CATHY O’NEIL ~ WEAPONS OF MATH DESTRUCTION ~ 2016

~ TC-MIATCT-M-WNODEITWP-BAFMOT-THC-TCOMFI/TROU-AHBAAAB-MWMF ~ The Crash – Made It All Too Clear That – Mathematics – Was Not Only Deeply Entangled In The World’s Problems – But Also Fueling Many Of Them – The Housing Crisis / The Collapse Of Major Financial Institutions / The Rise Of Unemployment – All Had Been Aided And Abetted By – Mathematicians Wielding Magic Formulas

~ IWHBC-H-WAWHTASBATPTFOHMHBM-A-HWC-PASCITF-B-I-ITWOTC-NMT-WHTE-A-EISMD-MAS-W-SO-D/M/SP-TWPOT-A-COPA-S/W/L/C ~ If We Had Been Clear-Headed – We All Would Have Taken A Step Back At This Point To Figure Out How Math Had Been Misused – And – How We Could – Prevent A Similar Catastrophe In The Future – But – Instead – In The Wake Of The Crisis – New Mathematical Techniques – Were Hotter Than Ever – And – Expanding Into Still More Domains – Mathematicians And Statisticians – Were – Studying Our – Desires / Movements / Spending Power – They Were Predicting Our Trustworthiness – And –Calculating Our Potential As – Students / Workers / Lovers / Criminals

~ T-T-M-PA-PTDE-WBO-CMBFHB-SOTCWNDMWTBI-N-MOTME-H-P/M/B-IT-SS-TIMOL ~ Trouble – The – Math-Powered Applications – Powering The Data Economy – Were Based On – Choices Made By Fallible Human Beings – Some Of These Choices Were No Doubt Made With The Best Intentions – Nevertheless – Many Of These Models Encoded – Human – Prejudice / Misunderstanding / Bias – Into The – Software Systems – That Increasingly Managed Our Lives

LG-T-MM-W-O-TWITABTHPITD-TV-EW-WOH-W-BDOA-A-TTTPTPATOIOS-WMTRR ~ Like Gods – These – Mathematical Models – Were – Opaque – Their Workings Invisible To All But The Highest Priests In Their Domain – Their Verdicts – Even When – Wrong Or Harmful – Were – Beyond Dispute Or Appeal – And – They Tended To Punish The Poor And The Oppressed In Our Society – While Making The Rich Richer

~ ATR-H-B/P/P-T-A-I-NEJ Attempting To Reduce – Human – Behaviour / Performance / Potential – To – Algorithms – Is – No Easy Job

~ A-BD-C-R-RCT-MTOV ~ At – Big Data – Companies – Researchers – Run Constant Tests – And – Monitor Thousands Of Variables

~ WF-A-SE-CCSOFADA-WNLFIM ~ Without Feedback – A – Statistical Engine – Can Continue Spinning Out Faulty And Damaging Analysis – While Never Learning From Its Mistakes

~ DTOR-A-UITJTR-TTOM-I-S-P-HD-A-VC ~ Define Their Own Reality – And – Use It To Justify Their Results – This Type Of Model – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Highly Destructive – And – Very Common

~ P-DIAS-WCTSLUD-A-T-HV-AHTAFHSOETTAT ~ Probability – Distilled Into A Score – Which Can Turn Someone’s Life Upside Down – And – The – Human Victims – Are Held To A Far Higher Standard Of Evidence Than The Algorithms Themselves

~ TTIT-PEUSAA-SI-O-P-F-T-WSTDCCUAAA-THB-DS-ATOLSOTFOTREOTT ~ The Trouble Is That – Profits End Up Serving As A – Stand-In – Or – Proxy – For – Truth – We’ll See This Dangerous Confusion Crop Up Again And Again – This Happens Because – Data Scientists – All Too Often Lose Sight Of The Folks On The Receiving End Of The Transaction

~ BD-HPOE ~ Big Data – Has Plenty Of Evangelists

~ TCAM-WMCAWIETI-STWIA-TV-TCBEU-A-FWWCI-I-FAA ~ To Create A Model – We Make Choices About What’s Important Enough To Include – Simplifying The World Into A – Toy Version – That Can Be Easily Understood – And – From Which We Can Infer – Important – Facts And Actions

~ AM-BS-RT-JAP-OI-C ~ A Model’s – Blind Spots – Reflect The – Judgments And Priorities – Of Its – Creators

~ AMBFT-WWABWT-IWGSIINCU ~ A Model Built For Today – Will Work A Bit Worse Tomorrow – It Will Grow Stale If It’s Not Constantly Updated

~ R-I-TMSOPM-IIPB-HDG-A-SC-RB-II-A-PB-CB ~ Racism – Is – The Most Slovenly Of Predictive Models – It Is Powered By – Haphazard Data Gathering – And – Spurious Correlations – Reinforced By – Institutional Inequities – And – Polluted By – Confirmation Bias

~ T-PFL-T-DL-GRAR-A-ITP-TMBMAMU ~ The – Pernicious Feedback Loop – This – Destructive Loop – Goes Round And Round – And – In The Process – The Model Becomes More And More Unfair

~ B-TPINW-SPB-IT-SMS-TMPBA-SDITFOMOP-OFTFOR-A-ONA-TU ~ But – The Point Is Not Whether – Some People Benefit – It’s That – So Many Suffer – These Models Powered By Algorithms – Slam Doors In The Face Of Millions Of People – Often For The Flimsiest Of Reasons – And – Offer No Appeal – They’re Unfair

~ A-HOMTAA:TCL-FOFTTN-A-TOD ~ And – Here’s One More Thing About Algorithms: They Can Leap – From One Field To The Next – And – They Often Do

~ BA-TVSS-TTSTC ~ Bet Against – The Very Same Securities – That They’d Sold To Customers

~ TBWMAPWRWABS-UC-EA-U-TWTC ~ The Bonds Were Marketed As Products Whose Risk Was Assessed By Specialists – Using Cutting-Edge Algorithms – Unfortunately – This Wasn’t The Case

~ TMWDATCAASS ~ The Math Was Directed Against The Consumer As A Smoke Screen

~ B-O-T-O-U-IOU ~ Billions – Or – Trillions – Of – Unpayable – IOUs

~ VFPHT-EATIR-TKWWAGOS-A-MOTPWD-LTITSU ~ Very Few People Had The – Expertise And The Information Required – To Know What Was Actually Going On – And – Most Of The People Who Did – Lacked The Integrity To Speak Up

~ T-F-A-NMPWDATST-WBOT-T-STBD-T-DWL-RAU

~ The – False – Assumption – Not Many People Would Default At The Same Time – Was Based On The – Theory – Soon To Be Disproven – That – Defaults Were Largely – Random And Unrelated

~ TPO-MC-FF-AASUIH ~ The Power Of – Modern Computing – Fueled Fraud – At A Scale Unequalled In History

~ TWE-FSTPOTOSOTA ~ That’s When Everyone – Finally Saw The People On The Other Side Of The Algorithms

~ B-2009-IWCTTLOTMCHBNNDTTWOFAHINNV-TLS-FTMP-A-TGRTS:TRIDM-EFAFRTAAFHTJT ~ By – 2009 – It Was Clear That The Lessons Of The Market Collapse Had Brought No New Direction To The World Of Finance And Had Instilled No New Values – The Lobbyists Succeed – For The Most Part – And – *The Game Remained The Same: To Rope In Dumb Money – Except For A Few Regulations That Added A Few Hoops To Jump Through

~ TRTAR-RDIF ~ The Refusal To Acknowledge Risk – Runs Deep In – Finance

~ TAWMST-TD-L-WRTW ~ The Algorithms Would Make Sure That – Those Deemed – Losers – Would Remain That Way

~ ALM-WGEMCOT-DE-TI-OF-A-CTATW-TTDI ~ A Lucky Minority – Would Gain Ever More Control Over The – Data Economy – Taking In – Outrageous Fortunes – And – Convincing Themselves All The While – That They Deserved It

~ H-WUCAMFP-IIFST-GI-B-PAETMTTCRTR ~ However – When You Create A Model From Proxies – It Is Far Simpler To – Game It – Because – Proxies Are Easier To Manipulate Than The Complicated Reality They Represent

~ W-CP-BATW-TO-T-ANO-S-B-F ~ We – Criminalize Poverty – Believing All The While – That Our – Tools – Are Not Only – Scientific – But – Fair

~ J-CJBSTOPOSIUTO ~ Justice – Cannot Just Be Something That One Part Of Society Inflicts Upon The Other

~ OR ~ Operations Research

~ B-ITWFI ~ Bogus – Is The Word For It

~ C-GT ~ Computer-Generated Terrorism

~ B-AOTATP-HOMOP-F-TODS-IGTGALOTFW ~ But – Any Operation That Attempts To Profile – Hundreds Of Millions Of People – From – Thousands Of Different Sources – Is Going To Get A Lot Of The Facts Wrong

~ M-A-LO-ALA-TSRFOTE ~ Mistakes – Are – Learning Opportunities – As Long As – The System Receives Feedback On The Error

~ R-ISWU-TI-FMSF ~ Redlining – Is Still With Us – Though In – Far More Subtle Forms

~ IWGTB-EBTL-O-TEAV-WCSF-STDUIDC-A-TUD ~ If We’re Going To Be – Equal Before The Law – Or – Treated Equally As Voters – We Cannot Stand For – Systems That Drop Us Into Different Castes – And – Treat Us Differently

~ TG-OC-HAP-RR-TP ~ The Government – Of Course – Has A Powerful – Regulatory Role – To Play

