MARG DE VILLIERS ~ WATER ~ 1999

~ W-ITBOCI-DNJL?-THQINHMCPSWTS-B-WKOEIPFTWDS ~ Where – In The Balance Of Competing Interests – Does Natural Justice Lie? – The Human Question Is Not How Many Can Possibly Survive Within The System – But – What Kind Of Existence Is Possible For Those Who Do Survive

~ THPIB-B-WDIITAF ~ The Human Population Is Burgeoning – But – Water Demand Is Increasing Twice As Fast

~ ‘TWOTT-FCWBFOW’ ~ “The Wars Of The Twenty-First Century Will Be Fought Over Water”

~ EYL-TASTTWSIIP ~ Everywhere You Look – There Are Signs That The Water Supply Is In Peril

~ ANWLT-1000CMPPPY-I-WS ~ Any Nation With Less Than – 1,000 Cubic Metres Per Person Per Year – Is – Water Scarce

~ PCAO-G-P-W-IGDIADADC ~ Per Capita Availability Of – Good – Potable – Water – Is Going Down In All Developed And Developing Countries

~ MOT-‘E’-SFWHABE-A-MOTWIIPIIN ~ Most Of The – “Easy” – Sources For Water Have Already Been Exploited – And – Much Of The Water Is In Places It Isn’t Needed

~ TBEATMEG-IT-TAS-1.4BCKOWOEILAFF-IT-O/L/S/G/G-FS-AO-2.5%-OTT ~ The Best Estimate Among The Many Educated Guesses – Is That – There Are Some – 1.4 Billion Cubic Kilometres Of Water On Earth In Liquid And Frozen Form – In The – Oceans / Lakes / Streams / Glaciers / Groundwater – Freshwater Stocks – Are Only – 2.5 Percent – Of The Total

~ WD-WITWTCF? ~ Water Demand – Where Is This Water To Come From?

~ WMMTNI-HB-NLI-S-H-OE-Y ~ We Must Measure Time Now In – Human Beings – No Longer In – Seconds – Hours – Or Even – Years

~ GD-I-OOTGUBLCFOP-WATIF-FFS-HM-F-C-W ~ Groundwater Depletion – Is – One Of The Great Unseen But Looming Crises Facing Our Planet – With All The Implications For – Falling Food Supplies – Human Misery – Famine – Conflict – War

~ TPOTMWOFAATNRTIIC-‘GO’-IIAMP-DO-RPACE ~ The Process Of Taking More Water Out From An Aquifer Than Naturally Returns To It Is Called – “Groundwater Overdrafting” – It Is A Modern Phenomenon – Depending On – Reliable Pumps And Cheap Energy

~ TWOTMWICACSWTI-RTAPFHU ~ The Withdrawal Of Too Much Water In Coastal Aquifers Causes Sea Water To Intrude – Ruining The Aquifer Permanently For Human Use

~ EASUTRACS-A-TIHAMOECWSLOP ~ Europeans Are Still Using Their Rivers As Convenient Sewers – And – There Is Hardly A Metre Of European Coastline Without Some Level Of Pollution

~ DAG ~ Deserts Are Growing

~ HHA-D-D-A-R-H-A-M-W ~ Humans Have Always – Discovered – Diverted – Accumulated – Regulated – Hoarded – And – Misused – Water

~ M-IC-PTTVS-EUTETROWTSWB ~ Many – Irrigating Cultures – Perished Through Their Very Success – Expanding Until They Exhausted The Resources On Which Their Success Was Based

~ ADOTE ~ Anthropogenic Degradation Of The Environment

~ PG-TEOAIRD ~ Population Growth – The Engine Of All Increased Resource Demands

~ DI-ANP-F-IC-I-APC-TOHAACOD ~ Drought Is – A Natural Phenomenon – Famine – In Contrast – Is – A Political Catastrophe – That Occasionally Happens As A Consequence Of Drought

~ WWHWBTIITW ~ Who Was Hiding What By Throwing It Into The Water

~ B-A-A=B-M-MEW-CBMCATPUTFC ~ Bio-Accumulation – And – Bio-Magnification – Make Everything Worse – Chemicals Become More Concentrated As They Pass Up The Food Chain

~ ESHCLBCOBDACG ~ Epidemiological Studies Have Confirmed Links Between Cancer Or Birth Defects And Contaminated Groundwater

~ TP-HBAT-EWW-SN ~ The Public – Having Been Assured That – Everything Was Well – Stopped Noticing

~ OABPHNATCDW-A-MT2.9BHNATSS ~ Over A Billion People Have No Access To Clean Drinking Water – And – More Than 2.9 Billion Have No Access To Sanitation Services

~ PLTD ~ Pollution Leads To Disease

~ WIBASAAS:ICDVLOTEIWIIF-TMGSVTP ~ Water Is Both A Solvent And A Sponge: Its Composition Depends Very Largely On The Environment In Which It Is Found – That Makes Groundwater So Vulnerable To Pollution

~ TCTHHWANT-TCOGIBMOAGS ~ The Changes That Humans Have Wrought Are Not Trivial – The Chemistry Of Groundwater Is Being Modified On A Global Scale

