-AI;I-IA-I-A-S ~ Law – Is Not Just – Formal – Written – And Institutional; It – Is Also – Informal – Oral – And – Social

~ CRVIAABATAOFLBIROOTFWTFLCBMATTP ~ Commoning Remains Vitally Important As A Bulwark Against The Abuses Of Formal Law Because It Represents One Of The Few Ways That Formal Law Can Be Made Accountable To The People

~ CAM-BSSWTC? ~ Can A Market-Based Society Survive Without The Commons?

~ TROTDC ~ The Rise Of The Digital Commons

~ TCS ~ The Commons Sector

~ TOAR ~ The Open Access Revolution

~ SC ~ Subsistence Commons

~ VACAHTDISMUTSOTM ~ Virtually All Commons Are Hybrids That Depend In Some Measure Upon The State Or The Market

~ STC ~ State Trustee Commons

~ TPOACCFTASPTAI ~ The Power Of A Commons Comes From The Actual Social Practices That Animate It

~ WSS-A-S-S-B-O-EF-AP-W-LEAE-RT-MBM-T-R-A-P? ~ Why Should Some – Abstract – Self-Serving – Bureaucratic – Or – Economic Framework – Automatically Prevail – When – Local Expertise And Experience-Rich Traditions – May Be More – Trustworthy – Responsive – And – Practical?

~ TS-SORT-S-OCCPCFME-T-T-S-O-M-A-WGP-L-F-A-P ~ The State – Should Openly Recognize That – Self-Organized Commons Can Perform Certain Functions More Effectively – Than – The – State – Or – Market – And – With Greater Perceived – Legitimacy – Fairness – And – Participation

STEVEN JOHNSON ~ EIGHT PRIMARY FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE CHALLENGE OF FARSIGHTED DECISION-MAKING ~ FARSIGHTED ~ 2018

~ CD-IMV-A-IMCD-KVANEATO;THTBD ~ Complex Decisions – Involve Multiple Variables – And – In Many Complex Decisions – Key Variables Are Not Evident At The Outset; They Have To Be Discovered

~ CD-RF-SA-INJTTCMV;IATTVDOCDFOR-TMTDW-YNTFYMOOINP-YHTTAAPFMP ~ Complex Decisions – Require Full-Spectrum Analysis – It’s Not Just That They Contain Multiple Variables; It’s Also That Those Variables Draw On Completely Different Frames Of Reference – To Make Those Decisions Well – You Need To Force Your Mind Out Of Its Narrowband Priorities – You Have To Think About A Problem From Multiple Perspectives

~ CD-FUTPTF ~ Complex Decisions – Force Us To Predict The Future

~ CD-IVLOU ~ Complex Decisions – Involve Varied Levels Of Uncertainty

~ CD-OICO ~ Complex Decisions – Often Involve Conflicting Objectives

~ CD-HUO ~ Complex Decisions – Harbor Undiscovered Options

~ CD-APT-S1-F-ATS-TMIETGTTSPOL-CTOTBLWWFATC ~ Complex Decisions – Are Prone To – System 1 – Failings – All The Shortcuts – That Make It Easy To Get Through The Simple Problems Of Life – Can Turn Out To Be Liabilities When We Face A True Crossroads

~ CD-AVTFO-CI-GAVT-CBTAFTSDOHI-‘GT’~ Complex Decisions – Are Vulnerable To Failures Of – Collective Intelligence – Groups Are Vulnerable To – Collective Biases That Arise From The Social Dynamics Of Human Interaction – “GroupThink”

STEVEN JOHNSON ~ FARSIGHTED ~ 2018

~ TATMIACDIASTATEAOOL:WE;DR;CL;EE ~ The Ability To Make Informed And Creative Decisions Is A Skill That Applies To Every Aspect Of Our Lives: Work Environments; Domestic Roles; Civic Lives; Economic Existence

~ I-O-C-O-I-COTUSFWWROOT-DC ~ Intelligence – Or – Confidence – Or – Intuition – Can Only Take Us So Far When We Reach One Of Those – Difficult Crossroads

~ WTTF-FTTOOCD-SOTJTLTT-B-S-WIMM-WNTRTT ~ We Tend To Fast-Forward To The Outcomes Of Complex Decisions – Skipping Over The Journey That Led To Them – But – Sometimes – When It Matters Most – We Need To Rewind The Tape