~ MAC-NFD-B-FTCWM-A-WDTPAT-A-WTLO-TCANJA-L/P/E-TA-FM ~ Models Are Constructed – Not Just From Data – But – From The Choices We Make – About – Which Data To Pay Attention To – And – Which To Leave Out – Those Choices Are Not Just About – Logistics / Profits / Efficiency – They Are – Fundamentally Moral

JEFF GOODELL ~ THE WATER WILL COME ~ 2017

~ IT-TC-TORASI-B-TWBTHFBFFHMIOGAA-AHOTR-S-LR-IT-TC-CFTEOTWO-T-SARAMTTTRTDITLC ~ In The – Twentieth Century – The Oceans Rose About Six Inches – But – That Was Before The Heat From Burning Fossil Fuels Had Much Impact On Greenland And Antarctica – About Half Of The Recorded – Sea-Level Rise – In The – Twentieth Century – Came From The Expansion Of The Warming Oceans – Today – Seas Are Raising At More Than Twice The Rate They Did In The Last Century

~ IWCHTWTA-TD-F-APTWMOF-TF-O-S-LR-TC-GPMTTA~ If We Can Hold The Warming To About – Three Degrees – Fahrenheit – Above Preindustrial Temperatures We Might Only Face – Two Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – This Century – Giving People More Time To Adapt

~ H-IWDET-FFP-WHFMT-EDOW-A-WT-ABAO-WCG-FF-O-S-LR-BTEOTC-O-WCG-TF ~ However – If We Don’t End The – Fossil Fuel Party – We’re Headed For More Than – Eight Degrees Of Warming – And – With That – All Bets Are Off – We Could Get – Four Feet – Of – Sea-Level Rise – By The End Of The Century – Or – We Could Get – Thirteen Feet

~ IETKOTTWHAGIETDW-WANWTMDABPTTGAOT ~ It’s Exactly The Kind Of Threat That We Humans Are Genetically Ill Equipped To Deal With – We Are Not Wired To Make Decisions About Barely Perceptible Threats That Gradually Accelerate Over Time

~ AIASTBTGACMMI-ITWCWTM(ASTWLTTOY)-IWRTE-S-L-BA-THF-IAOGWTG(ASTCTSLT)-IWR-SL-A-TTF ~ Antarctica Is About Seven Times Bigger Than Greenland And Contains Much More Ice – If The Whole Continent Were To Melt (A Scenario That Would Likely Take Thousands Of Years) – It Would Raise The Earth’s – Sea Levels – By About – Two Hundred Feet – If All Of Greenland Were To Go (A Scenario That Could Take Significantly Less Time) – It Would Raise – Sea Levels – About – Twenty-Two Feet

~ RN-MFGCRTAMTSS-LRAA-B-TMCICD ~ Right Now – Melting From Greenland Contributes Roughly Twice As Much To Current Sea-Level Rise As Antarctica – But – That May Change In Coming Decades

~ T-BMO2012-TFTTR-WMHSMFTMHPMTSWMFTM-BW? ~ The – Big Melt Of 2012 – The Fact That The Real-World Melt Happened So Much Faster Than Models Had Predicted Meant That Something Was Missing From The Models – But What?

~ G-T-TEOTO-CBTERT-HCAHOTOS-LRITLFY-ITF-TPWDATEIDBIMRIGAA ~ Globally – The – Thermal Expansion Of The Oceans – Caused By The Earth’s Rising Temperature – Has Contributed About Half Of The Observed Sea-Level Rise In The Last Fifty Years – In The Future – That Percentage Will Decline As Thermal Expansion Is Dwarfed By Increasing Melt Rates In Greenland And Antarctica

~ TITSCHAPEOTMROSAIINN ~ The Idea That Soot Can Have A Powerful Effect On The Melt Rate Of Snow And Ice Is Not New

~ SL-TDBTFASFITDBAMCCAAD-LRD ~ Sea Level – The Difference Between Three Feet And Six Feet Is The Difference Between A Manageable Coastal Crisis And A Decades-Long Refugee Disaster

~ EY-WHSS-TQHOT-ITTY? ~ Every Year – When Hurricane Seasons Starts – The Question Hovers Out There – Is This The Year?

~ O-MACL-ATHNRFDFZAST-KTREMA ~ Often – Mayors And Civic Leaders – Argue To Have Neighborhoods Removed From Designated Flood Zone Areas Simply To – Keep The Real Estate Market Alive

~ B-TINQT-AWR-IRWGU-A-U-A-U ~ But – There Is No Question That –As Waters Rise – Insurance Rates Will Go Up – And – Up – And – Up

~ MP-HNTTWATF ~ Most People – Have No Time To Worry About The Future

~ WC ~ Walled Cities

~ WOPTPWABT ~ Walls Only Protect The People Who Are Behind Them

~ W/D/L-MPFS-EWTAN ~ Walls / Dikes / Levees – Make People Feel Safe – Even When They Are Not

~ LB ~ Living Breakwaters

~ YASDALAIWR ~ Yet Another Step Down A Long And Increasingly Wet Road

~ TBIOCC-IT-TPWALRFTPATOWWPTMDFI-WDWOT? ~ The Basic Injustice Of Climate Change – Is That – The People Who Are Least Responsible For The Problem Are The Ones Who Will Pay The Most Dearly For It – What Do We Owe Them?

~ MT-1BP-LI-L-ECZ-AFPOTPAIPCWLMTHWA ~ More Than – 1 Billion People – Live In – Low-Elevation Coastal Zones – A Fair Percentage Of These People Are In Poor Countries With Little Money To Help With Adaptation

~ OWTVTPTYOCT-IA-AEABPNTECFRNFSTF ~ One Way To View The Past Thirty Years Of Climate Talks – Is As – An Extended Attempt By Poor Nations To Extract Compensation From Rich Nations For Stealing Their Future

~ EY-A-20MP-AM-H-B-F/S/OD-RTTAMATDBCOV ~ Every Year – About – 20 Million People – Are Made – Homeless – By – Floods / Storms / Other Disasters – Roughly Three Times As Many As Those Displaced By Conflict Or Violence

~ CR-LLSUIL ~ Climate Refugees – Lack Legal Status Under International Law

~ CA ~ Climate Apartheid

~ S-LR-W-DALOP-A-TPAGTHTGS ~ Sea-Level Rise – Will – Displace A Lot Of People – And – Those People Are Going To Have To Go Somewhere

~ SOFS-A-CODW ~ Salinization Of The Soil – And – Contamination Of Drinking Water

~ IAGBP-I-UA-F-CBOAIC-I-V-A-HS ~ It Ain’t Gonna Be Pretty – In – Urban Areas – Floods – Contaminated By Organic An Inorganic Compounds – Including – Viruses – And – Human Shit

~ W-FO-S ~ Water – Full Of – Shit

~ CAB-A-W-WC-TSROOTG ~ Coffins Are Buoyant – And – When – Water Comes – They Sometimes Rise Out Of The Ground

~ G-CIBAIT-IT-W-TH-D-W-D-A-C-C-T ~ Geoengineering – Could Indeed Be An Important Tool – In The – What-The-Hell-Do-We-Do-About-Climate-Change – Toolbox

~ GS-F-TFFI-A-$1T-AY ~ Global Subsidies – For – The Fossil Fuel Industry – About – $1 Trillion – A Year

~ G-ABUCQA-G-WHCTT? ~ Geoengineering – Also Brings Up Complex Questions About – Governance – Whose Hand Controls The Thermostat?

~ G-O-E-TTOG-CLT-C-A-E-CW ~ Geoengineering – Or – Even – The Threat Of Geoengineering – Could Lead To – Conflict – And – Even – Climate Wars

~ OC-NOWBTAGAASTS-LR(OAE)-ITWHGSACGGE-TYA-WSFBTRTA ~ Of Course – No One Would Be Talking About Geoengineering As A Solution To Sea-Level Rise (Or Anything Else) – If The World Had Gotten Serious About Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Thirty Years Ago – When Scientists First Began To Raise The Alarm

~ MOWWKA-G-CF-CM-AWA-A-F-M-LE ~ Most Of What We Know About – Geoengineering – Comes From – Computer Models – As Well As – A – Few – Modest – Laboratory Experiments

~ PF ~ Planet Frankenstein

~ B-TFWNTCOI ~ But – The Future Will Not Take Care Of Itself

~ OAT-HD-PWLOVC-WHTF-TMDOITIO-R ~ Of All The – Hard Decisions – People Who Live On Vulnerable Coasts – Will Have To Face – The Most Difficult One Is The Idea Of – Retreat

~ IMW-R-ITOO-G-IOROSTTCOTPFY-IR-IA-TP-A-AWTCYL-MOA-IM-GU-TWWW-A-ATNHW ~ In Many Ways – Retreat – Is The Opposite Of – Geoengineering – Instead Of Relying On Scientists To Take Care Of The Problem For You – It Requires – Individual Action – Thoughtful Planning – And – A Willingness To Change Your Life – Most Of All – It Means – Giving Up – The War With Water – And – Admitting That Nature Has Won

~ DYHTRT-BASOYP-EI-ICFFYN? ~ Do You Have The Right To – Build A Seawall On Your Property – Even If – It Causes Flooding For Your Neighbor?

