MICHAEL SHERMER ~ AN EXGESIS OF WHY AND HOW WE ARE MORAL ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ MN ~ MORAL NATURALISM

~ WTIAGONIITTT-BISOAANO-AEH-NC-STSA ~ Whether There Is A God Or Not – Is Irrelevant To The Theory – Because – In Science Our Approach Is A Naturalistic One – All Effects Have – Natural Causes – Subject To Scientific Analysis

~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SENSE

~ MSIH-AMPIHG-E-PTTFONSOOI-A-S-TTFO-GSOOP ~ Moral Sentiments In Humans – And – Moral Principles In Human Groups – Evolved – Primarily – Through The Force Of Natural Selection Operating On Individuals – And – Secondarily – Through The Force Of – Group Selection Operating On Populations

~ AEMS ~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SOCIETY

~ HEAASPSWAAHON-F-S-SOTI-T-TEOTITTF-T-ASOBWTEF-T-TRAOTC-T-IAOS-T-SA-A-B-AAOOMOTSABCTD ~ Humans Evolved As A Social Primate Species With An Ascending Hierarchy Of Needs – From – Self-Survival Of The Individual – To – The Extension Of The Individual Through The Family – To – A Sense Of Bonding With The Extended Family – To – The Reciprocal Altruism Of The Community – To – Indirect Altruism Of Society – To – Species Altruism And Bioaltruism – As Awareness Of Our Membership Of The Species – And – Biosphere Continues To Develop

~ T-BB-HN-A-MF-ALU-BC-W-TM-SAC-HN-A-MF-ALU-CC ~ The – Most Basic – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Biological Control – Whereas – The More – Social And Cultural – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Cultural Control

~ TNOMN ~ THE NATURE OF MORAL NATURE

~ H-A-BN-MAI-GAE/AAS/CAC/PAB/VAN-SMTVWI-AWA-WAB-G ~ Humans – Are – By Nature – Moral And Immoral / Good And Evil / Altruistic And Selfish / Cooperative And Competitive / Peaceful And Bellicose / Virtuous And Nonvirtuous – Such Moral Traits Vary Within Individuals – As Well As – Within And Between – Groups

~ PM ~ PROVISIONAL MORALITY

~ MP-A-PT-TI-TAT-MP-I-MC-I-MC-MOTT ~ Moral Principles – Are – Provisionally True – That Is – They Apply To – Most People – In – Most Cultures – In – Most Circumstances – Most Of The Time

~ PRAW ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG

~ A-FP:TFOWAAI-ROW-AF ~ Ask-First Principle: To Find Out Whether An Action Is – Right Or Wrong – Ask First

~ HP:IIAHMPTASHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ Happiness Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness

~ LP:IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ Liberty Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty

~ MP:WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ Moderation Principle: When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

~PJ ~ PROVISIONAL JUSTICE

~AWAAST-LON-A-FO-C-A-H-TSO-TAB-WA-FMA-RFOA-TI-C-A-SJ-WHCTPFO-RAG-A-A-RAP-SATTIAL-PJ-IN-HAN ~ Although We Are All Subject To – Laws Of Nature – And – Forces Of – Culture – And – History – That Shape Our – Thoughts And Behaviors – We Are– Free Moral Agents – Responsible For Our Actions – There Is – Individual Culpability – And – Social Justice – Within Human Communities That Produce Feelings Of – Righteousness And Guilt – And – Administer – Rewards And Punishments – Such That There Is At Least – Provisional Justice – In The – Here And Now

~ EEE ~ ENNOBLING EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS

~ AA-EMOHP-T-MS-T-IAG-A-BTTS-POTIFO-E/H/C ~ As An – Evolved Mechanism Of Human Psychology – The – Moral Sense – Transcends – Individuals And Groups – And – Belongs To The Species – Products Of The Impersonal Forces Of – Evolution / History / Culture

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004 ~ 999

~ TBA-FFMA-OCPAMPHDBF-MP-R-MR ~ To Be A – Fully Functioning Moral Agent – One Cannot Passively Accept Moral Principles Handed Down By Fiat – Moral Principles – Require – Moral Reasoning
~ M:RAW-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Morality: Right And Wrong – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ E:T-SS-O-A-TA-M-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Ethics: The – Scientific Study – Of – And – Theories About – Moral – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ LBTW-S-ECR-FT-POBF-HDVMO-BC-T-FG-A-T-A-EX-A-A-OV ~ Long Before There Were – State-Enforced Constitutional Rights – For The – Protection Of Basic Freedoms – Humans Devised Various Mechanisms Of – Behavioral Control – To – Facilitate Goodwill – And – To – Attenuate – Excessive Greed – Avarice – And – Other Vices
~ T-RF-O-H-VAV-SAS-IF-IA-COAIP-O-MAI-B ~ The – Religious Foundation – Of – Human – Virtues And Vices – Saints And Sinners – In Fact – Is A – Codification Of An Informal Psychology – Of – Moral And Immoral – Behavior
~ HAA-HS-PS-AAS-RAM-AA-SS-T-ET ~ Humans Are A – Hierarchical Social – Primate Species – And As Such – We Need – Rules And Morals – And A – Social Structure – To – Enforce Them
~ RMS-SATEI-J/C/I-A-MO-EMS-SATEBIP(TMROOPS)A-TOMO~ Religious Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed In – Judaism / Christianity / Islam – Are – Millennia Old – Evolutionary Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed By Indigenous Peoples (The Modern Remnants Of Paleolithic Societies) Are – Tens Of Millennia Old
~ W-Q-ADF-H-Q ~ Why – Questions – Are Different From – How – Questions
~ AHSACH ~ All Humans Share A Common Humanity
~ WCCA-MS-TIN-DA-N-IR-A-PM-FAAOS-TP-EE-A-A-RBFB-SASOM-SAM-UAY-E-AETW-ET-W-BAS-O-MOTS-A-O-AS ~ We Can Construct A – Moral System – That Is Neither –Dogmatically Absolute – Nor – Irrationally Relative – A – Provisional Morality – For An Age Of Science – That Provides – Empirical Evidence – And – A – Rational Basis For Belief – Such A System Of Morality – Suggests A More – Universal And Tolerant – Ethic – An Ethic That Will – Ensure The – Well-Being And Survival – Of – All Members Of The Species – And – Of – All Species
~ M-ITEDO-HS ~ Morality – Is The Exclusive Domain Of – Homo Sapiens
~ AA-I-HA-A-JTTS-A-ITOT-CIAGS ~ All Animals – Including – Human Animals – Are – Just Trying To Survive – And – It Turns Out That – Cooperation Is A Good Strategy
~ IATTSOPP-R-HASAAIO-SO-A-BC-TROPMS-A-TPONO-BACRO-R-L-O;T-C-S-SAM-N-A-WT-IOW-L-C-T-I-S-SAT ~ In Addition To The Sanction Of Political Power – Religion – Has Also Served As An Institution Of – Social Order – And – Behavior Control – The Reinforcement Of Positive Moral Sentiments – And – The Punishment Of Negative Ones – Became A Central Role Of – Religious – Leaders – And – Organizations; They – Codified – Subjective – Social And Moral – Norms – And – With The – Invention Of Writing – Literally – Canonized – Them – In – Sacred – Scrolls And Texts
~ TWO-GAM ~ The Wedding Of – God And Mammon
~ B-SS-‘LTN’-M-O-IF/EF/C-‘O-G’-WTBDWC-TWT-CWF-DBWWC ~ Before State – Societies – “Love The Neighbor” – Meant – One’s – Immediate Family / Extended Family / Community – “Out-Groupers” – Were To Be Dealt With Cautiously – Trust Was Tentative – Conflict Was Frequent – Death By War Was Common
~ M-A-T-MN-150 ~ Morality – And – The – Magic Number – 150
~ LO-SGS-A-RTTCCO-HM-AT-HADEB-ITOT-150-IRTNOLD-C/G/GC-A-PC-WPIFG-AT-B-O-H-G-P ~ ~ Limits On – Social Group Size – Are – Related To The Carrying Capacity Of – Human Memory – And Thus – Have A Deep Evolutionary Basis – It Turns Out That – 150 – Is Roughly The Number Of Living Descendants – Children / Grandchildren / Great-Grandchildren – A – Paleolithic Couple – Would Produce In Four Generations – At The – Birthrate – Of – Hunter-Gather – Peoples
~ WGGL-TSISG-W?-TAI-MD-A-BC-OGE-200P-A-HS-INT-ETROC-A-TDWO-WITSGCBDWT-IPC-A-SP ~ When Groups Get Large – They Split Into Smaller Groups – Why? – The Answer Is – Moral Discipline – And – Behavior Control – Once Groups Exceed – 200 People – A – Hierarchical Structure – Is Needed To – Enforce The Rules Of Cooperation – And – To Deal With Offenders – Who In The Smaller Group Could Be Dealt With Through – Informal Personal Contracts – And – Social Pressure
~ IOTPTGO-R-YNTK-WBNS-A-WYWTTSY-TIIGTTSAOP-MCKA-G-ATO-SC-TC-CN ~ In Order To Play The Game Of – Reciprocation – You Need To Know – Whose Back Needs Scratching – And – Who You Will Trust To Scratch Yours – This Information Is Gathered Through Telling Stories About Other People – More Commonly Known As – Gossip – A Tool Of – Social Control – Through Communicating – Cultural Norms
~ M-S-A-B-WI-CI-ES-B-R-REAT-SS-T-ETROHI ~ Moral – Sentiments – And – Behaviors – Were Initially – Codified Into – Ethical Systems – By – Religion – Religion Emerged As The – Social Structure – To – Enforce The Rules Of Human Interactions
~ W-BAT-GWT-CAS-RDATP-SI-TF-CAG-ITSB-EAAS-D-EGAS-P-COC-A-RTLOCTTGT-SE-S-RR ~ ~ When – Bands And Tribes – Gave Way To – Chiefdoms And States – Religion Developed As The Principal – Social Institution – To Facilitate – Cooperation And Goodwill – It Di So By – Encouraging – Altruism And Selflessness – Discouraging – Excessive Greed And Selfishness – Promoting – Cooperation Over Competition – And – Revealing The Level Of Commitment To The Group Through – Social Events – And – Religious Rituals
~ PC-WPMB-NS-NC-A-MS-WAA-PSB-CS ~ Paleolithic Communities – Were Primarily Molded By – Natural Selection – Neolithic Communities – And – Modern Societies – Were And Are – Primarily Shaped By – Cultural Selection
~ IIAMAPO-HN-TBMAIITB-H/H/J/IL ~ It Is As Much A Part Of – Human Nature – To Be Moral As It Is To Be – Hungry / Horny / Jealous / In Love
~ TNCWGOWWAATDO-ALLTBEIYABTDY-LANLITBTL ~ The Normal Cues We Give Off When We Are Attempting To Deceive Others – Are Less Likely To Be Expressed If You Actually Believe The Deception Yourself – Liars Are Not Liars If They Believe The Lie
~ T-COMP-EAAFO-SC-TE-TSOIWG-A-TSOHGT ~ The – Codification Of Moral Principles – Evolved As A Form Of – Social Control – To Ensure – The Survival Of Individuals Within Groups – And – The Survival Of Human Groups Themselves
~ TM-O-PE ~ The Myth – Of – Pure Evil
~ TIN-SF-OOTRO-T-KL-O-N-A-HB-TWCC-E ~ There Is No – Supernatural Force – Operating Outside The Realm Of – The – Known Laws – Of – Nature – And – Human Behavior – That We Can Call – Evil
~ TCS-‘E’-DNLUTADUOTCOEB ~ To Call Something – “Evil” – Does Not Lead Us To A Deeper Understanding Of The Cause Of Evil Behavior
~ ITWNH-TWBNE ~ If There Were No Humans – There Would Be No Evil
~ WETB-M-B-HTCTB-I-SOTT-ISC-WSP-WDAOOUTIAGS-WDOA-CAOV ~ We Evolved To Be – Moral – But – Have The Capacity To Be – Immoral – Some Of The Time – In Some Circumstances – With Some People – Which Direction Any One Of Us Takes In Any Given Situation – Will Depend On A – Complex Array Of Variables
~ FW-HUA-A-FW-IFO-D-A-MC-FOTCW ~ Free Will – Holds Us Accountable – Abandon – Free Will – In Favor Of – Determinism – And – Moral Culpability – Flies Out The Courtroom Window
~ FW-AA-UF-WNAAIYDH-FW-GT-EG-A-SB-TGAWI? ~ Free Will – As A – Useful Fiction – Why Not Act As If You Do Have – Free Will – Gaining The – Emotional Gratification – And – Social Benefits – That Go Along With It?
~ CWCAESWR? ~ Can We Construct An Ethical System Without Religion?
~ IIAHLOM-TB-GFIOS-T-FTCIMB ~ It Is A Higher Level Of Morality – To Be – Good For Its Own Sake – Than – For The Consequences It May Bring
~ PMP:AFMPIMCMOTT-Y-FETAFTWDOH-B/C/C ~ Provisional Moral Principles: Applicable For Most People In Most Circumstances Most Of The Time – Yet – Flexible Enough To Account For The Wide Diversity Of Human – Behavior / Culture / Circumstances
~ B-CMBAS? ~ But – Can Morality Become A Science?
~ EUSCSAU ~ Even Unattended Stimuli Can Subtly Affect Us
~MJ-IN-CR-II-IE ~ Moral Judgment – Is Not – Calculatingly Rational – It Is – Intuitively Emotional
~ CB-PAPRIO-MI ~ Cognitive Biases – Play A Powerful Role In Our – Moral Intuitions
~ PE-A-PJ-ATBWCD-ALAHC-STWM-PTIMB ~ Provisional Ethics – And – Provisional Justice – Are The Best We Can Do – As Long As Humanity Continues – So Too Will Morality – Provisional Though It May Be
~ WCAPBM ~ We Can Also Practice Being Moral