~ TNCOFWIRSBMAMFAUN-BFATAHLOIAUW ~ The Nitrate Content Of Fresh Water Is Rising Steadily Because More And More Farmers Are Using Nitrogen-Based Fertilizers And There Are Higher Levels Of Industrial And Urban Wastes

~ ‘D’-W-ILTWMSPP ~ “Dirty” – Water – Is Likely The World’s Most Serious Pollution Problem

~ DAHBFTPMPHTIA ~ Diversified Agriculture – Has Been Found To Produce More Per Hectare Than – Irrigated Agriculture

~ ATCAF-D-AAS-TBLIR ~ A True Cost Accounting For – Dams – Almost Always Shows – The Bottom Line In Red

~ NOINMLBBUIBAGDOILIBTOOP ~ Not Only Is No More Land Being Brought Under Irrigation But A Good Deal Of Irrigated Land Is Being Taken Out Of Production

~ SOTS-TADTIH-ISATRO-MT1MHAY ~ Salination Of The Soil – To A Degree That Inhibits Farming – Is Spreading At The Rate Of – More Than 1 Million Hectares A Year

~ TPISTS-TDDTF:WGCASM-IAIC-W-L-D-A-POTWS-A-RSITS-LU-TPCEKTSA ~ The Problem Is Simple To State – Though Devastatingly Difficult To Fix: Without Great Care And Skilful Management – Irrigation Almost Inevitably Causes – Water-Logging – Depletion – And – Pollution Of The Water Supply – And – Rising Salinity In The Soil – Left Unchecked – These Problems Can Eventually Kill The Soil Altogether

~ AAWA-A-60%-OTWIFINGTTC ~ As A Working Average – Almost – 60 Percent – Of The Water Intended For Irrigation Never Gets To The Croplands

~ ‘W-S-M’ ~ “Water-Stress-Management”

~ SA ~ Shrinking Aquifers

~ WW-T-D-W-T-W-RO? ~ What Will – They – Do – When – Their – Water – Runs Out?

~ IYTARIAS-YC-TIBIARA ~ If You Turn A River Into A Sewer – You Can – Turn It Back Into A River Again

~ F-TEWS-AOWP ~ Fish – The Early Warning System – A Measure Of Water Purity

~ T-ME-HABTPW-WW-AMP ~ The – Middle East – Has Always Been The Place Where – Water Wars – Are Most Probable

~ WSTIIP-B-AAIIWAC-IIN-S-SWSEHOPOFU ~ We Say That It Is Priceless – But – Act As If It Were Absurdly Cheap – It Is Not – Surely – Something We Should Either Hoard Or Prevent Others From Using

~ T-GR-DNOO-MPSG-B-O-I-AP-BHROTS-MTP-TINMWTBH-IIITAOSS-A-PHPAUAOWLIL-A-TIGOPINNWFGTASTBM ~ The – Green Revolution – Depended Not Only On – More Productive Seed Grains – But – On – Irrigation – And – Pesticides – Both Have Run Out Their String – Maximized Their Potential – There Is No More Water To Be Had – Irrigation Is Increasing The Amount Of Saline Soil – And – Pesticides Have Poisoned An Unsettling Amount Of What Land Is Left – And – The Inexorable Grind Of Population Is Now Negating What Few Gains There Are Still To Be Made

~ BINSYWIYDW ~ Benzene Is Not Something That You Want In Your Drinking Water

~ D-TPE-DW-TMUTEOAD-SR-WCBOD ~ Desalination – To Produce Enough – Desal Water – To Make Up The Equivalent Of A Decent-Sized River – Would Cost Billions Of Dollars

~ IYCGMW-WT-ULOI ~ If You Can’t Get More Water – Well Then – Use Less Of It

~ DC ~ Dew Collectors

~ F-DI ~ Fog-Drip Irrigation

~ W-WRICBIF ~ Waste-Water Reuse Is Coming Back Into Favour

~ LFAATT ~ Learn From And Adapt Traditional Techniques

~ IIITS-WV-A-TPISTWH ~ It Is Important To Signal – Water’s Value – And – To Price It So That Waste Hurts

~ PPAAFSOGP ~ Population Projections Are A Familiar Source Of Gloomy Prognostications

~ WS-MNLTW-B-TMCLT-FS-IP-A-TTSOD-TMPP-TITMOP-FSTMMOTDW-SOLD-SUAVI ~ Water Shortages – May Not Lead To War – But – They Most Certainly Lead To – Food Shortages – Increased Poverty – And – To The Spread Of Disease – They Make People Poorer – They Increase The Migrations Of Peoples – Further Straining The Massive Megaslums Of The Developing World – Standards Of Living Deteriorate – Social Unrest And Violence Increase

LARS OSBERG ~ THE AGE OF INCREASING INEQUALITY ~ 2018

~ EIWIYAYCEHSDAPDPC ~ Economic Inequalities Which Increase Year After Year Can Eventually Have Socially Divisive And Potentially Disastrous Political Consequences

~ EPIATEOD ~ Elite Political Influence And The Erosion Of Democracy

~ IIIGTT1%MRTIITPPATETTOM ~ Increasing Income Inequality Gives The Top 1 Percent More Resources To Intervene In The Political Process And To Ensure That Their Opinions Matter

