MICHAEL SHERMER ~ AN EXGESIS OF WHY AND HOW WE ARE MORAL ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ MN ~ MORAL NATURALISM

~ WTIAGONIITTT-BISOAANO-AEH-NC-STSA ~ Whether There Is A God Or Not – Is Irrelevant To The Theory – Because – In Science Our Approach Is A Naturalistic One – All Effects Have – Natural Causes – Subject To Scientific Analysis

~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SENSE

~ MSIH-AMPIHG-E-PTTFONSOOI-A-S-TTFO-GSOOP ~ Moral Sentiments In Humans – And – Moral Principles In Human Groups – Evolved – Primarily – Through The Force Of Natural Selection Operating On Individuals – And – Secondarily – Through The Force Of – Group Selection Operating On Populations

~ AEMS ~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SOCIETY

~ HEAASPSWAAHON-F-S-SOTI-T-TEOTITTF-T-ASOBWTEF-T-TRAOTC-T-IAOS-T-SA-A-B-AAOOMOTSABCTD ~ Humans Evolved As A Social Primate Species With An Ascending Hierarchy Of Needs – From – Self-Survival Of The Individual – To – The Extension Of The Individual Through The Family – To – A Sense Of Bonding With The Extended Family – To – The Reciprocal Altruism Of The Community – To – Indirect Altruism Of Society – To – Species Altruism And Bioaltruism – As Awareness Of Our Membership Of The Species – And – Biosphere Continues To Develop

~ T-BB-HN-A-MF-ALU-BC-W-TM-SAC-HN-A-MF-ALU-CC ~ The – Most Basic – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Biological Control – Whereas – The More – Social And Cultural – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Cultural Control

~ TNOMN ~ THE NATURE OF MORAL NATURE

~ H-A-BN-MAI-GAE/AAS/CAC/PAB/VAN-SMTVWI-AWA-WAB-G ~ Humans – Are – By Nature – Moral And Immoral / Good And Evil / Altruistic And Selfish / Cooperative And Competitive / Peaceful And Bellicose / Virtuous And Nonvirtuous – Such Moral Traits Vary Within Individuals – As Well As – Within And Between – Groups

~ PM ~ PROVISIONAL MORALITY

~ MP-A-PT-TI-TAT-MP-I-MC-I-MC-MOTT ~ Moral Principles – Are – Provisionally True – That Is – They Apply To – Most People – In – Most Cultures – In – Most Circumstances – Most Of The Time

~ PRAW ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG

~ A-FP:TFOWAAI-ROW-AF ~ Ask-First Principle: To Find Out Whether An Action Is – Right Or Wrong – Ask First

~ HP:IIAHMPTASHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ Happiness Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness

~ LP:IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ Liberty Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty

~ MP:WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ Moderation Principle: When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

~PJ ~ PROVISIONAL JUSTICE

~AWAAST-LON-A-FO-C-A-H-TSO-TAB-WA-FMA-RFOA-TI-C-A-SJ-WHCTPFO-RAG-A-A-RAP-SATTIAL-PJ-IN-HAN ~ Although We Are All Subject To – Laws Of Nature – And – Forces Of – Culture – And – History – That Shape Our – Thoughts And Behaviors – We Are– Free Moral Agents – Responsible For Our Actions – There Is – Individual Culpability – And – Social Justice – Within Human Communities That Produce Feelings Of – Righteousness And Guilt – And – Administer – Rewards And Punishments – Such That There Is At Least – Provisional Justice – In The – Here And Now

~ EEE ~ ENNOBLING EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS

~ AA-EMOHP-T-MS-T-IAG-A-BTTS-POTIFO-E/H/C ~ As An – Evolved Mechanism Of Human Psychology – The – Moral Sense – Transcends – Individuals And Groups – And – Belongs To The Species – Products Of The Impersonal Forces Of – Evolution / History / Culture

NICHOLAS CARR ~ AUTOMATION COMPLACENCY / AUTOMATION BIAS ~ THE GLASS CAGE ~ 2014

~AC-PBSTOTTTTAOWGOATF-TTO-IAPSCU-TMAB-A-WPMTTRT ~ Automation Complacency – People Become So Trusting Of The Technology That Their Awareness Of What’s Going On Around Them Fades – They Tune Out – If A Problem Suddenly Crops Up – They May Act Bewildered – And – Waste Precious Moments Trying To Reorient Themselves

~ AB-WPGUWTTICTTM-EW-TIIWOM-T-IOD-OSOI ~ Automation Bias – When People Give Undue Weight To The Information Coming Through Their Monitors – Even When – The Information Is Wrong Or Misleading – They – Ignore Or Discount – Other Sources Of Information

NICHOLAS CARR ~ THE GLASS CAGE ~ 2014

~ AHC-ACTATOO-W/T/L-IC-NOP-A-LOC-ICOUT-SAM ~ Automation’s Human Consequences – Automation Can Take A Toll On Our – Work / Talents / Lives – It Can – Narrow Our Perspectives – And – Limit Our Choices – It Can Open Us To – Surveillance And Manipulation

~ ACB-O-CC-O-FOH-ISWTTACLAEHT-C-WWDAWWA ~ As Computers Become – Our – Constant Companions – Our – Familiar Obliging Helpmates – It Seems Wise To Take A Closer Look At Exactly How They’re – Changing – What We Do And Who We Are

~ HDYT-TI-I-TLOC-IT-R-S-B-S-I-O-AA? ~ How Do You Translate – The Ineffable – Into – Lines Of Code – Into The – Rigid – Step-By-Step – Instructions – Of – An Algorithm?

~ MOTCTWCUH-ITO-AAB-OCGQE-TCBTMOAT-SP-MJ-A-LFE ~ Many Of The Cognitive Talents We’ve Considered Uniquely Human – It Turns Out – Are Anything But – Once Computers Get Quick Enough – They Can Begin To Mimic Our Ability To – Spot Patterns – Make Judgments – And – Learn From Experience

~ ALOTVSTTPD-DARAB ~ A Lot Of The Very Smart Things That People Do – Don’t Actually Require A Brain

~ CAA-W-OAS-IBMBS ~ Creative And Analytical – Work – Of All Sorts – Is Being Mediated By Software

~ TTWAIT-IOGUWWDN-ATCOWWD ~ The Trouble With Automation Is That – It Often Gives Us What We Don’t Need – At The Cost Of What We Do

~ E-HTA-A-O-S-C-KW-ASTWCB-D-SS-TTTMOJIA-D-PR ~ Even – Highly Trained Analysts – And – Other – So-Called – Knowledge Workers – Are Seeing Their Work Circumscribed By – Decision-Support Systems – That Turn The Making Of Judments Into A – Data-Processing Routine

~ BTODOT-CT-O-SRTTLO-TSMIELLTW-EIE-T-TOS-A-GUASO-AAS-ATO-AFUFTWMUFF ~ By Taking Over Difficult Or Time-Consuming Tasks – Or – Simply Rendering Those Task Less Onerous – The Software Makes It Even Less Likely That We’ll – Engage In Efforts – That – Test Our Skills – And – Give Us A Sense Of – Accomplishment And Satisfaction – All Too Often – Automation Frees Us From That Which Makes Us Feel Free

~ DW-A-CROU-DW-A-SUOTMCAFE-TCAHTPD-TPCAEH-HDYMTEO-AEOEAE-O-AWOAAA-O-ASDOS? ~ Deployed Wisely – Automation – Can Relieve Of Us – Drudge Work – And – Spur Us On To More Challenging And Fulfilling Endeavors – The Costs Are Harder To Pin Down – The Personal Costs Are Even Hazier– How Do You Measure The Expense Of – An Erosion Of Effort And Engagement – Or – A Waning Of Agency And Autonomy – Or – A Subtle Deterioration Of Skill?

~ TCWM-O-FTM-AWTWHOTC-A-WTKFO-ANJ-POEC-T-EC-TS-TSOOL-A-TPWMFOITW ~ The Choices We Make – Or – Fail To Make – About Which Tasks We Hand Off To Computers – And – Which To Keep For Ourselves – Are Not Just – Practical Or Economic Choices – They’re – Ethical Choices – They Shape – The Substance Of Our Lives – And – The Place We Make For Ourselves In The World

~WD-HB-M? ~ WD-HB-M? ~ What Does – Human Being – Mean?