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ A-FP ~ ASK-FIRST PRINCIPLE
~ TFOWAAIROW-AF ~ To Find Out Whether An Action Is Right Or Wrong – Ask First
~ HP ~ HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTAWHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness
~ LP ~ LIBERTY PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty
~ MP ~ MODERATION PRINCIPLE
~ WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

CHARLES FISHMAN ~ THE BIG THIRST ~ 2011

~ EH-IMB-CIW ~ Every Heartbeat – Is Medicated By – Chemicals In Water

~ WWGAASNS-TCIOEEATSFIW ~ When We Gaze At A Starry Night Sky – The Cells In Our Eyes Execute All Their Seeing Functions In Water

~ TAW-R-NFWW ~ Thinking About Water – Requires – Neurons Filled With Water

~ TST-WTWFG-I-ISW-TGUTMC-WDTWFGBWDNIETTIFG ~ To Say That – We Take Water For Granted – Is – In Some Ways – To Give Us Too Much Credit – We Don’t Take Water For Granted Because We Don’t Notice It Enough To Take It For Granted

~ TWWITPWUEDATVTPRIITU ~ The Way Water Infuses The Products We Use Every Day And The Volumes Those Products Require Is Invisible To Us

~ TOACOWII ~ The Ownership And Control Of Water Is Invisible

~ ISP-YDAOTWTFOYROIYY ~ In Some Places – You Don’t Actually Own The Water That Falls On Your Roof Or In Your Yard

~ T-NCOM-WABTHA-I-AM-TO-P/BCP/A-HLBI-ETC-UVR;YCCTITIYWB-L/D-TIOTMOOH-IA-MRIFY-A-MBAITPOT ~ The – New Class Of Micropollutants – We Are Beginning To Hear About – Infinitesimal – Almost Molecular– Traces Of – Plastics / Birth Control Pills / Antidepressants– Have Literally Been Invisible – Even To Chemists – Until Very Recently; You Certainly Can’t Tell If They’re In Your Water By – Looking / Drinking – The Impact Of Those Micropollutants On Our Health – If Any – May Remain Invisible For Years – And – May Be Almost Impossible To Predict Or Trace

~ OVSWWHAUTBWI ~ Our Very Success With Water Has Allowed Us To Become Water Illiterate

~ T-GAOW-IRCTAE-NA/S/C-TISB/TIWB-WIFARS ~ The – Golden Age Of Water – Is Rapidly Coming To An End – Naturally Abundant / Safe / Cheap – That It Should Be / That It Will Be – We’re In For A Rude Shock

~ WAEANEO-WS-NJITDOH-PP-B-IPWTOAWW ~ We Are Entering A New Era Of – Water Scarcity – Not Just In Traditionally Dry Or Hard-Pressed Places – But – In Places We Think Of As Water Wealthy

~ WMWGDF-TGAOW-T-TROW ~ We May Well Go Directly From – The Golden Age Of Water – To – The Revenge Of Water

~ AL-1.1B-DHAT-C/S-DW-EY-1.8MC-D-EFLOWOFDTGFTDW

~ At Least – 1.1 Billion – Don’t Have Access To – Clean / Safe – Drinking Water – Every Year – 1.8 Million Children – Die – Either From Lack Of Water Or From Diseases They Got From Tainted Drinking Water

~ ATTITUOCC ~ And Then There Is The Unpredictability Of Climate Change

~ WF ~ Water Footprint

~ WS-IOTDRO-BWM ~ Water Scarcity – Is Often The Direct Result Of – Bad Water Management

~ WIIBMS-IS-DFPWPHBATFI-A-RSE ~ Water Itself Isn’t Becoming More Scarce – It’s Simply – Disappearing From Places Where People Have Become Accustomed To Finding It – And – Reappearing Somewhere Else

~ YCMC-SQOWAIS ~ You Can’t Move Community-Size Quantities Of Water Around In Ships

~ WP ~ Water Poverty

~ PFPATWSHQOW-AUT-TOATWPU ~ Poor Farming Practices Around The World Squander Huge Quantities Of Water – Agriculture Uses Two-Thirds Of All The Water People Use

~ W-WP-B-WC-TCRSL ~ When – Water Problems – Become – Water Conflict – The Consequences Rarely Stay Local

~ T-W-UR ~ The – Water-Use Revolution

~WEIOL ~ Water Expressions Infuse Our Language

~ W-U-T-F-H-A-D-ATW-STSA-IBVHTBB ~ When – Universal – Twenty-Four-Hour-A-Day – Access To Water – Starts To Slip Away – It Becomes Very Hard To Bring Back

~ WTOS-A-BOW-IF-CWIQC ~ We Think Of Space – As – Barren Of Water – In Fact – Cosmic Water Is Quite Common

~SDAOTPAOWOE-B-IC-4.3-4.5-BYO-WWGIWBH-L-F ~ Scientists Don’t Agree On The Precise Age Of Water On Earth – But – It’s Certainly – 4.3 – 4.5 – Billion Years Old – What We’ve Got Is What’s Been Here – Literally – Forever

~ U-PW-I-FNOE-B-WOITW-I-CF-P/O/T-T-FWIIAP ~ Ultra-Pure Water – Is – Found Nowhere On Earth – Because – Water Out In The World – Is – Constantly Flowing – Past / Over / Through – Things – From Which It Is Absorbing Particles

~ OW ~ Ostentatious Water

~ WUWIWTAWAS-TDAGRVOOTWA-TSWCOCBPMATHWUW ~ We Use Water In Ways That Are Wasteful And Shortsighted – That Don’t Actually Get Real Value Out Of The Water Available – That’s Something We Can Only Change By Paying More Attention To How We Use Water

~ B-WACRF-TSOTW-A-TWRTDI ~ But – We Are Completely Removed From – The Source Of The Water – And – The Work Required To Deliver It

~ A-SL-I-S-A-BR-ITLTWTWR-A-WIL-LBALO-DAD ~ A – Scum Line – Is – Simply – A – Bathtub Ring – It’s The Level To Which The Water Rose – And – Where It Lingered – Leaving Behind A Line Of – Dirt And Debris

~ B-WI-TD-WAO-TE-B-PTA-PSIR? ~ But – What If – The Drought – Wasn’t A One-Time Event – But – Prelude To A – Permanent Shift In Rainfall?