TICETPASPOTVAAQDFTOTGP-DT-‘TT’-A-PI-A-TOOPMO-GTWTATPTPOV-IAWOPCM ~ There Is Clear Evidence The Political And Social Preferences Of The Very Affluent Are Quite Different From Those Of The General Population – Donations To – “Think Tanks” – And – Policy Institutes – And – The Ownership Of Private Media Outlets – Give The Wealthy The Ability To Push Their Point Of View – In A Way Ordinary People Cannot Match

~ IG-IDNTMMTMABDITLOPWHVL ~ In General – It Does Not Take Much Money To Make A Big Difference In The Lives Of People Who Have Very Little

~ TOCSOTLA-A-TWTPVHIR-CAOFP-TFTS-TCHAMHCFTLAMTGLECFTAI ~ The Occasional Cash Shortfalls Of The Less Affluent – And – Their Willingness To Pay Very High Interest Rates – Create An Opportunity For Profit – The Fact That Short-Term Credit Has A Much Higher Cost For The Less Affluent Means They Get Less Effective Consumption From Their Annual Incomes

~ AWAC? ~ And What About Chance?

~ EOTPDIORAMLOE-VW-F-9T47%-OAJ–ETL-EE-WBABHFTLM-TU ~ Estimates Of The Possible Disruptive Impacts Of Robots And Machine Learning On Employment – Vary Widely – From – 9 To 47 Per Cent – Of All Jobs – Even The Low-End Estimate – Would Be A Big Hit For The Labour Market – Technological Unemployment

~ BIMAHTBHRITCATBMF-TAAOBHRFACITPROADG ~ Because Individuals Must Actually Have Their Basic Human Rights If Their Choices Are To Be Meaningfully Free – The Actual Achievement Of Basic Human Rights For All Citizens Is The Primary Responsibility Of A Democratic Government

~ E-VWNANMITPMWTTTEFS ~ Eventually – Voters Whose Needs Are Not Met In The Political Mainstream Will Turn To The Extremes For Solutions

~ IICIEIAGSS-ASME-SDOART-‘GOD’-A-LFSWTDNM ~ Increasing Inequality Causes Increased Economic Instability And Greater Social Stress – Authoritarian Social Movements Emerge – Selling Dreams Of A Return To – “Good Old Days” – And – Looking For Scapegoats When They Do Not Materialize

~ STEPTPI-‘MG’-B-TPCHTDEGFTWNI-TWBARSFNSTB ~ Since The Easiest Policy To Promise Is – “More Growth” – But – That Promise Cannot Hope To Deliver Enough Growth For Those Who Need It – There Will Be A Relentless Search For New Scapegoats To Blame

~ AHRPDNSTESHEI-B-IDSTESHER-A-FTTH-ACMHALAMCOER ~ A Human Rights Perspective Does Not Say That Everyone Should Have Equal Income – But – It Does Say That Everyone Should Have Equal Rights – And – For That To Happen – All Citizens Must Have At Least A Minimum Command Over Economic Resources

~ WAOTA-STWUADISCTWOI-C ~ We All Own The Air – So Those Who Use And Degrade It Should Compensate Those Who Own It – Citizens

~ GAI-B-TIANLOWTIAFIWRCMTRWMTSTWC-PJMBS ~ Guaranteed Annual Income – Because – There Is A New Level Of Worry That In A Future In Which Robots Can Make The Robots Which Make The Stuff That We Consume – Paying Jobs May Be Scarce

~ WWTCDCFTATOFTAFOTF? ~ Where Will The Consumer Demand Come From To Absorb The Output From The Automated Factories Of The Future?

~ AMPWUMWAACOSVITMOTWIWPANCTS-AVOATCOCOTE-ANPJ ~ A Major Problem With Using Market Wages As A Criterion Of Social Value Is That Many Of The Ways In Which People Actually Now Contribute To Society – As Volunteers Or As The Caretakers Of Children Or The Elderly – Are Not Paying Jobs

~ FTATT ~ Fairer Taxes At The Top

~ TAATE-ALITTGP-B-TCOTLPMPDOTAATLPTETA ~ Tax Avoidance And Tax Evasion – Are Largely Invisible To The General Public – Because – The Complexity Of Tax Law Precludes Much Public Discussion Of The Accounting And Tax Law Provisions That Enable Tax Avoidance

NEIL POSTMAN ~ AMUSING OURSELVES TO DEATH ~ 1983

~ PDITAOSB ~ Public Discourse In The Age Of Show Business

~ TNITM ~ The Medium Is The Metaphor

~ O-P-R-N-E-A-C-HBTI-CAO-SB-TRITWAAPOTVOAOTD ~ Our – Politics – Religion – News – Athletics – Education – And – Commerce – Have Been Transformed Into – Congenial Adjuncts Of – Show Business – The Result Is That We Are A People On The Verge Of Amusing Ourselves To Death

~ IETWC-AIIETGBTFOTTI ~ In Every Tool We Create – An Idea Is Embedded That Goes Beyond The Function Of The Thing Itself

~ OMAOM-OMCTCOOC ~ Our Media Are Our Metaphors – Our Metaphors Create The Content Of Our Culture

~ ENTIAT-IGATA ~ Every New Technology For Thinking Involves A Tradeoff – It Giveth And Taketh Away

~ TFIWIAE-AWTIWB ~ The Form In Which Ideas Are Expressed – Affects What Those Ideas Will Be

~ TAOSB ~ The Age Of Show Business

~ C-FI-HODIOTIPYOM-ROT-OI-TMP- CYTAYPFTD-O-TTSAYWNOHT-OPI-ISPYARTS? ~ Context-Free Information – How Often Does It Occur That Information Provided You On Morning – Radio Or Television – Or In – The Morning Newspaper – Causes You To Alter Your Plans For The Day – Or – To Take Some Action You Would Not Otherwise Have Taken – Or – Provides Insight Into Some Problem You Are Required To Solve?

