ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ CHARLES ELTON ~ THREE QUESTIONS ~ PANDEMONIUM ~ 2006

~ HWTCATAAPTLHN? ~ How Will This Change Affect The Animals And Plants That Live Here Now?

~ WBASMBL? ~ What Beauty And Security May Be Lost?

~ HWTCA-‘TAIOC’ ~ How Will This Change Affect – “The Accumulating Instability Of Communities?”

ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ PANDEMONIUM ~ 2006

~ W-OBP-OTMEY-WSBSTMTHAPU ~ With – One Billion People – On The Move Every Year – We Shouldn’t Be Surprised That Microbial Traffic Has Also Picked Up

~ ED-G-T-FOB-DEANOGIITWWL ~ Every Day – Globe-Trotting – Fungi Or Bacteria – Determinedly Expose A Number Of Glaring Insecurities In The Way We Live

~ T-TPO-600-LD-PIQTWOTT-LR–A-T-B-I-B-FIA ~ The Troubling Proliferation Of – 600 – Livestock Diseases – Puts Into Question The Wisdom Of The – “Livestock Revolution” – And – The – Bigger-Is-Better – Fad In Agriculture

~ WHBGTIP ~ We Have Become Grand Traders In Pandemonium

~ F-MI ~ Factory-Made Infections

~ BF-INPTSTHLA-VT ~ Bird Flu – Is Now Poised To Sweep Through Humans Like A – Viral Tsunami

~ VAALFOTETD ~ Viruses Are Always Looking For Opportunities To Expand Their Domain

~ WAVOBGIAFATFSOWG-T-‘U’-A-RRUARO ~ Whenever A Virus Or Bacterium Gets Into A Factory And Threatens Feed Schedules Or Weight Gain – The – “Units” – Are – Routinely Rounded Up And Rubbed Out

~ YC-C-P-P-A-P-T-WBABMFVC ~ You Can’t – Crowd – People – Pigs – And – Poultry – Together – Without Building A Better Market For Viral Commerce

~ OLFS ~ Officials Looking For Scapegoats

~ N-OC-WTTA-C-M-IGAGC

~ Nobody – Of Course – Wants To Talk About – Crowding – More – In Greater And Greater Concentrations

~ VANBOOTNRIWAUR-TTP-HE ~ Viruses Are Now Breaking Out Of Their Natural Reservoirs In Wildlife At Unprecedented Rates – Thanks To Persistent – Human Encroachment

~ T-SGE ~ The – Sixth Great Extinction

~ HH-RMAMLASO-BE-TGEMLAGATPASOOTI ~ Human History – Reads More And More Like A String Of – Biological Explosions – That Grow Ever More Loud And Grotesque As The Pace And Scale Of Our Trading Increases

~ CC/SC/BW-TAT-NHTPTCPBAEGO ~ Cargo Containers / Shipping Crates / Ballast Water – Trade And Transport – Now Have The Power To Collapse Political Borders And Erase Geographical Ones

~ BI-OER-RLEWDOAIO-I/A/WH ~ Biological Invaders – Outrageous Economic Robberies – Ruining Local Economies With Deliberate Or Accidental Invasions Of – Influenza / Ants / Water Hyacinth

~ FS-IAE-DH-BD ~ For Starters – Importers And Exporters – Don’t Hold – Biology Degrees

~ B-TRPACDT-A-TCOI-ABB-C/T ~ But – The Real Problem Always Comes Down To – Accountability – The Costs Of Invasions – Are Borne By – Consumers / Taxpayers

~ TUE:HE ~ The Ultimate Invader: Homo Economicus

~ ML-LDR-PIFOGC-SBO-NRTVABIHBS-GD-HAHBC ~ Modern Livestock – Little Disease Resistance – Packed In Feedlots Or Gestation Crates – Stressed By Overcrowding – Natural Resistance To Viral And Bacterial Infections Has Been Shattered – Growing Densities – Hidden And Huge Biological Costs

~ TM-TP-ATEO-AH-W-TL-HCTACGO-P-AH-S ~ To Maximize – Trade Profit – At The Expense Of – Animal Health – With – Trade Liberalization – Has Come A Corresponding Gutting Of – Public – Animal Health – Services

~ H-OATLBTEDOIT19C-AG-A-OTR-MT-40%-AE ~ Half – Of All The Livestock Breeds That Europe Depended On In The 19th Century – Are Gone – And – Of Those Remaining – More Than – 40 Percent – Are Endangered

~ GD-MTBIA-F/D/E ~ Genetic Diversity – Makes The Best Insurance Against – Famine / Drought / Epidemics

~ ‘GCP’ ~ “Great Cattle Plague”

~ MCD-BSE-TSE-‘SGA’-IOTWR-4,500-M-S-BTI-EEWTHO-BC-A-IF ~ Mad Cow Disease – Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy – Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy – “Spectacular Geographic Amplification” – Invasion Of The World’s Remaining – 4,500 – Mammal – Species – By These Illnesses – Expands Exponentially With The Help Of – Barnyard Cannibalism – And – Industrial Farming

~ R-‘SFOA’-ICFR-DGE-BATCID-SI-A-ATOKOR-B-TEO-RDR-CW-CSDTTWW-K-MAB-MBM-P-OTLM-MFA-IF-DC-FIDTTM-CCAE-MHNPICOTSB ~ Rendering – “Scientific Feeding Of Animals – Industrial Cannibalism For Ruminants – Devoted Grass Eaters – Balked At The Change In Diet – Suffered Indigestion – And – Ate Their Own Kind Only Reluctantly – But – The Efficiency Of – Recycling Dead Ruminants – Combined With – Cereal Shortages During The Two World Wars – Kept – Meat And Bonemeal – MBM – Powder – On The Livestock Menu – Material From An – Infected Few – Diligently Concentrated – For Industrial Delivery To The Many – Could Cause An Epidemic – Mammals Had Never Partaken In Cannibalism On That Scale Before

~ SW ~ Slaughterhouse Waste

~ ISP ~ Inadequate Surveillance Program

~ ATCOAF-IB-DAE ~ Analyzing The Content Of Animal Feeds – Is Both – Difficult And Expensive

~ F-MT-1M-S-TMOTWMDCDAFIO-SCOOC-OAWA-OHOAWTBD-ASFCCAHOAR ~ Fungi – More Than – 1 Million – Species – The Majority Of The World’s Most Devastating Crop Diseases Are Fungal In Origin – Specialized Cultivation Of One Crop – Over A Wide Area – One Hell Of A Way To Brew Disease – A Simple Fungus Can Create A Hell Of A Rumpus

~ AECOANOESINUSOHHABWD-TGEOAP-I-RAG ~ Almost Every Crop Of Any Nutritional Or Economic Significance Is Now Under Siege Or Has Had A Brush With Death – The Global Exchange Of Agricultural Pathogens – Is – Real And Growing