~ TCO-NW-IHT-IOM-IA-B-CIRT ~ The Cost Of – No Water – Is Hard To – Imagine Or Measure – In Advance – But – Crippling In Real Time

~ WWTFGITWI-OC-SMA-TWATM-NTP-I/S-W ~ What We Take For Granted Isn’t The Water Itself – Of Course – So Much As – The Work And The Money – Necessary To Provide – Instant / Safe – Water

~ VWC ~ Virtuous Water Cycle

~ EFC-TA-UWD-TAW-S-ID-IN ~ Even For Companies – That Are – Utterly Water Dependent – Thinking About Water – Strategically – In Detail – Is New

~ INA-SW-PS-IA-UHYUW-WTCA-A-RT-WTVI-A-PT ~ It’s Not About – Saving Water – Per Se – It’s About – Understanding How You Use Water – Where The Costs Are – And – Reducing Them – Where The Value Is – And – Preserving That

~ YHTTASB-A-LAT-WC-AAW ~ You Have To Take A Step Back – And – Look At The – Water Cycle – As A Whole

~ WC-HAKOIQ-A-US-IW-BWM-SOAKOBTRTOITTAW ~ Water Consciousness – Has A Kind Of Infectious Quality – An – Upward Spiral – In Which – Better Water Management – Spins Off All Kinds Of Benefits That Reinforce The Original Impulse To Think About Water

~ BW-HBT-IP-IOLAOC-WWBABOW-OC-WWOBI-TB-I-AMATW-WBTC-B-WABTASTWCTUATW:WICF/HHII/WISAU-M-OC-OOOSPITW-HN-D/S-DW ~ Bottled Water – Has Become The – Indispensable Prop – In Our Lives And Our Culture – When We Buy A Bottle Of Water – Of Course – What We’re Often Buying Is – The Bottle – Itself – As Much As The Water – We’re Buying The Convenience – But – We’re Also Buying The Artful Story The Water Companies Tell Us About The Water: Where It Comes From / How Healthy It Is / What It Says About Us – Meanwhile – Of Course – One Out Of Six People In The World – Has No – Dependable / Safe – Drinking Water

~ BW-I-T-FFOTOWC-TMHCVPSFWPTDE-EFTFASFRWP ~ Bottled Water – Is – The – Final Flowering Of The Old Water Culture – The Market Has Created Very Persuasive Solutions For Water Problems That Don’t Exist – While Failing To Find Any Solutions For Real Water Problems

~ WDKHCTWNTB ~ We Don’t Know How Clean The Water Needs To Be

~ -WSTWSIOW-TSDEAHYA ~ We’ve Started To Wash Substances Into Our Wastewater – That Simply Didn’t Exist A Hundred Years Ago

~ BD ~ Big Dry

~ DTUR-O-WS-AABR-D-B-LI-AO-WTWWCF-A-WIWBN-NF-NA ~ Despite Their Utter Reliability – Our – Water Systems – Are Anything But Robust – Durable – But – Locked Into – Assumptions Of – Where The Water Will Come From – And – Where It Will Be Needed – No Flexibility – No Adaptability

~ II-CAE-T-TPTUTWTAH-M-CAP-TTBM-D/DP/P ~ It Is – Cheaper And Easier – To – Teach People To Use The Water They Already Have – More – Carefully And Productively – Than To Build More – Dams / Desal Plants / Pipes

~ TNIAATMTHAW-JSLAWS-T-F-GP-SLAEHATWFTBNATLPC ~ There’s Nothing Immoral About Allowing The Market To Help Allocate Water – Just So Long As We Solve – The – First-Glass Problem – So Long As Everyone Has Access To Water For Their Basic Needs At The Lowest Possible Cost

~ TIN-GWC-TA-ATWC-ED ~ There Is No – Global Water Crisis – There Are – A Thousand Water Crises – Each Distinct

GWYNNE DYER ~ THE SHORTEST HISTORY OF WAR ~ 2022

~ TIAAWTA ~ There Is Always Another War To Analyze
~ TBIFD-OOT-CBO-EPG-A-MI-A-WWFIVHTP ~ The Bill Is Falling Due – On Our Two-Century Binge Of – Eightfold Population Growth – And – Mass Industrialization – And – We Will Find It Very Hard To Pay
~ WBTGP-TKOWTKITM-IND-IOS-A-R-IHBTAB ~ War Between The Great Powers – The Kind Of War That Kills In The Millions – Is Not Dead – It’s Only Sleeping – And – Recently – It Has Been Twitching A Bit
~ HBDNIW-TII-OMDAPI-ADSOOPN-RDTTD ~ Human Beings Did Not Invent War – They Inherited It – Our Most Distant Ancestors Practised It – As Do Some Of Our Primate Near-Relatives Down To This Day
~ TWWNE-A-FHABL-W-D/J/S/S-P/P-WTTBUTTCCOTE-A-ABBI ~ The World Was Never Empty – And – Food Has Always Been Limited – Wether – Desert / Jungle / Seashore / Savannah – Predator / Prey – Will Tend To Breed Up To The Carrying Capacity Of The Environment – And – A Bit Beyond It
~ H-G-EABIIFS-WCAIC-B-YB-M-HTOO-SCTAMPOTNB-A-TOTFR-TGYTTC ~ Hunter-Gathers – Even A Brief Interruption In Food Supply – Will Create An Instant Crisis – But – Your Band – May – Have The Option Of – Systematically Culling The Adult Male Population Of The Neighbouring Band – And – Taking Over Their Food Resources – To Get You Through The Crisis
~ E-H-G-B-TAHHTOTSW-FE ~ Every – Hunter-Gather – Band – That Anthropologists Have Had The Opportunity To Study Was – Fiercely Egalitarian
~ TH-GOTLP-W-PIV-WFFWWNB-TER-DNETW-TWBF-A-EC-W-NQE-WR ~ The Hunter-Gathers Of The Long Past – Were – Proficient In Violence – Who Fought Frequent Wars With Neighbouring Bands – The Egalitarian Revolution – Did Not Eliminate The Wars – Then We Became Farmers – And – Everything Changed – Well – Not Quite Everything – War Remained
~ RN-AAMIVDTTFT-ER-TT-OC-T-O/ER-D-HIRITPASSOADPW-NCACO-B-E-RES-NAI-IHTBP-B-IITDOOTESLIOTATPOTS-OAMOV-S-T/P/L-A-FBA-PT-A-ADDNTD-TCTIA-P-SM-ITBTJAB ~ Rank Necessity – All Armies Make It Very Difficult To Transfer From The – Enlisted Ranks– To The – Officer Caste – The – Officer / Enlisted Ranks – Distinction – Has Its Roots In The Political And Social Structures Of A Distant Past When – Nobles Commanded And Commoners Obeyed – But – Even – Radically Egalitarian States – Never Abolished It – It Had To Be Preserved – Because – It Is The Duty Of Officers To Expend Their Soldiers’ Lives In Order To Accomplish The Purposes Of The State – Officers Are Managers Of Violence – Soldiers – Training / Pride / Loyalty – Are – Finely Balanced Against – Physical Terror – And – A Desperate Desire Not To Die – They Can Turn Into A – Panic -Stricken Mob – If That Balance Tilts Just A Bit
~ TDAWIAM-P-T-C-B-OAT-40O50%-OTME ~ The Dead And Wounded In A Major – Pre-Twentieth-Century – Battle – Often Amounted To – 40 Or 50 Percent – Of The Men Engaged
~ BCNCFW-A-BFEOIQS-‘CF’-MUIPCIMW-AAUMO-SGAUR-SV(MOWANB)-A-ALG-TBTB-WASITF-‘G’-T-BO ~ Battles Can Now Continue For Weeks – And – Battles Follow Each Other In Quick Succession – “Combat Fatigue” – Most Units In Prolonged Combat In Modern War – Are An Uneasy Mixture Of – Some Green And Unsure Replacements – Some Veterans (Many Of Whom Are Nearing Breakdown) – And – A Large Group – The Bigger The Better – Who Are Still In Transition From – “Green” – To – Burned Out
~ T-GAROD-I-NANT ~ The – Giving And Receiving Of Death – Is – Not A Normal Transaction
~ NBK? ~ Natural-Born Killers?
~ TRTKAHBIU-IILETL-HETCBTIDIA-B-SEPC-A-T ~ The Reluctance To Kill Another Human Being Is Universal – It Is Less Encouraging To Learn – How Easily They Can Be Tricked Into Doing It Anyway – By – Some Elementary Psychological Conditioning – And – Training
~ ASMOM-DNFTURTK-WTCMI-N/P ~ A Small Minority Of Men – Do Not Feel The Usual Reluctance To Kill – When The Circumstances Make It – Necessary / Praiseworthy
~ AT-DB-TTF-A-TTI-I-DA-FHM-WDI ~ As The – Distance Between – The Trigger Finger – And – The Target Increase – Inhibitions – Drop Away – Five Hundred Metres – Will Do It
~ DA-DOTSHOEDOTDLOTT-STTCFCTIWC-AT-FA-TAP-WTCBHWETLOO-TITT-TPISLD-O-GTP-A-MO-TTIL-TMABRTLITA-TSITTWK-TSNOT-O-D-‘D-T’-ATTOT-RA/OM-MDOSFPERTWTHSAD-‘PD’-‘MI’-TMTWTT-GD/PWTK-TGT-‘ROMI’ ~ Drone Attack – Drone Operators Typically Spend Hours Or Even Days Observing The Daily Lives Of Their Targets – So That They Can First Confirm Their Identities With Confidence – And Then – Find A – Time And Place – Where They Can Be Hit Without Endangering The Lives Of Others – That Is The Theory – The Practice Is Sometimes Less Diligent – Occasionally – Great Time Pressure – And – Mistakes Occur – That Take Innocent Lives – They May Also Be Required To Loiter In The Area – To See If The Target Was Killed – To Say Nothing Of The – Oft-Denied – “Double-Tap” – Attacks That Take Out The – Rescuers And/Or Mourners – Many Drone Operators Suffer From Powerful Emotional Reactions To What They Have Seen And Done – “Psychological Distress” – “Moral Injury” – The More They Watched Their Targets – Getting Dressed / Playing With Their Kids – The Greater Their – “Risk Of Moral Injury”
~ IWCNTRWP-R-K/DKD-NTBTIASS-‘LAWS’-FTMTOKD ~ It’s What Comes Next That Really Worries People – Robots – Kill / Don’t Kill Decisions – Need To Be Taken In A Split Second – “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems” – Free To Make Their Own Killing Decisions
~ AL-90%-OTSTEE-HB-DBW ~ At Least – 90 Percent – Of – The States That Ever Existed – Have Been – Destroyed By War
~ AS-B-2000BCE-TOMOHBWF-A-AALISTW-EU-W-SK-ATT-A-AMOS/S-ATB-PF-WNTKATNTHOTH-GIL-M/T-BAU ~ Anthill Society – By – 2000 BCE – The Overwhelming Majority Of Human Beings Were Farmers – And – Almost All Lived In States That Were – Extravagantly Unequal – With – Semidivine Kings – At The Top – And – A Mass Of Serfs / Slaves – At The Bottom – Physical Force – Was Needed To Keep All These Newly Tamed Heirs Of The Hunter-Gathers In Line – Militarization / Tyranny – Became Almost Universal
~ P-E-BKA-N-G-WPIIWW ~ Pseudo-Egalitarianism – Better Known As – Nationalism – Get – Whole Populations Involved In Waging War
~ T-WOA-I-NOS-B-C ~ The – War Of Attrition – Involved – Not Only Soldiers – But – Civilians
~ LARM-A-N-BTM-B-BG ~ Labour And Raw Materials – Allocated – Not – By The Market – But – By Government
~ ‘HF’ ~ “Home Front”
~ TW ~ Total War
~WTB-HL-KU-B-HP-T-PTWA-AMCAAE ~ Willingness To Bear – Huge Losses – Kept Up – By – Hate Propaganda – That – Paints The War As – A Moral Crusade Against Absolute Evil
~ P-HCTS-W-A-G-A-HI-CTSIA-AHP ~ People – Have Ceased To See – War – As – Glorious – And – Have Instead – Come To See It As – A Huge Problem
~ NW-HDST-Y-WKPNAHTWAWIW-T-P/E/C-E ~ Nuclear Weapons – Have Dominated Strategic Thinking – Yet – We Know Practically Nothing About How They Would Actually Work In War – The – Psychological / Electromagnetic / Climate – Effects
~ NASD-T-TNHBESII-JAFGTIS ~ Nukes Are So Destructive – That – The Number Held By Each Side Is Irrelevant – Just A Few Getting Through Is Sufficient
~TFO-LNW ~ The Fallacy Of – Limited Nuclear War
~ EOS? ~ Engineers Or Soldiers?
~ TCW-NQTH-ICHBJFYODL-FICCTTAUONWST-A-NTCUNIITS ~ The Cold War – Never Quite Turned Hot – It Could Have Been Just Forty Years Of Dumb Luck – For It Came Close To The Actual Use Of Nuclear Weapons Several Times – And – New Technologies Continually Unleashed New Instabilities Into The System
~ ‘NW’ ~ “Nuclear Winter”
~ ‘RIMA’ ~ “Revolution In Military Affairs”
~ UGW’ ~ “Urban Guerrilla Warfare”
~ WWHTS-TPOW-WTCO-TESS ~ We Will Have To Solve – The Problem Of War – Within The Context Of – The Existing State System
~ MPARTAT-WANSAIL-A-TTBROO-TMGUMOTO-TVMOIBSTTONSHCI ~ Most People Are Reluctant To Accept That – War And National Sovereignty Are Indissolubly Linked – And – That To Be Rid Of One – They Must Give Up Much Of The Other – The Vast Majority Of Individuals Believe Strongly That Their Own Nation Should Have Complete Independence
~ ‘CW’ ~ “Cyberwar”