~ TRATG ~ The Robot At The Gate

~ TEBSLTGOFTTLF-IAAS-PCWTWCTP ~ The Economy’s Bounties Seem Likely To Go On Flowing To The Lucky Few – In An Automated System – Power Concentrates With Those Who Control The Programming

~ E-TMPS-ENMCT-AH ~ Even – The Most Powerful Supercomputer – Evidence No More Consciousness Than – A Hammer

~ TMEO-AEOS/ADOP/ASOR-SGUAP-A-GC-CABA-CG ~ The Mounting Evidence Of – An Erosion Of Skills / A Dulling Of Perception / A Slowing Of Reactions – Should Give Us All Pause – *A – Glass Cockpit – Can Also Be A – Glass Cage

~ TDE-A-LSD-DJPASFSICOAJ-IATCOTET-IT-R/A/S-O-TPWTPII-ARBWAW ~ The Degeneration Effect – A – Labor-Saving Device – Doesn’t Just Provide A Substitute For Some Isolated Component Of A Job – It Alters The Character Of The Entire Task – Including The – Roles / Attitudes / Skill – Of – The People Who Take Part In It – Automation Remakes Both Work And Worker

~ IBATPI-TER-TC-ABITP-C/L-I ~ In Bringing A Third Party Into – The Exam Room – The Computer – Also Brings In That Party’s – Commercial / Legal – Interests

~ PASBDAP-A-YPDBT ~ Put A Screen Between Doctor And Patient – And – You Put Distance Between Them

~ TGINL-TRTPOHT-TSBOK-B-R-TRIR ~ The Goal Is No Longer – To Replicate The Process Of Human Thought – That’s Still Beyond Our Ken – But – Rather – To Replicate Its Results

~ TSAAEOCC-CM-LAD-IT-UD-NTM-IITDMAT ~ The Speed And Apparent Exactitude Of Computer Calculations – Can Mask – Limitations And Distortions – In The – Underlying Data – Not To Mention – Imperfections In The Data-Mining Algorithms Themselves

~ ALDSHAAOSCAWTRO-INHTBMBMC ~ Any Large Data Set Holds An Abundance Of Spurious Correlations Along With The Reliable Ones – It’s Not Hard To Be Misled By Mere Coincidence

~ TL-O-ODD-WHUSA-MD-MTTBVTO-F/H/W-B ~ TL-O-ODD-WHUSA-MD-MTTBVTO-F/H/W-B ~ The Labors – Our – Obliging Digital Deities – Would Have Us See As – Mere Drudgery – May Turnout To Be Vital To Our – Fitness / Happiness / Well-Being

~ OB-IBE-T-OIOISFOB-LUTDTIOIOWTWOT ~ Our Belief – Intuitive But Erroneous – That – Our Intellect Operates In Isolation From Our Body – Leads Us To Discount The Importance Of Involving Ourselves With The World Of Things

~ TAWT-BTGC-WL-TMBCGU ~ There Are Ways To – Break The Glass Cage – Without Losing – The Many Benefits Computers Grant Us

~ AFTP ~ Automation For The People

~ MSTFOTM-SOL0ETM-AT-W-BD/M/EACOCNA ~ Machines Share The Fallibility Of Their Makers – Sooner Or Later – Even The Most – Advanced Technology – Will – Break Down / Misfire – Encounter A – Cluster Of Circumstances – Never Anticipated

~ DA-MWGYTRDAT-MOTT-B-IYP-SOS-DFT-PP-YGTBGT-DH-W-TITER-T-RAO-T-CC ~ Doctor Algorithm – May Well Give You The Right Diagnosis And Treatment – Most Of The Time – But – If Your Particular – Set Of Symptoms – Doesn’t Fit The – Probability Profile – You’re Going To Be Glad That – Doctor Human – Was – There In The Examination Room – To – Review And Overrule – The – Computer’s Calculations

~ A-AT-B-MC-A-MI-TPSOFM-VBHTDT-TE ~ As – Automation Technologies – Become – More Complicated – And – More Interconnected – The Potential Sources Of Failure Multiply – Vulnerabilities Become Harder To Discern Too – Tested Exhaustively

~ A-S-E/O-I-SD-A-G-BI-HOTO-LOSC-CSCA-MA ~ A – Small – Error / Oversight – In – System Design – A – Glitch – Buried In – Hundreds Of Thousands Of – Lines Of Software Code – Can Still Cause A – Major Accident

~ P-A-M-M-PWOS-AJT-H-WON-WM-A-PBA ~ People – As – Mere – Monitors – Passive Watchers Of Screens – A Job That – Humans – With Our Notoriously – Wandering Minds – Are – Particularly Bad At

~ YHTDTMTSTW ~ You Have To Design The Machine To Suit The Worker

~ ASBEMC-TP-BI-UL ~ As Society Becomes Ever More Computerized – The Programmer – Becomes Its – Unacknowledged Legislator

~ ITHF-DNRTHF ~ Ignoring The Human Factor – Does Not Remove The Human Factor

~ H-CA ~ Human-Centred Automation

~ WGTPTRC? ~ Who Gets To Program The Robot’s Conscience?

~ IAMATBSLITW-MC-WHTBT-HI-I-SC ~ If Autonomous Machines Are To Be Set Loose In The World – Moral Codes – Will Have To Be Translated – However Imperfectly – Into – Software Codes

~ TFSFTBARWBASHRTW-IWC-W-A-M-S-F ~ The First Shot Freely Taken By A Robot Will Be A Shot Heard Round The World – It Will Change – War – And – Maybe – Society – Forever

~ THBIIOCOTTAO-EGOSAAT-DUAFO-IS ~ The Human Brain Is Incapable Of Concentrating On Two Things At Once – Every Glance Or Swipe At A Touchscreen – Draws Us Away From Our – Immediate Surroundings

~ WCBAWS-A-WIATC-A-HRA-BTSD ~ What Can’t Be Accomplished With Software – And – What Isn’t Amenable To Computation – And – Hence Resists Automation – Begins To Seem Dispensable

~ WWETGC-WRTSMOOB-TDFU-IEU ~ When We Enter The Glass Cage – We’re Required To Shed Much Of Our Body – That Doesn’t Free Us – It Emaciates Us

~ GPPOM ~ Giving People Precedence Over Machines

~ T-CC-ATTOODL-T-AGAC-P-I-F ~ To – Cede Choices – About The Texture Of Our Daily Lives – To – A Grand Abstraction Called – Progress – Is – Folly

EVGENY MOROZOV ~ THE NET DELUSION ~ 2011

~ TDSOIF ~ The Dark Side Of Internet Freedom

~ CU:ANBITENOOCTROASRTAID ~ Cyber-Utopianism: A Naive Belief In The Emancipatory Nature Of Online Communication That Rests On A Stubborn Refusal To Acknowledge Its Downside

~ TDSOIF ~ The Dark Side Of Internet Freedom

~ EL-‘FR’-HBTBOOT-TTC-A-ET-PC ~ Expressions Like – “Freedom Recession” – Have Begun To Break Out Of The – Think-Tank Circuit – And – Enter The – Public Conversation

~ FTA-H-AG-WRTTI-C-U-DNPHUIWPFPP-HMDWLTUIFS-A-HS-MSOIC-WB ~ Failing To Anticipate How – Authoritarian Governments – Would Respond To The Internet – Cyber-Utopians – Did Not Predict How Useful It Would Prove For Propaganda Purposes – How Masterfully Dictators Would Learn To Use It For Surveillance – And – How Sophisticated – Modern Systems Of Internet Censorship – Would Become

~ P-ITRTSTDOTNDE-C-U-EUBTROTI-RTSTIPARAWOPL-NJTOCTD ~ Paradoxically – In Their Refusal To See The Downside Of The New Digital Environment – Cyber-Utopians – Ended Up Belittling The Role Of The Internet – Refusing To See That It Penetrates And Reshaped All Walks Of Political Life – Not Just The Ones Conducive To Democratization

~ IMWIW-C-U-UR ~ I Myself Was Intoxicated With – Cyber-Utopianism – Until Recently

~ ATITOAEGRITPOBAADS-TPTFTC-A-SWWTIAWOG ~ As The Internet Takes On An Even Greater Role In The Politics Of Both Authoritarian And Democratic States – The Pressure To Forget The Context – And – Start With What The Internet Allows Will Only Grow

~ TSAAITIOABTFWAVIH-EITHAUTPWTLFG ~ The Struggle Agaisnt Authoritarianism Is Too Important Of A Battle To Fight With A Voluntary Intellectual Handicap – Even If That Handicap Allows Us To Play With The Latest Fancy Gadgets

~ TUCOAIR ~ The Unimaginable Consequences Of An Imagined Revolution

~ TBB-C-U-A-C-NIABO ~ The Border Between – Cyber-Utopianism – And – Cyber-Naivete – Is A Blurry One