~ ‘GCA’ ~ “Global Change Agents”

~ FAP-HDAETS ~ Famine And Pestilence – Have Dogged Agriculture’s Every Tortured Step

~ M-TPOOCVOAWA ~ Monoculture – The Planting Of One Crop Variety Over A Wide Area

~ W-WOB-30,000-V-NCIO-TOF-SV-TMBETW-135K-O-PPPA ~ Wheat – Which Once Boasted – 30,000 – Varieties – Now Comes In Only – Three Of Four – Specialized Varieties – That Must Be Engineered To Withstand – 135 Kilograms – Of – Pesticide Poison Per Acre

~ TEB-AM-FF-D-W-UMW ~ The Epidemic Began – As Most – Fungal Fiestas – Do – With – Unusually Moist Weather

~ TF ~ Toxic Fungicides

~ M-I-D-A-GT-GTIPUL-AMFGCD-HABOE-DP-M ~ Monocultures – Invite – Disease – And – Global Trade – Gives The Invading Pathogens Unlimited Mileage – Abandoning Monoculture For Greater Crop Diversity – Has Always Been On Every – Disaster Prevention – Menu

~ WHEATPO-E-PAP-RA-L4(TS)L-DOAL ~ We Have Even Added The Possibility Of – Engineered – Pests And Plants – Running Amok – Level 4 (Top Security) Labs – Deliberate Or Accidental Leaks

~ TWABM-WR-TID-WR ~ The World Already Boasts More – Water Refugees – Than It Does – War Refugees

~ RT ~ Red Tides

~ CS-‘FBI’ ~ Cargo Ships – “Floating Biological Islands”

~ LO-UAM-P-LOT-D ~ Loads Of – Untreated Animal Manure – Produce – Loads Of Trouble – Downstream

~ CW:OOTPMEDFAPK ~ Cold Winters: One Of The Planet’s Most Effective Disease Filters And Pest Killers

~ ITL-10Y-JAE-E-BD-HZEIT ~ In The Last – 10 Years – Just About Every – Insect-Borne Disease – Has Zealously Expanded Its Territory

~ A-SP-WST-GE-WTSFAA-MED ~ A – Severe Pandemic – Will Shock The – Global Economy – With The Same Force As A – Major Economic Depression

~ MWWLT-WC-LT-W-LBIUW ~ Maybe We Will Learn That – We Can’t – Liberalize Trade – Without – Liberating Biology In Unpredictable Ways

~ IIM-EAC-T-IABHACDIP-TIIT-SARP ~ It Is Much – Easier And Cheaper – To – Identify A Biological Hitchhiker And Close Down Its Pathways – Than It Is To – Stop A Runaway Pandemic

~ B-WFGTDTRT-CBAHE-AA-TOP ~ But – Waiting For Government To Do The Right Thing – Can Be A – Hazardous Enterprise – And A – Test Of Patience

~ ATWTPTR ~ Ask Them Where They Plan To Retire

~ BL-A-LM ~ Buy Less – And – Live More

DIERDRE MCCLOSKEY ~ BOURGEOIS EQUALITY ~ 2016

~ ORDNCF-PBOB-O-BDOBD-O-BBOBB-B-FP-IOI ~ Our Riches Did Not Come From – Piling Brick On Brick – Or – Bachelor’s Degree On Bachelor’s Degree – Or – Bank Balance On Bank Balance – But – From Piling – Idea On Idea

~ TMW-WCB-EL ~ The – Modern World – Was Caused By – Egalitarian Liberalism

~ TWIPR-B-OWP ~ The World Is Pretty Rich – But – Once Was Poor

~ T-RE-WTEIO-LAD-TITP-SOB-BAF-T-CP ~ The – Real Engine – Was The Expanding Ideology Of – Liberty And Dignity – That Inspired The Proliferating – Schemes Of Betterment – By And For – The – Common People

~ A-IC-TSIGUT-A(TROTBBD)-A-T(TROP)-AE-P(TROTPR)-WA-N ~ An – Ideological Change – The Strange Idea Grew Up That – Aristocracy (The Rule Of The Best By Descent) – And – Theocracy (The Rule Of Priests) – And Even – Plutocracy (The Rule Of The Present Rich) – Were All – Nasty

~ T-GE-A-1800-CF-HC-UB-LAD-F-OP-T-T-TB-ROAN-EITEOO-A-SBT-OOMIC ~ The – Great Enrichment – After – 1800 – Came From – Human Creativity – Unleashed By – Liberty And Dignity – For – Ordinary People – Through – Trade-Tested Betterment – Resting On A New – Equality In The Eyes Of Others – And – Spread By The – Overturning Of Monopoly In Competition

~ WIIC-SAS-TW-FC-EJ-MFA-CTD-T-ROTG-RDUBTEIFOTOR ~ Whatever It Is Called – Such A Society – Thronging With – Free Conversations – Easily Joined – Made For A – Creativity That Disturbed – The – Rules Of The Game – Rules Designed Unsurprisingly By The Elite In Favor Of The Old Rich

~ A-POCM-TBS-MBBFTPTB-BAF-OD-OS-C-IP-FTMPIHB ~ A – Patent Or Copyright Monopoly – To Be Sure – Must Be Broken For The Poor To Benefit – But Aside From – Overlawyered Definitions – Of So-Called – Intellectual Property – For The Most Part It Has Been

~ TMTRUTPINATDOEFRP-BTRSASPOTITTM-CATP-ISTRT-AALALSOTNTIGTTT-CDID ~ The Mechanism That Raised Up The Poor Is Not A Trickle Down Of Expenditures From Rich People – Because The Rich Spend A Smaller Proportion Of Their Incomes Than The Middle-Class And The Poor – It Stands To Reason That – As A Larger And Larger Share Of The Nations’ Total Income Goes To The Top – Consumer Demand Is Dampened

~ TIN-FL-SFA-TDOATU-WGBBGSO-NB-MTUOD ~ There Is No – Free Lunch – Springing From A – Trickle Down Or A Trickle Up – We Get Better By Getting Smarter Only – Not By – Miraculous Trickles Up Or Down

~ TGI-ET-TB-SA-MTPPR-WHH-O-RIIE-WHAH ~ The Goal Is – Ethical Trade-Tested Betterment – Such As – Making The Poor People Rich – Which Has Happened – Or – Reducing Inequality In Essentials – Which Has Also Happened

~ TP-MAD-NTPWCP-IPAH-TT-I-TOWA ~ The Persistent – Macho And Deadly – Notion That Power Will Cause Plenty – Is Popular Among Historians – The Truth – Is – The Other Way Around