~ B-MOODNII-COITGUSTTABCLTAMA ~ But – Most Of Our Daily News Is Inert – Consisting Of Information That Gives Us Something To Talk About But Cannot Lead To Any Meaningful Action

~ AGLOI:TNEFYAVOOAWYCDNETOTAMN-AWYCDN ~ A Great Loop Of Impotence: The News Elicits From You A Variety Of Opinions About Which You Can Do Nothing Except To Offer Them As More News – About Which You Can Do Nothing

~ EBEB-FTFT-WWSIWANQWHA-AW-IAC-DNPAR ~ Everything Became Everyone’s Business – For The First Time – We Were Sent Information Which Answered No Question We Had Asked – And Which – In Any Case – Did Not Permit A Reply

~ AP-CIASITGFAIIASU-B-TUTP-CPIN-A-O-P-S-O-C-IITOULFIWNGCTOL-AT-OC-IT-A ~ A Pseudo-Context Is A Structure Invented To Give Fragmented And Irrelevant Information A Seeming Use – But – The Use The Pseudo-Context Provides Is Not – Action – Or – Problem-Solving – Or – Change – It Is The Only Use Left For Information With No Genuine Connection To Our Lives – And That – Of Course – Is To – Amuse

~ TINSOPI-P/N/E/R/S/S-TDNFIWTT-WMTAPUOTSISBTBOT ~ There Is No Subject Of Public Interest – Politics / News / Education / Religion / Science / Sports – That Does Not Find Its Way To Television – Which Means That All Public Understanding Of These Subjects Is Shaped By The Biases Of Television

~ WRTAT-OWIOT-TI-IC-IE-WINOIPCASCBTCIWWNATI-ITFG-AAN-O-CIAAILTSIT-ASMIPAE ~ We Rarely Talk About Television – Only What Is On Television – That Is – Its Content – Its Ecology – Which Includes Not Only Its Physical Characteristics And Symbolic Code But The Conditions In Which We Normally Attend To It – Is Taken For Granted – Accepted As Natural – One – Cultural Institution After Another Is Learning To Speak Its Terms – All Subject Matter Is Presented As Entertaining

~ TIOCPMOKAI-T-ATITCP-HTSTWBTMFHTWIPTBS-TNODICATDLBWISBAWINBHTSWEPD-TNBBSB ~ Television Is Our Culture’s Principal Mode Of Knowing About Itself – Therefore – And This Is The Critical Point – How Television Stages The World Becomes The Model For How The World Is Properly To Be Staged – The Nature Of Discourse Is Changing As The Demarcation Line Between What Is Show Business And What Is Not Becomes Harder To See With Each Passing Day – There’s No Business But Show Business

~ ‘N…T’ ~ “Now… This”

~ IOT-CRRATDTOT-T-PLNNTTVMWRPTTPCGASOV-OMLLALBBTTT-OEW-LLAT-TBIFBL ~ If On Television – Credibility Replaces Reality As The Decisive Test Of Truth-Telling – Political Leaders Need Not Trouble Themselves Very Much With Reality Provided That Their Performances Consistently Generate A Sense Of Verisimilitude – One May Look Like A Liar But Be Telling The Truth – Or Even Worse – Look Like A Truth-Teller But In Fact Be Lying

~ TIATMO-‘BI’-BCASOITMPBCD-MI-M-I-F-O-S-I-SFMST-BDOAI ~ Television Is Altering The Meaning Of – “Being Informed”– By Creating A Species Of Information That Might Properly Be Called Disinformation – Misleading Information – Misplaced – Irrelevant – Fragmented – Or – Superficial – Information – Something Far More Serious Than – Being Deprived Of Authentic Information

~ TTCINAAATCOP-IIATCOTC ~ The Television Commercial Is Not At All About The Character Of Products – It Is About The Character Of The Consumers

~ TTCHOBAF-MBOV-Y-MCFV-WMT-TBOBHNBP-T-TCIAPABP-D ~ The Television Commercial Has Oriented Business Away From – Making Products Of Value – Toward – Making Consumers Feel Valuable – Which Means That – The Business Of Business Has Now Become Pseudo-Therapy – The Consumer Is A Patient Assured By Psycho-Dramas

~ TITLOAGTC:P-AS-AS-O-AF-TCFVACACIOT ~ This Is The Lesson Of All Great Television Commercials: Provide – A Slogan – A Symbol – Or – A Focus – That Creates For Viewers A Comprehensive And Compelling Image Of Themselves

~ IT-AOSAIP-PDIENOOICBOHCAW ~ ~ In The – Age Of Show Business And Image Politics – Political Discourse Is Emptied Not Only Of Ideological Content But Of Historical Content – As Well