~ TRWSMPAJBITPOTIIBTHNGTSMT ~ The Reason Why So Many Politicians And Journalists Believe In The Power Of The Internet Is Because They Have Not Given This Subject Much Thought

~ TIHAETSPTSAP-O-AMAR ~ The Internet Has Also Empowered: The Secret Police / The Censors / The Propaganda

~ RTATTWCAS-RTU-AR-I-EI ~ Refusing To Acknowledge That The Web Can Actually Strengthen – Rather Than Undermine – Authoritarian Regimes – Is – Extremely Irresponsible

~ MAR-HLTFIAEMBTAOI ~ Modern Authoritarian Regimes – Have Learned To Function In An Environment Marked By The Abundance Of Information

~ OD-A-T-CI ~ Online Discontents – And – Their – Content Intellectuals

~ CPTEICADIAMB-FMET-24/7P-TIHMTEEOTLUA-A-TLIAD-MA ~ Controlling People Through Entertainment Is Cheaper And Doesn’t Involve As Much Brutality – Far More Effective Than – 24/7 Policing – The Internet Has Made The Entertainment Experiences Of Those Living Under Authoritarianism – And – Those Living In A Democracy – Much Alike

~ ACTUSTAFOUV ~ A Call To Use Strategies That Are Free Of Utopian Visions

~ C-A-S ~ Censors – And – Sensibilities

~ UO-ILT-IAP ~ Unwarranted Optimism – Inevitably Leads To – Inaction And Paralysis

~ CS-AA-DAF-T-TTI-NOTU-A-T-BA-WEED ~ Censorship-Systems – Are As – Detailed And Fine-Tuned – To – The Information-Needs Of Their Users – As – The – Behavioral Advertising – We Encounter Every Day

~ TTU ~ Time To Unfriend

~ TBTTIITBTCIDN ~ The Belief That The Internet Is Too Big To Censor Is Dangerously Naive

~ WDC;WO! ~ We Don’t Censor; We Outsource!

~ WC-UC ~ Wise Crowds – Unwise Causes

~ METI-DNBI-DSFAG ~ Mere Exposure To Information – Does Not By Itself – Decrease Support For Authoritarian Governments

~ TH-THHBAMEWTETPTAS-TT-BDAI ~ Throughout History – There Has Hardly Been A More Effective Way To Ensure That People Talk About Something – Than To – Ban Discussions About It

~ MP-DNDBP-EP-TM/CG/BP-A-MR-RT ~ Modern Propaganda – Does Not Discriminate Between Platforms – Easily Penetrating – Text Messages / Computer Games / Blog Posts – And – Most Recently – Ringback Tones

~ TUO-TM-F-PP-‘RT’ ~ The Use Of – Text Messaging – For – Propaganda Purposes – “Red-Texting”

~ TIINGTUTPFOMA ~ The Internet Is Not Going To Undermine The Propaganda Foundations Of Modern Authoritarianism

~ TIROT-B-IDOTAOUNV ~ The Internet Runs On Trust –But – Its Dependence On Trust Also Opens Up Numerous Vulnerabilities

~ TWIYTMADTCOIC ~ The World Is Yet To Meet A Database That Cried Over Its Contents

~ SS-TC-AAACOWIS ~ Surveillance Software – That Can – Automatically Annotate And Comment On What It Sees

~ BTAO-SM-ITALOEF-RG-T-LATP-DAAW ~ Before The Advent Of – Social Media – It Took A Lot Of Effort For – Repressive Governments – To – Learn About The People – Dissidents Are Associated With

~ TC-DTCIWMOTUO-WSUTCOGTW ~ Technology Companies – Utterly Disregard The Contexts In Which Many Of Their Users Operate – While Significantly Underestimating The Consequences Of Getting Things Wrong

~ T-IV-O-SE-INLO-T-IG-C-AG ~ The – Intelligence Value – Of – Search Engines – Is Not Lost On – The – Internet Gurus – Consulting – Authoritarian Governments

~ FAF-ACSDM-N-WTFIPE ~ First And Foremost – Authorities Can Shut Down Mobile-Networks – Whenever They Find It Politically Expedient

~ NOHY-TAAG-B-ATPOAC-A-CJATG ~ No One Has Yet – Toppled An Authoritarian Government – By – Assuming The Posture Of A Clown – And – Cracking Jokes About The Guillotine

~ P-H-N-ACBTUO-SN-A-N ~ Psychologists – Have – Noticed – A Correlation Between The Use Of – Social Networking – And – Narcissism

~ DWD ~ Dissidents Without Dissent

~ MO-DA-IMB-CI-WOO-KP ~ Much Of – Digital Activism – Is Mediated By – Commercial Intermediaries – Who Operate On – Kafkaesque Principles

~ DI ~ Dangerous Intermediaries

~ ‘IS’TIT-G-H-LC-OT-NAA-O-TWMTIM ~ “Information Sovereignty” – The Idea That – Governments – Have – Legitimate Concerns – Over The – Nationalities And Allegiances – Of – Those Who Mediate Their Information Markets

~ IF-A-TC ~ Internet Freedoms – And – Their Consequences

~ TOTWAAASIAFO ~ The Only Thing Worse Than An Authoritarian State Is A Failed One

~ NMT-PVAACA-FRC ~ Nothing More Than – Poorly Veiled Attempts At Creating A – Favorable Regulatory Climate

~ A-UT-ITHO-OP-I-ARFD ~ An – Unruly Tool – In The Hands Of – Overconfident People – Is – A Recipe For Disaster

~ H-C-W-SOL-P-EP-TWMUPAOHESTRA ~ Hidden-Costs – Will – Sooner Or Later – Produce – Environmental Problems – That Will Make Us Painfully Aware Of How Expensive Such Technologies Really Are

~ TFTWCYCATCOAGT-F/M/E-DNMTICF ~ The Fact That We Cannot Yet Calculate All The Costs Of A Given Technology – Financial / Moral / Environmental – Does Not Mean That It Comes Free

~ J-AOP-B-CT-TIWSIHA-I-ETKOCTSBST-MAP-NJ-T-S ~ Justifying – Assault On Privacy – By – Clamming That – This Is Where Society Is Heading Anyway – Is – Exactly The Kind Of Claim That Should Be Subject To – Moral And Political – Not Just – Technological – Scrutiny

~ WI-MD-A-ST-TD-ITIHOAO-TS-A-TP ~ What Is – Most Dangerous – About – Succumbing To – Technological Determinism – Is That It Hinders Our Awareness Of – The Social – And – The Political

~ TMWLA-T-TLIMSTFOIA-IIFOF ~ The More We Learn About – Technology – The Less It Makes Sense To Focus On It Alone – In Isolation From Other Factors

~ UNC-SWBGT-AFPOE ~ Under No Circumstances – Should We Be Giving Technologies – A Free Pass On Ethics

~ TWF ~ The Wicked Fix

~ E-WP-CBCASO-AH-LP-AT-SBTOTHPL ~ Every – Wicked Problem – Can Be Considered A Symptom Of – Another Higher-Level Problem – And Thus – Should Be Tackled On The Highest Possible Level

~ TUIOTMW-WIMDOTTE-IT-ATBEMII-P-A-S-L-LALAIP-TSAP-DOTI ~ The Ultimate Irony Of The Modern World – Which Is More Dependent On Technology Than Ever – Is That – As Technology Becomes Ever More Integrated Into – Political – And – Social – Life – Less And Less Attention Is Paid – To The – Social And Political – Dimensions Of Technology Itself

JAMES KUNSTLER ~ THE LONG EMERGENCY ~ 2005

~ SWITF ~ Sleepwalking Into The Future

~ EITFO-ED-TIALWCDTA-TRODLA-A-L-C-BO-BLE/PA/ACOICWR ~ Even In The Face Of – Epochal Discontinuity – There Is A Lot We Can Do To Assure – The Refashioning Of Daily Life Around – Authentic-Local – Communities – Based On – Balanced Local Economies / Purposeful Activity / A Culture Of Ideas Consistent With Reality

~ IIIFCTBAT-IAHF-EITOMXAC ~ It Is Imperative For Citizens To Be Able To – Imagine A Hopeful Future – Especially In Times Of Maximum Stress And Change

~ YRCIITM ~ Your Reality Check Is In The Mail

~ AA-A-MI-WFTEOTCFFE-IINETSTRSOCOANGUEWIAABOML ~ Above All – And – Most Immediately – We Face The End Of The Cheap Fossil Fuel Era – It Is No Exaggeration To State That Reliable Supplies Of Cheap Oil And Natural Gas Underlie Everything We Identify As A Benefit Of Modern Life

