MICHAEL SANDEL ~ THE TYRANNY OF MERIT ~ 2020

~ WBOTCG? ~ What’s Become Of The Common Good?

~ WNTAWTSTOFP-ITLMFB-TPOM-O-TSACGBTSATS ~ We Need To Ask Whether The Solution To Our Fractious Politics – Is To Live More Faithfully By – The Principle Of Merit – Or – To Seek A Common Good Beyond The Sorting And The Striving

~ B-TRORNRH-ITE-IINETR-MWNERTTMC ~ But – The Rhetoric Of Rising Now Rings Hollow – In Today’s Economy – It Is Not Easy To Rise – Most Will Not Even Rise To The Middle Class

~ T-TCWT-HM-TTBTWT-GE-TATR-IS-DLO-TSOP-TOAT=E=HC-A-OR-TEPTSITWOW ~ Today – The Countries With The – Highest Mobility – Tend To Be Those With The – Greatest Equality – The Ability To Rise – It Seems – Depends Less On – The Spur Of Poverty – Than On Access To – Education – Health Care – And – Other Resources – That Equip People To Succeed In The World Of Work

~ ASRTTGBRAPMRDWIOPAW-RT-RCWTPOHPSUALWRGFAFA ~ Any Serous Response To The Gap Between Rich And Poor Must Reckon Directly With Inequalities Of Power And Wealth – Rather Than – Rest Content With The Project Of Helping People Scramble Up A Ladder Whose Rungs Grow Father And Farther Apart

~ M-IIUWTTDTORTM-DSLOTS-TWCTMI-A-MITCOTPP-OTMQ-TAISMPP:TMAATMEP-ATWAAATL-ATW-IGH-ATL-HAR ~ Morally – It Is Unclear Why The Talented Deserve The Outsize Rewards That Market-Driven Societies Lavish On The Successful – Those Who Celebrate The Meritocratic Ideal – And – Make It The Center Of Their Political Project – Overlook This Moral Question – They Also Ignore Something More Politically Potent: The Morally Attractive Attitudes The Meritocratic Ethic Promotes – Among The Winners And Also Among The Losers – Among The Winners – It Generates Hubris – Among The Losers – Humiliation And Resentment

~ TPCIATTOM-A-TCIJ ~ The Populist Complaint Is About The Tyranny Of Merit – And – The Complaint Is Justified

~ TNT-TSR-TAHW-ETW-TCTSTOD-AMOTV-A-TLDUTLFTT-MH-RTTOWTITDOTS-TFT-CAGF-THTOTW-IIT-SC-OT-WLOT-TTDTF-A-T-TOTB-DTT ~ The Notion That – The System Rewards – Talent And Hard Work – Encourages The Winners – To Consider Their Success Their Own Doing – A Measure Of Their Virtue – And – To Look Down Upon Those Less Fortunate Than Themselves – Meritocratic Hubris – Reflects The Tendency Of Winners To Inhale Too Deeply Of Their Success – To Forget The – Luck And Good Fortune – That Helped Them On Their Way – It Is The – Smug Conviction – Of Those – Who Land On Top – That They Deserve Their Fate – And – That – Those On The Bottom – Deserve Theirs Too

~ T- T-CG-IUMI-ET-IILACSODTBOC-TA-SCP-AMBT-GDP-TMFA-IPD ~ Today – The – Common Good – Is Understood Mainly In – Economic Terms – It Is Less About Cultivating Solidarity Or Deepening The Bonds Of Citizenship – Than About – Satisfying Consumer Preferences – As Measured By The – Gross Domestic Product – This Makes For An – Impoverished Public Discourse

~ WPF-PA-TD-CEO-NMTT-WINO-OE-SM-IWPTPOAWRL-C-ATPS-FT-EPD-FAD-TRSTTAO-RPD-DNMTNPABD-ISMTABDE-OOPV-B-AA(OCBTITR)-B-CBABM-B-CL-W-CC-BIWPO ~ What Passes For – Political Argument – These Days – Consists Either Of – Narrow Managerial Technocratic Talk – Which Inspires No One – Or Else – Shouting Matches – In Which Partisans Talk Past One Another Without Really Listening – Citizens – Across The Political Spectrum – Find This – Empty Public Discourse – Frustrating And Disempowering – They Rightly Sense That The Absence Of – Robust Public Debate – Does Not Mean That No Policies Are Being Decided – It Simply Means They Are Being Decided Elsewhere – Out Of Public View – By – Administrative Agencies (Often Captured By The Industries They Regulate) – By – Central Banks And Bond Markets – By – Corporate Lobbyists – Whose – Campaign Contributions – Buy Influence With Public Officials

~ FD-O-M-DG-H-HOPD-DOC-A-PAPB ~ Four Decades – Of – Market-Driven Globalization – Have – Hollowed Out Public Discourse – Disempowered Ordinary Citizens – And – Prompted A Populist Backlash

~ B-IIOTTHPRFAM;IISETATWA-EOU-WRFOLIL ~ But – It Is One Thing To Hold People Responsible For Acting Morally; It Is Something Else To Assume That We Are – Each Of Us – Wholly Responsible For Our Lot In Life

~ TNTOFROM-RDIT-MI-O-WC-IRTBTTMUIAIAWTAPWMASWW-T-MWOT-GRTHATTWSM-TMATS-TGTSTTVHBIOH[H]~ The Notion That Our Fate Reflects Our Merit – Runs Deep In The – Moral Intuitions – Of – Western Culture – It Reflects The Belief That The Moral Universe Is Arranged In A Way That Aligns Prosperity With Merit And Suffering With Wrongdoing – This – Meritocratic Way Of Thinking – Gives Rise To Harsh Attitudes Toward Those Who Suffer Misfortune – The More Acute The Suffering – The Greater The Suspicion That The Victim Has Brought It On Himself[/Herself]

~ MOTF-TS-WFL-AAFAMPOV ~ Many Of The Factors – That Separate – Winners From Losers – Are Arbitrary From A Moral Point Of View

~ TMWVOAS-MAS-S-TLLWATCFTFOTLFTO-IMSIMOD-TFMBTF-TLMMCOC-TSANOPRFOFMIHTIOIOPS ~ The More We View Ourselves As Self-Made And Self-Sufficient – The Less Likely We Are To Care For The Fate Of Those Less Fortunate Than Ourselves – If My Success Is My Own Doing – Their Failure Must Be Their Fault – This Logic Makes Meritocracy Corrosive Of Commonality – Too Strenuous A Notion Of Personal Responsibility For Our Fate Makes It Hard To Imagine Ourselves In Other People’s Shoes

~ TROR ~ The Rhetoric Of Responsibility

~ FD-ME-ITMT-TW-WHAPBTR-CRAFATTWTT-TDNNTFT-SATBOSTSA-T-ROR-WLAPTAT ~ For Decades – Meritocratic Elites – Intoned The Mantra That – Those Who – Work Hard And Play By The Rules – Can Rise As Far As Their Talents Will Take Them – They Did Not Notice That For Those – Stuck At The Bottom Or Struggling To Stay Afloat – The – Rhetoric Of Rising – Was Less A Promise Than A Taunt

~ C:TLAP ~ Credentialism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice

~ ‘SVD’- BTD-EOI-C-L-‘JVU’-O-‘RVW’ ~ “Smart Versus Dumb” – Began To Displace – Ethical Or Ideological – Contrasts – Like – “Just Versus Unjust” – Or – “Right Versus Wrong”

~ T-‘STTD’-A-PTA-POS-IR-TDNDO-MC ~ The – “Smart Thing To Do” – Always – Pointed To A – Prudential Or Self-Interested Reason – That Did Not Depend On – Moral Considerations