TERRY O’REILLY + MIKE TENNANT ~ THE AGE OF PERSUASION ~ 2016

~ DGAWE?-NOCS-TFDT-BACCLT ~ Does Great Advertising Win Elections? – No One Can Say – Though Few Doubt That – Bad Advertising Can Certainly Lose Them

~ A-GUC-A-G-S-IEF-A ~ A – Great Unwritten Contract – Advertisers – Give – Something – In Exchange For – Attention

~ A-OTSORAYMCFE ~ Advertising – Offered The Sort Of Remuneration Artistic Young Minds Couldn’t Find Elsewhere

~ MA-‘I’-IN-PP-PS-A-OAWLO-BL ~ Making An – “Impact” – Is Now – Part Product – Part Smarts – And – Often A Whole Lot Of – Blind Luck

~ YDAI ~ Your Daily Ad Intake

~ AY-‘E’-TA-A-IYSIWYEADCNI? ~ Are You – “Exposed” – To An – Ad – If You Scan It With Your Eyes And Don’t Consciously Notice It?

~ ‘T’-GWSTSTOAPOS ~ “Tribes” – Groups Who Share The Same Thinking On A Product Or Subject

~ NT:NKOC ~ New Technologies: New Kinds Of Clutter

~ AA-POTIS ~ Ambient Advertising – Part Of The Immediate Surroundings

~ A-DM-DOAF-S-O-A-OT-R ~ Ad-Driven Media – Media – Dependent On Advertising For – Some – Or – All – Of Their – Revenues

~ E-PTL ~ Ever-Present Transparent Logo

~ SB-TPO-L-S-T-EC-TOS-IOTUTOST-PAUS ~ Squeeze-Back – The Practice Of – Literally – Squeezing – The – End Credits – To One Side – In Order To Use The Other Side To – Promote An Upcoming Show

~ TV-B-HSPTA-MAMPH ~ TV – Broadcasters – Have Shrunk Programming To Accommodate – More Ad Messages Per Hour

~ BTC ~ Breaking The Contract

~ FA-B-O-IA-ST-S-D-S-T-SR-I-U/O ~ For Any – Brand – Overpromising – Is A – Short Term – Self-Destructive – Strategy – The – Smarter Route – Is – Underpromise / Overdeliver

~ TELI-EV ~ The Edge Lies In – Entertainment Value

~ AHOC-C-A-D-D-M-DAC ~ A – Handful Of Complaints – Can – And – Do – Derail – Multimillion-Dollar Ad Campaigns

~ R-CRAAPA-B-F-YHTATRQ ~ Research – Can Reveal Astounding And Powerful Answers – But – First – You Have To Ask The Right Questions

~ PP-TAOIABNOIIA-S/F/E/B ~ Product Placement – The Act Of Infusing A Brand Name Or Image Into A – Story / Film / Event / Broadcast

~ ‘Y’-TN-HGOM-T/T-A/YA ~ “Yoots” – The New – Holy Grail Of Marketing – Tweens / Teen-Agers / Young Adults

~ RIP-FOTPK-A-TGNEDO-T-BB-GUWTSWOCGSAT ~ Raised In Prosperity – Few Of Their Parents Knew – And – Their Grandparents Never Even Dreamed Of – The – Baby Boomers – Grew Up With The Strong Winds Of Consumerism Gathering Speed Around Them

~ OOTSCTCWTEOT-OW-WT-BTNGA-THICF ~ One Of The Sea Changes That Came With The Emergence Of The – Online World – Was That – Bad Things Never Go Away – They Hang In Cyberspace Forever

~ LTTTMTTA ~ Life Tends To Take More Time Than Art

~ TSO-VM:TADTW ~ The Secret Of – Viral Marketing: The Audience Does The Work

~ I-N-SOLOC-A-THNCITAOP ~ Ideas – Not – Slogans Or Logos Or Catchphrases – Are – The Hot New Currency In The Age Of Persuasion

~ GM:T-PS ~ Guerrilla Marketing: The – Publicity Stunt

~ POTTOOWIM ~ People Opposed To The Objectification Of Women In Marketing

~ AIB-GM-ATPNAFTLGATNATG ~ At Its Best – Guerrilla Marketing – Appeals To People’s Natural Affinity For The Little Guy And Their Natural Aversion To Giants

~ BI:H-HO-A-EOPC-TGIA ~ Borrowed Interest: Hitch-Hiking On – An – Element Of Popular Culture – To Get Immediate Attention

~ AMSI-F/A/M/L-ICTRBTAAA ~ As Marketing Seeps Into – Films / Arts / Music / Literature – It Changes The Relationship Between The Arts And Audiences

~ IEBQTEAOTC-SBTCOC ~ In Each Brand’s Quest To Elbow Ahead Of The Competition – Superlatives Became The Cheapest Of Commodities

~ T-‘AW-B-NOM’-M ~ The – “Advertising Works – But – Not On Me” – Myth

~ PATETB-TTODRI ~ People Attache Themselves Emotionally To Brands – Though They Often Don’t Realize It

~ S-T-RASI-BA ~ Story-Telling – Remains A Staple In – Broadcast Ads

ROBERT CIALDINI ~ INFLUENCE ~ 1984

~ TPOP ~ The Psychology Of Persuasion

~ PHUANOMSWEIMOEJ-JH-S-AFSTTWWMOTT-B-LUUT-OCM ~ Psychologists Have Uncovered A Number Of Mental Shortcuts We Employ In Making Our Everyday Judgments – Judgmental Heuristics – Shortcuts – Allowing For Simplified Thinking That Works Well Most Of The Time – But – Leaves Us Upon To – Occasional Costly Mistakes

~ TIAUTIOSTAUTSADOIWATBAOAT-TI-RTTAAEAABC(ON)-WFITAAAOTBCJBTESA-‘E’ ~ There Is An Unsettling Tendency In Our Society To Accept Unthinkingly The Statements And Directions Of Individuals Who Appear To Be Authorities On A Topic – That Is – Rather Than Thinking About An Expert’s Arguments And Being Convinced (Or Not) – We Frequently Ignore The Arguments And Allow Ourselves To Be Convinced Just By The Expert’s Status As – “Expert”

~ MOUKVLAO-ABP-PTISPBOT-M-U-M-IWTO ~ Most Of Us Know Very Little About Our – Automatic Behavior Patterns – Perhaps That Is So Precisely Because Of The – Mechanistic – Unthinking – Manner – In Which They Occur

~ SJAIIPTMTSBOWATBHOCDOTTOPPBOW-IIPTMTPOTSISHOLDOTPOAPPI ~ So Just As It Is Possible To Make The Same Bucket Of Water Appear To Be Hotter Or Colder Depending On The Temperature Of Previously Presented Buckets Of Water – It Is Possible To Make The Price Of The Same Item Seem Higher Or Lower Depending On The Price Of A Previously Presented Item

~ A-BP-TTBTBASFOTRIITS-T-SF-O-TF-COPVBAAITDOACCOAWHTACACEOTOPOIITS ~ Automatic-Behavior Patterns – Tend To Be Triggered By A Single Feature Of The Relevant Information In The Situation – This – Single Feature – Or – Trigger Feature – Can Often Prove Valuable By Allowing An Individual To Decide On A Correct Course Of Action Without Having To Analyze Carefully And Completely Each Of The Other Pieces Of Information In The Situation

~ R:TO-GAT ~ Reciprocation: The Old – Give And Take

~ OOTMPOTLOIAU-TROR ~ One Of The Most Potent Of The Levers Of Influence Around Us – The Rule Of Reciprocation

~ TPORCBBLAL ~ The Pull Of Reciprocity Can Be Both Lifesaving And Lifelong

~ LTANALNWTLTBROL-SA-R ~ Little Things Are Not Always Little – Not When They Link To Big Rules Of Life – Such As – Reciprocity

~ BTIAGDFTWTAMNETGIR-WWOGTGLTABCAF ~ Because There Is A General Distaste For Those Who Take And Make No Effort To Give In Return – We Will Often Go To Great Lengths To Avoid Being Considered A Freeloader

~ P-F-MNFAGTPA-P-F ~ Problem-Free – May Not Feel As Good To People As – Problem-Freed

~ SFF-OS-LRF ~ Small First Favors – Often Stimulate – Larger Return Favors

~ BRAASVIHSS-WHBCTFUWB ~ Because Reciprocal Arrangements Are So Vital In Human Social Systems – We Have Been Conditioned To Feel Uncomfortable When Beholden

~ T-R-T-R-O-D-I-T-F-T-RHOTPTRC-BSWAERSTBR-ARCTPRTASR9TODAA) ~ The – Rejection-Then-Retreat – Or – Door-In-The-Face – Technique – Relies Heavily On The Pressure To Reciprocate Concessions – By Starting With An Extreme Request Sure To Be Rejected – A Requester Can Then Profitably Retreat To A Smaller Request (The One Desired All Along)

~ APIAREOC-PFMRF-A-M-SWTO ~ After Participating In A Reciprocal Exchange Of Concessions – People Feel More Responsible For – And – More – Satisfied With The Outcome

~ OBDATUORPTGOCINSROTIOOO-R-WSAIFOCIGF-B-BRTRTATSTLBPAS-OTARITW-WSNLFANTRWAFOCOOO ~ Our Best Defense Agaisnt The Use Of Reciprocity Pressures To Gain Our Compliance Is Not Systematic Rejection Of The Initial Offers Of Others – Rather – We Should Accept Initial Favors Or Concessions In Good Faith – But – Be Ready To Redefine Them As Tricks Should They Later Be Proved As Such – Once They Are Redefined In This Way – We Should No Longer Feel A Need To Respond With A Favor Or Concession Of Our Own