~ TBOCOAGWSS-A-ISTOMC-TWCPATTENOTMGFTE:TTEI-F-N-S-UDATW ~ The Blandishments Of Cheap Oil And Gas Were So Seductive – And – Induced Such Transports Of Mesmerizing Contentment – That We Ceased Paying Attention To The Essential Nature Of These Miraculous Gifts From The Earth: That They Exist In – Finite – Nonrenewable – Supplies – Unevenly Distributed Around The World

~ C-OAG-EMTMDIEPOSWCOEAMTLODLI ~ Cheap – Oil And Gas – Even Mild To Moderate Deviations In Either Price Or Supply Will Crush Our Economy And Make The Logistics Of Daily Life Impossible

~ T-DOFF-ICTICSBNCTRS-T-RW-HAB ~ The – Decline Of Fossil Fuels – Is Certain To Ignite Chronic Strife Between Nations Contesting The Remaining Supplies – The – Resource Wars – Have Already Begun

~ TPT-IC-WNB-R-B-TI ~ The Possibility That – Industrial Civilization – Will Not Be – Rescued – By – Technological Innovation

~ WFA-DAU-POD-IT-T-FC ~ We Face A – Dire And Unprecedented – Period Of Difficulty – In The – Twenty-First Century

~ HE-I-LC-O-EAC-SAF-LAD-BAS-IIGTAT-OTISS-ATT-EOAC ~ Human Existence – Involves – Long Cycles – Of – Expansion And Contraction – Success And Failure – Light And Darkness – Brilliance And Stupidity – It Is Grandiose To Assert That – Our Time Is So Special – As To The – End Of All Cycles

~ T-‘GR’-MA-MAO-FAP-MOOFF-AWA-IAAFS-MPBAOAG ~ The – “Green Revolution” – Mostly About – Massive Amounts Of – Fertilizers And Pesticides – Made Out Of Fossil Fuels – As Well As – Irrigation At A Fantastic Scale – Made Possible By Abundant Oil And Gas

~ TWIOFA-E-IE ~ The World Is Overdue For An – Extreme – Influenza Epidemic

~ DWCPALRITLE-TMCNI ~ Disease Will Certainly Play A Larger Role In The Long Emergency – Than Many Can Now Imagine

~ ST-1970-AMAFFIPTM-FOACHO-RV-RTBPTAFMOV-SAG-FUG-TOTCOA-WPR ~ Since The – 1970s – All Monies And Fungible Financial Instruments Pegged To Money – Floated On A Collective Hallucination Of – Relative Value – Rather Than Being Pegged To A Fixed Medium Of Value – Such As Gold – Finance Under Globalism – Took On The Characteristics Of A – Worldwide Pyramid Racket

~ TCOTWNLBN-IA-P-C-O-A-LWB-IAIL ~ The Cost Of Transport Will No Longer Be Negligible – In A – Post-Cheap-Oil – Age – Life Will Become – Intensely And Increasingly Local

~ SS-HNF ~ Suburban Sprawl – Has No Future

~ THY-O-M-CBBTIKBA-WPS ~ Two Hundred Years – Of – Modernity – Can Be Brought To Its Knees By A – Worldwide Power Shortage

~ T-AOFF-IATE-TINRFTAH ~ The – Age Of Fossil Fuels – Is About To End – There Is No Replacement For Them At Hand

~ CI-CD/CAC ~ Cultural Inertia / Collective Delusion / Comfort And Complacency

~ TSD-AO-TN-FFES-ADOAU-FFE ~ To Some Degree – All Of – The Non-Fossil Fuel Energy Sources – Actually Depend On An Underlying – Fossil Fuel Economy

~ TBT-‘ME’-WADARFFFI-ATO-MT ~ The Belief That – “Market Economics” – Will Automatically Deliver A Replacement For Fossil Fuels Is – A Type Of – Magical Thinking

~ THE-M-H-U-NGOM-WP-CD-JLAT-ITMETMHTTHIP ~ The – Hydrogen Economy – Making – Hydrogen – Using – Natural Gas Or Methanol – Would Produce – Carbon Dioxide – Just Like Any Tailpipe – It Takes More Energy To Manufacture Hydrogen Than The Hydrogen Itself Produces

~ IOF-ANFTRS-AFMSAIRMB-T-LI-TWC-SBPT ~ Instead Of Finding – A New Fuel To Run Suburbia – A Far More Sane And Intelligent Response Might Be –To – Live In – Traditional Walkaway Committees – Serveed By Public Transit

~ C-WHAMMOT-B-QC-TWCTTSAETG-ALOWRMBSHTGTIWBWTEENTGI

~ Coal – We Have Already Mined Much Of The – Best-Quality Coal – That Was Closest To The Surface And Easiest To Get – A Lot Of What Remains May Be So Hard To Get That It Won’t Be Worth The Energy Expenditure Necessary Tot Get It

~ BC-IST-GSOOTAP-CM-IA-VD-TT-LAH ~ Burning Coal – Is Still The – Greatest Source Of Overall Toxic Air Pollution – Coal Mining – Is Also – Very Destructive – To The – Landscape And Habitats

~ SP-B-CWMTTITFW-O/G/C?-B/P/E/W/P ~ Solar Power – But – Can We Make Thee Things In The Future Without – Oil / Gas / Coal? – Batteries / Panels / Electronics / Wires / Plastics

~ CTTBDFTFFPST? ~ Can These Technologies Be Detached From The Fossil Fuel Platform Supporting Them?

~ TAOWO-UT-S-A-W-TDRO-H-TG ~ There Are Other Ways Of – Using The – Sun – And – Wind – That Don’t Rely On – High-Tech Gadgets

~ TD-WANGT-REOF-W/J/G-TKR-ASAOT ~ Thermal Deploymerization – We Are Not Going To – Recover Enough Oil From – Waste / Junk / Garbage – To Keep Running – Any Significant Amount Of Time

~ MH-VDTR-BU-AH-GG ~ Methane Hydrates – Very Difficult To Recover – Basically Uneconomical – Also Hazardous – Greenhouse Gas

~ NE-S-T-MT-IMBAWRHTFBO-WTFFPTS-C/M/M/M/P ~ Nuclear Energy – Short-To-Medium Term – It Might Be All We Really Have To Fall Back On – Without The Fossil Fuel Platform To Support – Construction / Manufacture / Maintenance / Mining / Processing

~ NBB ~ Nature Bites Back

~ CATFS ~ Climate And The Food Supply

~ WCAFFTPOIPAPD-B-T-IAD-O-IAPAD ~ Warmer Conditions Are Favorable For The Proliferation Of Insect Pest And Plant Disease – Both – The – Intensity And Diversity – Of – Invading Agriculture Pests And Disease

~ ED:BCWC-HWW-SWE-TAWWP ~ Environmental Destruction: Biological Complexity Was Compromised – Habitats Were Wrecked – Species Were Exterminated – Terrain And Water Were Poisoned

~ TLE-FLS-WCTPAMAA ~ The Long Emergency – Falling Life Spans – Will Characterize This Period As Much As Anything

~ FMC-ENAT-IA-EYC-NS-VDTHL-TWIOFANOOS ~ Flu Mutates Continually – Every Now And Then – In About – Eighty Year Cycles – New Strains – Violently Destructive To Human Life – The World Is Overdue For A New Outbreak Of Supervirus

~ ROF ~ Running On Fumes

~ G-WPAWO-PTP-OBA-W-STC-TWAB-DDTFFTSOS-TB-CO-STWS-A-TSWHBIWI ~ Globalism – Was Primarily A Way Of – Privatizing The Profits – Of Business Activity – While – Socializing The Costs – This Was Achieved By – Discreetly Discounting The Future For The Sake Of Short-Term Benefits – Cheap Oil – Subsidized The Whole System – And – The System Would Have Been Impossible Without It

~ T-H-EE ~ The – High-Entropy Economy

~ EITSPTH ~ Efficiency Is The Straightest Path To Hell

~ F-O-AE ~ Finance – Or – Abstracted Economy

~ AMWSCT-‘DE’ ~ Another Myth Was Something Called The – “Digital Economy”

~ IWBITSTITWCGSFN ~ It Will Be Impossible To Sustain The Illusion That We Can Get Something For Nothing

~ LITLE ~ Living In The Long Emergency

~ F-WHTS-WWWF-F-WWAD-A-WCBD ~ First – We Have To Separate – What We Wish For – From – What We’re Actually Doing – And – What Can Be Done