~ T-AH-O-EIIA-SEII-T-EE-OIO-OE-HBSRTB-NON ~ The – Appalling History – Of – European Imperialism In Africa – Sufficiently Establishes Its Indefensibility – The – Economic Effect – Of Imperialism On – Ordinary Europeans – Has Been Shown Repeatedly To Be – Nil Or Negative

~ E-CBAWTAF-PF-B-NT-NW ~ Empire – Can Be A Way To A Few – Private Fortunes – But – Not To – National Wealth

~ IWPTBP-NTOWA ~ It Was Plenty That Bred Power – Not The Other Way Around

~ AC-B-U-N-P-OII-E-B-I ~ Accumulated Capital – Becomes – Unusually – Nonroutinely – Profitable – Only If It – Embodies – Betterment – Innovism

~ B-K-UMTOE-HACOAOC ~ But – Knowledge – Unlike Most Treasures On Earth – Has A Chance Of Accumulating Over Centuries

~ TAB-T-FW-TBI-B-A-FP-TE-T-P-TTEOOV-TTAATC-‘N’-‘GIG’-TOB-EB-SE-AB-AIT-B-T/H/K-DNGPTAFHL-F/H/L-D ~ Trade And Betterment – Threatened – From Within – The Bourgeoisie Itself – By – A – Foolish Pride – That Elevates – Trading – Prudence – To The Exclusion Of Other Virtues – The Threat Appears As The Crudely – “Neoliberal” – “Greed-Is-Good” – Theory Of Behavior – Encouraged By – Some Economists – And By – All Inside Traders – But – Taking / Having / Keeping – Do Not Give Purpose To A Full Human Life – Faith / Hope / Love – Do

~ M-E-N-M-L-HST ~ Mainly – Ethics – Not – Mainly – Laws – Held Societies Together

~ T-GE-DNAFG-PR-WEAOAA-IAF-R-T-TB ~ The – Great Enrichment – Did Not Arise From Good – Property Rights – Which Existed All Over And Anciently – It Arose From – Revolutionary – Trade-Tested Betterment

~ Ethics – What Is Honored Or Dishonored By Society – Is What Changed Quickly – Not – The Institutional Environment – The Institutions – Such As – Criminal / Contract / Property / Corporate – Law – Changed – After The Ethical Change – Not Before – Ideas And Ethics Changed – The Institutions Did Not

~ GCBSFALT-A-COTAOQLPG ~ Governments Can Be Stupid For A Long Time – And – Can Obstruct The Achievement Of Quite Large Potential Gains

~ B-T-RAP-RTG-T-PAOP-HBRHB-GR ~ Because – The – Rich And Powerful – Run The Government – The – Poor And Other Powerless – Have Been Regularly Hurt By – Governmental Regulation

~ NM-BD-CBM-W-IAI ~ Not Many – Business Decisions – Could Be Made – Without – Identity And Impulse

~ B-TEGLFTHTNOIMB-S-L-RAVTV-IPTVO-P-WI-TSITT-I-TWOS-MU ~ But – The Economists’ Great Love For The Hypothesis That No One Is Motivated By – Say – Love – Reduces All Virtues To Vice – In Particular The Vice Of – Pride – Which Is – To Speak In Theological Terms – Idolatry – The Worship Of Self – Max U

~ TVOTP-C/L/J/T/F/H-AV-A-NMAWOGPP ~ The Virtues Other Than Prudence – Courage / Love / Justice / Temperance / Faith / Hope – Are Virtues – And – Not Merely Another Way Of Getting Prudent Pleasure

~ NTHMIIAC-WTWWMWWC ~ Numbers Tell How Much Is In A Classification – Words Tell What We Mean When We Count

~ T-NE-WO-B/N/R-T/C/D/E/L/D ~ The – New Ethic – Was Of – Betterment / Novelty / Risk-Taking / Creativity / Democracy / Equality / Liberty / Dignity

~ IIAWU ~ Irrationality Is Always With Us

~ WCWWWDU ~ What Changed Was What Was Deemed Useful

~ PL-AN-B-TANLSF-TSB-S-GE-OTP150Y ~ Property Laws – Are Necessary – But – They Are Nothing Like Sufficient For – The Startling Betterment – Startling – Great Enrichment – Of The Past 150 Years

~ IIACOSO-R-T-TPR-WTCII-N-WIGW ~ It Is A Cliche Of Studies Of – Revolution – That – The Poor Revolt – When Their Condition Is Improved – Not – When It Gets Worse

~ FC-TSO-RD-KBPBIH ~ For Centuries – The Specter Of – Radical Democracy – Kept Being Pushed Back Into Hell

~ TIO-EAL-A-DFAH-C-AT-P-AS-M-AT-S-P ~ The Idea Of – Equality Of Liberty – And – Dignity For All Humans – Caused – And Then – Protected – A Starling – Material – And Then – Spiritual – Progress

~ I-N-I-MT-MW ~ Ideas – Not – Institutions – Made The – Modern World

~ NR-D-M-AAL-V-RT-G-GLOSP-AFI-SD-AALL-IF ~ Negotiated Rights – Deal-Making – And At Length – Voting – Replaced The – God-Given Laws Of Social Position – At First In – Stirring Declarations – And At Long Last – In Fact

~ BCBCBC-MC ~ Behavior Can Be Changed By Compulsion – Minds Cannot

~ TFITPBMTOOAIIASLIIAME-WEMHTSITF ~ The Fact Is That Persuasion Beyond Mere Transmittal Of Offers And Information Is A Startlingly Large Item In A Modern Economy – We Economist Might Have To Stop Ignoring The Fact

~ STR ~ Sweet Talk Rules

~ TWITT ~ The Word’s The Thing

~ BBU ~ Betterocracy Became Usual

~ TTC-C-A-C-ITRM-ITTF-REE ~ Trade Test Cooperation – Competition – And – Conservation – In The Right Mix – Is The Ticket For – Rapid Economic Evolution

~ LSUAMAWSL ~ Language Speaks Us As Much As We Speak Language

~ I-F-GOI-M ~ Ideas – For – Good Or Ill – Matter

~ PWTBTBIT ~ People Want To Believe That Beauty Is Truth

~ DITP-WITS-PBHU ~ Dogma Is The Problem – Which Is To Say – Passionate Beliefs Held Uncritically

~ WGAS-TNTBAS-A-HIUANWODI~ When Goods Are Scarce – They Need To Be Allocated Somehow – And – Hierarchy Is Usually A Nasty Way Of Doing It

~ RMU-B-CRUU ~ Rhetoric Made Us – But – Can Readily Unmake Us

~ WE-IA-CTF ~ Widespread Evil – Is A – Comfort To Fools

MICHIKO KAKUTANI ~ THE DEATH OF TRUTH ~ 2018

~ DFF/DORBE/TCOL-A-DTVVOT ~ Disregard For Facts / Displacement Of Reason By Emotion / The Corrosion Of Language – Are – Diminishing The Very Value Of Truth