~ TNT-‘TBATB’-ABAG-TT-L-C-FC-I-AMBOMH ~ The Notion That – “The Best And The Brightest” – Are – Better At Governing – Than Their – Less-Credentialed – Fellow Citizens – Is – A Myth Born Of Meritocratic Hubris

~ P-TO-RW-I-RME ~ Parties – That Once – Represented Workers – Increasingly – Represented Meritocratic Elites

~ WMFAMITEHAECTCTLOS;IHNTSAHFATROTLSB-T-MI-INA-ROI-IIA-JOI ~ What Matters For A Meritocracy Is That Everyone Has An Equal Chance To Climb The Ladder Of Success; It Has Nothing To Say About How Far Apart The Rungs On The Ladder Should Be – The – Meritocratic Ideal – Is Not A – Remedy Of Inequality – It Is A – Justification Of Inequality

~ AT-AOG-BRWTT-W-C-IDNFMOW-PI-B-WRASASSOWTP-W-EASCALS ~ Although The – Age Of Globalization – Brought Rich Rewards To – The Well-Credentialed – It Did Not Nothing For Most Ordinary Workers – Productivity Increased – But – Workers Reaped A Smaller And Smaller Share Of What They Produced – While – Executives And Shareholders Captured A Larger Share

~ OTLSD-TIT-TMWMRTVOOSC-HBDE ~ Over The Last Several Decades – The Idea That – The Money We Make Reflects The Value Of Our Social Contribution – Has Become Deeply Embedded

~ M-FA-HRTP-EG-TDPATEI-SP-MTDOTWEAL-P-U-GAS-IT-RE ~Much – Financial Activity – Hinders Rather Than Promotes – Economic Growth – The Disproportionate Prestige Accorded Those Engaged In – Speculative Pursuits – Mocks The Dignity Of Those Who Earn A Living – Producing – Useful – Goods And Services – In The – Real Economy

~ A-PA-TRT-DOW-WUT-TS-TRTEOEB-DS-A-HPL ~ A – Political Agenda – That Recognizes The – Dignity Of Work – Would Use The – Tax System – To Reconfigure The Economy Of Esteem By – Discouraging Speculation – And – Honoring Productive Labor

MARCEL DANESI ~ THE ART OF THE LIE ~ 2020

~ SLAD-THTATTWIWTCDPAEO ~ Skilful Liars Are Dangerous – They Have The Ability To Twist Words Into Weapons That Can Divide People Against Each Other

~ DPEAIAOTAOAAC? ~ Do Political Expediency And Ideological Agendas Override Truth And Objectivity At Any Cost?

~ TSOLLFUTTD-LIATFITFOAP ~ The Stories Of Legendary Liars Fascinate Us To This Day – Lying Is A Theme Found In The Folklore Of All Peoples

~ TH-DBTALHBACOOPAT ~ Throughout History – Distinguishing Between Truth And Lies Has Been A Central Objective Of Philosophy And Theology

~ P-ANOTIHH-H-M-FSAFG-F-SPAH-AITCWO-SM ~ Perhaps – At Not Other Time In Human History – Has – Mendacity – Found Such A Fertile Ground – For – Stoking Prejudice And Hatred – As In The Contemporary World Of – Social Media

~ TINRWANFI ~ There Is No Reality Without A Name For It

~ TD-ATUO-L-TAMOI-TASTBRTNTT-IT-L ~ Truthful Discourse – And The Use Of – Logic – To Argue Matters Of Importance – These Are Still The Best Remedies To Neutralize The Tactics – In The – Lie

~ SA-UAV-DWFTNM-TSTFL ~ Semantic Ambiguity – Uncertainty And Vagueness – Disconnecting Words From Their Normal Meanings – To Snatch Truth From Language

~ FE ~ False Equivalency

~ WAH-DIB-TCAF-TIWG-F-SI ~ We All Harbor – Deeply Ingrained Beliefs – That Color And Filter – The Information We Glean – From – Social Interactions

~ CN-APTO-MC-STADTS-DEB ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Are Powerful Tools Of – Mind Control – Since They Are Designed To Stoke – Deeply Engrained Beliefs

~ CN-ROTBPO-M-NHBA-NIAIS-EIC ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Rely On Three Basic Principles Of – Mythos – Nothing Happens By Accident – Nothing Is As It Seems – Everything Is Connected

~ CN-WP-BTABO-ASUOM ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Work Psychologically – Because They Are Based On – A Strategic Use Of Metaphor

~ LC-A-I-TAPATWOT-‘E’-ATED ~ Logical Counterarguments – Are – Ineffectual – Because They Are Perceived As The Words Of The – “Enemy” – And Thus Easily Dismissed

~ TIN-MC-W-VC ~ There Is No – Mind Control – Without – Vocabulary Control

~ CS ~ Confabulated Stories

~ OOT-PT-O-PR:TAO-‘O’ ~ One Of The – Primary Tactics – Of – Political Repression: The Attack On – “Otherness”

~ “Enemies From Within”

WAL-STBD-I-TSII-TLIPAI-A-ITUSWSMBHFU ~ We Are All – Susceptible To Being Deceived – If – The Story Is Interesting – The Language Is Persuasive And Immediate – And – It Tells Us Something We Suspect May Be Hidden From Us

~ IAIR ~ Innuendo And Indirect Reference

~ PAMT-ED-B-WAG ~ People Are Much Too – Easily Deceived – By – Words And Gifts

~ S-B-TM-A-ATH-DAKO-A-RM ~ Saying – B – To Mean – A – And Then – Denying Any Knowledge Of – A’s – Real Meaning

~ TGP ~ The Great Pretender

~ B-TDIT-WLTA ~ But – The Danger Is That – Words Lead To Actions

~ CW-CHWP-T ~ Changing Words – Changes How We Perceive – Things

~ AN ~ AttackoNyms

~ HCALCSEAL-P-A/D-DA-TM-ML-IA-MP ~ How Can A Liar Call Someone Else A Liar – Projection – Attack / Defensive – Deflect Attention – The Master – Machiavellian Liar – Is A – Master Projector

~ D/D/D ~ Denial / Deflection / Distraction

~ ‘W’-AODC-B-CT-OO-OTSTOWTAAY-WRTIAODIIAW ~ “Whataboutism” – Attack Or Discredit Critics – By – Charging Them – Or Others – Of The Same Thing Of Which They Are Accusing You – Without Refuting The Initial Attack Or Disproving It In Any Way

~ LCTWWSTIOM ~ Language Conditions The Way We See Things In Our Mind

~ TFO-BD-IS-DE-TIIET-DTF-OE-ETA-IS-S-I-W-TTAT ~ The Feeling Of – Being Duped – Is So – Destructive Emotionally – That It Is Easier To – Deny The Facts – Or Else – Explain Them Away – In Some – Self-Illusory – Way – Than To Accept Them

JEFF FAUX ~ THE SERVANT ECONOMY ~ 2012

~ FASTCPO-WASATDODF ~ For A Society That Constantly Promotes Optimism – We Are Surprisingly Addicted To Depictions Of Dystopian Futures

~ M-DE-T-CNHBF-A-RTWCA ~ Major – Dislocating Events – That – Could Not Have Been Foretold – Are – Rarer Than We Commonly Acknowledge

~ HACS-DNATT-TW-‘E’ ~ History And Common Sense – Did Not Apply To Them – They Were – “Exceptional”

~ B-TWDTEOTC-DNEUSOPB ~ But – Those Who Drove The Economy Off The Cliff – Did Not End Up Sleeping On Park Benches

