NAOMI BARON ~ WORDS ONSCREEN ~ 2015

~ EFC-IIOTTLASF-IATA-WEAGFK ~ Ebooks For Children – It Is One Thing To Look At Sales Figures – It’s Another To Ask – Whether Ebooks Are Good For Kids

~ TMTK-TMTR ~ Too Much To Know – Too Much To Read

~ TL;DR – Too Long; Didn’t Read

~ ATWTWDTP-PTTV-LAL-OWIO-TRHS-E-TAOPWII-TLL-HC ~ As They Work Their Way Down The Page – People Tend To View – Less And Less – Of What Is On – The Right-Hand Side – Essentially – They Are Only Processing What Is In – The Lower Left-Hand Corner

~ RSA-80%-OTT-RWIO-TIP ~ Readers Spend About – 80 Percent – Of Their Time – Reading What Is On – The Initial Page

~ YDWTSOCFAWTDPO-AS-T-BR-WB ~ You Don’t Want To Shell Out Cash For A Work That Doesn’t Pan Out – And So – The – Book Review – Was Born

~ Tl;DS – Too Long; Didn’t Scroll

~ WSAECAY ~ What Should An Ebook Cost Anyway?

~ WHTAWCDDEP? ~ What Happens To Authors When Competition Drives Down Ebook Prices?

~ IT-33P-OM-TM-ASE-CW-2/3OAP-TMAPB ~ It Takes – 33 Pounds – Of Minerals – To Make – A Single Ereader Compared With – 2/3 Of A Pound – To Make A Printed Book

~ PAE-R-100K-HOFF-WP-66POCO2-CW-2KH-A-1OOTLIGG-FAB ~ Producing An Ereader – Requires – 100 Kilowatt-Hours Of Fossil Fuels – Which Produce – 66 Pounds Of Co2 – Compared With – 2 Kilowatt-Hours – And – 100 Times Less In Greenhouse Gases – For A Book

~ ‘R’ AE-TEIPM-IGDIPC-OBC-WWAETEHRFT ~ “Recycling” An Ereader – To Extract Its Precious Minerals – Is Generally Done In Poor Countries – Often By Children – Where Workers Are Exposed To Enormous Health Risks From Toxins

~ P-UMCIDD-AARR ~ Paper – Unlike Many Components In Digital Devices – Is A Renewable Resource

~ A-30BWOE-ACWB-DDW-TAEOTOO-30NPP ~ About – 30 Billion Watts Of Electricity – Are Consumed Worldwide By – Digital Data Warehouses – The Approximate Equivalent Of The Output Of – 30 Nuclear Power Plants

~ TJIDSOO-WDROP-IN-OWB-MEF ~ The Jury Is Definitely Still Out On – Whether Digital Reading Or Paper – Is Now – Or Will Become – More Environmentally Friendly

~ PA-TIAL-IAMC-TNOAFPLIAFR ~ Public Access – To Information And Learning – Is A Modern Concept – The Notion Of A Free Public Library Is Also Fairly Recent

~ CB-IYGITTS-YCHTN ~ Centuries Back – If You Gathered In The Town Square – You Could Hear The News

~ MOOC ~ Massive Open Online Courses

~ WCTSSASAFPP ~ We Continue To See Stories About Students And Faculty Preferring Print

~ ASWTDCRITM ~ A Surefire Way To Disrupt Careful Reading Is To Multitask

~ TMPRGF-E-IF ~ The Most Popular Reading Genre For – Ebooks – Is Fiction

~ IADW-OISAQE ~ In A Digital World – Once Is Seen As Quite Enough

~ HSIR? ~ How Social Is Reading?

~ RA-TTWWNAT-WACO ~ Reading Aloud – To Those Who Were Not Able To – Was A Common Occurrence

~ T-TFMOPCTFTPOR-IF-T-FRGOO-AW-A-TBTR-O-A-F ~ Today – The Fast Majority Of People Coming Together For The Purpose Of Reading – In Face-To-Face Reading Groups Or Online – Are Women – And – The Books They’re Reading – Overwhelmingly – Are – Fiction

~ EST-CBU-B-STMTTTW ~ Electronic Search Tools – Can Be Useful – But – Sometimes Take More Time Than They’re Worth

~ SHUA-PIUTL ~ Screens Hastens Us Along – Print Invites Us To Linger

~ HR ~ Hyper Reading

~ SMFAOHC-EC-BL-T-T-A-BC-AMFIVOSN ~ So Many Fundamental Aspects Of Human Communication – Eye Contact – Body Language – Tone – Timbre – And – Bodily Contact – Are Missing From Interactions Via Online Social Networking

~ TIATIO-WHYCDD-RTTWT-HDOTCS ~ There Is Also The Issue Of – Whether Handing Young Children Digital Devices – Rather Than Talking With Them – Hampers Development Of Their Communication Skills

~ CW-RO-P-TTLD-AAR-IEMF ~ Compared With – Reading Onscreen – Print – Tends To Limit Distraction – As A Result – It Encourages Mental Focus

~ MCTBUTDWWAD-EM-AGS ~ Modern Communication Technologies Beckon Us To Drop What We Are Doing – Even Momentarily – And Get Sidetracked

~ Y-WCSHACWSPOC-B-TLOVOIR ~ Yes – We Can Successfully Hold A Conversation While Shelling Peas Or Crocheting – But – The List Of Viable Options Is Restricted

~ ETU-EWU-T-SM-IEAM ~ Experts Tell Us – Even Warn Us – That – Successful Multitasking – Is Essentially A Myth

~ YA-23TML-TCWD-IYAT-TIYN ~ You Are – 23 Times More Likely – To Crash While Driving – If You Are Texting – Than If You’re Not

~ NWSMYPAI-OK-TUTPWD-GTBTSMBA ~ No Wonder So Many Young People Assume It’s – OK – To Use Their Phones While Driving – Given The Behavior They See Modeled By Adults

~ YBOM ~ Your Brain On Multitasking

~ T-DSMMD-‘IUD’-DNMTFC-T-‘IGD-D ~ The – Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders – “Internet Use Disorder” – Did Not Make The Final Cut – Though – “Internet Gaming Disorder” – Did

~ OTR-6,000-LIUT-HAETDO-BTEOTT-FC ~ Of The Roughly – 6,000 – Languages In Use Today – Half Are Expected To Die Out – By The End Of The Twenty-First Century