~ PF-WBAPO-SU-AOA-WBST-FP ~ Producing Food – Will Become A Problem Of – Supreme Urgency – All Other Activities – Will Be Secondary To – Food Production

~ THO-IF-HBRS-Y-TLOKATP-ST-HBS ~ The History Of – Industrialized Farming – Has Been Remarkable Short – Yet – The Loss Of Knowledge And Traditional Practice – Since Then – Has Been Stupendous

~ IWDQKWWAG-ALWHTSOKWWB ~ If We Don’t Quite Know Where We Are Going – At Least We Have The Satisfaction Of Knowing Where We’ve Been

CATHY O’NEIL ~ WEAPONS OF MATH DESTRUCTION ~ 2016

~ TC-MIATCT-M-WNODEITWP-BAFMOT-THC-TCOMFI/TROU-AHBAAAB-MWMF ~ The Crash – Made It All Too Clear That – Mathematics – Was Not Only Deeply Entangled In The World’s Problems – But Also Fueling Many Of Them – The Housing Crisis / The Collapse Of Major Financial Institutions / The Rise Of Unemployment – All Had Been Aided And Abetted By – Mathematicians Wielding Magic Formulas

~ IWHBC-H-WAWHTASBATPTFOHMHBM-A-HWC-PASCITF-B-I-ITWOTC-NMT-WHTE-A-EISMD-MAS-W-SO-D/M/SP-TWPOT-A-COPA-S/W/L/C ~ If We Had Been Clear-Headed – We All Would Have Taken A Step Back At This Point To Figure Out How Math Had Been Misused – And – How We Could – Prevent A Similar Catastrophe In The Future – But – Instead – In The Wake Of The Crisis – New Mathematical Techniques – Were Hotter Than Ever – And – Expanding Into Still More Domains – Mathematicians And Statisticians – Were – Studying Our – Desires / Movements / Spending Power – They Were Predicting Our Trustworthiness – And –Calculating Our Potential As – Students / Workers / Lovers / Criminals

~ T-T-M-PA-PTDE-WBO-CMBFHB-SOTCWNDMWTBI-N-MOTME-H-P/M/B-IT-SS-TIMOL ~ Trouble – The – Math-Powered Applications – Powering The Data Economy – Were Based On – Choices Made By Fallible Human Beings – Some Of These Choices Were No Doubt Made With The Best Intentions – Nevertheless – Many Of These Models Encoded – Human – Prejudice / Misunderstanding / Bias – Into The – Software Systems – That Increasingly Managed Our Lives

LG-T-MM-W-O-TWITABTHPITD-TV-EW-WOH-W-BDOA-A-TTTPTPATOIOS-WMTRR ~ Like Gods – These – Mathematical Models – Were – Opaque – Their Workings Invisible To All But The Highest Priests In Their Domain – Their Verdicts – Even When – Wrong Or Harmful – Were – Beyond Dispute Or Appeal – And – They Tended To Punish The Poor And The Oppressed In Our Society – While Making The Rich Richer

~ ATR-H-B/P/P-T-A-I-NEJ Attempting To Reduce – Human – Behaviour / Performance / Potential – To – Algorithms – Is – No Easy Job

~ A-BD-C-R-RCT-MTOV ~ At – Big Data – Companies – Researchers – Run Constant Tests – And – Monitor Thousands Of Variables

~ WF-A-SE-CCSOFADA-WNLFIM ~ Without Feedback – A – Statistical Engine – Can Continue Spinning Out Faulty And Damaging Analysis – While Never Learning From Its Mistakes

~ DTOR-A-UITJTR-TTOM-I-S-P-HD-A-VC ~ Define Their Own Reality – And – Use It To Justify Their Results – This Type Of Model – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Highly Destructive – And – Very Common

~ P-DIAS-WCTSLUD-A-T-HV-AHTAFHSOETTAT ~ Probability – Distilled Into A Score – Which Can Turn Someone’s Life Upside Down – And – The – Human Victims – Are Held To A Far Higher Standard Of Evidence Than The Algorithms Themselves

~ TTIT-PEUSAA-SI-O-P-F-T-WSTDCCUAAA-THB-DS-ATOLSOTFOTREOTT ~ The Trouble Is That – Profits End Up Serving As A – Stand-In – Or – Proxy – For – Truth – We’ll See This Dangerous Confusion Crop Up Again And Again – This Happens Because – Data Scientists – All Too Often Lose Sight Of The Folks On The Receiving End Of The Transaction

~ BD-HPOE ~ Big Data – Has Plenty Of Evangelists

~ TCAM-WMCAWIETI-STWIA-TV-TCBEU-A-FWWCI-I-FAA ~ To Create A Model – We Make Choices About What’s Important Enough To Include – Simplifying The World Into A – Toy Version – That Can Be Easily Understood – And – From Which We Can Infer – Important – Facts And Actions

~ AM-BS-RT-JAP-OI-C ~ A Model’s – Blind Spots – Reflect The – Judgments And Priorities – Of Its – Creators

~ AMBFT-WWABWT-IWGSIINCU ~ A Model Built For Today – Will Work A Bit Worse Tomorrow – It Will Grow Stale If It’s Not Constantly Updated

~ R-I-TMSOPM-IIPB-HDG-A-SC-RB-II-A-PB-CB ~ Racism – Is – The Most Slovenly Of Predictive Models – It Is Powered By – Haphazard Data Gathering – And – Spurious Correlations – Reinforced By – Institutional Inequities – And – Polluted By – Confirmation Bias

~ T-PFL-T-DL-GRAR-A-ITP-TMBMAMU ~ The – Pernicious Feedback Loop – This – Destructive Loop – Goes Round And Round – And – In The Process – The Model Becomes More And More Unfair

~ B-TPINW-SPB-IT-SMS-TMPBA-SDITFOMOP-OFTFOR-A-ONA-TU ~ But – The Point Is Not Whether – Some People Benefit – It’s That – So Many Suffer – These Models Powered By Algorithms – Slam Doors In The Face Of Millions Of People – Often For The Flimsiest Of Reasons – And – Offer No Appeal – They’re Unfair

~ A-HOMTAA:TCL-FOFTTN-A-TOD ~ And – Here’s One More Thing About Algorithms: They Can Leap – From One Field To The Next – And – They Often Do

~ BA-TVSS-TTSTC ~ Bet Against – The Very Same Securities – That They’d Sold To Customers

~ TBWMAPWRWABS-UC-EA-U-TWTC ~ The Bonds Were Marketed As Products Whose Risk Was Assessed By Specialists – Using Cutting-Edge Algorithms – Unfortunately – This Wasn’t The Case

~ TMWDATCAASS ~ The Math Was Directed Against The Consumer As A Smoke Screen

~ B-O-T-O-U-IOU ~ Billions – Or – Trillions – Of – Unpayable – IOUs

~ VFPHT-EATIR-TKWWAGOS-A-MOTPWD-LTITSU ~ Very Few People Had The – Expertise And The Information Required – To Know What Was Actually Going On – And – Most Of The People Who Did – Lacked The Integrity To Speak Up

~ T-F-A-NMPWDATST-WBOT-T-STBD-T-DWL-RAU

~ The – False – Assumption – Not Many People Would Default At The Same Time – Was Based On The – Theory – Soon To Be Disproven – That – Defaults Were Largely – Random And Unrelated

~ TPO-MC-FF-AASUIH ~ The Power Of – Modern Computing – Fueled Fraud – At A Scale Unequalled In History

~ TWE-FSTPOTOSOTA ~ That’s When Everyone – Finally Saw The People On The Other Side Of The Algorithms

~ B-2009-IWCTTLOTMCHBNNDTTWOFAHINNV-TLS-FTMP-A-TGRTS:TRIDM-EFAFRTAAFHTJT ~ By – 2009 – It Was Clear That The Lessons Of The Market Collapse Had Brought No New Direction To The World Of Finance And Had Instilled No New Values – The Lobbyists Succeed – For The Most Part – And – *The Game Remained The Same: To Rope In Dumb Money – Except For A Few Regulations That Added A Few Hoops To Jump Through

~ TRTAR-RDIF ~ The Refusal To Acknowledge Risk – Runs Deep In – Finance

~ TAWMST-TD-L-WRTW ~ The Algorithms Would Make Sure That – Those Deemed – Losers – Would Remain That Way

~ ALM-WGEMCOT-DE-TI-OF-A-CTATW-TTDI ~ A Lucky Minority – Would Gain Ever More Control Over The – Data Economy – Taking In – Outrageous Fortunes – And – Convincing Themselves All The While – That They Deserved It