~ SIUA-ASI-EOES ~ Science Is Under Attack – And So Is – Expertise Of Every Sort

~ AW-E-R-IQ-TWS-OW ~ And When – Experts – Raised – Inconvenient Questions – They Were Sidelined – Or Worse

~ TC-OOL ~ The Co-Opting Of Language

~ AHMOU-A-SE-A-U-B-TMBJBTIBTSOOV ~ A Huge Majority Of Us – Assume – Search Engines – Are – Unbiased – But – That May Be Just Because They’re Increasingly Biased To Share Our Own Views

~ SM-GUITTCOVOTW-PLI-IN-C-S-A-CS-WGOT ~ Social Media – Gives Us Information That Tends To Confirm Our View Of The World – People Live In – Increasingly Narrow – Content – Silos – And – Correspondingly Smaller – Walled Gardens Of Thought

~ MAD-I-B-TG-TT-OPATW ~ Misinformation And Disinformation – Is – Becoming – The – Go-To Tactic – Of Propagandists Around The World

~ TSOTT ~ The Schadenfreude Of The Trolls

~ WT-T-B-T-F-B-PLPFTCO2008-MWPWSTTMULG ~ While The – Too-Big-To-Fail – Banks – Paid Little Price For The Crash Of 2008 – Many Working People Were Still Trying To Make Up Lost Ground

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ ANTI-CATASTROPHE PRINCIPLE – FOUR QUALIFICATIONS ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ ATTFROSR-IMNSTTSTACITVSWCCROTO ~ Attentive To The Full Range Of Social Risks – It Makes No Sense To Take Steps To Avert Catastrophe If Those Very Steps Would Create Catastrophic Risks Of Their Own

~ ATTIO-C-E-WRRTCTLCMOATE ~ Attentive To The Idea Of – Cost-Effectiveness – Which Requires Regulators To Choose The Least Costly Means Of Achieving Their Ends

~ DCM-AIAWTREBOTLATBT ~ Distribution Considerations Matter – Applied In A Way That Reduces Extreme Burdens On Those Least Able To Bear Them

~ CMAS-TEOPCRBDFTE ~ Costs Matter As Such – The Extent Of Precautions Cannot Reasonably Be Divorced From Their Expense

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LIBERTARIAN PATERNALISM ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ T-LA-OTSLITSIT-IG-PSBFTOOOSAITCTDS ~ The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Opt Out Of Specified Arrangements If Hey Choose To Do So

~ T-PA-CITCTIILFPAPITATIPB-EWT-PEAA-ITU-APTCA-‘P’-IIATITCOAPIAWTWMCBO-ISCIMIDITOTOW-DTTWCITH-CI-UCA-A-NLOS-C-H-LP-PTBRTBEAIF ~ The – Paternalistic Aspect – Consists In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Private And Public Institutions To Attempt To Influence People’s Behavior – Even When Third-Party Effects Are Absent – In This Understanding – A Policy Therefore Counts As – “Paternalistic” – If It Attempts To Influence The Choices Of Affected Parties In A Way That Will Make Choosers Better Off – In Some Cases Individuals Make Inferior Decisions In Terms Of Their Own Welfare – Decisions That They Would Change If They Had – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – No Lack Of Self-Control – Hence – Libertarian Paternalism – Promises To Be Responsive To Both Excessive And Insufficient Fear

~ LP-IAR-WAN-TOP-B-CANBOFO-IIMCF-LP-I-TC-OTWSTDFT-PPO ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak And Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked Or Fenced Off – In Its Most Cautious Forms – Libertarian Paternalism – Imposes – Trivial Costs – On Those Who Seek To Depart From The – Planner’s Preferred Option

~ WAOOT-PTFASBTD-AA-ESC-ITRWT-ITCROATC? ~ Would Any One Object To – Putting The Fruit And Salad Before The Desserts – At An – Elementary School Cafeteria – If The Result Were To – Increase The Consumption Ratio Of Apples To Candy?

~ TPTICSBR-IOBOTCT-PDAEJOMCO-AL-TTDAFBJTTPCPD-B-TILESFTC ~ The Presumption That Individual Choices Should Be Respected – Is Often Based On The Claim That – People Do An Excellent Job Of Making Choices – Or – At Least – That They Do A Far Better Job Than Third Parties Could Possibly Do – But – There Is Little Empirical Support For This Claim

~ DR-OSK-A-I-A-MOTTTRWA-PAC=POL-W-FP-A-SP-HICF-BAC ~ Default Rules – Of Some Kind – Are – Inevitable – And – Much Of The Time Those Rules Will Affect – Preferences And Choices – People Often Lack – Well-Formed Preferences – And – Starting Points – Have Important Consequences For – Behavior And Choice

~ I-FP ~ Ill-Formed Preferences

~ I-US-W-FP-AEUTE ~ In – Unfamiliar Situations – Well-Formed Preferences – Are Especially Unlikely To Exist

~ TIOP-TINWTAEOBAC-TTFTCLI-ITMOSE-T-P-FOC-T-PCEAT-PSO ~ The Inevitability Of Paternalism – There Is Not Way To Avoid Effects On Behavior And Choices – The Task For The Committed Libertarian Is – In The Midst Of Such Effects – To – Preserve – Freedom Of Choice – That – People Can Easily Avoid The – Paternalist’s Suggested Option

~ SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TDEBAAM ~ So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Dangers Emphasized By Antipaternalist Are Minimal

~ TWMT-SS-A-A-ATEOAS-CP-ALFP-B-IP-SF-S-CP-TIIHLTOPDT ~ Those Who Make The – Slippery Slope – Argument – Are – Acknowledging The Existence Of A Self-Control Problem – At Least For Planners – But – If Planners – Suffer From Self-Control Problems – Then It Is Highly Likely That Other People Do Too

~ TG-SBT-A-R-I-A-O-H-E-A-TPASTILT-PPW-SD ~ The Goal – Should Be To – Avoid – Random – Inadvertent – Arbitrary – Or – Harmful – Effects – And – To Produce A Situation That Is Likely To – Promote People’s Welfare – Suitably Defined

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ SPAFWTONTB-A-STAFWTSBF-IDN-TLRTPF-AAR-TLCBLIUAEDD ~ Sometimes People Are Fearful When They Ought Not To Be – And – Sometimes They Are Fearless When They Should Be Frightened – In Democratic Nations – The Law Responds To People’s Fears – As A Result – The Law Can Be Led In Unfortunate And Even Dangerous Directions