~ WATTMCDTRO?-DF-DS-DT ~ What Are The Three Most Critical Drawbacks To Reading Onscreen? – Distraction First – Distraction Second – Distraction Third

~ SASAYTD-AI;MD-IAIHS ~ Short Attention Span And Yielding To Distraction – Are In; Mental Discipline – Is An Increasingly Hard Sell

NICHOLAS DUNBAR ~ THE DEVIL’S DERIVATIVES ~ 2011

~ RTDIA ~ Ready To Do It Again

~ TBAHFMCTB ~ The Bankers And Hedge Fund Managers Celebrating Their Bonuses

~ TBTMBS ~ The Bets That Made Banking Sexy

~ IWCA-CDS-RTBLT-CM-IR-S-O-C-TDWLT-UFD:TDOLOB-IWABLBIPOSEL-TCOPFRNHAQPTCBTED ~ It Was Called A – Credit Default Swap – Rather Than Being Linked To – Currency Markets – Interest Rates – Stocks – Or – Commodities – These Derivatives Were Linked To – Unmitigated Financial Disaster: The Default Of Loans Or Bonds – It Was A Bit Like Buying Insurance Policy On Someone Else’s Life – The Cost Of Protection From Risk Now Had A Quantifiable Price That Could Be Traded Every Day

~ T-S-S-D-O-H-T-LB ~ The – Sad – Strange – Death – Of – Hate-To-Lose Banking

~ TFAOR ~ The False Apostles Of Rationality

~ BRTMTT ~ Bending Reality To Match The Textbook

~ AD-SHIYL ~ A Derivatives-Shaped Hole In Your Life

~ A-FL-W-PF ~ A – Free Lunch – With – Processed Food

~ TDAEMP ~ The Debt And Equity Morality Play

~ BATG ~ Barbarians Among The Gatekeepers

~ STU ~ Selling The Unsellable

~ RC ~ Regulatory Capture

~ PTB ~ Passing The Bucks

~ ‘SI’/’LD’-’LL’ ~ “Stated Income” / “Limited Documentation” – “Liar Loans”

~ P-T-EL ~ Primed-To-Explode Loans

~ A-BCDS ~ Asset-Backed Credit Default Swaps

~ NINJA ~ No Income / No Job / No Assets

~ TF-SMOTFSWNOACOMA ~ The Full-Scale Meltdown Of The Financial System Was Now Only A Couple Of Months Away

~ BITS ~ Banking In The Shadows

~ T-S-I-WL-R-AM-S-DITE-‘R’-FESOTIP ~ The – Self-Interest – Was Less – Rational – And More – Selfish – Driving Individuals To Extract – “Rent” – From Each Step Of The Innovation Process

~ BBPM ~ Banking By Photocopy Machine

~ TCOASA-H/L/U-O-TBG-TF-WAYU ~ The Consequences Of Allowing Such A – Huge / Leveraged / Unregulated – Off-Track Betting Game – To Flourish – Were As Yet Unimagined

~ PGTB ~ Pop Goes The Bubble

~ MCD ~ Massive Collateral Damage

~ ‘STBYOV…’ ~ “Sorry To Bother You On Vacation…”

~ CITS ~ Cracks In The Street

~ L-A-D-O-PD ~ Life – And – Death – On – Planet Derivative

~ WHBMRBIU-BPHOBODITS-GQTWOU-APU-PD ~ What Had Been Measurable Risk Became Immeasurable Uncertainty – By Pouring Hundreds Of Billions Of Dollars Into The System – Governments Quenched The Wildfire Of Uncertainty – And Propped Up – Planet Derivative

~ JTATOTB ~ Just Throw A Tarp Over The Body

~ ASOILADMAAD-AOTUPUBTG-PFBT ~ A Series Of Increasingly Large And Desperate Merger And Acquisition Deals – All Of Them Ultimately Propped Up By The Government – Paid For By Taxpayers

~ BHMHRC ~ But How Much Has Really Changed?

~ UB ~ Unchastened Banks

~ TM-NCTATBRIB ~ The Multi-Nationals Continue To Argue That Bigger Really Is Better

~ DS(M)U-THITTRATHT-TOIP-TCOC-TUATWOC ~ Derivatives Still (Mostly) Unbound – The Huge Incentives To Take Risks And Then Hedge Them – The Opacity In Pricing – The Contagion Of Collateralization – The Uncertainty About The Web Of Counterparties

~ BB ~ Buyers Beware

YUVAL NOAH HARARI ~ HOMO DEUS ~ A BRIEF HISTORY OF TOMORROW ~ 2015

~ FTFTIH-MPDT-FETMTFETL ~ For The First Time In History – More People Die Today – From Eating Too Much Than From Eating Too Little

~ IIWOPTMTBATRTIOSEF ~ It Is Within Our Power To Make Things Better And To Reduce The Incidence Of Suffering Even Further

~ SWFTPSAOCWWSTNL ~ Schools Were Founded To Produce Skilful And Obedient Citizens Who Would Serve The Nation Loyally

~ DIIC-AHHEIRD-TIGE-RTGC ~ Dramatic Improvements In Conditions – As Humankind Has Experienced In Recent Decades – Translate Into Greater Expectations – Rather Than Greater Contentment

~ FBOW-AGPOTPITPMOARB-NOTCDMI-BATFMMDATOB ~ For Better Or Worse – A Growing Percentage Of The Population Is Taking Psychiatric Medicines On A Regular Basis – Not Only To Cure Debilitating Mental Illnesses – But Also To Face More Mundane Depression And The Occasional Blues

~ UTN-IHPRMOUOET-ITFIMRMOU-THBAM-O-OMDWOT ~ Up Till Now – Increasing Human Power Relied Mainly On Upgrading Our External Tools – In The Future It May Rely More On Upgrading – The Human Body And Mind – Or – On Merging Directly With Our Tools

~ WWTATR-EOBAMIO-AA-TEOA-D-A-M ~ We Want The Ability To Re-Engineer Our Bodies And Minds In Order – Above All – To Escape Old Age – Death – And – Misery

~ BOH-WCTDW-P-I-W-EATEAARF-EYAGP-TLIPHAHDATTLIS-ATIUTC ~ Billions Of Humans – Will Continue To Deal With – Poverty – Illness – Violence – Even As The Elites Are Already Reaching For – Eternal Youth And Godlike Powers – Those Living In Palaces Have Always Had Different Agendas To Those Living In Shacks – And That Is Unlikely To Change

~ WTPOMPITCCA? ~ What’s The Point Of Making Predictions If They Cannot Change Anything?