~ TCFPASSFTFHCFTGTTWGTNF ~ The Call For Patience And Shared Sacrifice For The Future Has Costs For The Governed That Those Who Govern Typically Never Face

~ WTFW-A-U-W-TBOA-FB-O-A-ED-O-COO-HBGAFT-TATT-T-GC-PNTDOI-PM-R-IUUTMOTA-BT ~ Whether The Folly Was – An – Unnecessary – War – The Bursting Of A – Financial Bubble – Or – An – Environmental Disaster – Our – Culture Of Optimism – Has Been Generous And Forgiving To – Those At The Top – The – Governing Class – Prefers Not To Dwell On Its – Past Mistakes – Rather – It Urges Us To Move On To A – Better Tomorrow

~ YDBAMOT-GC-B-CTSQ ~ You Don’t Become A Member Of The – Governing Class – By – Challenging The Status Quo

~ TROGIFM-NLWTRT-CTTOTMTSAB-NWITDTBBTP-IWT-IOATDHBD-DTRO-L-F-TGRITERC-B-TRHC-IPNW-TIATDHC-T-PUTP-PTBT-A-HTROTCPFTD ~ The Role Of Government In Financial Markets – No Longer Was That Role To – Control The Tendency Of The Markets Toward Speculative Asset Bubbles – Nor Was It To Diffuse The Bubbles Before They Popped – It Was To – Intervene Only After The Damage Had Been Done – Despite The Rhetoric Of – Laissez-Faire – The Government’s Role In The Economy Remained Critical – But – That Role Had Changed – Its Purpose Now Was – To Intervene After The Damage Had Occurred – To – Pick Up The Pieces – Put Them Back Together – And – Have The Rest Of The Country Pay For The Damage

~ T-HFDALTI-IA-EUM ~ That – High Federal Deficits Always Lead To Inflation – Is An – Economic Urban Myth

~ T-L-BAIF-A-TBTF-TGTM-A-TPTR ~ The – Largest – Banks And Investment Firms – Are – Too Big To Fail – Too Global To Monitor – And – Too Powerful To Regulate

~ PS-B-D-I-LA-STBPW-TW-WBEMOADCT-S-E ~ Personal Service – By – Definition – Is – Largely About – Satisfying The Boss’s Personal Whims – The Workplace – Will Become Even More Of A Daily Challenge To – Self-Esteem

~ WCET-M-B/T/H-W-FOB ~ We Can Expect That – More – Bridges / Tunnels / Highways – Will – Fall Or Breakdown

~ NOD-YBYJ-OT-YTTSTEWTTLOTWYD ~ Not Only Do – You Become Your Job – Over Time – You Tend To See The Economic World Through The Lens Of The Work You Do

~ N-EP-TI-DO-M-F-T-RR-A-T-GC-WATAOET ~ No – Established Party – That Is – Dependent On – Money – From – The – Reactionary Rich – And – The – Globalizing Corporations – Will Act To Alter Our Economic Trajectory

~ T-IOMIP-ETT-G-WIOBOCI-N-T-MC ~ The – Influence Of Money In Politics – Ensures That The – Government – Will Intervene On Behalf Of Corporate Interests – Not – The – Middle Class

BARBARA EHRENREICH ~ HAD I KNOWN ~ 2020

~ T-TIWFWAMONOTE=WF-B-P-W-OO-‘CP-TONTBPOTBP ~ True – The Internet Was Filled With A Multiplicity Of New Outlets To Write For – But – Paying – Writers – Or Other – “Content Providers” – Turned Out Not To Be Part Of Their Business Plan

~ TITRFOJT:NM-D-A-YA-B-L-WWADSPWCMUETESOT-A/PE/V-TWTD-MLFAOTCTCODT-TIOJ-IJ ~ This Is The Real Face Of Journalism Today: Not Million-Dollar-A-Year Anchorpersons – But – Low-Wage Workers And Downwardly Spiralling Professionals Who Cant Muster Up Expenses To Even Start On The – Articles / Photo Essays / Videos – They Want To Do – Much Less Find An Outlet To Cover The Costs Of Doing Them – This Impoverishment Of Journalists – Impoverishes Journalism

~ WCTF-LAL-ITM-A-TPWW-FPTP ~ We Come To Find – Less And Less – In The Media – About – The People Who Work – From Paycheck To Paycheck

~ BA-ASP-DNSI ~ Burying An – Aching Social Problem – Does Not Solve It

~ B-IIRPTMALOTKOJCATUP? ~ But – Is It Really Possible To Make A Living On The Kinds Of Jobs Currently Available To Unskilled People?

~ AT-OA-SJ-I-‘SW’-ITC-S/S/S/R/R ~ A Third – Of A – Server’s Job – Is – “Side Work” – Invisible To Customers – Sweeping / Scrubbing / Slicing / Refilling / Restocking

~ CWTPTM-SWTSTG-B-MATFOOR-TMSTMIMFSTETEFA ~ Cooks Want To Prepare Tasty Meals – Servers Want To Serve Them Graciously – But – Mangers Are There For Only One Reason – To Make Sure That Money Is Made For Some Theoretical Entity That Exists Far Away

~ MCS-FHAATITW-B-ITJTSTNOEED-EWTNTD-A-TIW-FS-STCBAEAR ~ Mangers Can Sit – For Hours At A Time If They Want – But – It’s Their Job To See That No One Else Ever Does – Even When There’s Nothing To Do – And – This Is Why – For Servers – Slow Times Can Be As Exhausting As Rushes

~ A-BR-IN-AR-ICBTA ~ A – Break Room – Is Not – A Right – It Can Be Taken Away

~ G-WSTM-ETAT-MS ~ Gossip – Which Seems To Mean – Employees Talking Among Themselves – Must Stop

~ IP-AICPIP-SCAE ~ In Poverty – As In Certain Propositions In Physics – Starting Conditions Are Everything

~ TAN-SETNTP-OTC-TAAHOSC ~ There Are No – Secret Economies That Nourish The Poor – On The Contrary – There Are A Host Of Special Costs

~ T-RP-AUTWOHT-A-OI-B-TIASVSM-S/PT/TP-TBFTC-WME-ALOOOH ~ The – Regulation Poster – Admonishes Us To Wash Our Hands Thoroughly – And – Offers Instructions – But – There Is Always Some Vital Substance Missing – Soap / Paper Towels / Toilet Paper – Too Bad For The Customers – Who Must Eat – Almost Literally Out Of Our Hands

~ B-F-TCTU-WWCETSKOAOPTOBEOU ~ But – Fortunately – The Commercial Tells Us – We Workers Can Exert The Same Kind Of Authority Over Our Painkillers That Our Bosses Exert Over Us

~ ORFOTMAL-WW-TCOP-WA-IAAC-FTSAFACFTWTDATWTP ~ One Redeeming Feature Of The Most Abject Low-Wage Work – The Camaraderie Of People – Who Are – In Almost All Cases – Far Too Smart And Funny And Caring For The Work They Do And The Wages They’re Paid

~ PHBAMCTOOT-A-WBTTTPTASGTH-NM-NFIHP-A-NASOPC? ~ Punishment Has Become A Major Cultural Theme Of Our Time – And – Who Better To Take The Punishment Than A Social Group That Has – No Money – No Friends In High Places – And – Not A Speck Of Political Clout?

~ B-WAKT-‘WR’-M-I-PE-TSHGTBP ~ But – We All Know That – “Welfare Reform” – Means – In – Plain English – That Someone Has Got To Be Punished

~ WIISH-F-TPATT-T-GATDOTLOO? ~ Why Is It So Hard – For – The People At The Top – To – Graciously Acknowledge Their Dependency On The Labor Of Others?