~ ‘RP’-PALRI-G-C-E-N ~ “Risk Panics” – Play A Large Role In – Groups – Cities – Even – Nations

~ W-FS-MIPFPTAAWAIN-A-UFTTAAWAII ~ Well-Functioning Societies – Make It Possible For People To Achieve Agreement When Agreement Is Necessary – And – Unnecessary For Them To Achieve Agreement When Agreement Is Impossible

~ DD-DBITAFTLQATTOACFPWDO-O-AUA-HTRTQ-ITCOF-IIOPTOJSAC ~ Deliberative Democracies Do Best If They Abstract From The Largest Questions And Try To Obtain A Consensus From People Who Disagree On – Or – Are Unsure About – How To Resolve Those Questions – In The Context Of Fear – It Is Often Possible To Obtain Just Such A Consensus

~ T-PP-TMF-B-IAOT-TAIITRSTSTPAPH-EICCAUAEIWDNKTTHWCTF ~ The – Precautionary Principle – Takes Many Forms – But – In All Of Them – The Animating Idea Is That Regulators Should Take Steps To Protect Against Potential Harms – Even If Causal Chains Are Unclear And Even If We Do Not Know That Those Harms Will Come To Fruition

~ HB-C-A-N-OSOOOAFSRA-‘S’-A-IO ~ Human Beings – Cultures – And – Nations – Often Single Out One Or A Few Social Risks As – “Salient” – And – Ignore The Others

~ T-AH-WPLSK-TCRTBSITCETOIIWTRCTF ~ The – Availability Heuristic – When People Lack Statistical Knowledge – They Consider Risks To Be Significant If They Can Easily Think Of Instances In Which Those Risks Came To Fruition

~ T-PP-MWBRAA-A-CP-DFSCIWIINPTAPTPCR ~ The – Precautionary Principle – Might Well Be Reformulated As An – Anti-Catastrophe Principle – Designed For Special Circumstances In Which It Is Not Possible To Assign Probabilities To Potentially Catastrophic Risks

~ EWEAIE-WC-TTCOAIOTASOTR ~ Especially When Emotions Are Intensely Engaged – Worst Cases – Tend To Crowd Out An Investigation Of The Actual Size Of The Risk

~ ‘LP’-AATSPIDTWPTW-WFTOC ~ “Libertarian Paternalism” – An Approach That Steers People In Directions That Will Promote Their Welfare – Without Foreclosing Their Own Choices

~ EE-ATSPEP-AMBT-‘WTP’ ~ Economic Efficiency – Attempts To Satisfy People’s Existing Preference –As Measured By Their – “Willingness To Pay”

~ HMPITRAOP? ~ How Much Precaution Is The Right Amount Of Precaution?

~ AGDOE-STPT-A-ER-CH-AEOLAH-PPAEVTTE-TBS-BTPATUMAD ~ A Great Deal Of Evidence – Suggests The Possibility That – An – Expensive Regulation – Can Have – Adverse Effects On Life And Health – Poor People Are Especially Vulnerable To This Effect – To Be Sure – Both The Phenomenon And The Underling Mechanism Are Disputed

~ T-AH-W-P-ATMORBAWECRCTM-IPCETOSE-TAFMLTBFTITC-TPI-T-AH-CLTSE-ITOB-EF-A-N ~ The – Availability Heuristic – When – People – Assess The Magnitude Of Risks By Asking Whether Examples Can Readily Come To Mind – If People Can Easily Think Of Such Examples – They Are Far More Likely To Be Frightened Than If They Cannot – The Problem Is – The – Availability Heuristic – Can Lead To Serious Errors – In Terms Of Both – Excessive Fear – And – Neglect

~ PN-B-S-PWALAOPAA-EWSEAI ~ Probability Neglect – But – Sometimes – People Will Attempt Little Assessment Of Probability At All – Especially When Strong Emotions Are Involved

~ LA-PTTB-LA-WMT-ALFT-SQ-ISA-MU-TAGISAD ~ Loss Aversion – People Tend To Be – Loss Averse – Which Means That – A Loss From The – Status Quo – Is Seen As – More Undesirable – Than A Gain Is Seen As Desirable

~ SQB-T-SQ-MTBAWGALAM-A-AL-FT-SQ-SMMBTAGFT-SQ-SG ~ Status Quo Bias – The – Status Quo – Marks The Baseline Against Which Gains And Losses Are Measured – And – A Loss – From The – Status Quo – Seems Much More Bad Than A Gain From The – Status Quo – Seems Good

~ PAFMWTT-FR-T-UO-EITA-SE ~ People Are Far More Willing To Tolerate – Familiar Risks – Than – Unfamiliar Ones – Even If They Are – Statistically Equivalent

~ A-RA-ONA-EH-INASGF-DC-EWABFAECAWAB ~ A – Risk Assessment – Offering Numbers About – Expected Harms – Is Not A Sufficient Ground For – Democratic Choice – Even When Accompanied By Figures About Expected Costs As Well As Benefits

~ WEKARTIO-B-DNPTTAPTE-IISTFT-MP:CTPWT-B-WC-O ~ When Existing Knowledge Allows Regulators To Identify Outcomes – But – Does Not Permit Them To Assign Probabilities To Each – It Is Standard To Follow The – Maximin Principle: Choose The Policy With The – Best – Worst-Case – Outcome

~ SSAR-B-MAN-W-AE-O-AS-I-‘R’-CBDITA-IAC-RIAMOD-EDOTF-T-‘RP’-SBUAAH-OTFIITFOPDTC-LMH-T-RP-WWWIMC-B-ICALTSAEDE ~ Some Systems Are Resilient – But – Many Are Not – Whether – An Ecosystem – Or – A Society – Is – “Resilient” – Cannot Be Decided In The Abstract – In Any Case – Resilience Is A Matter Of Degree – Everything Depends On The Facts – The – “Resilience Principle” – Should Be Understood As A Heuristic – One That Favors Inaction In The Face Of Possibly Damaging Technological Change – Like Most Heuristics – The – Resilience Principle – Will Work Well In Many Circumstances – But – It Can Also Lead To Systematic And Even Deadly Errors

~ ABAWATAWVOAEMCF-I-R-A-EB-ASAWAT-C-RTT-E-TVCLTPFITAR-AETPAFAOTUODSAHTDTDO-I-GM ~ A Better Approach Would Acknowledge That A Wide Variety Of Averse Effects May Come From – Inaction – Regulation – And – Everything Between – A Sensible Approach Would Attempt To – Counteract – Rather Than To – Embody – The Various Cognitive Limitations That People Face In Thinking About Risks – An Effort To Produce A Fair Accounting Of The Universe Of Dangers Should Also Help To Diminish The Dangers Of – Interest-Group Manipulation