~ SH-GUMO ~ Studying History – Gives Us More Options

~ HHWT-RAF-OM-R-E-C ~ History Has Witnessed The – Rise And Fall – Of Many – Regions – Empires – Cultures

~ TA ~ The Anthropocene

~ WRTOA-HHLSBG-WDLTROTTD-BWHNBPJOMG ~ With Regard To Other Animals – Humans Have Long Since Become Gods – We Don’t Like To Reflect On This Too Deeply – Because We Have Not Been Particularly Just Or Merciful Gods

~ TWIPMBHATDA ~ The World Is Populated Mainly By Humans And Their Domesticated Animals

~ 99%OOD-ITMILC-AMBTHRAWC-S-E-D ~ 99 Percent Of Our Decisions – Including The Most Important Life Choices – Are Made By The Highly Refined Algorithms We Call – Sensations – Emotions – Desires

~ TMIAFOSE-SA-P-P-A-L-TMEAMO-I-S-E-T-WFFABM-AID-TOEFAV-TFCOEC-TSOC ~ The Mind Is A Flow Of Subjective Experiences – Such As – Pain – Pleasure – Anger – Love – These Mental Experiences Are Made Of – Interlinked – Sensations – Emotions – Thoughts – Which Flash For A Brief Moment – And Immediately Disappear – Then Other Experiences Flicker And Vanish – This Frenzied Collection Of Experiences Constitutes – The Stream Of Consciousness

~ EAHD-IROACS-MITBTWON-CA ~ Everything A Human Does – Including Reporting On Allegedly Conscious States – Might In Theory Be The Work Of Non-Conscious Algorithms

~ HSITOSOECOCFILN-IAT-WBVIAW-B-IHHNLTCFILN-OCBADHWSBSFSRTUA ~ Homo Sapiens Is The Only Species On Earth Capable Of Cooperating Flexibly In Large Numbers – Intelligence And Toolmaking – Were Obviously Very Important As Well – But – If Humans Had Not Learned To Cooperate Flexibly In Large Numbers – Our Crafty Brains And Deft Hands Would Still Be Splitting Flint Stones Rather Than Uranium Atoms

~ SDBAT-ACML-BRAT-AWSL-WARBE-TE-AIFSATRTSMOAH-GB ~ Sapiens Don’t Behave According To – A Cold Mathematical Logic – But Rather According To – A Warm Social Logic – We Are Ruled By Emotions – These Emotions – Are In Fact Sophisticated Algorithms That Reflect The Social Mechanism Of Ancient Hunter-Gather Bands

~ TTHMTARPTTCOOIS-HIWWTUOF-CGACNIHE-WMADTFTGMTTW ~ To Think Historically Means To Ascribe Real Power To The Contents Of Our Imaginary Stories – Hence If We Want To Understand Our Future – Cracking Genomes And Crunching Numbers Is Hardly Enough – We Must Also Decipher The Fictions That Give Meaning To The World

~ WLMHBCAAMWODR-BIGBAPWTRR-WORCWOR-IWORTHTGW ~ Written Language May Have Been Conceived As A Modest Way Of Describing Reality – But It Gradually Became A Powerful Way To Reshape Reality – When Official Reports Collided With Objective Reality – It Was Often Reality That Had To Give Way

~ HIASN-BTOAN-WWCTT-O-WAACTSO ~ History Isn’t A Single Narrative – But Thousands Of Alternative Narratives – Whenever We Choose To Tell – One – We Are Also Choosing To Silence Others

~ MCTDH ~ Myths Continue To Dominate Humankind

~ IMHAM-II-SH ~ If Modernity Has A Motto – It Is – Shit Happens

~ I-IMNBWTCTBIEGA-R-BINPTSM-INM-OOED ~ Indeed – It May Not Be Wrong To Call The Belief In Economic Growth A – Religion – Because It Now Purports To Solve Many – If Not Most – Of Our Ethical Dilemmas

~ TGSD-W-TDOI-OHRHLTKATW-TSHAVGRTSNK ~ The Greatest Scientific Discovery – Was – The Discovery Of Ignorance – Once Humans Realised How Little They Know About The World – They Suddenly Had A Very Good Reason To Seek New Knowledge

~ WDS-TPAASFMTTR-EITRCTTITFP ~ When Disaster Strikes – The Poor Almost Always Suffer Far More Than The Rich – Even If The Rich Caused The Tragedy In The First Place

~ IEIFS-I-TCATP-TE ~ If Everything Is For Sale – Including – The Courts And The Police – Trust Evaporates

~ WWHTTJMOAIOHIMCT?WWBTPIOAMNCOEUP? ~ What Will Happen To The Job Market Once Artificial Intelligence Outperforms Humans In Most Cognitive Tasks? – What Will Be The Political Impact Of A Massive New Class Of Economically Useless People?

~ WIWTISTTTCCOLASOOISLACY-EOUHASSTTAMOOE-KOAFCS-MTUWBF-M-N-S-OOD-A-WOOATJASCSAWIA ~ We Identify With The Inner System That Takes The Crazy Chaos Of Life And Spins Out Of It Seemingly Logical And Consistent Yarns – Each Of Us Has A Sophisticated System That Throws Away Most Of Our Experiences – Keeps Only A Few Choice Samples – Mixes Them Up With Bits From – Movies – Novels – Speeches – Our Own Daydreams – And – Weaves Out Of All That Jumble A Seemingly Coherent Story About Who I Am

~ WAATFAFO-EU-D/T/S-TMNAFT-FWOIH-C-D-TFM-A-HR-STF? ~ We Are About To Face A Flood Of – Extremely Useful – Devices / Tools / Structures – That Make No Allowance For The – Free Will Of Individual Humans – Can – Democracy – The Free Market – And – Human Rights – Survive This Flood?

~ TGD-IIDFC-WANDNTON-CI ~ The Great Decoupling – Intelligence Is Decoupling From Consciousness – We Are Now Developing New Types Of Non-Conscious Intelligence

~ TMIQIT-F-CEMWBWTDWATSP ~ The Most Important Question In Twenty-First-Century Economics May Well Be What To Do With All The Superfluous People

~ WWCHD-OWHHIN-CATCDAEB? ~ What Will Conscious Humans Do – Once We Have Highly Intelligent Non-Conscious Algorithms That Can Do Almost Everything Better?