~ IINACTBP? ~ Is It Now A Crime To Be Poor?

~ The – Safety Net – Or – What’s Left Of It – Has Been Transformed Into A Dragnet

~ IWCATTHTP-NCSATGOTT ~ If We Can’t Afford To Truly Help The Poor – Neither Can We Afford To Go On Tormenting Them

~ ML-F-WTCW-TT-WTBDQ ~ Manual Labor – From – Waitressing To Construction Work – Tends To – Wear The Body Down Quickly

~ TWOD ~ The Wages Of Despair

~ TEO-R-B-ITT-BC-I-AROP-N-AIOATTRA-B-ANMITLC-L-MOGH ~ The Effect Of – Relentless – Brightsiding – Is To Transform – Breast Cancer – Into – A Rite Of Passage – Not – An Injustice Or A Tragedy To Rail Against – But – A Normal Marker In The Life Cycle – Like – Menopause Or Graying Hair

~ IOU-TVIO-EC-TMCE-WOHDOCAD-A-WTO-O-E-ST-PT ~ Ignoring Or Underemphasizing – The Vexing Issue Of – Environmental Causes – The Multinational Corporate Enterprise – With One Hand Doles Out Carcinogens And Disease – And – With The Other – Offers – Expensive – SemiToxic – Pharmaceutical Treatments

~ T-MT-O-‘S’-DTDATD-DWHL-‘F’-HTTWD?-CWCTB-‘B’-B-P-T-TD? ~ The – Mindless Triumphalism – Of – “Surviorhood” – Denigrates The Dead And The Dying – Did We Who Live – “Fight” – Harder Than Those Who’ve Died? – Can We Claim To Be – “Braver” – Better – People – Than – The Dead?

~ IINOK!-WII-AWCGOASAPWOD-I-AA-A-TTETIH-M-A-A-C ~ IT IS NOT OK! – What It Is – Along With Cancer Generally Or Any Slow And Painful Way Of Dying – Is – An Abomination – And – To The Extent That It’s Human-Made – Also – A – Crime

~ M-INLAPFO-CS ~ Morality – Is No Longer A Prominent Feature Of – Civil Society

~ FDM-WADSFTTAIAS ~ Facts Don’t Matter – When A Dogma So Flattering To The Affluent Is At Stake

~ TCOATWAAHCF-IC-ASOGW ~ The Combination Of A Tiny Waist And A Huge Carbon Footprint – Is Considered – A Sign Of Great Wealth

~ F-HNBCAMFIH-B-P-I-A-‘TPOP’-IG-SB ~ Fun – Has Never Been Considered A Major Force In History – But – Perhaps – It – And – “The Pursuit Of Pleasure” – In General – Should Be

~ IAOS:IYWTSS-FFTTATIC ~ It’s An Old Story: If You Want To Sell Something – First Find The Terrible Affliction That It Cures

~ TDTWSTMUSAMCTOH-WAMWOM-C-‘NB’-A-‘MM’-AWA-PDAWLHOS ~ The Devices That Were Supposed To Make Us Smarter And More Connected To Other Humans – Were Actually Messing With Our Minds – Causing – “Net Brain” – And – “Monkey Mind” – As Well As – Physical Disorders Associated With Long Hours Of Sitting

~ D-IAA-‘TV’ ~ Dissent – Is Also A – “Traditional Value”

~ TCOB ~ The Cult Of Busyness

~ T-H-N-AGBOL-A-T-H-ADBTE ~ The – Have-Nots – Are Getting By On Less – And – The – Haves – Are Doing Better Than Ever

RACHEL CARSON ~ SILENT SPRING ~ 1962

~ IWASWV-N-W-N-EA-HSTRONLITSW-TPHDIT ~ It Was A Spring Without Voices – No – Witchcraft – No – Enemy Action – Had Silenced The Rebirth Of New Life In This Stricken World – The People Had Done It Themselves

~ CO-A/E/R/S-W-DAELM-IFTMP-I-T-COE-II-NOITWTMSL-B-ILT-I-FTMP-I ~ Contamination Of – Air / Earth / Rivers / Sea – With – Dangerous And Even Lethal Materials – Is For The Most Part – Irrecoverable – The – Chain Of Evil – It Initiates – Not Only In The World That Must Support Life – But – In Living Tissue – Is – For The Most Part – Irreversible

~ NC-CFOLIA-ES-NCTW-B-AR-S-TA-CTOTLOBE ~ New Chemicals – Come From Our Laboratories In An – Endless Stream – New Chemicals To Which – Bodies – Are Required – Somehow – To Adapt – Chemicals Totally Outside The Limits Of Biologic Experience

~ NC-THTPTK-EI-‘G’-A-‘B’-TTITMBO-AFWOI ~ Nonselective Chemicals – That Have The Power To Kill – Every Insect – “Good” – And – “Bad” – Though The Intended Target May Be Only – A Few Weeds Or Insects

~ TSNBC-‘I’-B-‘B’-STAITTOPAA-AE-PTGCTSOATVMOHUWTSOTFD ~ They Should Not Be Called – “Insecticides” – But – “Biocides” – Substances That Accumulate In The Tissue Of Plants And Animals – And Even – Penetrate The Germ Cells To Shatter Or Alter The Very Material Of Heredity Upon Which The Shape Of The Future Depends

~ HCIBSTCAFUSBAMTCTEEABTTODADETTOK? ~ How Could Intelligent Beings Seek To Control A Few Unwanted Species By A Method That Contaminated The Entire Environment And Brought The Threat Of Disease And Death Even To Their Own Kind?

~ C-MBGT-R-NT-MS-A-TMEMBSTTDNDUAWTI ~ Control – Must Be Geared To – Realities – Not To – Mythical Situations – And – The Methods Employed Must Be Such That They Do Not Destroy Us Along With The Insects

~ S-GF-DNTAOTPBWNW;IIAAAEMCITB ~ Single-Crop Farming – Does Not Take Advantage Of The Principles By Which Nature Works; It Is Agriculture As An Engineer Might Conceive It To Be

~ TSOTODKOOFTNHTINT ~ The Spreading Of Thousands Of Different Kinds Of Organisms From Their Native Homes To Invade New Territories

~ MOTNKINA-B-WDNUI-WTEIOUAEETIOGA-B-WSTTA ~ Much Of The Necessary Knowledge Is Now Available – But – We Do Not Use It – We Train Ecologists In Our Universities And Even Employ Them In Our Governmental Agencies – But – We Seldom Take Their Advice

~ WAT-CDR-TF-ATTWNA-WIF-TAM-A-OICSDMMIGO-HWFIAMSTMUAAITWIIOD-ATHLTWOTVTDTWIG? ~ We Allow The – Chemical Death Rain – To Fall – As Though There Were No Alternative – Whereas In Fact – There Are Many – And – Our Ingenuity Could Soon Discover Many More If Given Opportunity – Have We Fallen Into A Mesmerized State That Makes Us Accept As Inevitable That Which Is Inferior Or Detrimental – As Though Having Lost The Will Or The Vision To Demand That Which Is Good?