~ BR ~ Bounded Rationality

~ ‘GT’-MOTTTHBDTACD-MHBSETSA-TPBSOBO-GB-A-TU-TWROKTAW-CGP ~ “GroupThink” – Many Of The Techniques That Have Been Developed To Augment Complex Decision-Making Have Been Specifically Engineered To Steer Around – The Potential Blind Spots Or Biases Of – Group Behavior – And – To Uncover – The Wide Range Of Knowledge That A Well-Curated Group Possesses

~ E-L-TD-IA-S-OA-F:U-NTBR-SDFIPTWCSIIFC ~ Every – Long-Term Decision – Is A – Snowflake – Or A – Fingerprint: Unique – Never To Be Repeated – So Different From Its Peers That We Can’t Shovel It Into Formulaic Categories

~ MTAE-WWFOCOOLHC-WNTSIOIOT-WFE-TIWIUADBIRSPC-BTIW-T-ISATWTDBFTP-IAISP-TWOSCBT ~ More Than Anything Else – When We Find Ourselves Confronting One Of Life’s Hard Choices – We Need To See It On Its Own Terms – With Fresh Eyes – There Is Wisdom In Understanding A Decision Because It Resemble Some Past Crossroads – But There Is Wisdom – Too – In Seeing All The Ways The Decision Breaks From The Past – In Appreciating Its Singular Properties – This Way Of Seeing Can Be Taught

~ TBS ~ The Blind Spot

~ ITTUAPWMIV-IOIFUTPATRED-SODIBOO-PAT-OSMTRBTUWTAOTS-POMTRDILHTMSOATDI-BIIJAITRTHTHOUIYN-TUT ~ In Trying To Understand A Problem With Many Interacting Variables – It’s Often Impossible For Us To Perceive All The Relevant Elements Directly – So Our Decision Is Built Out Of – Proxies And Translators – Other Specialized Minds That Report Back To Us With Their Assessment Of The Situation – Part Of Making The Right Decision Is Learning How To Make Sense Of All Those Different Inputs – But – It Is Just As Important To Recognize The Holes That Have Opened Up In Your Network – The Unreliable Translators

~ WFAD-TI-M-I-V-PHATTPO-‘A’-V-A-MTDBOTE-B-FDTMRFY-IMSTEOP ~ When Facing A Decision – That Involves – Multiple – Independent – Variables – People Have A Tendency To Pick One – “Anchor” – Variable – And – Make Their Decision Based On That Element – But – For Decisions That May Reverberate For Years – It Makes Sense To Expand Our Perspective

~ ID-DACD-CHETTCOTI-TCOE-SC-IH-TIFHC ~ Influence Diagrams – Diagramming A Complex Decision – Can Help Elucidate The True Complexity Of The Issue – The Chain Of Effects – Sometimes Called – Impact Highways – That Inevitably Follow Hard Choices

~ D-EFDHIOUM-OC-A-TAOMTCWAMWAPLNIFTMTMSET-B-IIDTKOKVRTSTSAITI-A-TBWTDTVITGDPOEOTP ~ Diversity – Every Farsighted Decision Has Its Own Unique Map – Of Course – And – The Art Of Making Those Choices With As Much Wisdom As Possible Lies Not In Forcing That Map To Match Some Existing Template – But – Instead In Developing The Kind Of Keen Vision Required To See The Situation As It Truly Is – And – The Best Way To Develop That Vision Is To Get Different Pairs Of Eyes On The Problem

~ TMIEI-TDOPYA-TDODISSTIATAEWTDPBATTGHNRETTCAH ~ The Most Important Element Is – The Diversity Of Perspectives You Assemble – The Power Of Diversity Is So Strong That It Appears To Apply Even When The Divers Perspectives Being Added To The Group Have No Relevant Expertise To The Case At Hand

~ HG-T-TCTDTQ ~ Homogeneous Groups – Tend – To Come To Decisions Too Quickly

~ YCETDOAEG-WBIO-SBD-‘ER’-TEOTPBOTKTHTBTTD-IOLFTCGOSK-PWETSTUPOTC ~ You Can Enhance The Diversity Of An Existing Group – Without Bringing In Outsiders – Simply By Designating – “Expert Roles” – To Each Of The Participants Based On The Knowledge They Happen To Bring To The Discussion – Instead Of Looking For The Common Ground Of Shared Knowledge – Participants Were Empowered To Share Their Unique Perspective On The Choice

~ STEWTBWITBCYAR ~ Sometimes The Easiest Way To Be Wrong Is To Be Certain You Are Right