AMARTYA SEN ~ THE IDEA OF JUSTICE ~ 2009

~ MAON-ACB-PWAD ~ Many Acts Of Nastiness – Are Committed By – People Who Are Deluded

~ OOTMPIFO-R-ITIHUT-SI-A-BB ~ One Of The Main Points In Favour Of – Reason – Is That It Helps Us To – Scrutinize Ideology – And – Blind Belief

~ R-CBCW-TRWO-V-A-T-OP/OC/OC-A-W-EDGFRAT-WCARA-OOM-A-TTLNTRT ~ Reasoning – Can Be Concerned With – The Right Way Of – Viewing – And – Treating – Other People / Other Cultures / Other Claims – And – With – Examining Different Grounds For Respect And Tolerance – We Can Also Reason About – Our Own Mistakes – And – Try To Learn Not To Repeat Them

~ M-CD-F-CI-RF-UF-MAC-BO-R-A-CS ~ Millions – Can Die – From – Calamitous Inaction – Resulting From – Unreasoned Fatalism – Masquerading As Composure – Based On – Realism – And – Common Sense

~ T-N-A-D-OT-NE-AHSP ~ The – Neglect – And – Deterioration – Of The – Natural Environment – A Hugely Serious Problem

~ TPC-CB-H-N-O-CO-WN-CS-NJ-GWTO ~ To Prevent Catastrophes – Caused By – Human – Negligence – Or – Callous Obduracy – We Need – Critical Scrutiny – Not Just – Good Will Towards Others

~ NGO-UI-A-UFS ~ Not Giving Or – Unscrutinized Instincts – An – Unconditional Final Say

~ JAF-B-WIF?-ICBSAADFI ~ Justice As Fairness – But – What Is Fairness? – It Can Broadly Be Seen As A Demand For Impartiality

~ HTTNO-DATM-A-TAA-OSOPOJFTTEG ~ How To Take Note Of – Diversities Among The Members – And – To Arrive At – One Set Of Principles Of Justice Fair To The Entire Group

~ LCBRTBOAFTCOF ~ Liberty Cannot Be Reduced To Being Only A Facility That Complements Other Facilities

~ T-IR-O-AB ~ The – Inescapable Relevance – Of – Actual Behaviour

~ WRHTP-CBB-ACCOATOJ ~ What Really Happens To People – Cannot But Be – A Central Concern Of A Theory Of Justice

~ TROGP ~ The Relevance Of Global Perspectives

~ TCNOIC ~ The Contingent Nature Of Institutional Choice

~ TNIOUP-BB-IB-IVIFS-BA-B-PC ~ The Negative Influence Of Unchecked Power – Both Because – Institutional Balance – Is Very Important For Society – But Also – Because – Power Corrupts

~ IAF-ATOJ-HTGAIPTTROI-H-ITPJRTTTITMOJ-TBUONBCSTWAHITW-NMHETIATTB ~ Institutions As Foundations – Any Theory Of Justice – Has To Give An Important Place To The Role Of Institutions – However – Institutions That Promote Justice Rather Than Treating The Institutions Themselves Manifestations Of Justice – The Basic Unreliability Of Not Being Constantly Sensitive To What Actually Happens In The World – No Matter How Excellent The Institution Are Taken To Be

~ NOA-DAC-POTSMOTTOJ-IIATCT-TN-R-A-R-OTT-DOCF-DAD ~ Not Only Are – Dialogue And Communication – Part Of The Subject Matter Of The Theory Of Justice – It Is Also The Case That – The Nature – Robustness – And – Reach – Of The Theories – Depend On Contributions From – Discussion And Discourse

~ IIU-THADOTFOHB-TSSPWLM-FONTBIITFC ~ It Is Unsustainable – To Have A Defence Of The Freedom Of Human Beings – That Separates Some People Whose Liberties Matter – From Others Not To Be Included In That Favoured Category

~ JOJ-CBAEPA-TIUTO ~ Judgements Of Justice – Cannot Be An Entirely Private Affair – That Is Unfathomable To Others

~ TICAII-ITNOT-IAP-OTWANPTTSCOAP-B-WBSOTCODT ~ There Is Clearly An Important Issue – In The Neglect Of The – Interests And Perspectives – Of Those Who Are Not Parties To The Social Contract Of A Polity – But – Who Bear Some Of The Consequence Of Decisions Taken

~ TLRO-OP-ADTO-UAU-P-TBBIC-A-EUTBF-TITCF-DS-IS ~ The Liberating Role Of – Open Impartiality – Allows Different Types Of – Unprejudiced And Unbiased – Perspectives – To Be Brought Into Consideration – And – Encourages Us To Benefit From – The Insights That Come From – Differently Situated – Impartial Spectators

~ WWCS-I-NIOWWSIRTWWATTS ~ What We Can See – Is – Not Independent Of Where We Stand In Relation To What We Are Trying To See

~ WION?-TQOODTONHAHPITHOEIITW-WAIL-TAFN-NLITWT ~ Who Is Our Neighbour? – The Question Of One’s Duty To One’s Neighbours Has A Huge Place In The History Of Ethical Ideas In The World – We Are Increasingly Linked – There Are Few Non-Neighbours Left In The World Today

~ TAO-TCEHBHCTDMOMET-WMOTGPOTDHAETSDATVOTA-TDHN-H-ABPIE-TEAOEM-TEAAIPOUHB-TGEPIRIBRIS ~ The Assumption Of – The Completely Egoistic Human Being – Has Come To Dominate Much Of Mainstream Economic Theory – While Many Of The Great Practitioners Of The Discipline Have Also Expressed Their Serious Doubts About The Veracity Of That Assumption – This Dichotomy Has Not – However – Always Been Present In Economics – The Early Authors On Economic Matters – Took Ethics As An Important Part Of Understanding Human Behaviour – They Gave Ethical Principles Important Roles In Behavioural Relations In Society

~ BCOTDAPOO-NNBSAAVOR ~ Being Considerate Of The Desires And Pursuits Of Others – Need Not Be Seen As A Violation Of Rationality

~ TATGWOBATAO-MBTC-N-AC-TCBE-A-SN-TMWVITD ~ There Are Two Grand Ways Of Bringing About The Attainment Of – Mutual Benefits Through Cooperation – Namely – Agreed Contracts – That Can Be Enforced – And – Social Norms – That May Work Voluntarily In That Direction

~ PACD ~ Poverty As Capability Deprivation

~ MCBD-NOT-DTPOD-B-A-TRII ~ Much Can Be Done – Not Only To – Diminish The Penalty Of Disability – But – Also – To – Reduce Its Incidence

~ WHTCBT-FOA-A-TNOT-CAO-THAA-UOL ~ We Have To Consider Both The – Freedom Of Action – And – The Nature Of The – Consequences And Outcomes – To Have An Adequate – Understanding Of Liberty