~ TOAVHAKATVOPTMWAAAMOPD-B-MOTCNHEHFASIWTMWITWDNA-TKTCINNWAPDTTFOAJ ~ Tyrants Of All Varieties Have Always Known About The Value Of Providing The Masses With Amusements As A Means Of Pacifying Discontent – But – Most Of Them Could Not Have Even Hoped For A Situation In Which The Masses Would Ignore That Which Does Not Amuse – To Know That Censorship Is Not A Necessity When All Political Discourse Takes The Form Of A Jest

~ TATWBWTSOACMBS-TO:CBAP-TH:CBB ~ There Are Two Ways By Which The Spirit Of A Culture May Be Shriveled – The Orwellian: Culture Becomes A Prison – The Huxleyan – Culture Becomes A Burlesque

~ IMLDIOWAIBR-OL-WI-TGOTPAEI-SER-I-WEP ~ It Makes Little Difference If Our Wardens Are Inspired By Right- Or Left-Wing Ideologies – The Gates Of The Prison Are Equally Impenetrable – Surveillance Equally Rigorous – Icon-Worship Equally Pervasive

~ A-O-WIMETR-ATO-TA-H ~ An – Orwellian – World Is Much Easier To Recognize – And To Oppose – Than A – Huxleyan

~ PCHNYATPTTII-TISOTFTBOVETHAEAOL ~ Public Consciousness Has Not Yet Assimilated The Point That Technology Is Ideology – This In Spite Of The Fact That Before Our Very Eyes Technology Has Altered Every Aspect Of Life

~ TBATATCEWAPFSC-TMTTIN-TMTATTIAAFTCI-ATLH-SPAS ~ To Be Unaware That A Technology Comes Equipped With A Program For Social Change – To Maintain That Technology Is Neutral – To Make The Assumption That Technology Is Always A Friend To Culture Is – At This Late Hour – Stupidity Plain And Simple

~ NMIEDIIUUWIDA-TAITBTS ~ No Medium Is Excessively Dangerous If Its Users Understand What Its Dangers Are – To Ask Is To Break The Spell

~ TCTOCT-TTPDWHISPSFID-WGU-U-IWBNTTMCAS-O-LRODHBOGVTL-SO-B-HSVLOITMP-A-HCALAMPFTATMHS ~ The Central Thesis Of Computer Technology – That The Principal Difficulty We Have In Solving Problems Stems From Insufficient Data – Will Go Unexamined – Until – It Will Be Noticed That The Massive Collection And Speed-Of-Light Retrieval Of Data Have Been Of Great Value To Large-Scale Organizations – But – Have Solved Very Little Of Importance To Most People And – Have Created At Least As Many Problems For Them As They May Have Solved

~ MC ~ Media Conscious

~ WATP-BNW-WNTTWLIOT-B-TTDNKWTWLAAWTHST ~ What Afflicted The People In – Brave New World – Was Not That They Were Laughing Instead Of Thinking – But – That They Did Not Know What They Were Laughing About And Why They Had Stopped Thinking

NASSIM TALEB ~ ANTIFRAGILE ~ 2012

~ A-TTGFD ~ Antifragile – Things That Gain From Disorder

~ WEACAEAF-YWTBTFAWFTW ~ Wind Extinguishes A Candle And Energizes A Fire – You Want To Be The Fire And Wish For The Wind

~ TA-STBFS:TTAGWET-V-R-D-A-S-A-L-A-R-A-U-Y-ISOTUOTP-TINWFTEOOF ~ The Antifragile – Some Things Benefit From Shocks; They Thrive And Grow When Exposed To – Volatility – Randomness – Disorder – And – Stressors – And – Love – Adventure – Risk – And – Uncertainty – Yet – In Spit Of The Ubiquity Of The Phenomenon – There Is No Word For The Exact Opposite Of Fragile

~ AIBROR-TRRSASTS;TAGB ~ Antifragility Is Beyond Resilience Or Robustness – The Resilient Resists Shocks And Stays The Same; The Antifragile Gets Better

~ AAFADOAS ~ Antifragility And Fragility Are Degrees On A Spectrum

~ WCAADA(AF)UASTOA:ATHMUTDFRE(OCS)IA;TRIF We Can Almost Always Detect Antifragility (And Fragility) Using A Simple Test Of Asymmetry: Anything That Has More Upside Than Downside From Random Events (Or Certain Shocks) Is Antifragile; The Reverse Is Fragile

~ C-IAITPOATN(AC)STHS-DTSO-V-R-A-S-WHT-TW-W-D-O-BU-WHBF-TE-OH-PL-E-AE-MOO-M-S-W-HBHUWT-DPAC-WDPT ~ Crucially – If Antifragility Is The Property Of All Those Natural (and Complex) Systems That Have Survived – Depriving These Systems Of – Volatility – Randomness – And – Stressors – Will Harm Them – They Will – Weaken – Die – Or – Blow Up – We Have Been Fragilizing – The Economy – Our Health – Political Life – Education – Almost Everything – Much Of Our – Modern – Structured – World – Has Been Harming Us With Top-Down Policies And Contraptions – Which Do Precisely This

~ IAET-DFABAAG-EB-UTUTRAOSAD ~ If About Everything Top-Down Fragilizes And Blocks Antifragility And Growth – Everything Bottom-Up Thrives Under The Right Amount Of Stress And Disorder