~ PA-IIII-IIAH-A-IILTLTAH-‘RE’ ~ Public Alarm – Even If Ill Informed – Is Itself A Harm – And – It Is Likely To Lead To Additional Harms – “Ripple Effects”

~ WTP ~ Willingness To Pay

~ PA-ITVALP-A-IA-MOTT-WTAITDOT-‘S’-O-T-‘U’ ~ People Are – Insensitive To Variations Among Low Probabilities – And – Instead Ask – Much Of The Time – Whether They Are In The Domain Of The – “Safe” – Or – The – “Unsafe”

~ W-CSHTP ~ Worst-Case Scenarios Have Tremendous Power

~ C-S-AAS-ST-SB-O-C-IW-ARAAGE-MRFOPTA-U-C-CLPIMD-WAF-‘EM’-S-SFTDNMR ~ Cascades – Sometimes – Availability And Salience – Spread Through – Social Bandwagons – Or – Cascades – In Which – Apparently Representative Anecdotes And Gripping Examples – Move Rapidly From One Person To Another – Unfortunately – Cascades – Can Lead People In Mistaken Directions – With A Few – “Early Movers” – Spurring – Social Fear That Does Not Match Reality

~ F-IA-W-HEV-A-ELTS ~ Fear-Inducing Accounts – With – High Emotional Valence – Are – Especially Likely To Spread

~ GP-WIOITCO-F ~ Group Polarization – Will Inevitably Occur In The Context Of – Fear

~ B-IAS-MB-FONOTR-A-S-NRD ~ Both – Individuals And Societies – May Be – Fearful Of Nonexistent Or Trivial Risks – And – Simultaneously – Neglect Real Dangers

~ WCF-CRTWPCBA-IMSFTTA-A-CP ~ When Citizens Face – Catastrophic Risks To Which Probabilities Cannot Be Assigned – It Makes Sense For Them To Adopt An – Anti-Catastrophe Principle

~ WTW-CSITC-A-WPCBA-AL-MOS-MAGDOS ~ Where The Worst-Case Scenario Its Truly Catastrophic – And – When Probabilities Cannot Be Assigned – A Large – Margin Of Safety – Makes A Great Deal Of Sense

~ MOS ~ Margins Of Safety

~ IG-IIBTTPATDTTF-WTLOH? ~ In General – Isn’t It Best To Tell People About The Dangers That They Face – Whatever The Likelihood Of Harm?

~ AAOCAB-IAIIIT-AOR ~ An Accounting Of – Costs And Benefits – Is An Important Ingredient In The – Analysis Of Risks

~ W-F-LS-MWPFTITI ~ Well-Functioning – Legal Systems – Make Wrongdoers Pay For The Injuries They Inflict

~ TPE ~ Third Party Effects

~ T-OPS-A-U-W-TBIBLANWS ~ The – Ordinary Political Safeguards – Are – Unreliable – When – The Burdens Imposed By Law Are Not Widely Shared

~ ITCO-TTNS-IIPT-GWIOCLWAJ-HOCE ~ In The Context Of – Threats To National Security – It Is Predictable That – Governments Will Infringe On Civil Liberties Without Adequate Justification – History Offers Countless Examples

OWEN JONES ~ THE ESTABLISHMENT ~ 2014

~ T-E-INU-AIHAB-O-PG-TNTPTPIADIWATEAPHTRTV-TE-RAAOBOTGT-‘M’-D-TMSTIDNTTOI ~ Today’s – Establishment – Is Made Up – As It Has Always Been – Of – Powerful Groups – That Need To Protect Their Position In A Democracy In Which Almost The Entire Adult Population Has The Right To Vote – The Establishment – Represents An Attempt On Behalf Of These Groups To – “Manage” – Democracy – To Make Sure That It Does Not Threaten Their Own Interests

~ TSIOTME-ASOITHITRAJIPAB-ODA-‘N-L’-TDBOAFOCOTMCTSQ-TIIORA-‘F’-P-‘EF’-A-WIITLOI ~ The Shared Ideology Of The Modern Establishment – A Set Of Ideas That Helps It To Rationalize And Justify Its Position And Behavior – Often Described As – “Neo-Liberalism” – The Driving Back Of Any Form Of Collective Organization That Might Challenge The Status Quo – This Ideology Is Often Rationalized As – “Freedom” – Particularly – “Economic Freedom” – And – Wraps Itself In The Language Of Individualism

~ AWASM-TEICB-FL-A-A-‘RD’-C:TI-PI-GB-P/C/M-W-O-WMTITVWATST ~ As Well As Shared Mentality – The Establishment Is Cemented By – Financial Links – And – A – “Revolving Door” – Culture: That Is – Powerful Individuals – Gliding Between – Political / Corporate / Media – Worlds – Or – Who Manage To Inhabit These Various Worlds At The Same Time

~ YTIALFATHOET-IMATS-B-IICDOTSTF-BOB-S-FI-POP-RAD-AWEAGPE-TTUOWTLTLO-NS-AEOWCBDA-‘SFTR’

~ Yet There Is A Logical Flaw At The Heart Of Establishment Thinking – It May Abhor The State – But – It Is Completely Dependent On The State To Flourish – Bailed Out Banks – State-Funded Infrastructure – Protection Of Property – Research And Development – A Workforce Educated At Great Public Expense – The Topping Up Of Wages Too Low To Live On – Numerous Subsidies – All Examples Of What Could Be Described As – “Socialism For The Rich”

~ TEDNRTSID-AA-IITJOTMTSLOTBOTWP-I-JAPA-OCAATBOTATBOS ~ The Establishment Does Not Receive The Scrutiny It Deserves – After All – It Is The Job Of The Media To Shed Light On The Behaviour Of Those With Power – Instead – Journalists And Politicians Alike – Obsessively Critique And Attack The Behaviour Of Those At The Bottom Of Society

~ EAAWREIHBLDOOTIM ~ Economists And Academics Who Reject Establishment Ideology Have Been Largely Driven Out Of The Intellectual Mainstream

~ A-IR-C-HTDAAF-TP ~ Anti-Immigrant Rhetoric – Conveniently – Helps To Deflect Attention Away From – The Powerful

~ T-‘BIWI’-I-TPTE-AEMUDOWLTWPFTTHERTEGSOI ~ The – “Because I’m Worth It” – Ideology – That Permeates The Establishment – An Ever More Unequal Distribution Of Wealth Leaves Those With Power Feeling That They Have Every Right To Ever Greater Slices Of It

~ TEHR-UAU-FTL ~ The Establishment Has Remained – Unaccountable And Unchallenged – For Too Long

~ TO ~ The Outriders

~ GM-I-F-MG-TJ-RTWOTE ~ Government Minsters – Invoke – Free-Market Globalization – To Justify – Resisting The Will Of The Electorate