~ AAPHOOTJM-WMBCITHO-TTETOTA-PA ~ As Algorithms Push Humans Out Of The Job Market – Wealth Might Become Concentrated In The Hands Of – The Tiny Elite That Owns The All-Powerful Algorithms

~ TQSM-S-KTN ~ The Quantified Self Movement – Self-Knowledge Through Numbers

~ OPDIPTMVRMHSHTO-AWAGITTTGIEFESAFCV ~ Our Personal Data Is Probably The Most Valuable Resource Most Humans Still Have To Offer – And We Are Giving It To The Tech Giants In Exchange For Email Services And Funny Cat Videos

~ TSOAFHTAIHAAU-NAAROSMGD-BDTAFOMC ~ The Shifting Of Authority From Humans To Algorithms Is Happening All Around Us – Not As A Result Of Some Momentous Governmental Decision – But Due To A Flood Of Mundane Choices

~ WEIRD ~ Western – Educated – Industrialized – Rich – Democratic

~ D-TDR-TUCODF-SAHKAW-TIBDACA-TI-O-A-T ~ Dataism – The Data Religion – The Universe Consists Of Data Flows – Sceptical About Human Knowledge And Wisdom – Trust In Big Data And Computer Algorithms – The Internet-Of-All-Things

~ M-G-LT-W-MP-IARFD ~ Mixing – God-Like Technology – With – Megalomaniac Politics – Is A Recipe For Disaster

ELIZABETH KOLBERT ~ THE SIXTH EXTINCTION ~ 2014

~ TSE ~ The Sixth Extinction

~ IEIAMT-MEI-W-MS ~ If Extinction Is A Morbid Topic – Mass Extinction Is – Well – Massively So

~ YAPEF-WODMP-ITHAVO ~ Yet Another Possible Explanation For – Why Observations Don’t Match Predictions – Is That Humans Aren’t Very Observant

~ TNP ~ The New Pangea

~ M-BKD ~ Meanwhile – Bats Keep Dying

~ DAGT-F-HP-IIET-TTDS-ABMATWJIBW ~ During Any Given Twenty-Four-Hour Period – It Is Estimated That – Ten Thousand Different Species – Are Being Move Around The World Just In Ballast Water

~ RHPOC ~ Rhinos Have Plenty Of Company

~ CHCBDAS;TCABF-TAA ~ Certainly Humans Can Be Destructive And Shortsighted; They Can Also Be Forward-Thinking And Altruistic

~ IDMMWPCODC-WMITPCTW ~ It Doesn’t Much Matter Whether People Care Or Don’t Care – What Matters Is That People Change The World

~ IAEEOOOM-WHTU ~ In An Extinction Event Of Our Own Making – What Happens To Us?

JOSEPH STIGLITZ ~ THE PRICE OF INEQUALITY ~ HOW TODAY’S DIVIDED SOCIETY ENDANGERS OUR FUTURE ~ NORTON ~ 2012

~ SGVFCTC-TWSST-TWACUT-IMW-T-EAPS-HF-A-T-BWFU ~ Specific Grievances Varied From Country To Country – There Were Some Shared Themes – There Was A Common Understanding That – In Many Ways – The – Economic And Political System – Had Failed – And – That – Both Were Fundamentally Unfair

~ TGBWOEAPSASTD-WWWTTDD-AWTAC-BTLTBI ~ The Gap Between What Our Economic And Political Systems Are Supposed To Do – What We Were Told They Did Do – And What They Actually Do – Became Too Large To Be Ignored

~ TBHTB-T-WGA-WHBTATEED-ACLATSSTTWNAA-TBHITBTW ~ The Bankers Had Taken Bets – That – Without Government Assistance – Would Have Brought Them And The Entire Economy Down – A Closer Look At The System Showed That This Was Not An Accident – The Bankers Had Incentives To Behave This Way

~ TMOINE ~ The Market Obviously Is Not Efficient

~ U-TIOTMTGJFSMC-ITWFOTM-TGSOI-AAMCOI ~ Unemployment – The Inability Of The Market To Generate Jobs For So Many Citizens – Is The Worst Failure Of The Market – The Greatest Source Of Inefficiency – And A Major Cause Of Inequality

~ WHEHAHP ~ We Have Empty Homes And Homeless People

~ WAPAHPFO-I-AESTISSALE-WLG-A-ADTHBPIP ~ We Are Paying A High Price For Our – Inequality – An Economic System That Is Less Stable And Less Efficient – With Less Growth – And – A Democracy That Has Been Put Into Peril

~ TPOMIE-BTHNIMC ~ The Power Of Markets Is Enormous – But They Have No Inherent Moral Character

~ ATB-MHPACRITSIIPASOLITPTHY-BGHAPAMRITA-AFTF-MATFTA ~ At Their Best – Markets Have Played A Central Role In The Stunning Increases In Productivity And Standards Of Living In The Past Two Hundred Years – But Government Has Also Played A Major Role In These Advances – A Fact That Free-Market Advocates Typically Fail To Acknowledge

~ OTOH-MCACW-PECOTS-A-AWAC ~ On The Other Hand – Markets Can Also Concentrate Wealth – Pass Environmental Costs On To Society – And – Abuse Workers And Consumers

~ TFIPAEAR-ATREO-PHSTM-ASIIWT-ATT-ATEOTR ~ The Failures In Politics And Economics Are Related – And They Reinforce Each Other – Politics Have Shaped The Market – And Shaped It In Ways That – Advantage The Top – At The Expense Of The Rest

~ UMDNWW-AWHS ~ Unfettered Markets Do Not Work Well – As We Have Seen

~ TLOI-A-TAOO-INI-NIIRRSTPOIMF ~ The Level Of Inequality – And – The Absence Of Opportunity – Is Not Inevitable – Nor Is Its Recent Rise Simply The Product Of Inexorable Market Forces

~ IA-ATAM-ATTCTGMMTTTWBE-PBIWLTMG-TIAIC-T-DE-IHALP-AHLBD-HIHNLTMG ~ Inequality’s Apologists – And They Are Many – Argue To The Contrary That Giving More Money To The Top Will Benefit Everyone – Partly Because It Would Led To More Growth – This Is An Idea Called – Trickle-Down Economics – It Has A Long Pedigree – And Has Long Been Discredited – Higher Inequality Has Not Led To More Growth