~ COD-NMHVTMBITR-MFSWOATDAO-PG ~ Critics Of Democracy – No Matter How Vigorous They May Be In Their Rejection – Must Find Some Way Of Addressing The Deep Attraction Of – Participatory Governance

~ TVT-D-IBSA-‘GBD’-HG-WS ~ The View That – Democracy – Is Best Seen As – “Government By Discussion” – Has Gained – Widespread Support

~ WDNHTBBIACWALDH-T-CTPT ~ We Do Not Have To Be Born In A Country With A Long Democratic History – To – Choose That Path Today

~ IAU-FOV-R-O-O-CAA-T-FOTP-I-CTTP ~ Informed And Unregimented – Formation Of Values – Requires – Openness – Of – Communication And Argument – The – Freedom Of The Press – Is – Crucial To This Process

~ I-AMIRTS-TROM-AEO-DOD-I-T-LCBGWHTRMR ~ If – A Majority Is Ready To Support – The Rights Of Minorities – And Even Of – Dissenting Or Discordant – Individuals – Then – Liberty Can Be Guaranteed Without Having To Restrain Majority Rule

~ O-MEIPR-I-QCT-TPOJ ~ Open-Minded Engagement In Public Reasoning – Is – Quite Central To – The Pursuit Of Justice

~ JBSTBD ~ Justice Being Seen To Be Done

~ N-P-A-RFJ ~ Non-Parochialism – A – Requirement Or Justice

TIM KASSER ~ THE HIGH PRICE OF MATERIALISM ~ 2002

~ ATPI-HH-WH-EMR-T-F/C/S/E-ELIOE-TSREINMA-UF-IIA-R-AWTILSD-N-AQLAMAPOTWGTUJHFWAFAAOTG-I-T-HC-I-DIITDW:A-‘F’-FW-O/L/ME-A-A-‘T’-CB-D/PS ~ At This Point In – Human History – We Have – Enough Material Resources – To – Feed / Clothe /Shelter / Educate – Every Living Individual On Earth – That Such Resources Exist Is Not Merely A – Utopian Fantasy – It Is A – Reality – About Which There Is Little Serious Debate – Nonetheless – A Quick Look Around Most Any Part Of This Warming Globe Tells Us Just How Far We Are From Achieving Any Of These Goals – Instead – The – Human Community – Is – Dividing Itself Into Two Distinct Worlds: A – “First” – Filled With – Opulence / Luxury / Material Excess – And – A – “Third” – Characterized By – Deprivation / Poverty /Struggle

~ W-F-A-T-W-CFBDANB-I-A-IMC-OF-RIPOW-SB-EW-FOI ~ Whereas – First – And – Third – Worlds – Could Formerly Be Distinguished Along National Boundaries – Increasingly – And – In Most Countries – One Finds – Relatively Insulated Pockets Of Wealth – Surrounded By – Ever Widening – Fields Of Impoverishment

~ MOTWPINGUI-W-T-A-E-WTMGOIITGWTCFT-WT-EL-SAM-ANLBSA-MP-B-A-CG-T-GR-E-H-OB-P-EOOU-CSRBCTTRO-CAM ~ Most Of The World’s Population Is Now Growing Up In – Winner-Take-All – Economies – Where The Main Goal Of Individuals Is To Get Whatever They Can For Themselves – Within This – Economic Landscape – Selfishness And Materialism – Are No Longer Being Seen As – Moral Problems – But – As – Cardinal Goals – This – Global Reality – Exists – However – Only Because – People – Each One Of Us – Can So Readily Be Converted To The Religions Of – Consumerism And Materialism

~ WHAA-WV-IW-WAS-I-J-NB-AW/K/CC-B-I-T-R-‘S’

~ We Have Adopted A – World View – In Which – Worth And Success – Is– Judged – Not By – Apparent Wisdom / Kindness / Community Contributions – But – In – The – Right – “Stuff”

~ TBTMPOTHS ~ The Burdens That Materialism Places On The Human Soul

~ DTH-MAM-MG-DUIAEMFPOL-NOMW-WH-B-O-PTG-WHT-M/U/R/I-A-CM-A-E-H-L-SAS ~ Desires To Have – More And More – Material Goods – Drive Us Into An Ever More Frantic Pace Of Life – Not Only Must We – Work Harder – But – Once – Possessing The Goods – We Have To – Maintain / Upgrade / Replace / Insure – And – Constantly Manage – An – Ever-Heavier – Load – Strain And Stress

~ WIR?-WT-POMAP-BA-‘TGL’-O-ATPO-CS-F? ~ Who Is Right? – Will The – Pursuit Of Money And Possessions – Bring About – “The Good Life” – Or – Are The Promises Of – Consumer Society – False?

~ WHTO-IE-A-IR-WWATMO-CC-A-PB?-WHTT-QOOL-W-WV,? ~ What Happens To Our – Internal Experience – And – Interpersonal Relationships – When We Adopt The Messages Of – Consumer Culture – As – Personal Beliefs? – What Happens To The – Quality Of Our Lives – When – We Value Materialism?

~ AI ~ Aspiration Index

~ TM-MV-AATCOOL-TMO-QOL-ID ~ The More – Materialistic Values – Are At The Center Of Our Lives – The More Our – Quality Of Life – Is Diminished

~ MV-AAW-RL-W-B ~ Materialistic Values – Are Associated With – Relatively Low – Well-Being

~ PN ~ Psychological Needs

~ PACBWM-T-NCBSBHTRP-AOU-T-SE-TO-O-I-MV-TI-WI-TMOCS-I-OO-VABS-TVTBTOOL-BI-G/A/B ~ People Are Constantly Bombarded With Messages – That – Needs Can Be Satisfied By Having The Right Products – All Of Us – To – Some Extent –Take On – Or – Internalize – Materialistic Values – That Is – We Incorporate – The Messages Of Consumer Society – Into – Our Own – Value And Belief Systems – These Values Then Begin To Organize Our Lives – By Influencing – Goals / Attitudes / Behaviors

~ ASFOMV-IO-A-S-O-M-O-A-PH-CB-A-R-FINS ~ A Strong Focus On Materialistic Values – Is Often – A – Symptom – Or – Manifestation – Of – A – Personal History – Characterized By – A – Relative – Failure In Need Satisfaction

~ MVANJEOU-I-TLPTOTLIWTDAPJOSTN-AT-CEMT-M ~ Materialistic Values Are Not Just Expressions Of Unhappiness – Instead – They Lead People To Organize Their Lives In Ways That Do A Poor Job Of Satisfying Their Needs – And Thus – Contribute Even More To – Misery

~ TF-IOC-T-PSE-F-OEY-A-TEWHT-SDHMW-EF-SAS ~ The Family – Is Or Course The – Primary Socializing Environment – For – Our Early Years – And – The Experiences We Have There – Strongly Determine How Much We – Eventually Feel – Safe And Secure

~ TWPTTCSOTF-A-SC-IWCAR-H-IR-ITO-FN-O-S/S/S ~ The Ways Parents Treat Their Children – Stability Of The Family – And – Socioeconomic Circumstances – In Which Children Are Raised – Have – Important Ramifications – In Terms Of – Fulfilling Needs – Of – Safety / Sustenance / Security

~ A-MO-DWI-HE-EIC-T-FTSTNF-S/S/S ~ A – Materialistic Orientation – Develops When Individuals – Have Experiences – Especially In Childhood – That – Fail To Support Their Needs For – Security / Safety / Sustenance

~ MV-AB-ASOAUI-A-ACSTOIAAT-AP-A-SN-TPITMVARPCS ~ Materialistic Values – Are Both – A Symptom Of An Underlying Insecurity – And – A Coping Strategy Taken On In An Attempt To – Alleviate Problems – And – Satisfy Needs – The Problem Is That Materialistic Values Are Rather Poor Coping Strategies

~ ETSPOMI-EAU ~ Even The Successful Pursuit Of Materialistic Ideals – Typically Turns Out To Be – Empty And Unsatisfying

~ MPT-N-MG-SON-AT-I-W-B ~ Making Progress Toward – Non-Materialistic Goals – Satisfies One’s Needs – And Thus – Improves – Well-Being

~ N-ODAADA-LS-E ~ Narcissism – Often Develops As A Defense Agaisnt – Low Self-Esteem

~ P-ES-ALAFO-HFTAF-W/W/W-TIWLTB ~ People’s – Emotional States – Are Largely A Function Of – How Far They Are From – Who / What / Where – They Ideally Would Like To Be

~ OOTMRMIHUI-A-WAP-ITTFVSIITM ~ One Of The Main Reasons Materialistic Individuals Have Unrealistic Ideals – About – Wealth And Possessions – Is That They Frequently View Such Images In The Media

~ MIWALOT ~ Materialistic Individuals Watch A Lot Of Television

~ RB-LFTNNT-TWGT-RTF ~ Rising Baselines – Looking For The Next New Thing – That Will Give The – Temporary Fix

~ TSTIT-WPFTEOEMSOF-TOPITT-MWBB-AT-CTSFWWNMTH ~ The Sad Truth Is That – When People Feel The Emptiness Of Either Material Success Or Failure – They Often Persist In Thinking That – More Will Be Better – And Thus – Continue To Strive For What Will Never Make Them Happier

~ PWFOMA-ODSAT-‘E’-O-TR ~ People Who Focus On Materialistic Aims – Often Do So At The – “Expense” – Of – Their – Relationships

~ BVHBEOHB-TETWIFOMP-ATWTIWOP ~ Because Values Have Broad Effects On Human Behavior – The Extent To Which Individuals Focus On Materialistic Pursuits – Affect The Way They Interact With Other People

~ ‘MM’ ~ “Market Metaphors”

~ W-C/P/M-BO-PA-WBLCWFU-O-SE/F/D-I-OBO-AT-LVAP ~ When – Consumption / Possessions / Money – Become Our – Primary Aims – We Become Less Concerned With Fully Understanding – Others’ – Subjective Experience / Feelings / Desires – Instead – Others Become Objects – And Thus – Lose Value As People

~ ASFO-W/F/I-U-TSONF-AAA ~ A Strong Focus On – Wealth / Fame / Image – Undermines – The Satisfaction Of Needs For – Authenticity And Autonomy