~ WHP-PABPC-IITHOPLOWIOTPFH-WHSENOPTCWTPWTCAOWTK-WHATCTBUWLONAIOTEO-S/W/[H]M ~ We Have Put – Poisonous And Biologically Potent Chemicals – Indiscriminately Into The Hands Of Persons Largely Or Wholly Ignorant Of Their Potentials For Harm – We Have Subjected Enormous Numbers Of People To Contact With These Poisons Without Their Consent And Often Without Their Knowledge – We Have Allowed These Chemicals To Be Used With Little Or No Advance Investigation Of Their Effect On – Soil / Water / [Hu]Man

~ FG-AUTCOLOPCF-TIOTNWTSAL ~ Future Generations – Are Unlikely To Condone Our Lack Of Prudent Concern For – The Integrity Of The Natural World That Supports All Life

~ TRTMADAWCISC ~ The Right To Make A Dollar At Whatever Cost Is Seldom Challenged

~ IITPTIBATATR-TPMDWIWTCOTPR-A-ICDSOWIFPOTF ~ It Is The Public That Is Being Asked To Assume The Risks – The Public Must Decide Whether It Wishes To Continue On The Present Road – And – It Can Do So Only When In Full Possession Of The Facts

~ EOD ~ Elixirs Of Death

~ ACOT-SWW-ITCODAOCW-SOTCCITLWFTBLTI ~ A Child Of The – Second World War – In The Course Of Developing Agents Of Chemical Warfare – Some Of The Chemicals Created In The Laboratory Were Found To Be Lethal To Insects

~ NAMDCAATTLEY-IWAGTLSIWTC-EADT-TTITVMOOB-WHBKSATNATP ~ New And More Deadly Chemicals Are Added To The List Each Year – If We Are Going To Live So Intimately With These Chemicals – Eating And Drinking Them – Taking Them Into The Very Marrow Of Our Bones – We Had Better Know Something About Their Nature And Their Power

~ FOOTA-TATLOTFC-A-VSA-MEAA-HC ~ From One Organism To Another – Through All The Links Of The Food Chains – A – Very Small Amount – May End As A Heavy Concentration

~ CAMSTPTA ~ Children Are More Susceptible To Poisoning Than Adults

~ P-TFSOT-DIOC-IAYLK ~ Potentiation – The Full Scope Of The – Dangerous Interaction Of Chemicals – Is As Yet Little Known

~ H-L-I-ISVDC-A-T-CU-ITBTTA-‘S’-CHDR ~ Herbicides – Like – Insecticides – Include Some Very Dangerous Chemicals – And – Their – Careless Use – In The Belief That They Are – “Safe” – Can Have Disastrous Results

~ ‘M’:ACOMTG ~ “Mutagens”: Agents Capable Of Modifying The Genes

~ TPEOWCFMS-TA-LU-I/T/SOE ~ The Pollution Entering Our Waterways Comes From Many Sources – There Are – Little-Understood – Interactions / Transformations / Summations Of Effect

~ PO-GW-I-POWE ~ Pollution Of – GroundWater – Is – Pollution Of Water Everywhere

~ CWST-PWIIW-WNAEI-CON? ~ Can We Suppose That – Poisons We Introduce Into Water – Will Not Also Enter Into – Cycles Of Nature?

~ CWUA-NF-WAK-TF-TITRO-T-IABA-TATTIENFTS? ~ Can We Use A – Nonspecific Fungicide – Without Also Killing – The Fungi – That Inhabit The Roots Of – Trees – In A Beneficial Association – That Aids The Tree In Extracting Nutrients From The Soil?

~ CC-STHPOTATTSCAWSAAOI-TVNOTWOTSHBLI ~ Chemical Control – Seems To Have Proceeded On The Assumption That The Soil Could And Would Sustain Any Amount Of Insult – The Very Nature Of The World Of The Soil Has Been Largely Ignored

~ SMA-OAPOY-MBUFQIS ~ Seemingly Moderate Applications – Over A Period Of Years – May Build Up Fantastic Quantities In Soil

~ NO-IP-B-SWA ~ Not Only – Improperly Planned – But – Studded With Abuses

~ IT-EON-NV-HIEP ~ In The – Economy Of Nature – Natural Vegetation – Has Its Essential Place

~ B-DH-O-‘W’ ~ Bees – Depend Heavily – On – “Weeds”

~ TDTHATFOW-IPWITLRT-DK ~ To Destroy The Homes And The Food Of Wildlife – Is Perhaps Worse In The Long Run Than – Direct Killing

~ SS-MTAOCA-PH-KTAM ~ Selective Spraying – Minimizes The Amount Of Chemical Applied – Potential Harm – Kept To A Minimum

~ TQI-WAC-CWRWOL-WDI-A-WLTRTBCC ~ The Question Is – Whether Any Civilization – Can Wage Relentless War On Life – Without Destroying Itself – And – Without Losing The Right To Be Called Civilized

~ TATEWP ~ The Authoritarians Temporarily Entrusted With Power

~ ROD ~ Rivers Of Death

~ WMMWUO-AM-TANK-A-WMDOIARTDO ~ We Must Make Wider Use Of – Alternative Methods – That Are Now Known – And – We Must Devote Our Ingenuity And Resources To Developing Others

~ IFTS ~ Indiscriminately From The Skies

~ TF-H-CTA ~ The Facts – However – Continue To Accumulate

~ UO-PITK-IMB-AAE ~ Use Of Poisons – In The Kitchen – Is Made Both – Attractive And Easy

~ WOL-IIST ~ Warnings On Labels – Inconspicuously In Small Type

~ THP ~ The Human Price

~ I/I ~ Interrelationship / Interdependence

~ A-HB-U-A-LA-URCC-INETOCA ~ A – Human Being – Unlike – A – Laboratory Animal – Under Rigidly Controlled Conditions – Is Never Exposed To One Chemical Alone

~ TEO-ACOSIN-CBDC-B-TAOA ~ The Effect Of – A Chemical Of Supposedly Innocuous Nature – Can Be Drastically Changed – By – The Action Of Another

~ TT-GROOI-BO-ASOAMMDO ~ Trying To – Get Rid Of One Insect – Brought On – A Scourge Of A Much More Destructive One

~ ATEVO-A-IA ~ A Truly Extraordinary Variety Of – Alternatives – Is Available

ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ THE ENERGY OF SLAVES ~ 2012

~ B-ITAO-WAT-EERBAMO-DRTS ~ But – In The Absence Of – Wisdom And Temperance – Every Energy Relationship Becomes A Matter Of – Dominion Rather Than Stewardship

~ ODOTEOS-WANSTPAIM ~ Once Dependent On The Energy Of Slaves – We Are Now Slaves To Petroleum And Its Masters

~ SHM-B/P/E-EFMTM-W-H-ETWFLC-TTYA-HD-DTAPWHOSES ~ Shackled Human Muscle – Built / Powered / Emboldened – Empires From Mesopotamia To Mexico – When – Hammurabi – Established The World’s First Legal Codes – Two Thousand Years Ago – He Decreed – Death To Any Person Who Helped Or Sheltered Escaping Slaves

~ OC-ACC-PAPRISTER-MCSTISTPTD ~ Orphaned Children – And – Convicted Criminals – Played A Prominent Role In Swelling The Energy Ranks – Many Citizens Sold Themselves Into Slavery To Pay Their Debts

~ ES-RLPALI-A-APAGMTTP ~ Escaped Slaves – Represented Lost Property And Lost Income – And – Also Posed A General Menace To The Public

~ WMT-WRTAEOHS-W-ANS-PBFF ~ Without Much Thought – We Replaced The Ancient Energy Of Human Slaves – With – A New Servitude – Powered By Fossil Fuels

~ G-RHCTFP-ATWPOKD-A-DIIR ~ Gasoline – Refiners Had Considered The Flammable Product – A Troublesome Waste Product Of Kerosene Distillation – And – Dumped It Into Rivers

~ TN-H-Y-GSFTTNMWAMSN-GR-DO-O-B-F/P-A-D-RIS ~ The New – High-Yielders – Grew So Fast That They Needed More Water And More Soil Nutrients – Green Revolution – Depended On – Oil-Based – Fertilizers / Pesticides – And – Diesel-Run Irrigation Systems