~ SDIIFTBIP-TETERTTSAA-‘PT’ ~ So Difficult Is It For Those Born Into Poverty To Escape – That Economists Refer To The Situation As A – “Poverty Trap”

~ MOIIDFCCAOI ~ Measures Of Income Inequality Don’t Fully Capture Critical Aspects Of Inequality

~ MOTITETIARO-GP-BWTGDAWIDND-IITROPFAMAOEO ~ Much Of The Inequality That Exists Today Is A Result Of – Government Policy – Both What The Government Does And What It Does Not Do – Inequality Is The Result Of Political Forces As Much As Of Economic Ones

~ TMTMA-TMCTALTB-WGI-CMCEAD ~ The More Transparent Markets Are – The More Competitive They Are Likely To Be – Without Good Information – Capital Markets Can’t Exercise Any Discipline

~ T-WAS-CWI;IC-T-T-‘R’-O-L/NR-WMTD ~ Taxing – Work And Savings – Can Weaken Incentives; In Contrast – Taxing – The – “Rents” – On – Land / Natural Resources – Won’t Make Them Disappear

~ INHTBWITGSY-F-$500M-AM-TW-$1B~ It’s Not Hard To Become Wealthy If The Government Sells You – For – $500 Million – A Mine – That’s Worth – $1 Billion

~ TSWTASMIGTGTGYO ~ The Simplest Way To A Sustainable Monopoly Is Getting The Government To Give You One

~ IOTTWIAFG-IQATBATWTROTG-A-IEW-IYCCYOR ~ It’s One Thing To Win In A Fair Game – It’s Quite Another To Be Able To Write The Rules Of The Game – And – It’s Even Worse – If You Can Choose Your Own Referees

~ ‘RC’-TOTRC-CFARTTSTTASTR-STSW-GWRITP-GC ~ “Regulatory Capture” – Those On The Regulatory Commissions – Come From And Return To The Sector That They Are Supposed To Regulate – Serve The Sector Well – Get Well Rewarded In Their Post-Government Career

~ ITGGYTRT-E-R-F-F-IDTAGTMAF ~ If The Government Grants You The Right To – Extract – Resources – For – Free – It Doesn’t Take A Genius To Make A Fortune

~ OESRP-NMHTM-AIA-M-CE-INSTSMSPTTS ~ Our Economic System Rewards Profits – No Matter How They’re Made – And In A – Money-Centric Economy – It’s Not Surprising To See Moral Scruples Put To The Side

~ TMDOAIS-IC ~ The Major Determinant Of An Individual’s Success – Initial Conditions

~ LIR-LR-A-ADADFS-CTTROTE-FAM ~ Low Interest Rates – Lax Regulations – And – A Distorted And Dysfunctional Financial Sector – Came To The Rescue Of The Economy – For A Moment

~ R-ATROTG-TEC-TPA-TPTTCPT ~ Regulations – Are The Rules Of The Game – To Ensure Competition – To Prevent Abuses – To Protect Those That Cannot Protect Themselves

~ MOTIIOE:TROR-S ~ Much Of The Inequality In Our Economy: The Result Of Rent-Seeking

~ TFSIST-STROTE-NTOWA ~ The Financial Sector Is Supposed To – Serve The Rest Of The Economy – Not The Other Way Around

~ MOT-‘FI’-WDT-CR-AALL-REP ~ Many Of These – “Financial Innovations” – Were Designed To – Circumvent Regulations – And Actually Lowered Long-Run Economic Performance

~ TCBDAWACC ~ There Can Be Destructive As Well As Constructive Competition

~ IF-ATPOF-IP ~ Increasing Fairness – And The Perception Of Fairness – Increases Productivity

~ TSTOEAPSIU-UT-WIEFTFOOS ~ The Sense That Our Economic And Political System Is Unfair – Undermines Trust – Which Is Essential For The Functioning Of Our Society

~ G-ITFITWWAT-C-TSTNP ~ Government – Is The Formal Institution Through Which We Act Together – Collectively – To Solve The Nation’s Problems

~ CATAIIESOS ~ Cooperation And Trust Are Important In Every Sphere Of Society

~ WOU-TROT-IMOEW-O-TIOTSC-TBUT ~ We Often Underestimate – The Role Of Trust – In Making Our Economy Work – Or – The Importance Of The Social Contract – That Binds Us Together

~ SC-ITGTHST ~ Social Capital – Is The Glue That Holds Societies Together

~ OCSH-D-NS-D-A-FAUG ~ One Cannot Simultaneously Have – Democracy – National Self-Determination – And – Full And Unfettered Globalization

~ N-ITHOTP-HSM-GSM-TSF-WWSR-WAAIR ~ Never – In The History Of The Planet – Had So Many – Given So Much – To So Few – Who Were So Rich – Without Asking Anything In Return

~ MH-BBHRAPLTERTBB ~ Moral Hazard – Bank Bailouts Had Repeatedly And Predictably Led To Excessive Risk Taking By Banks

~ RBBHIHCOT ~ Repeated Bank Bailouts Have Imposed High Costs On Taxpayers

~ ATW-TEO-FP-AL ~ Around The World – The Examples Of – Failed Privatizations – Are Legion

~ MOCWIHWTTC ~ Much Of Corporate Welfare Is Hidden Within The Tax Code

~ MCWITISD-ICGOTUOTR-WTBTL ~ Markets Can’t Work If There Isn’t Some Discipline – If Companies Get Only The Upside Of The Risks – With Taxpayer Bearing The Losses

~ WTWIO-DHTBTFCOTA-TWHII-NTIT-A-TTPTAROI ~ When Those Who Injure Others – Don’t Have To Bear The Full Consequences Of Their Actions – They Will Have Inadequate Incentives – Not To Injure Them – And – To Take Precautions To Avoid Risks Of Injury

~ IEPIACBTUD-PCWF ~ If Economic Power In A Country Becomes Too Unevenly Distributed – Political Consequences Will Follow

~ IAD-API-APAIM-ACBIAPI-MHSDOA-OTMSTTINM-ABDAEP ~ In Any Democracy – A Public Institution – And Pretend As It Might – A Central Bank Is A Public Institution – Must Have Some Degree Of Accountability – Oversight To Make Sure That There Is No Malfeasance – A Central Bank’s Decisions Are Essentially Political