~ UATEOO-TLFOS-A-GGOC-AO-‘SITG’-SBAATEOOBGTU(OG)F-V-V-A-D-A-EOTTDROLOH-ASA-A-T-C-O-F-O-O-IH ~ Upside At The Expense Of Others – The Largest Fragilizer Of Society – And – Greatest Generator Of Crises – Absence Of – “Skin In The Game” – Some Become Antifragile At The Expense Of Others By Getting The Upside (or Gains) From – Volatility – Variations – And – Disorder – And – Exposing Others To The Downside Risks Of Losses Or Harm – And Such – Antifragility-At-The-Cost-Of-Fragility-Of-Others – Is Hidden

~ IAOND ~ International Association Of Name Droppers

~ WAWTROANCO-IH-WTMPANRDA/OA-TGTSWCPTP-ANPIHHSMN-R-T-TI-TWNPE-ESMC ~ We Are Witnessing The Rise Of A New Class Of – Inverse Heroes – With Too Much Power And No Real Downside And/Or Accountability – They Game The System While Citizens Pay The Price – At No Point In History Have So Many Non-Risk-Takers – That Is – Those With No Personal Exposure – Exerted So Much Control

~ TCERI:TSNHA-FATEOTFOO ~ The Chief Ethical Rule Is The Following: Thou Shalt Not Have Anti-Fragility At The Expense Of The Fragility Of Others

~ CSAFOI-HTD-A-NR(ALMOALL) ~ Complex Systems Are Full Of – Interdependencies – Hard To Detect – And – Nonlinear Responses (A Lot More Or A Lot Less)

~ LIM-A-UME ~ Less Is More – And – Usually More Effective

~ MHREWL-A-TLCBGWAGL Modernity Has Replaced Ethics With Legalese – And – The Law Can Be Gamed With A Good Lawyer

~ IYSFADNSF-YAAF ~ If You See Fraud And Do Not Say Fraud – You Are A Fraud

~ MOTPOSCFTA-‘OPADI’ ~ Many Of The Problems Of Society Come From The Argument – “Other People Are Doing It”

~ TFWT-TAGFD-TRDCTM ~ The Fragile Wants Tranquility – The Antifragile Grows From Disorder – The Robust Doesn’t Care Too Much

~ ASGIC-WMAM-‘CE’-SIT-A-MAMS-TBIVTC ~ As Societies Gain In Complexity – With More And More – “Cutting Edge” – Sophistication In Them – And – More And More Specialization – They Become Increasingly Vulnerable To Collapse

~ HSFTRSOTCIWTULAT ~ Humans Somehow Fail To Recognize Situations Outside The Contexts In Which They Usually Learn About Them

~ LOR-AT-CRMPONS-RIABISLAWINH ~ Layers Of Redundancy – Are The – Central Risk Management Property Of Natural Systems – Redundancy Is Ambiguous Because It Seems Like A Waste If Nothing Happens

~ IINPTCC-IIHY-GO ~ It Is Not Possible To Control Criticism – If It Harms You – Get Out

~ SAI ~ Stressors Are Information

~ MOMLIPCSI ~ Much Of Modern Life Is Preventable Chronic Stress Injury

~ BYFAYSWGYI ~ Both Your Failures And Your Successes Will Give You Information

~ IIHTET-D-DP-T-R-IITF-N-TP ~ It Is Hard To Explain To – Data-Driven People – That – Risk – Is In The Future – Not – The Past

~ AOFLFMA ~ Absence Of Fire Lets Flammable Material Accumulate

~ WNTTI-SS-COC-A-SE ~ We Need To Learn To Think In – Second Steps – Chains Of Consequences – And – Side Effects

~ OOLP:NSWV ~ One Of Life’s Packages: No Stability Without Volatility

~ M-SWTSMOV-A-EWTSMOFI ~ Modernity – Starts With The States Monopoly On Violence – And – Ends With The States Monopoly On Fiscal Irresponsibility

~ AAR-ITL-S-C-A-S-ABIR-BSE ~ As A Rule – Intervening To Limit – Size – Concentration – And – Speed – Are Beneficial In Reducing – Black Swan Events

~ M-DN ~ Media-Driven Neuroticism

~ NSATOAEECIE;BSFTTIN ~ Not Seeing A Tsunami Or An Economic Event Coming Is Excusable; Building Something Fragile To Them Is Not

~ T-CBTAFU-N-GDAAOV Things – Can Be Taken Away From Us – Not – Good Deeds And Acts Of Virtue

~ TFSTACIF-DD-RT-IU-TIB-LETNBSALNAWBI ~ The First Step Toward Antifragility Consists In First – Decreasing Downside – Rather Than – Increasing Upside – That Is By – Lowering Exposure To Negative Black Swans And Letting Natural Antifragility Work By Itself

~ TOIAAOA ~ The Option Is An Agent Of Antifragility

~ FITUO ~ Freedom Is The Ultimate Option

~ O=A+R ~ Option = Asymmetry + Rationality

~ OQ ~ Organized Quacks

~ IICWTU-TCOB-WI-TPOF ~ It Is Completely Wrong To Use – The Calculus Of Benefits – Without Including – The Probability Of Failure