~ E-LC-AV-BS-AIWT-240KOO-NTMIT ~ Every – Laptop Computer – A Veritable – Brain Slave – Arrives Impregnated With The – 240 Kilograms Of Oil – Needed To Make It

~ EGOG-BIAV-RTPOEO-98T-O-PBPM ~ Every Gallon Of Gasoline – Burned In A Vehicle – Required The Pumping Or Excavation Of – 98 Tons – Of – Prehistoric Buried Plant Material

~ E-ES-CIO-SD-A-UD ~ Every – Energy System – Creates Its Own – Starling Dependencies – And – Unpredictable Dynamics

~ OOTRCOSAACOPITI ~ One Of The Remarkable Characteristics Of Slaveholders As A Class Of People Is Their Indebtedness

~ ATW-OAIS-HR-TNOG/TSOS/TWOP/TMOC-A-TPOE ~ Around The World – Oil And Its Servants – Have Reengineered – The Nature Of Government / The Scale Of Science / The Weight Of Populations / The Metabolism Of Cities – And – The Purpose Of Economics

~ A-F-OA-RE-MIAGMOGB-F/P/M-IBITSDTAMIMPOTWW-L-EO ~ As – Farming – Once A – Renewable Enterprise – Morphed Into A Giant Mining Operation Governed By – Fertilizers / Pesticides / Machines – It Became Impossible To Sit Down To A Meal In Many Parts Of The World Without – Literally – Eating Oil

~ M-VAC-NCF-P/M/V-TTDOHYA-RSTTSOPGHDTUOGN ~ Most – Vegetables And Cereals – Now Contain Fewer – Proteins / Minerals / Vitamins – Than They Did One Hundred Years Ago – Researchers Suspect That The Speed Of Plants Growth Has Diluted Their Uptake Of Good Nutrients

~ C-TUO-30%-OT-AF-TRWA ~ Crops – Take Up Only – 30 Percent – Of The – Applied Fertilizer – The Rest Washes Away

~ ETUEF ~ Enslavement To Unsustainable Energy Flows

~ OSAO-F-FF-HB-I-RC ~ One Striking Aspect Of – Fossil-Fueled Farming – Has Been – It’s – Relentless Concentration

~ R/B/I-O-CF-HOTWACY-GE-B-70,000-D-PAPD-DAAEO-$35B-O-P ~ Rusts / Blights / Insects – One-Crop Farms – Half Of The World’s Annual Crop Yield – Gets Eaten – By – 70,000 – Different – Pests And Plant Diseases – Despite An Annual Expenditure Of – $35 Billion – On – Pesticides

~ LD-HSSEDTPPFH-ABT-RD/ED/SC-ABRW-DD-H-Y-F-‘U’-SB-PI-CO-V-A-A-FAHFF ~ Livestock Diversity – Has Suffered Similar Erosion Due To Petroleum’s Preference For Homogenization – Animals Bred To – Resist Disease / Endure Drought / Survive Cold – Are Being Replaced With – Dumbed Down – High-Yield – Factory – “Units” – Shaped By – Petroleum Inputs – Consisting Of – Vaccines – Antibiotics – And – Formulated And Highly Fertilized Feeds

~ A-H-E-U-C-TRAADGFEIANW-UTET-NOLT ~ All – High-Energy-Use – Countries – Treat Rural Areas As Dumping Grounds For Exploitative Industries And Nuclear Waste – Using The Excuse That – No One Lives There

~ T-F-F-M-HNWO-LT-LF-A-LCD-ATG-WTBLTFTCCTQOMN ~ The – Factory-Farm – Model – Has Nearly Wiped Out – Local Traditions – Local Farmers – And – Local Crop Diversity – Around The Globe – With The Bold Lie That Factory Techniques Can Conquer The Quirks Of Mother Nature

~ T-FFS-DTFPANWOS-HA-SP-IHFTPMOA-F-FDAMMA ~ The – Factory Food System – Designed To Fatten Plants And Animals With Oil Subsidies – Has Also – Supersized People – It Has Fattened The Poor Most Of All – Fast-Food Diets Are Much More Affordable

~ AOPI-MPASF-AATS-C-GR-F-O-FH ~ As Oil Prices Increase – Many Peasants And Small Farmers – Are Abandoning The So-Called – Green Revolution – For – Old-Fashioned Husbandry

~ AMPBTFPMBITFTHM-HPGOFAAFOFA ~ Although Many People Believe That Food Production Must Be Increased To Feed The Hungry Masses – Human Population Grows Or Falls As A Function Of Food Availability

~ IINHTTTDB-C-BBH-A-T-CBM-TFSP;TLSEAIIC ~ It Is Not Hard To Tell The Difference Between – Cities – Built By Hand – And – Those – Constructed By Machines – The Former Served People ; The Latter Serve Energy And Its Inanimate Clients

~ A-S-R-STD-SS-A-W-LF ~ As – Skyscrapers – Rose – So Too Did – Sprawling Slums – And – Window-Less Factories

~ R-SAT-W-CAA-‘YHI’ ~ Replacing – Soil And Trees – With – Concrete And Asphalt – “Urban Heat Islands”

~ RSL-W-FS-PFA-A-FGM ~ Rising Sea Levels – Will – Flood Slums – Poison Freshwater Aquifers – And – Force Great Migrations

~ E-BAJF-CC ~ Economics – Became A Justification For – Conspicuous Consumption

~ T-TPOE-L-S-I-HPP-TIAUMEHBTMLG ~ Today – The Pseudoscience Of Economics – Like – Science – Itself – Has Probably Peaked – The Ideological Assumptions Undermining Modern Economics Have Begun To Melt Like Glaciers

~ PS ~ Peak Science

~ 26.5-POO-F-EPOC ~ 26.5 – Ponds Of Oil – For – Every Pound Of Computer

~ EN-EOT-STCM-TLTD-A-T-EPC-OTDLVAEFER ~ Each New – Extreme Oil Technique – Seems To Cost More – Takes Longer To Develop – And – Typically – Exceeds Predicted Costs – Only To Deliver Less Volume And Even Fewer Energy Returns

~ M-CO2C-WRMEAPF-FTOY-C-BS-AESTREME ~ Monitoring – CO2 Cemeteries – Would Require More Energy And Public Funds – For Thousands Of Years – Classic – Big Science – An Energy Solution That Requires Even More Energy

~ WMEWYCSRT? ~ Why Manage Emissions When You Can Simply Reduce Them?