~ AWIP ~ Another World Is Possible

~ N-TPOE-TPOEAF ~ Not – The Politics Of Envy – The Politics Of Efficiency And Fairness

TIM WU ~ THE MASTER SWITCH ~ 2010

~ TKE-TEUBADCTCIPSITI ~ The Kronos Effect ~ The Efforts Undertaken By A Dominant Company To Consume Its Potential Successors In Their Infancy

~ ATYWB-TFOTCS-WBTCT-AN-TA-F-TCOAR ~ As The Years Went By – The Founders Of The Commercial System – Would Begin To Credit Themselves – And Not – The Amateurs – For – The Creation Of American Radio

~ MWSTTAOW-GRICAPITI-B-TSR-WS-CCT-TPOI-T-CE-O-SI ~ Most Who Study These Topics Are Obsessed With – Government’s Role In Censorship And Providing Incentives To Innovate – But – The State’s Role – While Significant – Cannot Compare To – The Power Of Industry – To – Censor Expression – Or – Squelch Invention

~ TEMCOPADP ~ The Enlightened Monopolist Can Occasionally Prove A Delusional Paranoid

~ SOFTM:FO/MT/DSL/FM/SP-TLGOAO ~ Suppress Or Fail To Market: Fiber Optics / Mobile Telephones / Digital Subscriber Lines / Facsimile Machines / SpeakerPhones – The List Goes On And On

~ T-PP-ITITFSOANI-AST-‘EA’-PTTACOI ~ The – Primitive Prototype – Is Typical In The Founding Stage Of A New Industry – As Are The – “Early Adopters” – Prepared To Take A Chance On It

~ W-TV-RCATW-IW-AP-ARORIAR-TPWSBA-MOTSSAOERP ~ When – TV – Reached Consumers After The War – It Was – As Prophesied – A Replica Of Radio In All Respects – The Programming Was Sponsored By Advertisers – Most Of The Shows Simply Adaptations Of Existing Radio Programs

~ TBOTS-IOE-HBCTET-C-IE ~ The Blessing Of The State – Implicit Or Explicit – Has Been Crucial To Every Twentieth-Century Information Empire

~ YAWHSTATA-OGRIITNGUD ~ Yet As We Have Seen Time And Time Again – One Generation’s Radical Innovation Is The Next Generation’s Unyielding Dinosaur

~ AW-TBRIT1910-TOOCTAO-BIWTWOA-AW-TFTITFYOTTC-CWAD-I-T-BFAWWAW~ As With – The Broadcast Radio In The 1910s – The Origins Of Cable Television Are Obscure – Because It Was The Work Of Amateurs – As With – The Farmer’s Telephone In The First Years Of The Twentieth Century – Cable Was A Do-It-Yourself Business For Anyone With Will And Wires

~ TIAUETAAMDWIHBPTD-WSW-OMDNDSW-H-IITSO-CD-TRIAUMPAV ~ There Is An Undeniable Efficiency That Attends A Monopoly’s Doing What It Has Been Perfected To Do – What Such Well-Oiled Machines Do Not Do So Well – However – Is Initiate The Sort Of – Creative Destruction – That Revolutionizes Industries And Ultimately Multiplies Productivity And Value

~ TSATOOCEWALOTTIORMIAWWFHBCE ~ The Shape And Tenor Of Our Current Entertainment World Are Largely Owing To The Imperatives Of Risk Management In A World Where Failure Had Become Catastrophically Expensive

~ WLTCWCWYCEI? ~ Why Learn To Cope With Competition When You Can Eliminate It?

~ IAAMRTEOTM-TMCTPOIAC-TEIIFGTIITTP-BB ~ In An Age More Reliant Than Ever On Telecommunications Media – The More Concentrated The Power Over Information And Communications – The Easier It Is For Government To Indulge Its Temptation To Play – Big Brother

~ ITIRD?-EOIOIKHHIPOO-OTBTBOYAIE-WIG:TROTIOTIOTC? ~ Is The Internet Really Different? – Every Other Invention Of Its Kind Has Had Its Period Of Openness – Only To Become The Basis Of Yet Another Information Empire – Which Is Mightier: The Radicalism Of The Internet Or The Inevitability Of The Cycle?

~ WHBFTRIBOSIAPC ~ We Have Been Freed To Retreat Into Bubbles Of Selective Information And Parochial Concern

~ WAOM-OHDOFOC-AWI-DAGAIAARTEOR ~ With An Open Medium – One Has Diversity Or Fragmentation Of Content – And With It – Differences Among Groups And Individuals Are Accentuated Rather Than Elided Or Repressed

~ C-FIB-TMWAARCATBV ~ Cable – From Its Birth – The Medium Was Always As Relentlessly Commercial As The Broadcast Variant

~ NHAOTMCR-CFTCTROPPM(IV)~ No Honest Account Of The Media Conglomerate’s Rise – Could Fail To Concede The Role Of Purely Personal Motivations (Indeed Vanities)

~ IPD ~ Intellectual Property Development

~ MF ~ Mine Festivals

~ TM-TA:LALS-TA:DACC-ADWAETUFWLR ~ The Monopolist’s – Tools Are: Lawyers And Local Statues – Tactics Are: Delays And Court Challenges – All Deployed With An Eye Toward Unraveling Firms With Lesser Resources

~ BTTOCWSEAAC ~ Blow The Trumpet Of Competition While Simultaneously Eliminating All Actual Competitors

~ TCCOTMS ~ The Current Custodian Of The Master Switch

~ HMGTTIHTO-S/IR/RO-IHMIYCGTT ~ However Many Good Things The Internet Has To Offer – Service / Information Resources / Retail Outlets – It Hardly Matters If You Can’t Get To Them

~ NNITT-FCVOCC ~ Net Neutrality Is The Twenty-First Century’s Version Of Common Carriage

~ WLTBTOSACPPWUPUFTCOAEP-BTHABS ~ We Like To Believe That Our Safeguards Against Concentrated Political Power Will Ultimately Protect Us From The Consequences Of Accumulated Economic Power – But This Hasn’t Always Been So

~ GOPRIAACOPP-NAAATI ~ Government’s Only Proper Role Is As A Check On Private Power – Never As An Aid To It

~ MABF-YNSATBTSW-BEIFC ~ Markets Are Born Free – Yet No Sooner Are They Born Than Some Would-Be Emperor Is Forging Chains