~ H-WUCAMFP-IIFST-GI-B-PAETMTTCRTR ~ However – When You Create A Model From Proxies – It Is Far Simpler To – Game It – Because – Proxies Are Easier To Manipulate Than The Complicated Reality They Represent

~ W-CP-BATW-TO-T-ANO-S-B-F ~ We – Criminalize Poverty – Believing All The While – That Our – Tools – Are Not Only – Scientific – But – Fair

~ J-CJBSTOPOSIUTO ~ Justice – Cannot Just Be Something That One Part Of Society Inflicts Upon The Other

~ OR ~ Operations Research

~ B-ITWFI ~ Bogus – Is The Word For It

~ C-GT ~ Computer-Generated Terrorism

~ B-AOTATP-HOMOP-F-TODS-IGTGALOTFW ~ But – Any Operation That Attempts To Profile – Hundreds Of Millions Of People – From – Thousands Of Different Sources – Is Going To Get A Lot Of The Facts Wrong

~ M-A-LO-ALA-TSRFOTE ~ Mistakes – Are – Learning Opportunities – As Long As – The System Receives Feedback On The Error

~ R-ISWU-TI-FMSF ~ Redlining – Is Still With Us – Though In – Far More Subtle Forms

~ IWGTB-EBTL-O-TEAV-WCSF-STDUIDC-A-TUD ~ If We’re Going To Be – Equal Before The Law – Or – Treated Equally As Voters – We Cannot Stand For – Systems That Drop Us Into Different Castes – And – Treat Us Differently

~ TG-OC-HAP-RR-TP ~ The Government – Of Course – Has A Powerful – Regulatory Role – To Play

~ MAC-NFD-B-FTCWM-A-WDTPAT-A-WTLO-TCANJA-L/P/E-TA-FM ~ Models Are Constructed – Not Just From Data – But – From The Choices We Make – About – Which Data To Pay Attention To – And – Which To Leave Out – Those Choices Are Not Just About – Logistics / Profits / Efficiency – They Are – Fundamentally Moral

JEFF GOODELL ~ THE WATER WILL COME ~ 2017

~ IT-TC-TORASI-B-TWBTHFBFFHMIOGAA-AHOTR-S-LR-IT-TC-CFTEOTWO-T-SARAMTTTRTDITLC ~ In The – Twentieth Century – The Oceans Rose About Six Inches – But – That Was Before The Heat From Burning Fossil Fuels Had Much Impact On Greenland And Antarctica – About Half Of The Recorded – Sea-Level Rise – In The – Twentieth Century – Came From The Expansion Of The Warming Oceans – Today – Seas Are Raising At More Than Twice The Rate They Did In The Last Century

~ IWCHTWTA-TD-F-APTWMOF-TF-O-S-LR-TC-GPMTTA~ If We Can Hold The Warming To About – Three Degrees – Fahrenheit – Above Preindustrial Temperatures We Might Only Face – Two Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – This Century – Giving People More Time To Adapt

~ H-IWDET-FFP-WHFMT-EDOW-A-WT-ABAO-WCG-FF-O-S-LR-BTEOTC-O-WCG-TF ~ However – If We Don’t End The – Fossil Fuel Party – We’re Headed For More Than – Eight Degrees Of Warming – And – With That – All Bets Are Off – We Could Get – Four Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – By The End Of The Century – Or – We Could Get – Thirteen Feet

~ IETKOTTWHAGIETDW-WANWTMDABPTTGAOT ~ It’s Exactly The Kind Of Threat That We Humans Are Genetically Ill Equipped To Deal With – We Are Not Wired To Make Decisions About Barely Perceptible Threats That Gradually Accelerate Over Time

~ AIASTBTGACMMI-ITWCWTM(ASTWLTTOY)-IWRTE-S-L-BA-THF-IAOGWTG(ASTCTSLT)-IWR-SL-A-TTF ~ Antarctica Is About Seven Times Bigger Than Greenland And Contains Much More Ice – If The Whole Continent Were To Melt (A Scenario That Would Likely Take Thousands Of Years) – It Would Raise The Earth’s – Sea Levels – By About – Two Hundred Feet – If All Of Greenland Were To Go (A Scenario That Could Take Significantly Less Time) – It Would Raise – Sea Levels – About – Twenty-Two Feet

~ RN-MFGCRTAMTSS-LRAA-B-TMCICD ~ Right Now – Melting From Greenland Contributes Roughly Twice As Much To Current Sea-Level Rise As Antarctica – But – That May Change In Coming Decades

~ T-BMO2012-TFTTR-WMHSMFTMHPMTSWMFTM-BW? ~ The – Big Melt Of 2012 – The Fact That The Real-World Melt Happened So Much Faster Than Models Had Predicted Meant That Something Was Missing From The Models – But What?

~ G-T-TEOTO-CBTERT-HCAHOTOS-LRITLFY-ITF-TPWDATEIDBIMRIGAA ~ Globally – The – Thermal Expansion Of The Oceans – Caused By The Earth’s Rising Temperature – Has Contributed About Half Of The Observed Sea-Level Rise In The Last Fifty Years – In The Future – That Percentage Will Decline As Thermal Expansion Is Dwarfed By Increasing Melt Rates In Greenland And Antarctica

~ TITSCHAPEOTMROSAIINN ~ The Idea That Soot Can Have A Powerful Effect On The Melt Rate Of Snow And Ice Is Not New

~ SL-TDBTFASFITDBAMCCAAD-LRD ~ Sea Level – The Difference Between Three Feet And Six Feet Is The Difference Between A Manageable Coastal Crisis And A Decades-Long Refugee Disaster

~ EY-WHSS-TQHOT-ITTY? ~ Every Year – When Hurricane Seasons Starts – The Question Hovers Out There – Is This The Year?

~ O-MACL-ATHNRFDFZAST-KTREMA ~ Often – Mayors And Civic Leaders – Argue To Have Neighborhoods Removed From Designated Flood Zone Areas Simply To – Keep The Real Estate Market Alive

~ B-TINQT-AWR-IRWGU-A-U-A-U ~ But – There Is No Question That –As Waters Rise – Insurance Rates Will Go Up – And – Up – And – Up

~ MP-HNTTWATF ~ Most People – Have No Time To Worry About The Future

~ WC ~ Walled Cities

~ WOPTPWABT ~ Walls Only Protect The People Who Are Behind Them

~ W/D/L-MPFS-EWTAN ~ Walls / Dikes / Levees – Make People Feel Safe – Even When They Are Not

~ LB ~ Living Breakwaters

~ YASDALAIWR ~ Yet Another Step Down A Long And Increasingly Wet Road

~ TBIOCC-IT-TPWALRFTPATOWWPTMDFI-WDWOT? ~ The Basic Injustice Of Climate Change – Is That – The People Who Are Least Responsible For The Problem Are The Ones Who Will Pay The Most Dearly For It – What Do We Owe Them?

~ MT-1BP-LI-L-ECZ-AFPOTPAIPCWLMTHWA ~ More Than – 1 Billion People – Live In – Low-Elevation Coastal Zones – A Fair Percentage Of These People Are In Poor Countries With Little Money To Help With Adaptation

~ OWTVTPTYOCT-IA-AEABPNTECFRNFSTF ~ One Way To View The Past Thirty Years Of Climate Talks – Is As – An Extended Attempt By Poor Nations To Extract Compensation From Rich Nations For Stealing Their Future

~ EY-A-20MP-AM-H-B-F/S/OD-RTTAMATDBCOV ~ Every Year – About – 20 Million People – Are Made – Homeless – By – Floods / Storms / Other Disasters – Roughly Three Times As Many As Those Displaced By Conflict Or Violence

~ CR-LLSUIL ~ Climate Refugees – Lack Legal Status Under International Law

~ CA ~ Climate Apartheid

~ S-LR-W-DALOP-A-TPAGTHTGS ~ Sea-Level Rise – Will – Displace A Lot Of People – And – Those People Are Going To Have To Go Somewhere

~ SOFS-A-CODW ~ Salinization Of The Soil – And – Contamination Of Drinking Water

~ IAGBP-I-UA-F-CBOAIC-I-V-A-HS ~ It Ain’t Gonna Be Pretty – In – Urban Areas – Floods – Contaminated By Organic An Inorganic Compounds – Including – Viruses – And – Human Shit

~ W-FO-S ~ Water – Full Of – Shit

~ CAB-A-W-WC-TSROOTG ~ Coffins Are Buoyant – And – When – Water Comes – They Sometimes Rise Out Of The Ground

~ G-CIBAIT-IT-W-TH-D-W-D-A-C-C-T ~ Geoengineering – Could Indeed Be An Important Tool – In The – What-The-Hell-Do-We-Do-About-Climate-Change – Toolbox

~ GS-F-TFFI-A-$1T-AY ~ Global Subsidies – For – The Fossil Fuel Industry – About – $1 Trillion – A Year

~ G-ABUCQA-G-WHCTT? ~ Geoengineering – Also Brings Up Complex Questions About – Governance – Whose Hand Controls The Thermostat?