~ L:TFT ~ Liking: The Friendly Thief

~ LFP ~ Liking For Profit

~ HE-WOPCOAPDTWHOSIVIMOR-PA-IOSAC ~ Halo Effect – When One Positive Characteristic Of A Person Dominates The Way He Or She Is Viewed In Most Other Respects – Physical Attractiveness – Is Often Such A Characteristic

~ WLPWALU ~ We Like People Who Are Like Us

~ WAMLTHTWWCATO ~ We Are More Likely To Help Those Who Wear Clothing Akin To Ours

~ W-BC-O-SS-A-LTWGTTU-WAPSFF ~ We – Believe Compliments – Of – Sundry Sorts – And – Like Those Who Give Them To Us – We Are Phenomenal Suckers For Flattery

~ PC-JAMLFTF-W-U-AW-T ~ Positive Comments – Just As Much Liking For The Flatterer – When – Untrue – As When – True

~ FAG-GC-YWTRTLUT ~ Find And Give – Genuine Compliments – You Want The Recipient To Live Up To

~ C-NJ-OTB-B-OTT-YPSMOI ~ Compliment – Not Just – On The Behavior – But – On The Trait – You’ll Probably See More Of It

~ WLTFTU ~ We Like Things Familiar To Us

~ E-F-FC-B-MBWR ~ Even – Far-Fetched Claims – Become – More Believable With Repetition

~ CETAPOO-UUC-LTLL ~ Continued Exposure To A Person Or Object – Under Unpleasant Conditions – Leads To Less Liking

~ GC/BC-BT-GC-HIROTSB-T-RR-PFARF-TMRTTIE-T-ITIGTSTITTISOH[/H]S ~ Good Cop / Bad Cop – Because The – Good Cop – Has Intervened Repeatedly On The Suspect’s Behalf – The – Reciprocity Rule – Pressures For A Return Favor – The Main Reason The Technique Is Effective – Though – Is That It Gives The Suspect The Idea That There Is Someone On His[/Her] Side

~ TIANHTTDAPWBUUI-EWTPDNCTBN-HE ~ There Is A Natural Human Tendency To Dislike A Person Who Brings Us Unpleasant Information – Even When That Person Did Not Cause The Bad News – Horns Effect

~ AIA-WEBTOGT-WIHPFAU ~ An Innocent Association – With Either Bad Things Or Good Things – Will Influence How People Feel About Us

~ O-SSTTECA-CSBI ~ Odors – So Slight That They Escape Conscious Awareness – Can Still Be Influential

~ SP:TAU ~ Social Proof: Truths Are Us

~ TDBMPBOTP ~ The Dishes Became More Popular Because Of Their Popularity

~ SP-WDWICBFOWOPTIC-WBWTPIPB-MOP ~ Social Proof – We Determine What Is Correct By Finding Out What Other People Think Is Correct – Works Best When The Proof Is Provided By – Many Other People

~ OAE-INOAE ~ Often An Emergency – Is Not Obviously An Emergency

~ ETDOMLISTDNDT ~ Explaining The Dangers Of Modern Life In Scientific Terms Does Not Dispel Them

~ WTACOTRFI-IACE-PAER ~ When They Are Confident Of Their Responsibilities For Intervening – In A Clear Emergency – People Are Exceedingly Responsive

~ BAPAPAYNFA ~ Be As Precise As Possible About Your Need For Aid

~ TUO-FM-LATLMFAL-AWATRHMF ~ The Use Of – Fabricated Merriment – Leads Audiences To Laugh More Frequently And Longer – As Well As To Rate Humorous Material Funnier

~ UF-RC-B-A ~ Unbounded Fears – Rendered Contagious – By – Algorithms

~ TWAWC-PB-DP-WALBA-CF ~ The World Abounds With Cults – Populated By – Dependent People – Who Are Led By A – Charismatic Figure

~ A:DD ~ Authority: Directed Deference

~ T-OS-O-PAA-MBC-WTFOM ~ The – Outward Signs – Of – Power And Authority – May Be Counterfeited – With The Flimsiest Of Materials

~ ITATAE?-TCPOI:TACATROTCTTTAH ~ Is This Authority Truly An Expert? – Two Crucial Pieces Of Information: The Authority’s Credentials And The Relevance Of Those Credentials To The Topic At Hand

– And – How Truthful Can We Expect This Expert To Be?

~ S:TROTF ~ Scarcity: The Rule Of The Few

~ UCORAU-TTOPL-PAEPRIHD-M ~ Under Conditions Of Risk And Uncertainty – The Threat Of Potential Loss – Plays An Especially Powerful Role In Human Decision-Making

~ CAC:HOTM ~ Commitment And Consistency: Hobgoblins Of The Mind

~ TMETGIAC-TGIATITAAAOTPWMI ~ The More Effort That Goes Into A Commitment – The Greater Its Ability To Influence The Attitudes And Actions Of The Person Who Made It

~ WBNSTUCWHCOT ~ We Build New Struts To Undergird Choices We Have Committed Ourselves To

~ U:T-‘W’-ITS-M ~ Unity: The – “We” – Is The Shared – Me

~ AFA-IGA ~ Asking For Advice – Is Good Advice

MICHAEL SANDEL ~ THE TYRANNY OF MERIT ~ 2020

~ WBOTCG? ~ What’s Become Of The Common Good?

~ WNTAWTSTOFP-ITLMFB-TPOM-O-TSACGBTSATS ~ We Need To Ask Whether The Solution To Our Fractious Politics – Is To Live More Faithfully By – The Principle Of Merit – Or – To Seek A Common Good Beyond The Sorting And The Striving

~ B-TRORNRH-ITE-IINETR-MWNERTTMC ~ But – The Rhetoric Of Rising Now Rings Hollow – In Today’s Economy – It Is Not Easy To Rise – Most Will Not Even Rise To The Middle Class

~ T-TCWT-HM-TTBTWT-GE-TATR-IS-DLO-TSOP-TOAT=E=HC-A-OR-TEPTSITWOW ~ Today – The Countries With The – Highest Mobility – Tend To Be Those With The – Greatest Equality – The Ability To Rise – It Seems – Depends Less On – The Spur Of Poverty – Than On Access To – Education – Health Care – And – Other Resources – That Equip People To Succeed In The World Of Work

~ ASRTTGBRAPMRDWIOPAW-RT-RCWTPOHPSUALWRGFAFA ~ Any Serous Response To The Gap Between Rich And Poor Must Reckon Directly With Inequalities Of Power And Wealth – Rather Than – Rest Content With The Project Of Helping People Scramble Up A Ladder Whose Rungs Grow Father And Farther Apart

~ M-IIUWTTDTORTM-DSLOTS-TWCTMI-A-MITCOTPP-OTMQ-TAISMPP:TMAATMEP-ATWAAATL-ATW-IGH-ATL-HAR ~ Morally – It Is Unclear Why The Talented Deserve The Outsize Rewards That Market-Driven Societies Lavish On The Successful – Those Who Celebrate The Meritocratic Ideal – And – Make It The Center Of Their Political Project – Overlook This Moral Question – They Also Ignore Something More Politically Potent: The Morally Attractive Attitudes The Meritocratic Ethic Promotes – Among The Winners And Also Among The Losers – Among The Winners – It Generates Hubris – Among The Losers – Humiliation And Resentment

~ TPCIATTOM-A-TCIJ ~ The Populist Complaint Is About The Tyranny Of Merit – And – The Complaint Is Justified

~ TNT-TSR-TAHW-ETW-TCTSTOD-AMOTV-A-TLDUTLFTT-MH-RTTOWTITDOTS-TFT-CAGF-THTOTW-IIT-SC-OT-WLOT-TTDTF-A-T-TOTB-DTT ~ The Notion That – The System Rewards – Talent And Hard Work – Encourages The Winners – To Consider Their Success Their Own Doing – A Measure Of Their Virtue – And – To Look Down Upon Those Less Fortunate Than Themselves – Meritocratic Hubris – Reflects The Tendency Of Winners To Inhale Too Deeply Of Their Success – To Forget The – Luck And Good Fortune – That Helped Them On Their Way – It Is The – Smug Conviction – Of Those – Who Land On Top – That They Deserve Their Fate – And – That – Those On The Bottom – Deserve Theirs Too

~ T- T-CG-IUMI-ET-IILACSODTBOC-TA-SCP-AMBT-GDP-TMFA-IPD ~ Today – The – Common Good – Is Understood Mainly In – Economic Terms – It Is Less About Cultivating Solidarity Or Deepening The Bonds Of Citizenship – Than About – Satisfying Consumer Preferences – As Measured By The – Gross Domestic Product – This Makes For An – Impoverished Public Discourse

~ WPF-PA-TD-CEO-NMTT-WINO-OE-SM-IWPTPOAWRL-C-ATPS-FT-EPD-FAD-TRSTTAO-RPD-DNMTNPABD-ISMTABDE-OOPV-B-AA(OCBTITR)-B-CBABM-B-CL-W-CC-BIWPO ~ What Passes For – Political Argument – These Days – Consists Either Of – Narrow Managerial Technocratic Talk – Which Inspires No One – Or Else – Shouting Matches – In Which Partisans Talk Past One Another Without Really Listening – Citizens – Across The Political Spectrum – Find This – Empty Public Discourse – Frustrating And Disempowering – They Rightly Sense That The Absence Of – Robust Public Debate – Does Not Mean That No Policies Are Being Decided – It Simply Means They Are Being Decided Elsewhere – Out Of Public View – By – Administrative Agencies (Often Captured By The Industries They Regulate) – By – Central Banks And Bond Markets – By – Corporate Lobbyists – Whose – Campaign Contributions – Buy Influence With Public Officials