~ TIISN-TIEP-TIIPITB-BR-AAPE-T-CBWOB ~ The Internet Is Simply Not – The Infinitely Elastic Phantasm – That It Is Popularly Imagined To Be – But Rather – An Actual Physical Entity – That – Can Be Warped Or Broken

~ IWDNTTMT-SO-S-OTCTOIAHAUTE-WCRB-I-LOTWAFTETBTIFUIAMHHF ~ If We Do Not Take This Moment To – Secure Our – Sovereignty – Over The Choices That Our Information Age Has Allowed Us To Enjoy – We Cannot Reasonably Blame – Its – Loss – On Those Who Are Free To Enrich Themselves By Taking It From Us In A Manner History Has Foretold

FRANKLIN FOER ~ WORLD WITHOUT MIND ~ 2017

~ WWM ~ World Without Mind

~ TETOBT ~ The Existential Threat Of Big Tech

~ TBTC-A-AOT-TMPGTWHEK ~ The Biggest Tech Companies – Are – Among Other Things – The Most Powerful Gatekeepers The World Has Ever Known

~ TS-MC-LTOTV-IPOC-IPON-HES-THPDS-THHAOPAC-ODBFAFHE-WMSV ~ To Survive – Media Companies – Lost Track Of Their Values – In Pursuit Of Clicks – Important Purveyors Of News – Have Embraced Sensationalism – They Have Published Dubious Stories – They Have Heaped Attention On Propagandists And Conspiracists – Old Boundaries Between Fact And Falsehood Have Eroded – Where Misinformation Spreads Virally

~ WHO-OS-TBSOSAMBC-WWNTARITWNJ-MWM-B-WTCTRTM ~ We’ve Handed Over – Our Secrets – To Be Stored On Servers And Mined By Computers – What We Need To Always Remember Is That We’re Not Just – Merging With Machines – But – With The Companies That Run The Machines

~ IIAIFOTHTTOOSFWTNEOB-P-A-C ~ It Is An Important Fact Of Technological History That The Outskirts Of San Francisco Were The National Epicenter Of Both – Psychedelics – And – Computing

~ AEC-TOFTABQATHI ~ An Engineering Challenge – That Often Fails To Ask Basic Questions About The Human Implications

~ TS-WAIBA-P-WCACODABOC-SI ~ The Singularity – When Artificial Intelligence Becomes All-Powerful – When Computers Are Capable Of Designing And Building Other Computers – SuperIntelligence

~ A-SU-AT-UTALRIIBE ~ Always – Surveilling Users – Auditing Them – Using Them As Lab Rats In Its Behavioral Experiments

~ TTLORIADIITSOC ~ Taken The Language Of Radical Individualism And Deployed It In The Service Of Conformism

~ ‘RT’ ~ “Radical Transparency”

~ ‘UT’ ~ “Ultimate Transparency”

~ TPTEMTCTHAN-A-TTCTTR-ASOPSTCBFM ~ Those Procedures That Enable Mechanical Thinking Came To Have A Name – Algorithms – The Textbooks Compare Them To Recipes – A Series Of Precise Steps That Can Be Followed Mindlessly

~ TAISTBDO:B/I/E/F ~ The Algorithm Is Supposed To Be Devoid Of: Bias / Intuition / Emotion / Forgiveness

~ TTATTDUIC-YTMCUI-D-LVOT-TIIWIWTH ~ They Talk About Torturing The Data Until It Confesses – Yet This Metaphor Contains Unexamined Implicitness – Data – Like Victims Of Torture – Tells Its Interrogator What It Wants To Hear

~ TPITWWOTTM-WAROTTTOTRTM ~ The Problem Is That When We Outsource Thinking To Machines – We Are Really Outsourcing Thinking To The Organizations That Run The Machines

~ TCGWIWAD ~ The Crowd Gets What It Wants And Deserves

~ TWEITMHBP-TATB-WMTETM-AAMTEFW-TRHOTBOC-TNTITRD ~ The Whole Effort Is To Make Human Beings – Predictable – To Anticipate Their Behavior – Which Makes Them Easier To Manipulate – Algorithms Are Meant To Erode Free Will – To Relive Humans Of The Burden Of Choosing – To Nudge Them In The Right Direction

~ AFASOO-TCBTOBCBA-WOEBAOTHGU-IASD-TABADOTEMS-AIMBIRIBISABTDAMPSW-WATSARITGD ~ Algorithms Fuel A Sense Of Omnipotence – The Condescending Belief That Our Behavior Can Be Altered – Without Our Even Being Aware Of The Hand Guiding Us – In A Superior Direction – That’s Always Been A Danger Of The Engineering Mind-Set – As It Moves Beyond Its Roots In Building Inanimate Stuff And Begins To Design A More Perfect Social World – We Are The Screws And Rivets In The Grand Design

~ TITSEOTNKM-TDAPK;TJSAOI ~ This Is The Strange Essence Of The New Knowledge Monopolies – They Don’t Actually Produce Knowledge; They Just Sift And Organize It

~ KITITRTEPOACOI-WK-TFAMBOPO-TM-OTLR-DTCFAE ~ Knowledge Is Too Important To Remain The Eternal Possession Of Any Company Or Individual – We Know – That Future Achievement Must Build On Past Ones – That Monopolies – Over The Long Run – Drain The Creativity From An Economy

~ OAUAP-TBOIPBAABP ~ Once An Underground, Amateur Pastime – The Bootlegging Of Intellectual Property Became An Accepted Business Practice

~ SVRTCAEG-WIOCARMIGIHH ~ Silicon Valley Routinely Trashes Cultural And Economic Gatekeepers – While Its Own Companies Are The Most Imposing Gatekeepers In Human History

~ TPOIOSALMED ~ The Population Of Informational Oligarchs Shrinks A Little More Every Day

~ DASVSABAMTW-TISATTOTO ~ Despite All Silicon Valley’s Sloganeering About Building A More Transparent World – Their Ideals Stop At The Threshold Of Their Offices

~ EF-MC-WWACOP-ACTCTFOWAI-B-TPHBSBAITP-BTDPATN-S-D-P ~ Even Free-Market Conservatives – Will Worry About Concentrations Of Power – Among Companies That Control The Flow Of Words And Ideas – Because – That Power Has Been So Blatantly Abused In The Past – Both The Distant Past And The Not-So-Distant Past