~ PHBACSFTP ~ Politics Has Become A Closed Shop For The Privileged

~ TMPACR-B-FTFATATB-OWCBO-D/M/OL-T-DS-FT-WAP-E-ATTOS-HAS-GT-TOATPOTE ~ The Media Play A Crucial Role – By – Focusing Their Fire At Those At The Bottom – Often With Coverage Based On – Distortions / Myths / Outright Lies – They – Deflect Scrutiny – From The – Wealthy And Powerful – Elite – At The Top Of Society – Hardly A Surprise – Given That ~ Their Owners Are Themselves Part Of That Elite

~ BOHABWTAR-MOTMTSAAHPDOTIOTWWAP ~ Because Of How And By Whom They Are Run – Much Of The Media Today Serves As A Highly Partisan Defender Of The Interests Of Those With Wealth And Power

~ TWHBI-C-MTETHAFAAW-TWSOOLFBTAWBAMT ~ The Workforce Has Become Increasingly – Causalized – Making Them Easy To Hire And Fire At A Whim – Those Who Step Out Of Line Face Being Tossed Aside With Barely A Moment’s Thought

~ TUOTPAAPFBTPGBALW ~ The Use Of The Police As A Partisan Force By The Powerful Goes Back A Long Way

~ TPHBTTT-W-CP-AT-‘EW’ ~ The Police Had Been Trained To Treat – Working-Class People – As The – “Enemy Within”

~ TNEPT-STIF-AY-IHBEMA-HMAMPTTP-LWSLI-W-MTCDOD ~ The New Establishment Promised To – Set The Individual Free – And Yet – It Has Become Ever More Authoritarian – Handing More And More Power To The Police – Laws With Seemingly Laudable Intentions – Were – Manipulated To Crack Down On Dissent

~ PA-BTECTHRBTFOTS-IAF-TSTUTE-P-OC-TIAOTEB ~ Police Authoritarianism – Belied The Establishment’s Claims To Have Rolled Back The Frontiers Of The State – In Actual Fact – The State Thrives Under The Establishment – Providing – Of Course – That It Acts On The Establishment’s Behalf

~ TE-F-MI-IOLMTAFF-PPAIPHATEOS ~ The Establishment’s – Free-Market Ideology – Is Often Little More Than A Front For – Placing Public Assets In Private Hands At The Expense Of Society

~ S-BW-TSPOPR-EB-AEPALS ~ Statism – Begins With – The State’s Protection Of Property Rights – Enforced By – An Expensive Police And Legal System

~ OA-TTSTR-W-TPWP-TGSAH-TTIETPUTT ~ Once Again – The Taxpayer Shouldered The Risk – While – The Profit Was Privatized – These Government Subsidies Are Huge – The Taxpayer Is Expected To Pick Up The Tab

~ TMOAS:BOOTB-AFSOAS-FL-SM-TSITTST-TRTINB ~ The Mother Of All Subsidies: Bailing Out Of The Banks – A Financial System On A State-Fuelled Life-Support Machine – The State Is There To Support Them – To Rescue Them If Needs Be

~ RAD-HB-N-A-CBTP-WTPEAP ~ Risk And Debt – Have Been – Nationalized – And – Carried By The Population – While The Profitable Elements Are Privatized

~ W-TS-IP-IIBAMFSFPC-APSR-WTR-‘S’-ATBF-N-ATBOS-B-ATT ~ With – The State – Increasingly Privatized – It Is Becoming A Mere Funding Stream For Private Companies – A Publicly Subsidized Racket – Were The Real – “Scroungers” – Are To Be Found – Not – At The Bottom Of Society – But – At The Top

~ TAT-D ~ Tycoons And Tax-Dogers

~ RCBCSAFTW ~ Rights Can Be Casually Striped Away From The Workforce

~ IWBT-WP-W-PUTTFTC-N-TRFI-A-WLCTA ~ It Would Be The – Working People – Who – Picked Up The Tab For The Crisis – Not – Those Responsible For It – And – With Little Calling To Account

~ HTTAIR:TCSBBOATCM ~ Here’s The Thing About Ideological Rationales: They Can Sometimes Be Based On All Too Convenient Mirages

~ TMEHB-F-TAUD-RDMGWTPOTF ~ The Modern Establishment Has Been – Financialized – To An Unprecedented Degree – Restoring Democracy Means Grappling With The Power Of The Financiers

~ ABRFSTISSTBDDBFC ~ A Badly Regulated Financial Sector That Is So Susceptible To Being Dragged Down By Foreign Crises

~ ‘GI’-CJ-CT-PET-O-CC-A-ETATF ~ “Green Industries” – Creating Jobs – Confront The – Potentially Existential Threat – Of – Climate Change – And – End The Addiction To Finance

~ A-DRW-DTPO-BM-FP-T ~ A – Democratic Revolution Would – Drive The Power Of – Big Money – From Politics – Too

~ PISAEW-CPWEOTSOITGASDNTT-SA-FW-UB-CC-A-SO ~ Politics Increasingly Sidelines And Excludes Working-Class People With Experience Of The Sorts Of Issues That Government And Society Desperately Need To Tackle – Such As – Falling Wages – Unpaid Bills – Childcare Costs – And – So On

~ AT-WW-LSAF-PAABFTPI-ATMABEATEOS-A-TH-WGO-WP-SS-RITW-A-SO-AB-SA ~ Across The – Western World – Living Standards Are Falling – Public Assets Are Being Flogged To Private Interest – A Tiny Minority Are Being Enriched At The Expense Of Society – And – The Hard-Won Gains Of – Working People – Social Security – Rights In The Workplace – And – So On – Are Being – Stripped Away

~ TMO-‘TINA’-I-P-TWADKOS-WB-I-M-A-BAINB ~ The Mantra Of – “There Is Not Alternative” – Is – Pervasive – Those Wanting A Different Kind Of Society – Will Be – Ignored – Marginalized – And – Bitterly Attacked If Needs Be

~ TIOEEITIIP ~ The Illusion Of Every Era Is That It Is Permanent

RICHARD THALER ~ MISBEHAVING ~ 2015

~ SIF ~ Supposedly Irrelevant Factors

~ TMWIWPDFTFCTPEM ~ The Myriad Ways In Which People Depart From The Fictional Creatures That Populate Economic Models

~ TPIWTMBUBE-AMTR-HS-WAFCC-HE-E-CTTFW-HDALOM-A-TMTEMMALOBP-PTCH-SC The Problem Is With The Model Being Used By Economists – A Model That Replaces – Homo Sapiens – With A Fictional Creature Called – Homo Economicus – Econ – Compared To This Fictional World – Humans Do A Lot Of Misbehaving – And – That Means That Economic Models Make A Lot Of Bad Predictions – Predictions That Can Have – Serious Consequences