~ M-L-T-A-E ~ Many – Low-Tech – Alternatives – Exist

~ OAG-BRAD-LTAEOBSOTP-AAC-MOTTCABIA-‘I’-IAB ~ Oil And Gas – Basic Research And Development – Less Than Almost Every Other Business Sector On The Planet – As A Consequence – Most Of The Technology Currently Advertised By Industry As – “Innovative” – Is Anything But

~ FE-ASP ~ Fugitive Emissions – Are So Prevalent

~ TM-OOH-DE-TMHANEB ~ The More – Oil Or Hydrocarbons – Dominate Exports – The More Hollow A National Economy Becomes

~ EROEI ~ Energy Return On Energy Invested

~ MCOE-SBCW-QOL ~ Massive Consumption Of Energy – Shouldn’t Be Confused With – Quality Of Life

MARY GRAY + SIDDHARTH SURI ~ GHOST WORK ~ 2019

~ TSWT-PCCMGFTTAGWAM-RPAUI-CMPFT-TCAPL ~ The Same Way That – Poker Chips Can Make Gamblers Forget That The Are Gambling With Actual Money – Representing People As Unique Indentifiers – Can Make Programmers Forget That – Their Code Affects People’s Lives

~ HIANFTE-TD-GW-WMTMM-SHMTD-A-STPUPOJP ~ Hypervigilance Is A Necessity For Top Earners – Those Doing – Ghost Work – Who Make The Most Money – Spend Hours Monitoring Their Dashboards – And – Scrolling Through Pages Upon Pages Of Job Postings

~ APD-GW-MW-FIS ~ All People Doing – Ghost Work – Must Weather – Fluctuating Income Streams

~ WE ~ Weaponized Ignorance

~ HITL-AI-IT-D-HZ-FCTSGWHAIWMUTWR-SOTECBCUTL-TCITBTSIF-B-EIA-PF-RTA-EB-OT-GWE ~ Humans In The Loop – Appear Interchangeable – In This De-Humanized Zone – Few Companies That Sell Ghost Work Have Any Idea Who Makes Up Their Workforce Ranks – Some Of This Erasure Can Be Chalked Up To Logistics – The Crowd Is Too Big To See Individual Faces – But – Erasure Is A – Purposeful Feature – Rather Than An – Errant Bug – Of The – Ghost Work Economy

~ TA-LR-WA-O-DP-MNWT-K-O-CTM-AIW ~ There Are – Legal Reasons – Why An – On-Demand Platform – Might Not Want To – Know – Or – Care Too Much – About Its Workers

~ IIHTIHNHHBITGSO-AI ~ It Is Hard To Ignore How Necessary Humans Have Become In The Growing Shadow Of – AI

~ SFAFELR ~ Shielded From A Formal Employers Legal Responsibilities

~ WYWHNC ~ When Your Work Has No Category

~ MWOEC ~ Murky Waters Of Employment Classification

~ TA-HADO-ETLP ~ Technological Advancement – Has Always Depended On – Expendable Temporary Labor Pools

~ CL-TITFOABPL-HFS-A-ITFCOV ~ Contingent Labor – Tucked In The Folds Of A Busy Production Loop – Hidden From Sight – And – Impossible To Fully Credit Or Value

~ SB-T-WWCL-O-TS-SELR ~ Some Believed – That – Workers Were Costly Liabilities – Outsourcing – Temporary Staffing – Soon Everyone Looked Replaceable

~ TGEWNLDBBS ~ The Global Economy Was No Longer Driven By Building Stuff

~ AC-A-T-HC-O-GW ~ Algorithmic Cruelty – And – The – Hidden Costs – Of – Ghost Work

~ ID-A-I-UC ~ Indifferent Design – And – Its – Unintended Consequences

~ TBOAAWTWFAR-WIADDTMPM-HTUCOEA ~ The Benefit Of Allowing Any Worker To Work For Any Requester – Which Is A Design Decision That Most Platforms Make – Has The Unintended Consequence Of Eroding Accountability

~ T-BOTC-UTFOC-B-N-IFSOTPDGW-MWHZRISHTTAATAPFTW

~ The – Burden Of Transaction Costs – Used To Fall On Companies – But – Now – It Fall Squarely On The People Doing Ghost Work – Most Workers Have Zero Recourse If Something Happens To Their Account And They Aren’t Paid For Their Work

~ H-SA-F ~ Hypervigilance – Spun As – Flexibility

~ IR-FAAM-WCFAF-WTBOCDAN ~ In Reality – Flexibility Is A Myth – Work Comes Faster And Faster – Workers To Be On Call Day And Night

~ IALOG-SA-A ~ Isolation And Lack Of Guidance – Spun As – Autonomy

~ IMC-PDGWALTTODTNTIAOOAJ-I-AAQMRIADTCAWTJ ~ In Most Cases – People Doing Ghost Work Are Left To Their Own Devices To Navigate The Ins And Outs Of A Job – Indeed – Asking A Question May Result In A Delay That Costs A Worker Their Job

~ TDGWBTCOLHTNNOTTBATWC-A-THNCTAQOGFFR ~ Those Doing Ghost Work Bear The Costs Of Learning How To Navigate Not Only The Task But Also The Work Culture – And – They Have No Chance To Ask Questions Or Get Feedback From Requesters

~ NGPWTFOH-SA-M ~ Not Getting Paid When Technical Failure Or Hustle – Spun As – Malfeasance

~ PWDO-DJSAWHFBCARPS ~ People Who Design On-Demand Job Sites Assume Workers Have Fast Broadband Connections And Reliable Power Sources

~ OWSCTBUAWCOGP ~ One Wrong Step Can Totally Blow Up A Worker’s Chance Of Getting Paid

~ GP-CBTHPOTJ ~ Getting Paid – Can Be The Hardest Part Of The Job

~ NBIP-NIC ~ No Boss Is Perfect – Neither Is Code

~ O-DW-HLAT-PAWFE ~ On-Demand Workers – Have Little Access To – Protections Associated With Formal Employment

~ SS-OWETOI-ACPAHORS ~ Statistics Show – Once Women Earn Their Own Income – A Country’s Prosperity And Health Outcomes Rise Steadily

~ O-DW-C-AWARIC-OOTP ~ On-Demand Work – Cuts – Anyone Without A Reliable Internet Connection – Out Of The Picture

~ OOTMCWPMTENOWM-I-TSCAC ~ One Of The Most Common Ways People Make The Economic Necessity Of Work Meaningful – Is – Through Social Connections And Camaraderie

~ TBTR ~ Talking Back To Robots

~ TKOSATPOC ~ The Kindness Of Strangers And The Power Of Collaboration

~ MJ-POAFC-B-YHTIYDE-TPWAU ~ Most Jobs – Pay Only A Few Cents – But – You Hope That If You Do Enough – The Pennies Will Add Up

~ WCTOSATPSFTPTWO-S-TC-TRTTCIOTBTP-TGTWD-A-PSSTOA ~ Workers Collaborate To Overcome Social And Technical Problems Stemming From The Platforms They Work On – Specifically – They Collaborate – To Reduce The Transaction Costs Imposed On Them By The Platforms – To Get The Work Done – And – Provide Social Support To One Another

~ RCA ~ Reimagining Collective Action

~ W2.0 ~ Watercooler 2.0

~ TKACOWHOA-A-A-TDEMVI-Y-M-GWP-SDTDI ~ The Kindness And Collaborations Of Workers Helping One Another – Are – Arguably – The Digital Economy’s Most Valuable Ingredient – Yet – Most – Ghost Work Platforms – Seem Determined To Delete It

~ NSCEWNF-C/V/R/F-WDBTWAWTP ~ No System Can Erase Workers’ Need For – Connection / Validation / Recognition / Feedback – Without Damaging Both The Worker And What They Produce

~ RTR-WC-PD-MWTCT-‘S’-TFTW ~ Rather Than Resist – Worker Collaboration – Platform Designers – Might Want To Consider Taking – “Scafolding” – Tips From The Workers

~ TDBL-PW-TWLGF-IN-AGONEO-O-DS ~ The Double Bottom Line – Prioritize Workers – Treating Workers Like Ghostly Figures – Is Not – A Given Or Necessary Element Of – On-Demand Services

~ SAABS ~ Scaffolding As A Business Strategy

~ CASOA ~ Creating A Seal Of Approval

~ WWANITCOAO-DSD-TPSAEWNAWAJ-LB-TT-TP-A-TP-DTW ~ When Workers Are Not Intentionally The Center Of An On-Demand Service’s Design – The Platform Strips Away Everything We Now Associate With A Job – Leaving Behind – The Task – The Pay – And – The Person – Doing The Work