~ IRAIMOB-GP-MOP-F-DSTE-CITM-OTOH-ICLP-TCMATRTTA-A-C-TE-L-I-A-E ~ If Rewards Are Important Motivators Of Behavior – Giving People – Money Or Praise – For – Doing Something They Enjoy – Could Increase Their Motivation – On The Other Hand – It Could Lead People To Care More About The Rewards Than The Activity – And – Consequently – To Experience – Less – Interest – And – Enjoyment

~ RT-PPT-FAA-PF-C/P/C-WT-FOMV ~ Rather Than – Providing Paths To – Freedom And Autonomy – People Feel – Chained / Pressured / Controlled – When They – Focus On Materialistic Values

~ WMVDOS-WM-FAFF-WMUC-WTEOILHW ~ When Materialistic Values Dominate Our Society – We Move – Farther And Farther From – What Makes Us Civilized – We Treat Each Other In Less Humane Ways

~ MV-UO-QOL ~ Materialistic Values – Undermine Our – Quality Of Life

~ AYWMVHAWFY-O-WTCTPYPI ~ Ask Yourself Whether Materialistic Values Have Actually Worked For You – Or – Whether They Continue To Perpetuate Your Problems Instead

~ TAGLAWYNRA ~ Take A Good Look At What Your Needs Really Are

~ A-F-Z ~ Advertising-Free-Zones

~ AATBDTPW-B ~ Advertisements Appear To Be Detrimental To Peoples Well-Being

~ MVBU-W-TAHIICWOV ~ Materialistic Values Become Unhealthy – When – They Are Highly Important In Comparison With Other Values

GERARD DUMENIL + DOMINIQUE LEVY ~ THE CRISIS OF NEOLIBERALISM ~ 2011

~ N-NCO-TWTTBO-T-HIB/CO/UFOM-TGCOIIFOAPMWACAOTNSO ~ Neoliberalism – New Class Objectives – That Worked To The Benefit Of – The – Highest Income Brackets / Capitals Owners / Upper Fractions Of Management – The Greater Concentration Of Income In Favor Of A Privileged Minority Was A Crucial Achievement Of The New Social Order

~ TDSTRDN-WHBII-AAHNBMB-CAMC-IPTUF ~ The Dramatic Social Transformation Realized During Neoliberalism – Would Have Been Impossible If – An Alliance Had Not Been Made Between – Capitalist And Managerial Classes – In Particular Their Upper Fractions

~ N-IA-SO-AATGOIFTUIB-N-IIP-NEL-SP ~ Neoliberalism – Is A – Social Order – Aimed At The Generation Of Income For The Upper Income Brackets – Not – Investment In Production – Nor Even Less – Social Progress

~ TOBWTT-COTC-WGTTI-SE-SCANOAW-K/E/R-AC ~ The Original Bet Was That The – Countries Of The Center – Would Gradually Transform Themselves Into – Services Economies – Still Concentrating A Number Of Activities Where – Knowledge / Education / Research – Are Crucial

~ NSTCOA-FAU-FS-BO-QP-A-‘PTTPOFS’ ~ Neoliberalism Saw The Construction Of A – Fragile And Unwieldy – Financial Structure – Based On – Questionable Practices – A – “Propensity To The Production Of Fictitious Surplus”

~ T-FMOCI-IOP-MPIAGC ~ The – Free Mobility Of Capital Internationally – Impairs Or Prohibits – Macro Policies In A Given Country

~ TOST-FAG-GTI-PATNPFTDGO-HD-WTCO-FI-A-G-TTBOAPM ~ The Overall Shift Toward – Fictionalization And Globalization – Given Their Interconnectedness – Provided All The Necessary Prerequisites For The Dramatic Growth Of – Households’ Debt – With The Collaboration Of – Financial Institutions – And – Governments – To The Benefit Of A Privileged Minority

~ TWISR-ITCOTC-FE-TMADOWP ~ There Were Important Social Resistances – In The Countries Of The Center – For Example – To Maintain A Degree Of Welfare Protection

~ RTTDCBN ~ Reaction To The Devastation Caused By Neoliberalism

~ N:’FC’~ Neoliberalism: “Financialized Capitalism”

~ ‘FC’ ~ “Finance Capital”

~ O-FAG-MTCOA-FAU-FS ~ Overall – Financialization And Globalization – Meant The Construction Of A – Fragile And Unwieldy – Financial Structure

~ IAWO-FT-A-FCM-IIDTC-IR/L/ER ~ In A World Of – Free Trade – And – Free Capital Mobility – It Is Difficult To Control – Interest Rates / Loans / Exchange Rates

~ TRFT-2001R-WOOATCO-TRORI-ABOTHS-W-PIRL ~ The Recovery From The – 2001 Recession – Was Obtained Only At The Cost Of – The Rise Of Residential Investment – A Boom Of The Hosing Sector – While – Productive Investment Remained Low

~ TCOIATT ~ The Concentration Of Income At The Top

~ TDB-WAM-I-TIT-S-A-C-M-WAOTSS-A-UMOTCS-A-M-IPI-UL-IGICT-SA-AIFOTSGWETTB ~ The Difference Between – Workers And Managers – Is – That In The – Stick-And-Carrot – Metaphor – Workers Are On The Stick Side – And – Upper Management On The Carrot Side – Actually – Management – In Particular Its – Upper Layers – Increased Gradually Its Capability To – Set Apart – An Increasing Fraction Of The Surplus Generated Within Enterprises To Their Benefit

~ N-I-T-UA-TEO-TROT-PAI-O-CC ~ Neoliberalism – Is – Thus – Understood As – The Expression Of – The Restoration Of The – Power And Income – Of – Capitalist Classes

~ TRPLOTFS ~ The Record Profitability Levels Of The Financial Sector

~ MSNBSA-MPA-ITDOT-COH-IN-T-MC-IPT-UF-AP-ITFOT-NST-EHR-A-WTGOEITRO-AO-IF-TION-WHBI-HNTNABSWTULOTSP-B-OAM ~ Mangers Should Not Be Seen As – Merely Passive Agents – In The Determination Of The – Course Of History – In Neoliberalism – The – Managerial Classes – In Particular Their – Upper Fractions – Actively Participated – In The Formation Of The – New Social Trends – Expecting High Remunerations – And – With The Goal Of Entering Into The Realm Of – Active Ownership – In Fact – The Imposition Of Neoliberalism – Would Have Been Impossible – Had Not The New Alliance Been Struck Within The Upper Layers Of The Social Pyramid – Between – Ownership And Management

~ WT-PP-OTBO-WE-W-S-UWIS-DTND ~ While The – Purchasing Power – Of The Bulk Of – Wage Earners – Was – Stagnating – Upper Wages – Increased Sharply – During The Neoliberal Decades

~ B-CM-SO-AAA-IC-OT-MG ~ Besides – Corporate Managers – State Officials – Are Also An – Important Component – Of The – Managerial Classes

~ T-TON-O-ESI-WG-PLOTFOB-PTROW-ITOHI-A-SO ~ The – Tenants Of Neoliberalism – Oppose – Excessive State Intervention – Whenever Governments – Place Limits On The Freedom Of Business – Protect The Rights Of Workers – Imposes Taxes On High Incomes – And – So On

~ NRTSOT-SDC-NTSIG ~ Neoliberalism Rejected The State Of The – Social Democratic Compromise – Not The State In General

~ PH ~ Prevailing Hegemonies

~ TSWSFAMC ~ The Stage Was Set For A Major Collapse

~ ACBE-N-A-NG-DA-TSAFOT-FS ~ As Could Be Expected – Neoliberalism – And – Neoliberal Globalization – Deeply Altered – The Structure And Function Of The – Financial Sector

~ TIOTFS-IA-NASP ~ The – Indebtedness Of The Financial Sector – Is A – New And Spectacular Phenomenon

~ TMAEO-TH-CBCIAA-NA ~ The Multiplication And Expansion Of – Tax Havens – Can Be Clearly Interpreted As A – Neoliberal Accomplishment

~ AM ~ Asset Management

~ CT ~ Carry Trade

~ EC ~ Exchanging Currencies

~ AFAUS ~ A Fragile And Unwieldy Structure

~ TIOT-UIB-IDDT-ND-TROPASVOFCFSG ~ The Income Of The – Upper Income Brackets – Increased Dramatically During The – Neoliberal Decades – The Rise Of Profits And Stock Values Of Financial Corporations Fed Skyrocketing Gains

~ THONAICIOOSTBRATL-WCBDAT-‘DOPAF’-WTPOTFSRP?-OWGWTTGOTUWBITSB?-BADTD ~ The History Of Neoliberalism At Its Climax Is One Of Subtle Transition Between Reaching And Trespassing Limits – What Could Be Denoted As The – “Dialectics Of Performance And Fictitiousness” – Were The Profits Of The Financial Sector Real Profits? – On What Grounds Were The Tremendous Gains Of The Upper Wage Brackets In The Sector Based? – Boundaries Are Difficult To Draw

~ OSFOT-FS-I-TCOVHW ~ One Specific Feature Of The – Financial Sector – Is – The Concentration Of Very High Wages

~ P-IW-A-RFE ~ Practices – Impossible Within – A – Regulated Financial Economy

~ TFWOD-WAIFI-TCO-BAT-I-1980/1990

ITL190SAE1990S ~ The First Wave Of Deregulation – Was An Important Factor In – The Crisis Of – Banking And Thrift – Institutions – In – 1980/1990

~ SL-BEAAROTEO-UC-AOTC-HIR-O-B-W-HCR ~ Subprime Loans – Became Easier As A Result Of The Elimination Of – Usury Controls – Allowing Originators To Charge – Higher Interest Rates – On – Borrowers – With – Higher Credit Risks

~ NG-LTLPBTAOT-IMOC-WHBC-BR ~ Neoliberal Globalization – Lifted The Limits Placed By The Agreements On The – International Movements Of Capital – Which Had Been Considered – Basic Requirements

~ F-IT-F-GS ~ Fundamentals – In The – Financial-Global Storm

~ DA-A-GD ~ Declining Accumulation – And – Growing Disequilibria

~ TMTDW-T-RDI-A-T-ROFF ~ The Most Threatening Developments Were – The – Rising Domestic Indebtedness – And – The – Reliance On Foreign Financing

~ TSOQMBP:WIB?-A-FWP?-A-WIL-A-TWI? ~ Two Sets Of Questions Must Be Posed: Who Is Borrowing? – And – For What Purpose? – And – Who Is Lending – And – Through Which Instruments?