~ TPOWETRAF ~ The Premises On Which Economic Theory Rests Are Flawed

~ TBUWPMTCANU-TA-C-B ~ The Beliefs Upon Which People Make Their Choices Are Not Unbiased – There Are – Countless – Biases

~ O-MNBIT-ED-BIIAW-EFOHN ~ Overconfidence – May Not Be In The – Economists’ Dictionary – But – It Is A Well-Established Feature Of Human Nature

~ WNAEATDPER-OTATEAROH ~ We Need An Enriched Approach To Doing – Economic Research – One That Acknowledges The Existence And Relevance Of Humans

~ TBOTATEIAE-SNBD-TRUASPFMRM ~ Theories Based On The Assumption That Everyone Is A Econ – Should Not Be Discarded – They Remain Useful As Starting Points For More Realistic Models

~ IYBT-FBATI-A-YAACB-TYCMSM ~ If You Believe That – Financial Bubbles Are Theoretically Impossible – And – You Are A Central Banker – Then You Can Make Serious Mistakes

~ TPRFAHTETITITAOTPMWTT ~ The Primary Reason For Adding Humans To Economic Theories Is To Improve The Accuracy Of The Predictions Made With Those Theories

~ ‘SL’-‘IL’ ~ “Statistical Life” / “Identified Life”

~ T-OC-OSAIWYGUBDI-OCAVAA-WCT-HOAC ~ The – Opportunity Cost – Of Some Activity Is What You Give Up By Doing It – Opportunity Costs Are Vague And Abstract – When Compared To – Handing Over Actual Cash

~ PTALITO-C-N-L-WF-DS-TB-GAL-A-LSMTE-SGFG ~ People Think About Life In Terms Of – Changes – Not – Levels – We Feel – Diminishing Sensitivity – To Both – Gains And Losses – And – Losses Sting More Than Equivalently-Sized Gains Feel Good

~ TIH ~ The Invisible Handwave

~ TINLWTAAACTMTPIRA-OCATMPWSBR-EIMIADH ~ There Is No Logical Way To Arrive At A Conclusion That Markets Transform People Into Rational Agents – One Can Argue That Market Prices Will Still Be Rational – Even If Many Individuals Are Decidedly Human

~ OYUA-BP-YCSIA-BS-IT ~ Once You Understand A – Behavioral Problem – You Can Sometimes Invent A – Behavioral Solution – To It

~ AAPIT-AICOTS-TIAF-L-“P”-WHGIACATF-A-A-D-MC-‘D’-WLFTP ~ At Any Point In Time – An Individual Consists Of Two Selves – There Is A Forward-Looking – “Planner” – Who Has Good Intentions And Cares About The Future – And – A – Devil-May-Care – “Doer” – Who Lives For The Present

~ T-R-T-E/T/E-A-L-IATC ~ The – Reluctance – To – Experiment / Test / Evaluate – And – Learn – Is All Too Common

~ OIAPF ~ Overconfidence Is A Powerful Force

~ WSF? ~ What Seems Fair?

~ A-PG-IOTECCWDTCOAE-A-IIITEAFCI ~ A – Public Good – Is One That Everyone Can Consume Without Diminishing The Consumption Of Anyone Else – And – It Is Impossible To Exclude Anyone From Consuming It

~ PAWTSSOTOMTTALTTWBU-A-TWTP-DPF-R-A-K-RCR-S ~ People Are Willing To Spend Some Of Their Own Money To Teach A Lesson To Those Who Behave Unfairly – And – This Willingness To Punish – Disciplines Potential Free Riders – And – Keeps – Robust Cooperation Rates – Stable

~ L-AR-TAP-A-G-A-P ~ Losses – Are Roughly – Twice As Painful – As – Gains – Are – Pleasurable

~ R(MO)-I-NNNS-TD-GET ~ Rationality (Meaning Optimization) – Is – Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient – To Do – Good Economic Theory

~ IPAL-TTTBMF ~ If People Are Laughing – They Tend To Be More Forgiving

~ OC-NFEATT-A-TUDSWAC ~ Of Course – New Fields Emerge All The Time – And – They Usually Do So Without Any Coordination

~ A-M ~ Anomaly-Mining

~ ‘CC’ ~ “Conditional Cooperators”

~ IWAIWHDAUATHALFAWTCTCOTBC ~ It Was As If We Had Discovered A Unicorn And Then Had A Long Fight About What To Call The Color Of The Beast’s Coat

~ TPIOW-A-S-VW ~ The Price Is Often Wrong – And – Sometimes – Very Wrong

~ IP-MSTIAAMOFTPAAR-TWNSANTTPA-B-OWGTBAP-A-TPSATBFTF-ICMSFP-MTLATWISW ~ If Policy-Makers Simply Take It As A Matter Of Faith That Prices Are Always Right – They Will Never See Any Need To Take Preventive Action – But – Once We Grant That Bubbles Are Possible – And – The Private Sector Appears To Be Feeding The Frenzy – It Can Make Sense For Policy-Makers To Lean Against The Wind In Some Way

~ ‘PD’ ~ “Path Dependence”

~ TGATT-IHTASQ ~ To Get At The Truth – It Helps To Ask Specific Questions

~ SMT ~ Save More Tomorrow

~ LP ~ Libertarian Paternalism

~ A-N-ISSFITETAOAAIB-NAEFH-B-NFE-SEAADTRT ~ A – Nudge – Is Some Small Feature In The Environment That Attracts Our Attention And Influences Behavior – Nudges Are Effective For Humans – But – Not For Econs – Since Econs Are Already Doing The Right Thing

~ ‘PC’ ~ “Prompted Choice”

~ WDWH-WM ~ When Dealing With Humans – Words Matter

~ IYWPTCWSNOR-IIAGSTIT(IT)-TMOPC ~ If You Want People To Comply With Some Norm Or Rule – It Is A Good Strategy To Inform Them (If True) – That Most Other People Comply

~ EN-MBB-TAT ~ Ethical Nudges – Must Be Both – Transparent And True

~ IYWTESTDS-MIE ~ If You Want To Encourage Someone To Do Something – Make It Easy

~ WCD-E-BP-WE ~ We Can’t Do – Evidence-Based Policy – Without Evidence

~ ISC-SI-AS-RTPWMOFTDS ~ In Some Cases – Successful Interventions – Are Simply – Reminders To People Who Might Otherwise Forget To Do Something

~ TOPAOITSCD-EDTCPYW ~ The Only Protection Against Overconfidence Is To Systematically Collect Data – Especially Data That Can Prove You Wrong

~ T-IOE-EE-T-O-CD-A-SP ~ The – Ideal Organizational Environment – Encourages Everyone – To – Observe – Collect Data – And – Speak Up