~ G-O-E-TTOG-CLT-C-A-E-CW ~ Geoengineering – Or – Even – The Threat Of Geoengineering – Could Lead To – Conflict – And – Even – Climate Wars

~ OC-NOWBTAGAASTS-LR(OAE)-ITWHGSACGGE-TYA-WSFBTRTA ~ Of Course – No One Would Be Talking About Geoengineering As A Solution To Sea-Level Rise (Or Anything Else) – If The World Had Gotten Serious About Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Thirty Years Ago – When Scientists First Began To Raise The Alarm

~ MOWWKA-G-CF-CM-AWA-A-F-M-LE ~ Most Of What We Know About – Geoengineering – Comes From – Computer Models – As Well As – A – Few – Modest – Laboratory Experiments

~ PF ~ Planet Frankenstein

~ B-TFWNTCOI ~ But – The Future Will Not Take Care Of Itself

~ OAT-HD-PWLOVC-WHTF-TMDOITIO-R ~ Of All The – Hard Decisions – People Who Live On Vulnerable Coasts – Will Have To Face – The Most Difficult One Is The Idea Of – Retreat

~ IMW-R-ITOO-G-IOROSTTCOTPFY-IR-IA-TP-A-AWTCYL-MOA-IM-GU-TWWW-A-ATNHW ~ In Many Ways – Retreat – Is The Opposite Of – Geoengineering – Instead Of Relying On Scientists To Take Care Of The Problem For You – It Requires – Individual Action – Thoughtful Planning – And – A Willingness To Change Your Life – Most Of All – It Means – Giving Up – The War With Water – And – Admitting That Nature Has Won

~ DYHTRT-BASOYP-EI-ICFFYN? ~ Do You Have The Right To – Build A Seawall On Your Property – Even If – It Causes Flooding For Your Neighbor?

TERRY O’REILLY + MIKE TENNANT ~ THE AGE OF PERSUASION ~ 2016

~ DGAWE?-NOCS-TFDT-BACCLT ~ Does Great Advertising Win Elections? – No One Can Say – Though Few Doubt That – Bad Advertising Can Certainly Lose Them

~ A-GUC-A-G-S-IEF-A ~ A – Great Unwritten Contract – Advertisers – Give – Something – In Exchange For – Attention

~ A-OTSORAYMCFE ~ Advertising – Offered The Sort Of Remuneration Artistic Young Minds Couldn’t Find Elsewhere

~ MA-‘I’-IN-PP-PS-A-OAWLO-BL ~ Making An – “Impact” – Is Now – Part Product – Part Smarts – And – Often A Whole Lot Of – Blind Luck

~ YDAI ~ Your Daily Ad Intake

~ AY-‘E’-TA-A-IYSIWYEADCNI? ~ Are You – “Exposed” – To An – Ad – If You Scan It With Your Eyes And Don’t Consciously Notice It?

~ ‘T’-GWSTSTOAPOS ~ “Tribes” – Groups Who Share The Same Thinking On A Product Or Subject

~ NT:NKOC ~ New Technologies: New Kinds Of Clutter

~ AA-POTIS ~ Ambient Advertising – Part Of The Immediate Surroundings

~ A-DM-DOAF-S-O-A-OT-R ~ Ad-Driven Media – Media – Dependent On Advertising For – Some – Or – All – Of Their – Revenues

~ E-PTL ~ Ever-Present Transparent Logo

~ SB-TPO-L-S-T-EC-TOS-IOTUTOST-PAUS ~ Squeeze-Back – The Practice Of – Literally – Squeezing – The – End Credits – To One Side – In Order To Use The Other Side To – Promote An Upcoming Show

~ TV-B-HSPTA-MAMPH ~ TV – Broadcasters – Have Shrunk Programming To Accommodate – More Ad Messages Per Hour

~ BTC ~ Breaking The Contract

~ FA-B-O-IA-ST-S-D-S-T-SR-I-U/O ~ For Any – Brand – Overpromising – Is A – Short Term – Self-Destructive – Strategy – The – Smarter Route – Is – Underpromise / Overdeliver

~ TELI-EV ~ The Edge Lies In – Entertainment Value

~ AHOC-C-A-D-D-M-DAC ~ A – Handful Of Complaints – Can – And – Do – Derail – Multimillion-Dollar Ad Campaigns

~ R-CRAAPA-B-F-YHTATRQ ~ Research – Can Reveal Astounding And Powerful Answers – But – First – You Have To Ask The Right Questions

~ PP-TAOIABNOIIA-S/F/E/B ~ Product Placement – The Act Of Infusing A Brand Name Or Image Into A – Story / Film / Event / Broadcast

~ ‘Y’-TN-HGOM-T/T-A/YA ~ “Yoots” – The New – Holy Grail Of Marketing – Tweens / Teen-Agers / Young Adults

~ RIP-FOTPK-A-TGNEDO-T-BB-GUWTSWOCGSAT ~ Raised In Prosperity – Few Of Their Parents Knew – And – Their Grandparents Never Even Dreamed Of – The – Baby Boomers – Grew Up With The Strong Winds Of Consumerism Gathering Speed Around Them

~ OOTSCTCWTEOT-OW-WT-BTNGA-THICF ~ One Of The Sea Changes That Came With The Emergence Of The – Online World – Was That – Bad Things Never Go Away – They Hang In Cyberspace Forever

~ LTTTMTTA ~ Life Tends To Take More Time Than Art

~ TSO-VM:TADTW ~ The Secret Of – Viral Marketing: The Audience Does The Work

~ I-N-SOLOC-A-THNCITAOP ~ Ideas – Not – Slogans Or Logos Or Catchphrases – Are – The Hot New Currency In The Age Of Persuasion

~ GM:T-PS ~ Guerrilla Marketing: The – Publicity Stunt

~ POTTOOWIM ~ People Opposed To The Objectification Of Women In Marketing

~ AIB-GM-ATPNAFTLGATNATG ~ At Its Best – Guerrilla Marketing – Appeals To People’s Natural Affinity For The Little Guy And Their Natural Aversion To Giants

~ BI:H-HO-A-EOPC-TGIA ~ Borrowed Interest: Hitch-Hiking On – An – Element Of Popular Culture – To Get Immediate Attention

~ AMSI-F/A/M/L-ICTRBTAAA ~ As Marketing Seeps Into – Films / Arts / Music / Literature – It Changes The Relationship Between The Arts And Audiences

~ IEBQTEAOTC-SBTCOC ~ In Each Brand’s Quest To Elbow Ahead Of The Competition – Superlatives Became The Cheapest Of Commodities

~ T-‘AW-B-NOM’-M ~ The – “Advertising Works – But – Not On Me” – Myth

~ PATETB-TTODRI ~ People Attache Themselves Emotionally To Brands – Though They Often Don’t Realize It

~ S-T-RASI-BA ~ Story-Telling – Remains A Staple In – Broadcast Ads

ROBERT CIALDINI ~ INFLUENCE ~ 1984

~ TPOP ~ The Psychology Of Persuasion

~ PHUANOMSWEIMOEJ-JH-S-AFSTTWWMOTT-B-LUUT-OCM ~ Psychologists Have Uncovered A Number Of Mental Shortcuts We Employ In Making Our Everyday Judgments – Judgmental Heuristics – Shortcuts – Allowing For Simplified Thinking That Works Well Most Of The Time – But – Leaves Us Upon To – Occasional Costly Mistakes

~ TIAUTIOSTAUTSADOIWATBAOAT-TI-RTTAAEAABC(ON)-WFITAAAOTBCJBTESA-‘E’ ~ There Is An Unsettling Tendency In Our Society To Accept Unthinkingly The Statements And Directions Of Individuals Who Appear To Be Authorities On A Topic – That Is – Rather Than Thinking About An Expert’s Arguments And Being Convinced (Or Not) – We Frequently Ignore The Arguments And Allow Ourselves To Be Convinced Just By The Expert’s Status As – “Expert”

~ MOUKVLAO-ABP-PTISPBOT-M-U-M-IWTO ~ Most Of Us Know Very Little About Our – Automatic Behavior Patterns – Perhaps That Is So Precisely Because Of The – Mechanistic – Unthinking – Manner – In Which They Occur