~ MW ~ Mortgage Wave

~ F-T-MW ~ Feeding – The – Mortgage Wave

~ T-LO-O-CDO-AP-SI ~ The – Late Outburst – Of – Collateralized Debt Obligations – A Prominent – Speculative Instrument

~ RI-V-FS ~ Real Incomes – Versus – Fictitious Surplus

~ NINAPOI-B-ASOAATPAIOTUC ~ Neoliberalism Is Not About Principles Or Ideology – But – A Social Order Aiming At The Power And Income Of The Upper Classes

~ IN-TS-AWIFOTUC ~ In Neoliberalism – The State – Always Worked In Favor Of The Upper Classes

~ TGC ~ The Great Contraction

~ GFT ~ Global Financial Turmoil

~ COFH ~ Crises Of Financial Hegemony

~ A-DD-T-RAC ~ A – Deficient Determination – To – Regulate And Control

~ TLF-TD-WF ~ The Lessons From – The Depression – Were Forgotten

~ A-FS-ITSO-TRE ~ A – Financial Sector – In The Service Of – The Real Economy

~ BN ~ Beyond Neoliberalism

~ IWBNT-PSL-O-TTOLFOITTUFOIB ~ It Will Be Necessary To – Place Severe Limitations – On – The Transfer Of Large Flows Of Income Toward The Upper Fractions Of Income Brackets

~ NC-AA-TMLOOTCON-FTCD ~ Neomanagerial Capitalism – Appears As – The Most Likely Outcome Of The Crisis Of Neoliberalism – For The Coming Decades

NICHOLAS CARR ~ UTOPIA IS CREEPY ~ 2016

~ TPFGOTH ~ Technological Paradise Forever Glittering On The Horizon

~ TIOTCNAAEOLIAIF ~ The Idea Of The Computer Network As An Engine Of Liberation Is An Innocent Fraud

~ TDOADAWU-TIHTMT-B-IHNTU ~ The Dreams Of A Digital Awakening Went Unfulfilled – The Internet Had Transformed Many Things – But – It Had Not Transformed Us

~ TCOTA ~ The Cult Of The Amateur

~ TPO-W2.0-VTA-A-DTP ~ The Promoters Of – Web 2.0 – Venerate The Amateur – And – Distrust The Professional

~ TPOF ~ The Price Of Free

~ LION-W2.0-L-W1.0-BI-I-A-IA-SOE-O-OAC-IDCWICAGOB-S-LDT-UR-A-STTAII-NAWWIWB ~ Like It Or Not – Web 2.0 – Like – Web 1.0 – Before It – Is – Amoral – It’s A – Set Of Economics – Of – Production And Consumption – It Doesn’t Care Whether Its Consequences Are Good Or Bad – So – Lets Ditch The – Utopian Rhetoric – And – See The Thing As It Is – Not As We Wish It Would Be

~ Q-T-SMO ~ Questioning – The – Social Media Orthodoxy

~ DS ~ Digital Sharecropping

~ DTEOWCORY-WTATBGEMC-WR-BC-IN-OC-B-T-EV-OTC ~ Despite The Explosion Of Web Content Over Recent Years – Web Traffic Appears To Be Growing Ever More Concentrated – What’s Really – Being Concentrated – Is Not – Online Content – But – The – Economic Value – Of That Content

~ T-S-OHIA-AE-WT-OOHIACE-T-AE-IJAMOC-CI-FT-CE-MSITW-FITP ~ The – Sharecroppers – Operate Happily In An – Attention Economy – While Their – Overseers Operate Happily In A Cash Economy – The – Attention Economy – Is Just A Means Of Creating – Cheap Inputs – For The – Cash Economy – Many Share In The Work – Few In The Profit

~ TGPO-SN-IT-IUNATGFTC ~ The Great Paradox Of – Social Networking – Is That – It Uses Narcissism As The Glue For The Community

~ ATPWTOMOTCOAS-WSRITSW-ALTWCBFFTAONKWTEBRAUL-ALTWCFSTHOT-EIIN ~ As The Physical World Takes On More Of The Characteristics Of A Simulation – We Seek Reality In The Simulated World – At Least There We Can Be Freed From The Anxiety Of Not Knowing Where The Edge Between Real And Unreal Lies – At Least There We Can Find Something To Hold On To – Even If It’s Nothing

~ GITC ~ Ghosts In The Code

~ GAAA ~ Go Ask Alice’s Avatar

~ IB-I-YW-R-H-TMAMS ~ I Bet – If – You Were – Really – Really – High – That Might Actually Make Sense

~ STNF? ~ Should The Net Forget?

~ TSOTIGMBBCV-TOGIT-KU-TTITDO-IL-B-TTIU-TS-TMSIEMIDOOLAD ~ The Strategy Of Today’s Internet Giants Might Best Be Called Vampiric – Their Overriding Goal Is To – Know Us – To Transfer Into Their Databases Our – Informational Life-Blood –Their Thirst Is Unquenchable – To Survive – They Must Suck In Ever More Intimate Details Of Our Lives And Desires

~ IANS:FYGYCTETPDTY-A-TY-NOSTDTA-B-YGTCTBTVFTA ~ It’s A Nifty System: First You Get Your Customers To Entrust Their Personal Data To You – And – Then You – Not Only Sell That Data To Advertisers – But – You Get The Customers To Be The Vector For The Ads

~ IYWTPAIBHI-YHTO:MMS-O-MPD ~ If You Want To Push Artificial Intelligence Beyond Human Intelligence – You Have Two Options: Make Machines Smarter – Or – Make People Dumber

~ RTVC ~ Raising The Virtual Child

~ GFOP-WCTT-ASA-PDSTCDA ~ Great Fans Of Progress – Will Change Their Tune – As Soon As – Progress Destroys Something They Care Deeply About

~ YNLNAC-TBA-CP ~ You No Longer Need A Couch – To Be A – Couch Potato

~ GTA ~ Grand Theft Attention

~ WSBSOAWDO-VGS-TATSALOTIFOACS-SO-A/M/ATM-TE-SIHTOF ~ We Should Be Skeptical Of Anyone Who Draws On – Video Game Studies – To Argue That Spending A Lot Of Time In Front Of A Computer Screen – Strengthens Our – Attentiveness / Memory / Ability To Multitask – The Evidence – Suggest It Has — The Opposite Effect

~ TDFPIS;VIS ~ The Desire For Privacy Is Strong; Vanity Is Stronger

~ I-AT-D ~ Innovation – Arcs Toward – Decadence

~ WKTCARS-WCSGB ~ We’ll Know That Computers Are Really Smart – When Computers Start Getting Bored

~ IIT-VON-MT-VON-T-TMI ~ It Is The – Vanity Of Neuroticism – More Than – The – Vanity Of Narcissism – That – The Mirror Incites

~ HIACSTHAIC-W-S-IICUTW-‘BS’-? ~ How Is A Computer Supposed To Have An Intelligent Conversation – With – Singularitarians – If It Can'[T Use The Word – “BullShit” – ?

~ UW ~ UnderWearables

~ J-HAB-A-B-P-OT-MIH-NIA ~ Jobs – Have Always Been – A By-Product – Of The – Market’s Invisible Hand – Not Its Aim

~ TLITSOAS-I-TBLTTW ~ To Look Into The Screen Of A Smartphone – Is – To Be Lost To The World

~ TIOICIA ~ The Illusion Of Involvement Conceals Its Absence

~ TGS-WWSLTCTP-NAO-A-B-AO-R-TWHN-A-Q ~ Things Get Sticky – When We Start Looking To Computers To Perform – Not As Our – Aides – But – As Our – Replacements – That’s What’s Happening Now – And – Quickly

~ T-ROAI-DLISDF-TAHN ~ The – Risks Of Artificial Intelligence – Don’t Lie In Some Dystopian Future – They Are Here Now

~ T-PD-HLAYWTWFTNNTTA?-HMESCYE ~ The – Patience Deficit – How Long Are You Willing To Wait For The Next New Thing To Arrive? – How Many Empty Seconds Can You Endure

~ WL-M-ETMCOU ~ We Live – Mythically – Even The Most Calculating Of Us

~ ITIOANTTDTIOTCTI ~ Increasing The Intelligence Of A Network Tends To Decrease The Intelligence Of Those Connected To It

~ SHST-R-TTMUALALME-ALMATTILOO ~ Studies Have Shown That – Reading – Tends To Make Us At Least A Little More Empathetic – A Little More Alert To The Inner Lives Of Others

~ T-GD-PBT-EOPP-ITIMLU-A-I-AAA-S-T-D-TCOP-TSIA-OAU ~ The – Greatest Danger – Posed By The – Erosion Of Personal Privacy – Is That It May Lead Us – As – Individuals – And As A – Society – To – Devalue – The Concept Of Privacy – To See It As – Outdated And Unimportant

~ W-CWIS-A-WI-A-WVA-D ~ We – Cherish What Is Scarce – And – What Is – Abundant – We View As – Disposable

~ T-V-OA-W-MAW-U-T-L-NOI-WIPFU-B-WIPU ~ The – Value – Of A – Well-Made And Well-Used – Tool – Lies – Not Only In – What It Produces For Us – But – What It Produces In Us

~ WWET-VW-WRTSMOOB-TDFU;IEU ~ When We Enter The – Virtual World – We’re Required To Shed Much Of Our Body – That Doesn’t Free Us; It Emaciates Us

~ T-BIT-AA-B-S-H-A-F-I-S-IAUT-FO-ATF-W-RUOR-FTF ~ The – Belief In Technology – As A – Benevolent – Self-Healing – Autonomous – Force – Is – Seductive – It Allows Us To – Feel Optimistic – About The Future – While – Relieving Us Of Responsibility – For That Future

~ GF ~ Grandiose Futurism

~ U-IAFO-S-D ~ Utopianism – Is A Form Of – Self-Delusion

~ WWRS-I-WRTCOII-DW-AT-FOI-A-I-TSUAFM ~ What We Risk Sacrificing – If – We Rush To Curtail Our Involvement In – Difficult Work – Are The – Flashes Of Insight – And – Inspiration – That Set Us Apart From Machines