~ BS-E-A-NI-AARO-C-IBP-G-A-TBTC-‘E’ ~ Black Swan – Effects – Are – Necessarily Increasing – As A Result Of – Complexity – Interdependence Between Parts – Globalization – And – The Beastly Thing Called – “Efficiency”

~ TWIGLALP-A-WRMAMOTTHEAI-TAHTE-LAP ~ The World Is Getting Less And Less Predictable – And – We Rely More And More On Technologies That Have Errors And Interactions – That Are Harder To Estimate – Let Alone Predict

~ WN-WVAC-MT-WPALRBDC ~ We Notice – What Varies And Changes More Than – What Plays A Large Role But Doesn’t Change

~ WOD-I-LTPOM ~ Wealth Of Details – Ironically – Leads To Peace Of Mind

~ S-ATYL-RT-CBQA-P-A ~ Subtraction – Adds To Your Life – Removing Things – Can Be Quite A – Potent – Action

~ MT-WHDAFF-NC-O-AS ~ Modern Times – We Have Developed A Fondness For – Neomanic Complication – Over – Archaic Simplicity

~ SITG-MTLC ~ Skin In The Game – Making Talk Less Cheap

~ TIACAA-DAP-MOS-WETH-WHOSITG-WHSTR-UEYO;ICHO(WROI)-YYINL-ISF?-TINPFOMWHS ~ The Intellectual And Commentator As A – Detached And Protected – Member Of Society – Without Exposure To Harm – Without Having One’s Skin In The Game – Without Having Something To Risk – You Express Your Opinions; It Can Hurt Others (Who Rely On It) – Yet You Incur No Liability – Is This Fair? – There Is No Penalty For Opinion Makers Who Harm Society

~ NHPW-TADD-BMV-A-PALR-TIMT ~ Never Have People – Who Talk And Don’t Do – Been More Visible – And – Played A Larger Role – Than In Modern Times

~ SPFTLOTB-B-GNBFT-IYDSTTOAAAT-YCHAP-WIW-TSIC-‘I-B’-WI?-TIUAND-NDAA ~ Society Pays For The Losses Of The Bankers – But – Gets No Bonuses From Them – If You Don’t See This Transfer Of Antifragility As A Theft – You Certainly Have A Problem – What Is Worse – This System Is Called – “incentive-based” – What Incentive? – There Is Upside And No Downside – No Disincentive At All

~ AELISWSOPR ~ An Ethical Life Isn’t So When Stripped Of Personal Risk

~ R-TYFRMB ~ Reader – Thank You For Reading My Book

NASSIM TALEB ~ GLOSSARY ~ ANTIFRAGILE ~ 2012

PB-SIWSANS ~ Procrustean Bed – Situations In Which Simplifications Are Not Simplifications

~ L-B-H-T-FE-TMILATTOMTISTIAD ~ Lecturing-Birds-How-To-Fly Effect – To Make It Look As Though Technology Owes More To Institutional Science Than It Actually Does

~ T-TATTROOL ~ Touristification – The Attempt To Take Randomness Out Of Life

~ BS-ADS-ACOTE-OSAOE ~ Barbell Strategy – A Dual Strategy – A Combination Of Two Extremes – One Safe And One Extreme

~LF-MTW-PPOMALEFTECRW ~ Ludic Fallacy – Mistaking The Well-Posed Problems Of Mathematics And Laboratory Experiments For The Ecologically Complex Real World

~ DC(SITG)-YMOBPAOBTWCTTACB-A-HSTL-IAW-TPACIBW ~ Doxastic Commitment (Soul In The Game) – You Must Only Believe Predictions And Opinions By Those Who Committed Themselves To A Certain Belief – And – Had Something To Lose – In A Way – To Pay A Cost In Being Wrong

~GLF-MTSOIOENK=FA-LVFTO-LT-O-MTWC-‘RI’-ASM ~ Green Lumber Fallacy – Mistaking The Source Of Important Or Even Necessary Knowledge – For Another – Less Visible From The Outside – Less Tractable – One – Many Things We Call – “Relevant Knowledge” – Aren’t So Much

~ EI-FOETA(OP)-RTTR ~ Ethical Inversion – Fitting One’s Ethics To Actions (Or Profession) – Rather Than The Reverse

~ NF-ONTFA-S-O-P-TASOCODF ~ Narrative Fallacy – Our Need To Fit A – Story – Or – Pattern – To A Series Of Connected Or Disconnected Facts

~ SK-YKWIWWMCTYKAE ~ Subtractive Knowledge – You Know What Is Wrong With More Certainty Than You Know Anything Else

~ SP-PTFBRWIFFI-RTNATI ~ Subtractive Prophecy – Predicting The Future By Removing What Is Fragile From It – Rather Than Naively Adding To It

~ LE-AN-IILEWEDOIL ~ Lindy Effect – Anything Nonperishable – Increases In Life Expectancy With Every Day Of Its Life

~ N-ALOCFIOS-FTF-B-A-N-S ~ Neomania – A Love Of Change For Its Own Sake – Forecasting The Future – By – Adding – Not – Subtracting

PSEUDO-EVENT ~ CHARACTERISTICS ~ DANIEL BOORSTIN ~ THE IMAGE ~ 1961

~ IINS-SH-P-P-O-I-I ~ It Is Not Spontaneous – Someone Has – Planned – Planted – Or – Incited – It