~ FD-O-M-DG-H-HOPD-DOC-A-PAPB ~ Four Decades – Of – Market-Driven Globalization – Have – Hollowed Out Public Discourse – Disempowered Ordinary Citizens – And – Prompted A Populist Backlash

~ B-IIOTTHPRFAM;IISETATWA-EOU-WRFOLIL ~ But – It Is One Thing To Hold People Responsible For Acting Morally; It Is Something Else To Assume That We Are – Each Of Us – Wholly Responsible For Our Lot In Life

~ TNTOFROM-RDIT-MI-O-WC-IRTBTTMUIAIAWTAPWMASWW-T-MWOT-GRTHATTWSM-TMATS-TGTSTTVHBIOH[H]~ The Notion That Our Fate Reflects Our Merit – Runs Deep In The – Moral Intuitions – Of – Western Culture – It Reflects The Belief That The Moral Universe Is Arranged In A Way That Aligns Prosperity With Merit And Suffering With Wrongdoing – This – Meritocratic Way Of Thinking – Gives Rise To Harsh Attitudes Toward Those Who Suffer Misfortune – The More Acute The Suffering – The Greater The Suspicion That The Victim Has Brought It On Himself[/Herself]

~ MOTF-TS-WFL-AAFAMPOV ~ Many Of The Factors – That Separate – Winners From Losers – Are Arbitrary From A Moral Point Of View

~ TMWVOAS-MAS-S-TLLWATCFTFOTLFTO-IMSIMOD-TFMBTF-TLMMCOC-TSANOPRFOFMIHTIOIOPS ~ The More We View Ourselves As Self-Made And Self-Sufficient – The Less Likely We Are To Care For The Fate Of Those Less Fortunate Than Ourselves – If My Success Is My Own Doing – Their Failure Must Be Their Fault – This Logic Makes Meritocracy Corrosive Of Commonality – Too Strenuous A Notion Of Personal Responsibility For Our Fate Makes It Hard To Imagine Ourselves In Other People’s Shoes

~ TROR ~ The Rhetoric Of Responsibility

~ FD-ME-ITMT-TW-WHAPBTR-CRAFATTWTT-TDNNTFT-SATBOSTSA-T-ROR-WLAPTAT ~ For Decades – Meritocratic Elites – Intoned The Mantra That – Those Who – Work Hard And Play By The Rules – Can Rise As Far As Their Talents Will Take Them – They Did Not Notice That For Those – Stuck At The Bottom Or Struggling To Stay Afloat – The – Rhetoric Of Rising – Was Less A Promise Than A Taunt

~ C:TLAP ~ Credentialism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice

~ ‘SVD’- BTD-EOI-C-L-‘JVU’-O-‘RVW’ ~ “Smart Versus Dumb” – Began To Displace – Ethical Or Ideological – Contrasts – Like – “Just Versus Unjust” – Or – “Right Versus Wrong”

~ T-‘STTD’-A-PTA-POS-IR-TDNDO-MC ~ The – “Smart Thing To Do” – Always – Pointed To A – Prudential Or Self-Interested Reason – That Did Not Depend On – Moral Considerations

~ TNT-‘TBATB’-ABAG-TT-L-C-FC-I-AMBOMH ~ The Notion That – “The Best And The Brightest” – Are – Better At Governing – Than Their – Less-Credentialed – Fellow Citizens – Is – A Myth Born Of Meritocratic Hubris

~ P-TO-RW-I-RME ~ Parties – That Once – Represented Workers – Increasingly – Represented Meritocratic Elites

~ WMFAMITEHAECTCTLOS;IHNTSAHFATROTLSB-T-MI-INA-ROI-IIA-JOI ~ What Matters For A Meritocracy Is That Everyone Has An Equal Chance To Climb The Ladder Of Success; It Has Nothing To Say About How Far Apart The Rungs On The Ladder Should Be – The – Meritocratic Ideal – Is Not A – Remedy Of Inequality – It Is A – Justification Of Inequality

~ AT-AOG-BRWTT-W-C-IDNFMOW-PI-B-WRASASSOWTP-W-EASCALS ~ Although The – Age Of Globalization – Brought Rich Rewards To – The Well-Credentialed – It Did Not Nothing For Most Ordinary Workers – Productivity Increased – But – Workers Reaped A Smaller And Smaller Share Of What They Produced – While – Executives And Shareholders Captured A Larger Share

~ OTLSD-TIT-TMWMRTVOOSC-HBDE ~ Over The Last Several Decades – The Idea That – The Money We Make Reflects The Value Of Our Social Contribution – Has Become Deeply Embedded

~ M-FA-HRTP-EG-TDPATEI-SP-MTDOTWEAL-P-U-GAS-IT-RE ~Much – Financial Activity – Hinders Rather Than Promotes – Economic Growth – The Disproportionate Prestige Accorded Those Engaged In – Speculative Pursuits – Mocks The Dignity Of Those Who Earn A Living – Producing – Useful – Goods And Services – In The – Real Economy

~ A-PA-TRT-DOW-WUT-TS-TRTEOEB-DS-A-HPL ~ A – Political Agenda – That Recognizes The – Dignity Of Work – Would Use The – Tax System – To Reconfigure The Economy Of Esteem By – Discouraging Speculation – And – Honoring Productive Labor

JOHN FREEMAN ~ THE TYRANNY OF E-MAIL ~ 2009

~ WLTIWTWBMO;NODWNTSOPTUTMEBOMLHTMOLAMSOTWBMTAOO ~ We Lean To Interact With The World By Mirroring Others; Not Only Do We Need To See Other People To Understand Them Most Effectively – Our Mind Learns How To Move Our Limbs And Make Sense Of The World By Mirroring The Actions Of Others

~ T-CS-H-IAENRE-RTBDOAS-LISDIOE-IIBRIOP ~ The – Computer Screen – However – Is An Entirely New Reading Experience – Rather Than Bouncing Down Off A Surface – Light Is Shot Directly Into Our Eyes – It Is Beamed Right Into Our Pupils

~ EHDWTA-B-IHTALLBDTCADTTFTPSBCOTDFOASTITFIFOTF ~ Eyesight Has Deteriorated With The Ages – But – It Has Taken A Large Leap Back During The Computer Age Due To The Fact That People Spend Big Chunks Of Their Day Focusing On A Screen That Is Two Feet In Front Of Their Faces

~ BDOOFEATTFOPC-WAFATLOMIIL ~ By Depriving Ourselves Of Facial Expressions And The Tangible Frisson Of Physical Contact – We Are Facing A Terrible Loss Of Meaning In Individual Life

~ SB-P/P/C-OBHAIMOSMN ~ Surrounded By – Plastics / Polystyrenes / Chemicals – Our Bodies Have An Instinctual Memory Of Something More Natural

~ ECBHEI-WETNOTCBTTON ~ Each Communication Breakthrough Has Encouraged Individuality – While Expanding The Notion Of The Commons Beyond The Tangible Or Nearby

~ T-EA-O-NMOC-AO-TEI-IOUA-WBGBBAOTC ~ The – Earliest Adopters – Of – New Modes Of Communication – Are Often – Those Engaged In – Illegal Or Unethical Activity – Who Benefit Greatly By Being Ahead Of The Curve

~ IO-IBTCA-F-FA ~ Information Overload – Is Beginning To Create A – Free-Floating Anxiety

~ WNSAEAOTIFOOM ~ We Now Spend An Enormous Amount Of Time In Front Of Our Machines

~ HMATOE-B-WARAATAW ~ Humans May Adapt To Our Environment – But – We Also Rebel Against Adaptions That Aren’t Working

~ L-OT-E-MT ~ Life – On The – E-Mail Treadmill

~ TTIT-T-R-IE-CETROA-F-T-F-CI-S-D-IDNC-NG/VT/I/FE-TWATFBT-EAD-WLT-CWOB ~ The Truth Is That – Text – Rarely – If Ever – Can Equal The Richness Of A – Face-To-Face – Conversation – It’s – Static – Disembodied – It Does Not Convey – Hand Gestures / Verbal Tone / Inflection / Facial Expressions – Things We Are Taught From Birth To – Encode And Decode – We Learn To – Communicate With Our Bodies

~ SB ~ Sensory Brownout

~ WSAPBGTW-A-CIBGTB ~ We Sneak A Peak Before Going To Work – And – Clock In Before Going To Bed

~ COFS ~ Culture Of Forwarding Stuff

~ E-MVN-IC-BEF-P/R/C ~ E-Mail’s Viral Nature – Is Clearly – Being Exploited For – Payback / Revenge / Comeuppance

~ TGBWOPAACP-MT-AAMCBF-WCLT-DPE ~ The Gap Between What One Person And Another Considers Private – Means That – Almost Any Message Can Be Forwarded – Which Can Lead To – Devastating Personal Experiences

~ OH ~ Online Humiliation

~ C-B-S-A-W-A-V-P-TTTWND ~ Connectedness – Both – Strength – And – Weakness – A – Virus – Potential – To Take The Whole Network Down

~ 85-95-P-OA-E-I-S ~ 85-95 – Percent – Of All – Email – Is – Spam

~ PLANTBL-NS-MSPSMSNS ~ People Love And Need To Be Loved – Not Surprisingly – Most Successful Phishing Schemes Mimic Social Networking Sites

~ TTTWSTSUFTWFA-TCIACOOOOT-HNB-TLELEI-B-WCSTLO ~ The Technology That Was Supposed To Set Us Free To Work From Anywhere – To Check In And Clock Out On Our Own Time – Has Now Become – The Longest Employee Leash Ever Invented – Because – We Can’t Seem To Log Off