~ IAFOMI-TWROTITTCEST ~ It’s A Failure Of Moral Imagination – That Writers Respond Only To Injustices That They Can Envision Suffering Themselves

~ BVOTS-TFTTDMOTMFDI-CTOSLASG ~ By Virtue Of Their Size – The Fact That They Dominate Much Of The Market For Disseminating Ideas – Criticizing Them Often Seems Like A Suicidal Gesture

~ TITATCWFACIHN-WDNTATWATTCTFTCTSV ~ The Idea That A Tech Company Would Favor A Candidate Is Hardly Novel – We Don’t Need To Assume The Worst About The Tech Companies To Fear Their Capacity To Swing Votes

~ TTTCPLV-TCATMIAC-WCWURITCODB-CTAITDHAAURII ~ Though The Tech Companies Preach Liberal Values – They Crave Access To Markets In Authoritarian Countries – Where Compromise With Ugly Regimes Is The Cost Of Doing Business – Companies That Are Indifferent To Democracy Have Acquired An Outsized Role In It

~ DOTBTCIITPOTWATE ~ Dependence On The Big Tech Companies Is Increasingly The Plight Of The Worker And The Entrepreneur

~ AATMROOT-WLIAWOUBTPTBFEGEAP-IOWLFTN ~ Analytics Are The Managerial Revolution Of Our Time – We Live In A World Of Ubiquitous Data That Provide The Basis For Ever Greater Efficiency And Productivity – If Only We Learn From The Numbers

~ TETOTMEI:‘T’~ The Essential Term Of This Media Era Is: “Trending”

~ OEIDBP-WIGTHNG ~ Our Era Is Defined By Polarization – Warring Ideological Gangs That Yield No Ground

~ TBTM ~ Take Back The Mind

~ DITNO ~ Data Is The New Oil

~ TDFATOTHATMCPOU-TABE-AICOT ~ The Dominant Firms Are The Ones That Have Amassed The Most Complete Portraits Of Us – This Advantage Becomes Everything – And It Compounds Over Time

~ TTTPATCMANOATS ~ The Threats To Privacy And The Competitive Marketplace Are Now One And The Same

~ R-SWLRFTIPWGTS ~ Rent-Seekers With Little Regard For The Independent Producers Whose Goods They Sell

~ TOTDTI-BAT-TA ~ They Owe Their Dominance To Innovation – But Also To – Tax Avoidance

~ TASU-TF-TPHTTI-BTWLFE ~ They Aggressively Surveil Users – Thus Far – The Pubic Has Tolerated These Invasions – But That Won’t Last For Ever

~ H-ACTSC-ACBTT-EHTTAAFODL-AMPTPFIW ~ Hackers – Are Constantly Testing Security Cordons – And Constantly Bursting Through Them – Everybody Has Tolerated This As A Fact Of Digital Life – A Minor Price To Pay For Its Wonders

~ TBO-TIM-H-TWRSTIC-IMBAECOII-IMDOFS-OIMTAAE ~ The Big One – The Inevitable Mega-Hack – That Will Rumble Society To Its Core – It Might Be An Exposed Cache Of Intimate Information – It Might Disrupt Our Financial System – Or It Might Trigger And Actual Explosion

~ DPA ~ Data Protection Authority

~ TPITPTCOEOD-WAN-H-AC-AWCBCAWCBE-CSHTRTPDTSOS ~ The Point Isn’t To Prevent The Collection Or Exploitation Of Data – What Are Needed – However – Are Constraints – About What Can Be Collected And What Can Be Exploited – Citizens Should Have The Right To Purge Data That Sits On Servers

~ IA-B-I-R-WOE:C-NTCTSTT-SOTOD-TLSDTTCTTDWTGC-BIDBTT-PODIAHRTMCWEO ~ It’s A – Basic – Intuitive – Right – Worthy Of Enshrinement: Citizens – Not The Corporations That Stealthily Track Them – Should Own Their Own Data – The Law Should Demand That These Companies Treat This Data With The Greatest Care – Because It Doesn’t Belong To Them – Possessing Our Data Is A Heavy Responsibility That Must Come With Ethical Obligations

~ TIIA-BWSTI-AIIEOH-O-IEFOMS-EWTSANLTTFOIATFOD ~ The Internet Is Amazing – But We Shouldn’t Treat It – As If It Exists Outside History – Or – Is Exempt From Our Moral Structures – Especially When The Stakes Are Nothing Less Than The Fate Of Individuality And The Fitness Of Democracy

~ CATMAQOFHBASOSS-WRTQ-WCCF-B/E/J-ATSC? ~ Caring About The Morality And Quality Of Food Has Become A Symbol Of Social Status – Which Raises The Question – Why Can’t Concern For – Books / Essays /Journalism – Acquire The Same Cachet?

~ WMCAFA-TCNTDR ~ While Media Chase A Fake Audience – They Consciously Neglect Their Devoted Readers

~ STPEACVOABE-ETTRRSOR ~ Subscribers To Print Editions Are Considered Vestiges Of A Bygone Era – Even Though They Remain Reliable Sources Of Revenue

~ TTHATLMFTROA ~ The Time Has Arrived To Liberate Media From Their Reliance On Advertising

~ MNTSBTA-TRTTN-TRTLOCA-AMTWY-SE-A-SB ~ Media Need To Scale Back Their Ambitions – To Return To Their Niches – To Reclaim The Loyalty Of Core Audiences – A Move That Will Yield – Superior Editorial – And – Sustainable Businesses

~ TRT-MWNTCR-ARWNTP-CHNIPPFW-SLAPPAPTOT ~ To Rescue Themselves – Media Will Need To Charge Readers – And Readers Will Need To Pay – Consumers Have No Inherent Problem Paying For Words – So Long As Publishers Place A Price Tag On Them

~ TRRITSOP-WWRWOP-WRFT-N/P/AOU-SUAFOT-TPPU-FATIOD-TDFTMTTTOHC ~ Take Regular Refuge In The Sanctuary Of Paper – When We Read Words On Paper – We’re Removed From The – Notifications / Pings / And Other Urgencies – Summoning Us Away From Our Thoughts – The Page Permits Us – For A Time In Our Day – To Decouple From The Machine To Tend To Our Human Core

~ WHDOICMDA-CAE-TA-TTTL ~ We Have Deluded Ourselves Into Caring More Deeply About – Convenience And Efficiency – Than About – The Things That Last