~ SJAIIPTMTSBOWATBHOCDOTTOPPBOW-IIPTMTPOTSISHOLDOTPOAPPI ~ So Just As It Is Possible To Make The Same Bucket Of Water Appear To Be Hotter Or Colder Depending On The Temperature Of Previously Presented Buckets Of Water – It Is Possible To Make The Price Of The Same Item Seem Higher Or Lower Depending On The Price Of A Previously Presented Item

~ A-BP-TTBTBASFOTRIITS-T-SF-O-TF-COPVBAAITDOACCOAWHTACACEOTOPOIITS ~ Automatic-Behavior Patterns – Tend To Be Triggered By A Single Feature Of The Relevant Information In The Situation – This – Single Feature – Or – Trigger Feature – Can Often Prove Valuable By Allowing An Individual To Decide On A Correct Course Of Action Without Having To Analyze Carefully And Completely Each Of The Other Pieces Of Information In The Situation

~ R:TO-GAT ~ Reciprocation: The Old – Give And Take

~ OOTMPOTLOIAU-TROR ~ One Of The Most Potent Of The Levers Of Influence Around Us – The Rule Of Reciprocation

~ TPORCBBLAL ~ The Pull Of Reciprocity Can Be Both Lifesaving And Lifelong

~ LTANALNWTLTBROL-SA-R ~ Little Things Are Not Always Little – Not When They Link To Big Rules Of Life – Such As – Reciprocity

~ BTIAGDFTWTAMNETGIR-WWOGTGLTABCAF ~ Because There Is A General Distaste For Those Who Take And Make No Effort To Give In Return – We Will Often Go To Great Lengths To Avoid Being Considered A Freeloader

~ P-F-MNFAGTPA-P-F ~ Problem-Free – May Not Feel As Good To People As – Problem-Freed

~ SFF-OS-LRF ~ Small First Favors – Often Stimulate – Larger Return Favors

~ BRAASVIHSS-WHBCTFUWB ~ Because Reciprocal Arrangements Are So Vital In Human Social Systems – We Have Been Conditioned To Feel Uncomfortable When Beholden

~ T-R-T-R-O-D-I-T-F-T-RHOTPTRC-BSWAERSTBR-ARCTPRTASR9TODAA) ~ The – Rejection-Then-Retreat – Or – Door-In-The-Face – Technique – Relies Heavily On The Pressure To Reciprocate Concessions – By Starting With An Extreme Request Sure To Be Rejected – A Requester Can Then Profitably Retreat To A Smaller Request (The One Desired All Along)

~ APIAREOC-PFMRF-A-M-SWTO ~ After Participating In A Reciprocal Exchange Of Concessions – People Feel More Responsible For – And – More – Satisfied With The Outcome

~ OBDATUORPTGOCINSROTIOOO-R-WSAIFOCIGF-B-BRTRTATSTLBPAS-OTARITW-WSNLFANTRWAFOCOOO ~ Our Best Defense Agaisnt The Use Of Reciprocity Pressures To Gain Our Compliance Is Not Systematic Rejection Of The Initial Offers Of Others – Rather – We Should Accept Initial Favors Or Concessions In Good Faith – But – Be Ready To Redefine Them As Tricks Should They Later Be Proved As Such – Once They Are Redefined In This Way – We Should No Longer Feel A Need To Respond With A Favor Or Concession Of Our Own

~ L:TFT ~ Liking: The Friendly Thief

~ LFP ~ Liking For Profit

~ HE-WOPCOAPDTWHOSIVIMOR-PA-IOSAC ~ Halo Effect – When One Positive Characteristic Of A Person Dominates The Way He Or She Is Viewed In Most Other Respects – Physical Attractiveness – Is Often Such A Characteristic

~ WLPWALU ~ We Like People Who Are Like Us

~ WAMLTHTWWCATO ~ We Are More Likely To Help Those Who Wear Clothing Akin To Ours

~ W-BC-O-SS-A-LTWGTTU-WAPSFF ~ We – Believe Compliments – Of – Sundry Sorts – And – Like Those Who Give Them To Us – We Are Phenomenal Suckers For Flattery

~ PC-JAMLFTF-W-U-AW-T ~ Positive Comments – Just As Much Liking For The Flatterer – When – Untrue – As When – True

~ FAG-GC-YWTRTLUT ~ Find And Give – Genuine Compliments – You Want The Recipient To Live Up To

~ C-NJ-OTB-B-OTT-YPSMOI ~ Compliment – Not Just – On The Behavior – But – On The Trait – You’ll Probably See More Of It

~ WLTFTU ~ We Like Things Familiar To Us

~ E-F-FC-B-MBWR ~ Even – Far-Fetched Claims – Become – More Believable With Repetition

~ CETAPOO-UUC-LTLL ~ Continued Exposure To A Person Or Object – Under Unpleasant Conditions – Leads To Less Liking

~ GC/BC-BT-GC-HIROTSB-T-RR-PFARF-TMRTTIE-T-ITIGTSTITTISOH[/H]S ~ Good Cop / Bad Cop – Because The – Good Cop – Has Intervened Repeatedly On The Suspect’s Behalf – The – Reciprocity Rule – Pressures For A Return Favor – The Main Reason The Technique Is Effective – Though – Is That It Gives The Suspect The Idea That There Is Someone On His[/Her] Side

~ TIANHTTDAPWBUUI-EWTPDNCTBN-HE ~ There Is A Natural Human Tendency To Dislike A Person Who Brings Us Unpleasant Information – Even When That Person Did Not Cause The Bad News – Horns Effect

~ AIA-WEBTOGT-WIHPFAU ~ An Innocent Association – With Either Bad Things Or Good Things – Will Influence How People Feel About Us

~ O-SSTTECA-CSBI ~ Odors – So Slight That They Escape Conscious Awareness – Can Still Be Influential

~ SP:TAU ~ Social Proof: Truths Are Us

~ TDBMPBOTP ~ The Dishes Became More Popular Because Of Their Popularity

~ SP-WDWICBFOWOPTIC-WBWTPIPB-MOP ~ Social Proof – We Determine What Is Correct By Finding Out What Other People Think Is Correct – Works Best When The Proof Is Provided By – Many Other People

~ OAE-INOAE ~ Often An Emergency – Is Not Obviously An Emergency

~ ETDOMLISTDNDT ~ Explaining The Dangers Of Modern Life In Scientific Terms Does Not Dispel Them

~ WTACOTRFI-IACE-PAER ~ When They Are Confident Of Their Responsibilities For Intervening – In A Clear Emergency – People Are Exceedingly Responsive

~ BAPAPAYNFA ~ Be As Precise As Possible About Your Need For Aid

~ TUO-FM-LATLMFAL-AWATRHMF ~ The Use Of – Fabricated Merriment – Leads Audiences To Laugh More Frequently And Longer – As Well As To Rate Humorous Material Funnier

~ UF-RC-B-A ~ Unbounded Fears – Rendered Contagious – By – Algorithms

~ TWAWC-PB-DP-WALBA-CF ~ The World Abounds With Cults – Populated By – Dependent People – Who Are Led By A – Charismatic Figure

~ A:DD ~ Authority: Directed Deference

~ T-OS-O-PAA-MBC-WTFOM ~ The – Outward Signs – Of – Power And Authority – May Be Counterfeited – With The Flimsiest Of Materials

~ ITATAE?-TCPOI:TACATROTCTTTAH ~ Is This Authority Truly An Expert? – Two Crucial Pieces Of Information: The Authority’s Credentials And The Relevance Of Those Credentials To The Topic At Hand

– And – How Truthful Can We Expect This Expert To Be?

~ S:TROTF ~ Scarcity: The Rule Of The Few

~ UCORAU-TTOPL-PAEPRIHD-M ~ Under Conditions Of Risk And Uncertainty – The Threat Of Potential Loss – Plays An Especially Powerful Role In Human Decision-Making

~ CAC:HOTM ~ Commitment And Consistency: Hobgoblins Of The Mind

~ TMETGIAC-TGIATITAAAOTPWMI ~ The More Effort That Goes Into A Commitment – The Greater Its Ability To Influence The Attitudes And Actions Of The Person Who Made It

~ WBNSTUCWHCOT ~ We Build New Struts To Undergird Choices We Have Committed Ourselves To

~ U:T-‘W’-ITS-M ~ Unity: The – “We” – Is The Shared – Me

~ AFA-IGA ~ Asking For Advice – Is Good Advice