~ ‘VIRS’ ~ “Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule”

~ AWAV-IADWYTEA-EIFOAFH ~ As With Any Vice – It’s A Disaster When You Take E-Mail Away – Even If For Only A Few Hours

~ ‘IA’ ~ “Internet Addition”

~ OUOTHBTAOAS;WSREOBF-S-AOT-M ~ Our Use Of Technology Has Begun To Alter Our Attention Span; We’ve Started Reverse Engineering Our Brains For – Speed – As Opposed To – Mindfulness

~ DJ-FTS-CC-GD ~ Disinhibted Jeering – From The Sidelines – Can Cause – Grave Damage

~ T-TATTTLOTPW-M-STCOIUE ~ Technology – That Appears To Transcend The Limits Of The Physical World – Merely – Shifts The Cost Of Its Use Elsewhere

~ T-I-WSTAUT-WFA-A-SWD-F-O-V/H/POW-IWMT-LU-FTT-DAO-IIHLUT-WATT-TINASWTL-B-CO-C-EAPB-WM-A-U ~ The – Internet – Was Supposed To Allow Us To – Work From Anywhere – And – So We Do – From – Our – Vacations / Homes / Places Of Worship – It Was Meant To – Liberate Us – From Ties To – Desk And Office – Instead It Has Led Us To – Work All The Time – This Is Not A Sustainable Way To Live – Being – Constantly On – Causes – Emotional And Physical Burnout – Workplace Meltdowns – And – Unhappiness

~ S-M-TSAWWDS-A-COEOI-WACANITTFT ~ Speed – Matters – The Speed At Which We Do Something – Anything – Changes Our Experience Of It – Words And Communication Are Not Immune To This Fundamental Truth

~ WNTPTFWOOAIWCAOR ~ We Need To Protect The Finite Well Of Our Attention If We Care About Our Relationships

~ WNTIOTPCTEOWWSUO-WNTTGTPAPROOTC-WNTTSADAFOWSTWSEWWM ~ We Need Time In Order To Properly Consider The Effect Of What We Say Upon Others – We Need Time In Order To Grasp The Political And Professional Ramifications Of Our Typed Correspondence – We Need Time To Shape And Design And Filer Our Words So That We Say Exactly What We Mean

~ CAGH-HOUDT-IAI-TUNHBHBOCMC ~ Communicating At Great Haste – Hones Our Utterances Down To – Instincts And Impulses – That Until Now Have Been Held Back Or Channelled More Carefully

~ A-IOOTMVMR-IWWIO-FC-WWHNLWWRNI ~ Attention – Is One Of The Most Valuable Modern Resources – If We Waste It On – Frivolous Communication – We Will Have Nothing Left When We Really Need It

~ T-PW-M ~ The – Physical World – Matters

~ C-M-WNCIOTL-A-ITEOECHSPI-WSSOFAS-B-TBTTRWASD ~ Context – Matters – We Need Context In Order To Live – And – If The Environment Of Electronic Communication Has Stopped Providing It – We Shouldn’t Search Online For A Solution – But – Turn Back To The Real World And Slow Down

JEFF FAUX ~ THE SERVANT ECONOMY ~ 2012

~ FASTCPO-WASATDODF ~ For A Society That Constantly Promotes Optimism – We Are Surprisingly Addicted To Depictions Of Dystopian Futures

~ M-DE-T-CNHBF-A-RTWCA ~ Major – Dislocating Events – That – Could Not Have Been Foretold – Are – Rarer Than We Commonly Acknowledge

~ HACS-DNATT-TW-‘E’ ~ History And Common Sense – Did Not Apply To Them – They Were – “Exceptional”

~ B-TWDTEOTC-DNEUSOPB ~ But – Those Who Drove The Economy Off The Cliff – Did Not End Up Sleeping On Park Benches

~ TCFPASSFTFHCFTGTTWGTNF ~ The Call For Patience And Shared Sacrifice For The Future Has Costs For The Governed That Those Who Govern Typically Never Face

~ WTFW-A-U-W-TBOA-FB-O-A-ED-O-COO-HBGAFT-TATT-T-GC-PNTDOI-PM-R-IUUTMOTA-BT ~ Whether The Folly Was – An – Unnecessary – War – The Bursting Of A – Financial Bubble – Or – An – Environmental Disaster – Our – Culture Of Optimism – Has Been Generous And Forgiving To – Those At The Top – The – Governing Class – Prefers Not To Dwell On Its – Past Mistakes – Rather – It Urges Us To Move On To A – Better Tomorrow

~ YDBAMOT-GC-B-CTSQ ~ You Don’t Become A Member Of The – Governing Class – By – Challenging The Status Quo

~ TROGIFM-NLWTRT-CTTOTMTSAB-NWITDTBBTP-IWT-IOATDHBD-DTRO-L-F-TGRITERC-B-TRHC-IPNW-TIATDHC-T-PUTP-PTBT-A-HTROTCPFTD ~ The Role Of Government In Financial Markets – No Longer Was That Role To – Control The Tendency Of The Markets Toward Speculative Asset Bubbles – Nor Was It To Diffuse The Bubbles Before They Popped – It Was To – Intervene Only After The Damage Had Been Done – Despite The Rhetoric Of – Laissez-Faire – The Government’s Role In The Economy Remained Critical – But – That Role Had Changed – Its Purpose Now Was – To Intervene After The Damage Had Occurred – To – Pick Up The Pieces – Put Them Back Together – And – Have The Rest Of The Country Pay For The Damage

~ T-HFDALTI-IA-EUM ~ That – High Federal Deficits Always Lead To Inflation – Is An – Economic Urban Myth

~ T-L-BAIF-A-TBTF-TGTM-A-TPTR ~ The – Largest – Banks And Investment Firms – Are – Too Big To Fail – Too Global To Monitor – And – Too Powerful To Regulate

~ PS-B-D-I-LA-STBPW-TW-WBEMOADCT-S-E ~ Personal Service – By – Definition – Is – Largely About – Satisfying The Boss’s Personal Whims – The Workplace – Will Become Even More Of A Daily Challenge To – Self-Esteem

~ WCET-M-B/T/H-W-FOB ~ We Can Expect That – More – Bridges / Tunnels / Highways – Will – Fall Or Breakdown

~ NOD-YBYJ-OT-YTTSTEWTTLOTWYD ~ Not Only Do – You Become Your Job – Over Time – You Tend To See The Economic World Through The Lens Of The Work You Do

~ N-EP-TI-DO-M-F-T-RR-A-T-GC-WATAOET ~ No – Established Party – That Is – Dependent On – Money – From – The – Reactionary Rich – And – The – Globalizing Corporations – Will Act To Alter Our Economic Trajectory

~ T-IOMIP-ETT-G-WIOBOCI-N-T-MC ~ The – Influence Of Money In Politics – Ensures That The – Government – Will Intervene On Behalf Of Corporate Interests – Not – The – Middle Class

RACHEL CARSON ~ SILENT SPRING ~ 1962

~ IWASWV-N-W-N-EA-HSTRONLITSW-TPHDIT ~ It Was A Spring Without Voices – No – Witchcraft – No – Enemy Action – Had Silenced The Rebirth Of New Life In This Stricken World – The People Had Done It Themselves

~ CO-A/E/R/S-W-DAELM-IFTMP-I-T-COE-II-NOITWTMSL-B-ILT-I-FTMP-I ~ Contamination Of – Air / Earth / Rivers / Sea – With – Dangerous And Even Lethal Materials – Is For The Most Part – Irrecoverable – The – Chain Of Evil – It Initiates – Not Only In The World That Must Support Life – But – In Living Tissue – Is – For The Most Part – Irreversible

~ NC-CFOLIA-ES-NCTW-B-AR-S-TA-CTOTLOBE ~ New Chemicals – Come From Our Laboratories In An – Endless Stream – New Chemicals To Which – Bodies – Are Required – Somehow – To Adapt – Chemicals Totally Outside The Limits Of Biologic Experience

~ NC-THTPTK-EI-‘G’-A-‘B’-TTITMBO-AFWOI ~ Nonselective Chemicals – That Have The Power To Kill – Every Insect – “Good” – And – “Bad” – Though The Intended Target May Be Only – A Few Weeds Or Insects

~ TSNBC-‘I’-B-‘B’-STAITTOPAA-AE-PTGCTSOATVMOHUWTSOTFD ~ They Should Not Be Called – “Insecticides” – But – “Biocides” – Substances That Accumulate In The Tissue Of Plants And Animals – And Even – Penetrate The Germ Cells To Shatter Or Alter The Very Material Of Heredity Upon Which The Shape Of The Future Depends

~ HCIBSTCAFUSBAMTCTEEABTTODADETTOK? ~ How Could Intelligent Beings Seek To Control A Few Unwanted Species By A Method That Contaminated The Entire Environment And Brought The Threat Of Disease And Death Even To Their Own Kind?