~ TIWIBAAMMOTSYATTN-B-TIAACKOWIITBSOTM-TPWYDHC-EBYDHTRSOSAY-OBSEOTSIFU ~ There Is Wisdom In Building An Accurate Mental Map Of The System You Are Trying To Navigate – But There Is Also A Crucial Kind Of Wisdom In Identifying The Blank Spots On The Map – The Places Where You Don’t Have Clarity – Either Because You Don’t Have The Right Set Of Stakeholders Advising You – Or Because Some Element Of The Situation Is Fundamentally Unknowable

~ APTRTCLTOTBAPSOML-NJBIAOTGHSTTTI-B-BTVAOTAHCYAASMYTAWYMBM-CUWNC-TUP ~ Asking People To Rate Their Confidence Level Turns Out To Be A Productive Strategy On Multiple Levels – Not Just Because It Allows Others To Gauge How Seriously To Take Their Information – But – Because The Very Act Of Thinking About How Certain You Are About Something Makes You Think About What You Might Be Missing – Coming Up With New Choices – The Undiscovered Path

~ OE ~ Optimal Extremism

~ MSSCFTTFOA-‘E’-P-FFT-C-C-W-ASWEPANGAMVIASIOFC-OC-TAMEPTTOTB-DE-O-W ~ Most Significant Social Change First Takes The Form Of An – “extreme” – Position – Far From The – Centrist – Conventional – Wisdom – A Society Where Extreme Positions Are Not Granted A Meaningful Voice Is A Society Incapable Of Fundamental Change – Of Course – There Are Many Extreme Positions That Turn Out To Be – Dead-Ends – Or – Worse

~ SF~ SuperForecasters

~ FTLV-YNTDOMSFC For The Long View – You Need To Draw On Multiple Sources For Clues

~ RCT ~ Randomized Controlled Trial

~ S-MUBAP-A-SPMUBD-M ~ Simulations – Make Us Better At Predicting – And – Successful Predictions Make Us Better Decision-Makers

~ SP-YB-OMWTGB-OWTGW-A-OWTGW ~ Scenario Plans – You Build – One Model Where Things Get Better – One Where They Get Worse – And – One Where They Get Weird

~ PM-ITTSIGTD-A-ITCTWBRFTFD ~ PreMortem – Imagine That The Subject Is Going To Die – And – Imagine The Causes That Will Be Responsible For That Future Death

~ RT ~ Red Teams

~ HCAOHBTIOPLIMW-ASOATITI-THTTEAMCFSEP-TOTBAET ~ Hard Choices Are Often Hard Because They Impact Other People’s Lives In Meaningful Ways – And So Our Ability To Imagine The Impact – To Think Through The Emotional And Material Consequences From Someone Else’s Perspective – Turns Out To Be An Essential Talent

~ AWOMUITFPTAMAYEOT-RFTDTL ~ Another Way Of Mitigating Uncertainty Is To Favor Paths That Allow Modifications After You’ve Embarked On Them – Room For Tinkering Down The Line

~ Supercomputers Have Started Taking On The Role That In Ancient Times Belonged To The Oracles: To Peer Into The Future

~ WLIAS-A-SATKUFTLV ~ We Live In A Short-Attention-Span Age That Keeps Us From The Long View

~DGMSD ~ Diverse Groups Make Smarter Decisions

~ TLV ~ The Long View

~ WGTD? ~ Who Gets To Decide?

~ WITIO-D-IAIMG-THU-D-AAS-WOLSB ~ We Invented The Institution Of – Democracy – In All Its Many Guises – To Help Us – Decide – As A Society – What Our Laws Should Be

~ MIP-TIWO-MFCAAS-FT-WINWODO-CIEFUTT ~ Maybe It’s Possible – To Invent Ways Of – Making Farsighted Choices As A Society – Faster Than – We Invent New Ways Of Destroying Ourselves – Certainly It’s Essential For Us To Try

GEORGE TYLER ~ MARKET REGULATION ~ WHAT WENT WRONG ~ 2013

~ P-BI-FCTC-EM ~ Prevents – Business Interests – From Combining To Create – Exploitative Monopolies

~ E-T-E-SA-P-A-M ~ Ensures – That – Externalities – Such As – Pollution – Are – Managed

~ C-MWSFE ~ Creates – Minimum Worksite Standards For Employees

~ A-TPO-FS-B-B-APESCWCCA ~ Avoids – The Problem Of – Financial Speculation – By – Banks – A Problem Ever Since Credit Was Conceived Centuries Ago

~ E-ABLO-HAI-OTPO-BI ~ Enforces – A Basic Level Of – Honesty And Integrity – On The Part Of – Business Interests