~ T-II-A-I ~ Typically – It Is – An – Interview

~ IIPP(NAE)FTIPOBROR-ISIMBHWIIR ~ It Is Planned Primarily (Not Always Exclusively) For The Immediate Purpose Of Being Reported Or Reproduced – It’s Success Is Measured By How Widely It Is Reported

~ IRTTUROTSIA-IIALFTA ~ It’s Relation To The Underlying Reality Of The Situation Is Ambiguous – It’s Interest Arises Largely From This Ambiguity

~ UIIITBAS-FP ~ Usually It Is Intended To Be A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

DANIEL BOORSTIN ~ THE IMAGE ~ 1961

~ P-E ~ Pseudo-Event

~ ALALPOOE-HHCTCOP-E-TFOC ~ A Larger And Larger Proportion Of Our Experience – Has Come To Consist Of Pseudo-Events – They Flood Our Consciousness

~ TGR ~ The Graphic Revolution

~ T-NL-IAP-EPE ~ The – News Leak – Is A Pseudo-Event Par Excellence

~ P-EPMP-E ~ Pseudo-Events Produce More Pseudo-Events

~ AP-EIAAT-PIAAF ~ A Pseudo-Event Is An Ambiguous Truth – Propaganda Is An Appealing Falsehood

~ P-ETOOHDTBI-PFOOWTBI ~ Pseudo-Events Thrive On Our Honest Desire To Be Informed – Propaganda Feeds On Our Willingness To Be Inflamed

~ POE-P-EOI ~ Propaganda Oversimplifies Experience – Pseudo-Events Overcomplicate It

~ O-‘FMOI’-IAPWPACBCP-EAAATJAT ~ Our – “Free Market Of Ideas – Is A Place Where People Are Confronted By Competing Pseudo-Events And Are Allowed To Judge Among Them

~ KOP-E-OWHBR-O-WHBS-AH-BTTOB-‘I’ ~ Knowledge Of Pseudo-Events – Of What Has Been Reported – Or – What Has Been Staged – And How – Becomes The Test Of Being – “Informed”

~ T-GR-SGU-AOT-TMOF-W-K ~ The – Graphic Revolution – Suddenly Gave Us – Among Other Things – The Means Of Fabricating – Well-Knownness

~ TQWNCMAMOWIA-‘NA’-B-AIFANCOHE ~ The Qualities Which Now Commonly Make A Man Or Woman Into A – “Nationally Advertised” – Brand – Are In Fact A New Category Of Human Emptiness

~ H-W-FPTC-WOADOA-D ~ Hero-Worship – From Plato To Carlyle – Was Often A Dogma Of Anti-Democracy

~ TCIAPWIKFHW-K-THP-E-H[/H]RTMAERIHA-T-NM-‘H’-ARIWWPOOP ~ The Celebrity Is A Person Who Is Known For His Well-Knownness – The Human Pseudo-Event – His[/Her] Relation To Morality And Even Reality Is Highly Ambiguous – These – New-Model – “Heroes” – Are Receptacles Into Which We Pour Our Own Puposelessness

~ TH-WDB-A;TC-B-IOT ~ The – Hero – Was Distinguished By – Achievement; The Celebrity – By – Image Or Trademark

~ TVAWFMTC-ITLR-D-D-A-M-B-P ~ The Very Agency Which First Makes The Celebrity – In The Long Run – Destroys – Destroyed – As – Made – By – Publicity

~ C-BTAMTO-CBMT-P-C-F-A-FU-WDNLTCTWALIAM-WLFM-A-WSOOI ~ Celebrities – Because They Are Made To Order – Can Be Made To – Please – Comfort – Fascinate – And – Flatter Us – We Do Not Like To Confess That We Are Looking In A Mirror – We Look For Models – And – We See Our Own Image

~ INRI ~ Images Now Displace Ideals

~ AI-ISWHACO-AI-HACOU ~ An Image – Is Something We Have A Claim On – An Ideal – Has A Claim On Us

~ TAOTN-T-N-F-PSWANTNF ~ The Appeal Of The Neither-True-Nor-False – Persuasive Statements Which Are Neither True Nor False

~ TAOTS-FP-TAOMTTBSTAS ~ The Appeal Of The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – The Art Of Making Things True By Saying They Are So

~ TAOTH-I-EUTHTOEEMBCT ~ The Appeal Of The Half-Intelligible – Encourages Us To Hope That Our Extravagant Expectations May Be Coming True

~ TAOTC-WAFTAWGTSTFU ~ The Appeal Of The Contrived – We Are Flattered That Anyone Would Go To Such Trouble For Us

~ N-T-B-C-ITMT ~ Not – Truth – But – Credibility – Is The Modern Test~ TI-TAOC-TAHBSCTTNSC ~ This Is – The Age Of Contrivance – The Artificial Has Become So Commonplace That The Natural Seems Contrived

~ TINDSLAWDNTTBCGWAGN-B-TGR-HOUTMOMAEAFO-MCG-WCBCSTGUTITWABN ~ There Is No Danger So Long As We Do Not Think That By Chewing Gum We Are Getting Nourishment – But – The Graphic Revolution – Has Offered Us The Means Of Making All Experience A Form Of – Mental Chewing Gum – Which Can Be Continually Sweetened To Give Us The Illusion That We Are Being Nourished