~ C-MBGT-R-NT-MS-A-TMEMBSTTDNDUAWTI ~ Control – Must Be Geared To – Realities – Not To – Mythical Situations – And – The Methods Employed Must Be Such That They Do Not Destroy Us Along With The Insects

~ S-GF-DNTAOTPBWNW;IIAAAEMCITB ~ Single-Crop Farming – Does Not Take Advantage Of The Principles By Which Nature Works; It Is Agriculture As An Engineer Might Conceive It To Be

~ TSOTODKOOFTNHTINT ~ The Spreading Of Thousands Of Different Kinds Of Organisms From Their Native Homes To Invade New Territories

~ MOTNKINA-B-WDNUI-WTEIOUAEETIOGA-B-WSTTA ~ Much Of The Necessary Knowledge Is Now Available – But – We Do Not Use It – We Train Ecologists In Our Universities And Even Employ Them In Our Governmental Agencies – But – We Seldom Take Their Advice

~ WAT-CDR-TF-ATTWNA-WIF-TAM-A-OICSDMMIGO-HWFIAMSTMUAAITWIIOD-ATHLTWOTVTDTWIG? ~ We Allow The – Chemical Death Rain – To Fall – As Though There Were No Alternative – Whereas In Fact – There Are Many – And – Our Ingenuity Could Soon Discover Many More If Given Opportunity – Have We Fallen Into A Mesmerized State That Makes Us Accept As Inevitable That Which Is Inferior Or Detrimental – As Though Having Lost The Will Or The Vision To Demand That Which Is Good?

~ WHP-PABPC-IITHOPLOWIOTPFH-WHSENOPTCWTPWTCAOWTK-WHATCTBUWLONAIOTEO-S/W/[H]M ~ We Have Put – Poisonous And Biologically Potent Chemicals – Indiscriminately Into The Hands Of Persons Largely Or Wholly Ignorant Of Their Potentials For Harm – We Have Subjected Enormous Numbers Of People To Contact With These Poisons Without Their Consent And Often Without Their Knowledge – We Have Allowed These Chemicals To Be Used With Little Or No Advance Investigation Of Their Effect On – Soil / Water / [Hu]Man

~ FG-AUTCOLOPCF-TIOTNWTSAL ~ Future Generations – Are Unlikely To Condone Our Lack Of Prudent Concern For – The Integrity Of The Natural World That Supports All Life

~ TRTMADAWCISC ~ The Right To Make A Dollar At Whatever Cost Is Seldom Challenged

~ IITPTIBATATR-TPMDWIWTCOTPR-A-ICDSOWIFPOTF ~ It Is The Public That Is Being Asked To Assume The Risks – The Public Must Decide Whether It Wishes To Continue On The Present Road – And – It Can Do So Only When In Full Possession Of The Facts

~ EOD ~ Elixirs Of Death

~ ACOT-SWW-ITCODAOCW-SOTCCITLWFTBLTI ~ A Child Of The – Second World War – In The Course Of Developing Agents Of Chemical Warfare – Some Of The Chemicals Created In The Laboratory Were Found To Be Lethal To Insects

~ NAMDCAATTLEY-IWAGTLSIWTC-EADT-TTITVMOOB-WHBKSATNATP ~ New And More Deadly Chemicals Are Added To The List Each Year – If We Are Going To Live So Intimately With These Chemicals – Eating And Drinking Them – Taking Them Into The Very Marrow Of Our Bones – We Had Better Know Something About Their Nature And Their Power

~ FOOTA-TATLOTFC-A-VSA-MEAA-HC ~ From One Organism To Another – Through All The Links Of The Food Chains – A – Very Small Amount – May End As A Heavy Concentration

~ CAMSTPTA ~ Children Are More Susceptible To Poisoning Than Adults

~ P-TFSOT-DIOC-IAYLK ~ Potentiation – The Full Scope Of The – Dangerous Interaction Of Chemicals – Is As Yet Little Known

~ H-L-I-ISVDC-A-T-CU-ITBTTA-‘S’-CHDR ~ Herbicides – Like – Insecticides – Include Some Very Dangerous Chemicals – And – Their – Careless Use – In The Belief That They Are – “Safe” – Can Have Disastrous Results

~ ‘M’:ACOMTG ~ “Mutagens”: Agents Capable Of Modifying The Genes

~ TPEOWCFMS-TA-LU-I/T/SOE ~ The Pollution Entering Our Waterways Comes From Many Sources – There Are – Little-Understood – Interactions / Transformations / Summations Of Effect

~ PO-GW-I-POWE ~ Pollution Of – GroundWater – Is – Pollution Of Water Everywhere

~ CWST-PWIIW-WNAEI-CON? ~ Can We Suppose That – Poisons We Introduce Into Water – Will Not Also Enter Into – Cycles Of Nature?

~ CWUA-NF-WAK-TF-TITRO-T-IABA-TATTIENFTS? ~ Can We Use A – Nonspecific Fungicide – Without Also Killing – The Fungi – That Inhabit The Roots Of – Trees – In A Beneficial Association – That Aids The Tree In Extracting Nutrients From The Soil?

~ CC-STHPOTATTSCAWSAAOI-TVNOTWOTSHBLI ~ Chemical Control – Seems To Have Proceeded On The Assumption That The Soil Could And Would Sustain Any Amount Of Insult – The Very Nature Of The World Of The Soil Has Been Largely Ignored

~ SMA-OAPOY-MBUFQIS ~ Seemingly Moderate Applications – Over A Period Of Years – May Build Up Fantastic Quantities In Soil

~ NO-IP-B-SWA ~ Not Only – Improperly Planned – But – Studded With Abuses

~ IT-EON-NV-HIEP ~ In The – Economy Of Nature – Natural Vegetation – Has Its Essential Place

~ B-DH-O-‘W’ ~ Bees – Depend Heavily – On – “Weeds”

~ TDTHATFOW-IPWITLRT-DK ~ To Destroy The Homes And The Food Of Wildlife – Is Perhaps Worse In The Long Run Than – Direct Killing

~ SS-MTAOCA-PH-KTAM ~ Selective Spraying – Minimizes The Amount Of Chemical Applied – Potential Harm – Kept To A Minimum

~ TQI-WAC-CWRWOL-WDI-A-WLTRTBCC ~ The Question Is – Whether Any Civilization – Can Wage Relentless War On Life – Without Destroying Itself – And – Without Losing The Right To Be Called Civilized

~ TATEWP ~ The Authoritarians Temporarily Entrusted With Power

~ ROD ~ Rivers Of Death

~ WMMWUO-AM-TANK-A-WMDOIARTDO ~ We Must Make Wider Use Of – Alternative Methods – That Are Now Known – And – We Must Devote Our Ingenuity And Resources To Developing Others

~ IFTS ~ Indiscriminately From The Skies

~ TF-H-CTA ~ The Facts – However – Continue To Accumulate

~ UO-PITK-IMB-AAE ~ Use Of Poisons – In The Kitchen – Is Made Both – Attractive And Easy

~ WOL-IIST ~ Warnings On Labels – Inconspicuously In Small Type

~ THP ~ The Human Price

~ I/I ~ Interrelationship / Interdependence

~ A-HB-U-A-LA-URCC-INETOCA ~ A – Human Being – Unlike – A – Laboratory Animal – Under Rigidly Controlled Conditions – Is Never Exposed To One Chemical Alone

~ TEO-ACOSIN-CBDC-B-TAOA ~ The Effect Of – A Chemical Of Supposedly Innocuous Nature – Can Be Drastically Changed – By – The Action Of Another

~ TT-GROOI-BO-ASOAMMDO ~ Trying To – Get Rid Of One Insect – Brought On – A Scourge Of A Much More Destructive One

~ ATEVO-A-IA ~ A Truly Extraordinary Variety Of – Alternatives – Is Available

ROWAN JACOBSEN ~ FRUITLESS FALL ~ 2008

~ WHHTTB-TBHETFOANCB-DB-S-VB?-N-S-TMDSSATC-T-ATW ~ Whatever Had Happened To These Bees – They’d Been Healthy Enough To Fly Off And Not Come Back – Dead Bees – Sure – Vanished Bees? – No – Sir – The Mysterious Deaths Soon Spread Across The Country – Then – Around The World

~ MPOETCRWT ~ Most Plants On Earth Today Can’t Reproduce Without Them

~ OT-TT-SOB-OOHBATAON-DAWHCAI-TII-AM-T-HB-TOL-FWUS-MOTIFC-OITB ~ Of The – Twenty Thousand – Species Of Bees – Only One Has Become A True Artisan Of Nectar – Developing A Worldwide Human Culture Around Itself – That Insect Is – Apis Mellifera – The – Honey Bee – This One Life-Form Wound Up Shouldering – Much Of The Industrial Food Chain – On Its Tiny Back

~ IF-A-IA-HCTDWP-A-AECWGONC-IHBFTRMAMHO-B ~ In Fact – As – Industrial Agriculture – Has Come To Dominate World Production – And – As Exotic Crops Were Grown On New Continents – It Has Been Forced To Rely More And More Heavily On – Bees

~ BCDTNOCC ~ Bees Can Do Things No Other Creature Can

~ HBPHBCIEAA ~ Honey Bee Populations Have Been Crashing In Europe And America

~ STSHANAVAIC:CCD ~ Soon The Syndrome Had A Name As Vague As Its Cause: Colony Collapse Disorder

~ IASWTFG-BNALAI-WHBACACATROPRAACWTTSBNB-WAIJH-A-WGOH-ITCB-FWF-WCNLCOT-A-TANOOTB ~ It’s A System We’ve Taken For Granted – Because Nature Always Looked After It – We Have Been As Clueless And Complacent About The Realities Of Plant Reproduction As A Child Who Thinks That Storks Bring New Babies – We Assumed It Just Happened – And – Would Go On Happening – If The Crops Bloomed – Fruit Would Follow – We Can No Longer Count On That – And – There Are No Options Other Than Bees

~ 80%-OTFWPIOM-ROP-SDTL ~ 80 Percent – Of The Food We Put In Our Mouths – Relies On Pollination – Somewhere Down The Line