~ LITC ~ Lost In The Cloud

~ A-WNTET-COO-CH-DEUITHOA-SGOCE-T-FOPNP ~ And – We’ll Need To Ensure That – Control Over Our – Cultural Heritage – Doesn’t End Up In The Hands Of A – Small Group Of Commercial Enterprises – That – Focus On Profit Not Posterity

EVGENY MOROZOV ~ THE NET DELUSION ~ 2011

~ TDSOIF ~ The Dark Side Of Internet Freedom

~ CU:ANBITENOOCTROASRTAID ~ Cyber-Utopianism: A Naive Belief In The Emancipatory Nature Of Online Communication That Rests On A Stubborn Refusal To Acknowledge Its Downside

~ TDSOIF ~ The Dark Side Of Internet Freedom

~ EL-‘FR’-HBTBOOT-TTC-A-ET-PC ~ Expressions Like – “Freedom Recession” – Have Begun To Break Out Of The – Think-Tank Circuit – And – Enter The – Public Conversation

~ FTA-H-AG-WRTTI-C-U-DNPHUIWPFPP-HMDWLTUIFS-A-HS-MSOIC-WB ~ Failing To Anticipate How – Authoritarian Governments – Would Respond To The Internet – Cyber-Utopians – Did Not Predict How Useful It Would Prove For Propaganda Purposes – How Masterfully Dictators Would Learn To Use It For Surveillance – And – How Sophisticated – Modern Systems Of Internet Censorship – Would Become

~ P-ITRTSTDOTNDE-C-U-EUBTROTI-RTSTIPARAWOPL-NJTOCTD ~ Paradoxically – In Their Refusal To See The Downside Of The New Digital Environment – Cyber-Utopians – Ended Up Belittling The Role Of The Internet – Refusing To See That It Penetrates And Reshaped All Walks Of Political Life – Not Just The Ones Conducive To Democratization

~ IMWIW-C-U-UR ~ I Myself Was Intoxicated With – Cyber-Utopianism – Until Recently

~ ATITOAEGRITPOBAADS-TPTFTC-A-SWWTIAWOG ~ As The Internet Takes On An Even Greater Role In The Politics Of Both Authoritarian And Democratic States – The Pressure To Forget The Context – And – Start With What The Internet Allows Will Only Grow

~ TSAAITIOABTFWAVIH-EITHAUTPWTLFG ~ The Struggle Agaisnt Authoritarianism Is Too Important Of A Battle To Fight With A Voluntary Intellectual Handicap – Even If That Handicap Allows Us To Play With The Latest Fancy Gadgets

~ TUCOAIR ~ The Unimaginable Consequences Of An Imagined Revolution

~ TBB-C-U-A-C-NIABO ~ The Border Between – Cyber-Utopianism – And – Cyber-Naivete – Is A Blurry One

~ TRWSMPAJBITPOTIIBTHNGTSMT ~ The Reason Why So Many Politicians And Journalists Believe In The Power Of The Internet Is Because They Have Not Given This Subject Much Thought

~ TIHAETSPTSAP-O-AMAR ~ The Internet Has Also Empowered: The Secret Police / The Censors / The Propaganda

~ RTATTWCAS-RTU-AR-I-EI ~ Refusing To Acknowledge That The Web Can Actually Strengthen – Rather Than Undermine – Authoritarian Regimes – Is – Extremely Irresponsible

~ MAR-HLTFIAEMBTAOI ~ Modern Authoritarian Regimes – Have Learned To Function In An Environment Marked By The Abundance Of Information

~ OD-A-T-CI ~ Online Discontents – And – Their – Content Intellectuals

~ CPTEICADIAMB-FMET-24/7P-TIHMTEEOTLUA-A-TLIAD-MA ~ Controlling People Through Entertainment Is Cheaper And Doesn’t Involve As Much Brutality – Far More Effective Than – 24/7 Policing – The Internet Has Made The Entertainment Experiences Of Those Living Under Authoritarianism – And – Those Living In A Democracy – Much Alike

~ ACTUSTAFOUV ~ A Call To Use Strategies That Are Free Of Utopian Visions

~ C-A-S ~ Censors – And – Sensibilities

~ UO-ILT-IAP ~ Unwarranted Optimism – Inevitably Leads To – Inaction And Paralysis

~ CS-AA-DAF-T-TTI-NOTU-A-T-BA-WEED ~ Censorship-Systems – Are As – Detailed And Fine-Tuned – To – The Information-Needs Of Their Users – As – The – Behavioral Advertising – We Encounter Every Day

~ TTU ~ Time To Unfriend

~ TBTTIITBTCIDN ~ The Belief That The Internet Is Too Big To Censor Is Dangerously Naive

~ WDC;WO! ~ We Don’t Censor; We Outsource!

~ WC-UC ~ Wise Crowds – Unwise Causes

~ METI-DNBI-DSFAG ~ Mere Exposure To Information – Does Not By Itself – Decrease Support For Authoritarian Governments

~ TH-THHBAMEWTETPTAS-TT-BDAI ~ Throughout History – There Has Hardly Been A More Effective Way To Ensure That People Talk About Something – Than To – Ban Discussions About It

~ MP-DNDBP-EP-TM/CG/BP-A-MR-RT ~ Modern Propaganda – Does Not Discriminate Between Platforms – Easily Penetrating – Text Messages / Computer Games / Blog Posts – And – Most Recently – Ringback Tones

~ TUO-TM-F-PP-‘RT’ ~ The Use Of – Text Messaging – For – Propaganda Purposes – “Red-Texting”

~ TIINGTUTPFOMA ~ The Internet Is Not Going To Undermine The Propaganda Foundations Of Modern Authoritarianism

~ TIROT-B-IDOTAOUNV ~ The Internet Runs On Trust –But – Its Dependence On Trust Also Opens Up Numerous Vulnerabilities

~ TWIYTMADTCOIC ~ The World Is Yet To Meet A Database That Cried Over Its Contents

~ SS-TC-AAACOWIS ~ Surveillance Software – That Can – Automatically Annotate And Comment On What It Sees

~ BTAO-SM-ITALOEF-RG-T-LATP-DAAW ~ Before The Advent Of – Social Media – It Took A Lot Of Effort For – Repressive Governments – To – Learn About The People – Dissidents Are Associated With

~ TC-DTCIWMOTUO-WSUTCOGTW ~ Technology Companies – Utterly Disregard The Contexts In Which Many Of Their Users Operate – While Significantly Underestimating The Consequences Of Getting Things Wrong

~ T-IV-O-SE-INLO-T-IG-C-AG ~ The – Intelligence Value – Of – Search Engines – Is Not Lost On – The – Internet Gurus – Consulting – Authoritarian Governments

~ FAF-ACSDM-N-WTFIPE ~ First And Foremost – Authorities Can Shut Down Mobile-Networks – Whenever They Find It Politically Expedient

~ NOHY-TAAG-B-ATPOAC-A-CJATG ~ No One Has Yet – Toppled An Authoritarian Government – By – Assuming The Posture Of A Clown – And – Cracking Jokes About The Guillotine

~ P-H-N-ACBTUO-SN-A-N ~ Psychologists – Have – Noticed – A Correlation Between The Use Of – Social Networking – And – Narcissism

~ DWD ~ Dissidents Without Dissent

~ MO-DA-IMB-CI-WOO-KP ~ Much Of – Digital Activism – Is Mediated By – Commercial Intermediaries – Who Operate On – Kafkaesque Principles

~ DI ~ Dangerous Intermediaries

~ ‘IS’TIT-G-H-LC-OT-NAA-O-TWMTIM ~ “Information Sovereignty” – The Idea That – Governments – Have – Legitimate Concerns – Over The – Nationalities And Allegiances – Of – Those Who Mediate Their Information Markets

~ IF-A-TC ~ Internet Freedoms – And – Their Consequences

~ TOTWAAASIAFO ~ The Only Thing Worse Than An Authoritarian State Is A Failed One

~ NMT-PVAACA-FRC ~ Nothing More Than – Poorly Veiled Attempts At Creating A – Favorable Regulatory Climate

~ A-UT-ITHO-OP-I-ARFD ~ An – Unruly Tool – In The Hands Of – Overconfident People – Is – A Recipe For Disaster

~ H-C-W-SOL-P-EP-TWMUPAOHESTRA ~ Hidden-Costs – Will – Sooner Or Later – Produce – Environmental Problems – That Will Make Us Painfully Aware Of How Expensive Such Technologies Really Are

~ TFTWCYCATCOAGT-F/M/E-DNMTICF ~ The Fact That We Cannot Yet Calculate All The Costs Of A Given Technology – Financial / Moral / Environmental – Does Not Mean That It Comes Free

~ J-AOP-B-CT-TIWSIHA-I-ETKOCTSBST-MAP-NJ-T-S ~ Justifying – Assault On Privacy – By – Clamming That – This Is Where Society Is Heading Anyway – Is – Exactly The Kind Of Claim That Should Be Subject To – Moral And Political – Not Just – Technological – Scrutiny

~ WI-MD-A-ST-TD-ITIHOAO-TS-A-TP ~ What Is – Most Dangerous – About – Succumbing To – Technological Determinism – Is That It Hinders Our Awareness Of – The Social – And – The Political

~ TMWLA-T-TLIMSTFOIA-IIFOF ~ The More We Learn About – Technology – The Less It Makes Sense To Focus On It Alone – In Isolation From Other Factors

~ UNC-SWBGT-AFPOE ~ Under No Circumstances – Should We Be Giving Technologies – A Free Pass On Ethics

~ TWF ~ The Wicked Fix

~ E-WP-CBCASO-AH-LP-AT-SBTOTHPL ~ Every – Wicked Problem – Can Be Considered A Symptom Of – Another Higher-Level Problem – And Thus – Should Be Tackled On The Highest Possible Level

~ TUIOTMW-WIMDOTTE-IT-ATBEMII-P-A-S-L-LALAIP-TSAP-DOTI ~ The Ultimate Irony Of The Modern World – Which Is More Dependent On Technology Than Ever – Is That – As Technology Becomes Ever More Integrated Into – Political – And – Social – Life – Less And Less Attention Is Paid – To The – Social And Political – Dimensions Of Technology Itself