~ OT-250,000SOP-TSOW-TQ-ROWPTR ~ Of The – 250,000 Species Of Plants – That Share Our World – Three Quarters – Rely On Wild Pollinators To Reproduce

~ INAINOSTCC ~ It’s Not As If No One Saw This Crisis Coming

~ H-CSOTOPF-AWANOFBTBA ~ Honey – Carries Some Of The Original Plant Flavors – As Well As New Ones Formed By The Bees’ Alchemy

~ S-P-B-NOIESW-IMPBFDEOAP-MTVS ~ Smoke – Pacifies – Bees – No One Is Entirely Sure Why – It May Prevent Bees From Detecting Each Other’s Alarm Pheromones – Messages Transmitted Via Scent

~ FAB-NF-M-NF ~ For A Bee – No Flowers – Means – No Food

~ W-HB-MOTILI-TC-N-TI ~ With – Honey Bees – Most Of The Intelligence Lies In – The Colony – Not – The Individual

~ L-NAS-P-IFOCT-QN:MP-P-F/V/M-HIADFB:PIASAGO ~ Like – Nuts And Seeds – Pollen – Is Full Of Complex Top-Quality Nutrients: Mostly Protein – Plus – Fats / Vitamins / Minerals – Honey Is A Doughnut For Breakfast; Pollen Is A Spinach And Garlic Omelet

~ IA-SO-T-TQ-AC-A-DOW-T-S-ATA-TB-M/L/S/A/D/I-O-L-CBETTT-FL-OC-SEOT-A-TBMOTHBD

~ It’s A – SuperOrganism – That – Thinks Quickly – Adapts Constantly – And – Depends On Wisdom – To – Survive – Anything That Affects – The Bee’s – Memory / Learning / Senses / Appetite / Digestion / Instincts – Or – Lifespan – Can Be Enough To Throw Those – Feedback Loops – Off Course – Skew Enough Of Them – And – The Beautiful Mathematics Of The Hive Break Down

~ VM-KMOHBC-MV-IHCOTW ~ Varroa Mites – Killed Millions Of Honey Bee Colonies – Most Varroa-Infested Hives Collapse Over The Winter

~ HDYKOA(TM)-WKTO(TB)?-THITOTMAG-TBWR ~ How Do You Kill One Arthropod (The Mites) – Without Killing The Other (The Bees)? – The Hope Is That Once The Mites Are Gone – The Bees Will Recover

~ V-I-N-B-IA-TWFMITDTITHH-SDWSBEAWGU-BSOTSOLH-YCAYHACKA-PPB-P-PB-WBRI? ~ Varroa – Is – Nasty – But – If Anything – There Were Fewer Mites In The Deadouts Than In The Healthy Hives – Same Disaster Was Striking Beekeepers Everywhere And Was Going Unreported – Beekeepers Speak Of The Stigma Of Losing Hives – Your Colleagues Assume You Have A Condition Known As – PPB – Piss-Poor Beekeeping – Why Bother Reporting It?

~ TWD-TYB-DAR-T-WC-WE-WAATH-TBDHOD-THTA-THSAT-B-AIDS-BWOEWR?-BWOEWR? ~ This Was Different – The Young Bees – Didn’t Act Right – They – Wouldn’t Cluster – Wouldn’t Eat – Wandered Aimlessly Around The Honeycomb – The Bees Didn’t Have One Disease – They Had Them All – They Had Something Akin To – Bee – AIDS – But What On Earth Was Responsible?

~ H-LCWLATABITW ~ Healthy-Looking Colonies Were Losing All Their Adult Bees In Two Weeks

~ ESA-RABTPI-N-IWAQOWTHEBTMTWA ~ Every Single Almond – Requires A Bee To Pollinate It – Now – It Was A Question Of Whether They Had Enough Bees To Make The World’s Almonds

~ HFIWHBITCHTOTB-CP-TT:ER-TBAOBAITNA-GM(GM)CGTSOT-B-ATAT-LW-TDPO ~ How Fitting It Would Have Been If The Culprit Had Turned Out To Be Cell Phones – The Theory: Electromagnetic Radiation – Tweaks Bees’ Antennae Or Brains And Impairs Their Navigation Abilities – Genetically Modified (GM) Crops Got Their Share Of The – Blame – As Tantalizing As The – Leads Were – They Didn’t Pan Out

~ TBHNJD;TD ~ The Bees Had Not Just Died; They’d Disappeared

~ MTGSA-AD-AA ~ Microwave Towers Got Some Attention – As Did – Alien Abduction

~ FAW-OB-BTWI ~ For A While – Organic Beekeepers – Believed They Were Immune

~ VM-DMBFOAD-PTMBUTFVWI-STCHBU-TLSOMQBHBCIH-YWTC-HDSAA ~ Varroa Mites – Didn’t Make Bees Fly Off And Disappear – Perhaps The Miticides Beekeepers Used To Fight Varroa Were Involved – Since The Chemicals Have Been Used – The Life Span Of Many Queen Bees Has Been Cut In Half – Yet Without The Chemicals – Hives Don’t Survive At All

~ EBGWTA-P-WI-B-CCD-STBT ~ Everyone’s Best Guess Was That A – Pathogen – Was Involved – Because – CCD – Seemed To Be Transmissible

~ TIPOI:AHBASEHDL ~ The Important Piece Of Information: All Honey Bees Are Suffering Extraordinarily High Disease Loads

~ ANGOPCT-N-CA-NP-AIOTP-O-ASN ~ A New Group Of Pesticides Called The – Neonicotinoids – Came Along – Nerve Poisons – An Improvement Over Traditional Pesticides – Organophsphates – Are So Noxious

~ TTOPTHBINN-ABPTTTOP-TWTFGAFP-MCGCITCC ~ The Threat Of Pesticides To Honey Bees Is Nothing New – As Bees Performed The Thankless Task Of Pollination – They Were Taken For Granted And Frequently Poisoned – Many Colonies Get Caught In The Chemical Crossfire

~ MBD ~ Mad Bee Disease

~ OA-CE-DCDEBC-MTBTCWTN? ~ Only After – Chronic Exposure – Do Cigarettes’ Deadly Effects Become Clear – Might That Be The Case With The Neonicotinoids?

~ TLIMSIPTWCHI-A-TDGAACAWTTD ~ The Land Is More Soaked In Pesticides Than We Could Have Imagined – And – They Don’t Go Away As Completely As We Thought They Did

~ CC-DTFIAA-NOD-TC-ABMEDITWFAS ~ Chemical Conglomerates – Don’t Test For Interactions At All – No One Does – Toxic Cocktails – Are Being Mixed Every Day In The World’s Fields And Streams

~ ETBTWE-CCD-SWRWV ~ Even The Bees That Weren’t Exhibiting – CCD – Symptoms Were Rife With Viruses

~ BALT-A-WBTHAT-GTH ~ Bees Are Living Things – And – When Beekeepers Think Holistically About Them – Good Things Happen

~ LAL-HB-R-GP-A-TWFAFBF ~ Like Any Livestock – Healthy Bees – Require – Good Pasture – And – That’s What Fewer And Fewer Bees Find

~ WPY-B-MAD-RB-WTCCHAT-M/F/A-ARN? ~ Why Spend Years – Breeding – Mite- And Disease-Resistant Bees – When The Chemical Conglomerates Have All These – Miticides / Fungicides / Antibiotics – Available Right Now?

~ MSF-R-IO-E-MBS-FW-A-‘ETU’-OATCOS-TG ~ Managing Systems For – Resilience – Instead Of – Efficiency – Maintaining Backup Systems – Fire Walls – And – “Expecting The Unexpected” – Often At The Cost Of Short-Term Gain

~ U-LA-R-GA-TWABAP ~ Until – Local Agriculture – Replaces – Global Agriculture – There Will Always Be Another Parasite

~ DIN ~ Diversity Is Needed

~ WBST-P-LT-PC-TA ~ We’d Better Start Treating – Pollinators – Like The – Precious Commodity – They Are

~ TINSTAUNL ~ There Is No Such Thing As Unproductive Natural Land

HA-JOON CHANG ~ SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ C:TMKAPATC-SLIA ~ Classical: The Market Keeps All Producers Alert Through Competition – So Leave It Alone

~ N-C:IKWTAD~ Neo-Classical: Individuals Know What They Are Doing – So Leave Them Alone – Except When Markets Malfunction

~ M: CIAPVFEP-B-IWC-APPOBAOTFP ~ Marxist: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle For Economic Progress – But – It Will Collapse – As Private Property Ownership Becomes An Obstacle To Further Progress

~ DT:BECDITLTETTM ~ Developmentalist Tradition: Backward Economies Can’t Develop If They Leave Things Entirely To The Market

~ A:NOKE-SLEA ~ Austrian: No One Knows Enough – So Leave Everyone Alone

~ (N)-S:CIAPVOEP-B-IWA-AFBLAMB ~ (Neo)-Schumpeterian: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle Of Economic Progress – But – It Will Atrophy – As Firms Become Larger And More Bureaucratic

~ K:WIGFIMNBGFTWE ~ Keynesian: What Is Good For Individuals May Not Be Good For The Whole Economy

~ I:OAN?:IAPOTS-ETTMCIR ~ Institutionalist – Old And New?: Individuals Are Products Of Their Society – Even Though They May Change Its Rules

~ B:WANSE-SWNTDCOOFOCT-R ~ Behaviouralist: We Are Not Smart Enough – So We Need To Deliberately Constrain Our Own Freedom Of Choice Through – Rules