~ A-V-HL-IA-FD ~ Automation – Vs – Human Labor – Is A – False Dichotomy

~ GW-ARNFO-CP-TC-TSAPOS-W-HI ~ Ghost Work – A Relatively New Form Of – Computing Power – That Combines – The Speed And Precision Of Software – With – Human Ingenuity

~ WFMRT-O-DPAJS-TA-B/D-OLM-TCO-H-OBSOTM ~ We First Must Recognize That – On-Demand Platforms Aren’t Just Software – They Are – Bustling / Dynamic – Online Labor Markets – That Consist Of – Humans – On Both Sides Of The Market

ANNE APPLEBAUM ~ TWILIGHT OF DEMOCRACY ~ 2020

~ ‘OA-IITAOT-IOOPH-IWBOOICCTNITMHOH’ ~ “Our Age – Is Indeed The Age Of The – Intellectual Organization Of Political Hatreds – It Will Be One Of Its Chief Claims To Notice In The Moral History Of Humanity” ~ Julien Benda ~ The Betrayal Of The Intellectuals ~ [La Trahson Des Clercs] ~ 1927

~ A-FT-IT-FPAWRO-CT ~ A – Full-Time – Internet Troll – Fanatically Promoting A Whole Range Of – Conspiracy Theories

~ TRIM-MIETE ~ They Repeat Its Mantras – Make Its Enemies Their Enemies

~ GTRCASCTAD-I-IHIATGB-AOOSEW ~ Given The Right Conditions Any Society Can Turn Against Democracy – Indeed – If History Is Anything To Go By – All Of Our Societies Eventually Will

~ APSBOLAR-AARFAOOTI ~ Any Political System Built On Logic And Rationality – Always At Risk From An Outburst Of The Irrational

~ IIH-T-FOLD-IOOT-WNLAIDIT1920SO1930S-B-IWSRA-NE-A-NGOC-TBIA ~ If It Happens – The – Fall Of Liberal Democracy – In Our Own Time – Will Not Look As It Did In The 1920s Or 1930s – But – It Will Still Require A – New Elite – A – New Generation Of Clercs – To Bring It About

~ TATRODSTTNLP ~ To Alter The Rules Of Democracy So That They Never Lose Power

~ HDW ~ How Demagogues Win

~ SD-DNRMVTSIP-IIRUA-COE-TR-TB-TSM-TC-A-ISP-SC ~ Soft Dictatorship – Does Not Require Mass Violence To Stay In Power – Instead – It Relies Upon A – Cadre Of Elites – To Run – The Bureaucracy – The State Media – The Courts – And – In Some Places – State Companies

~ T-M-DC-UTR-WIT-DTL-HDTS-HGTC-A-HDTIOOPAI-IC-TKTTWB-RAA ~ These – Modern-Day Clercs – Understand Their Role – Which Is To – Defend The Leaders – However Dishonest Their Statements – However Great Their Corruption – And – However Disastrous Their Impact On Ordinary People And Institutions – In Change – They Know That They Will Be – Rewarded And Advanced

~ ATW-TAMVOT-IO-PS ~ Around The World – There Are Many Versions Of The – Illiberal One-Party State

~ NATTCDOHMIAA ~ No Acknowledgement That The Constant Drumbeat Of Hatred Might Inspire Another Assassination

~ B-NE-CBF ~ But – New Enemies – Can Be Found

~ TEAOACTIIIS-I-EACP-AFCAA-OTBTSSOHSPATTT ~ The Emotional Appeal Of A Conspiracy Theory Is In Its Simplicity – It – Explains Away Complex Phenomena – Accounts For Chance And Accidents – Offers The Believer The Satisfying Sense Of Having Special Privileged Access To The Truth

~ FTWB-TO-PS-G-TROTCTABAR:P ~ For Those Who Become – The One-Party State’s – Gatekeepers – The Repetition Of These Conspiracy Theories Also Brings Another Reward: Power

~ TFON ~ The Future Of Nostalgia

~ WPHR-A-NLBTLIIAB-NLATTRCIEBG-TAAWGTR-WITE0INO ~ When People Have Rejected – Aristocracy – No Longer Believe That Leadership Is Inherited At Birth – No Longer Assume That The Ruling Class Is Endorsed By God – The Argument About Who Gets To Rule – Who Is The Elite – Is Never Over

~ DAFM-CPUO-EWBROWNTTROWPAETCFVDSP-TLOTCWA-SOL-GTCTVOTCI ~ Democracy And Free Markets – Can Produce Unsatisfying Outcomes – Especially When Badly Regulated Or When Nobody Trusts The Regulators Or When People Are Entering The Contest From Very Different Starting Points – The Losers Of These Competitions Were Always – Sooner Or Later – Going To Challenge The Value Of The Competition Itself

~ TDOST-BTASC-AUC-ASC-CHI-TOAMSDITW ~ The Desire Of Some To – Belong To A Special Community – A Unique Community – A Superior Community – Can Happen In – The Oldest And Most Secure Democracies In The World

~ TIB-NRTR-IWV-515,000-T ~ Though It Bore – No Relation To Reality – It Was Viewed – 515,000 – Times

~ OWBH-EEWSHTA ~ Oligarchs Would Be Happy – Everyone Else Would Simply Have To Adjust

~ COF ~ Cascades Of Falsehood

~ WALTARSITWPTARPI-ETSOCRTHHPPCITP ~ We Now Are Living Through A Rapid Shift In The Way People Transmit And Receive Politic Information – Exactly The Sort Of Communication Revolution That Has Had Profound Political Consequences In The Past

~ TRSIAMTICH-WAD-SDTAOBNABTCAPI ~ The Rapid Shift In Advertising Money To Internet Companies Has – Within A Decade – Severely Damaged The Ability Of Both Newspapers And Broadcasters To Collect And Present Information

~ PHA-HDO-N-THDF ~ People Have Always – Had Different Opinions – Now – They Have Different Facts

~ TSMATEFPOTW-PCOTNTWTH-TARTWUTT-BTHBDTKYO-TAAFE-E-AAF-A-BTSAA-TAPIWTDE-ABAH-DBN-PHMFTOWIR ~ The Social Media Algorithms Themselves Encourage False Perceptions Of The World – People Click On The News They Want To Hear – The Algorithms Radicalize Those Who Use Them Too – Because They Have Been Designed To Keep You Online – The Algorithms Also Favor Emotions – Especially – Anger And Fear – And – Because The Sites Are Addictive – They Affect People In Ways They Don’t Expect – Anger Becomes A Habit – Divisiveness Become Normal – Polarization Has Moved From The Online World Into Reality

~ W-PTB-LNS ~ Websites – Purporting To Be – Local News Sites

~ HIAND?-WGTDI?-AAW?-FALT-WHITSQWS-B-WSTEB? ~ How Is A Nation Defined? – Who Gets To Define It? – Who Are We? – For A Long Time – We Have Imagined That Such Questions Were Settled – But – Why Should They Ever Be?

~ M-NIT-WCT-UC-DPF-A-IP ~ Maybe – New Information Technology – Will Continue To – Undermine Consensus – Divide People Further – And – Increase Polarization

~ B-A-A-D/P/SP-I-WC-TFATR-NC-TWCFBALAL ~ Because – All – Authoritarianisms – Divide / Polarize / Separate People – Into – Warring Camps – The Fight Against Them Requires – New Coalitions – Together We Can Fight Back Against Lies And Liars

HA-JOON CHANG ~ SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ C:TMKAPATC-SLIA ~ Classical: The Market Keeps All Producers Alert Through Competition – So Leave It Alone

~ N-C:IKWTAD~ Neo-Classical: Individuals Know What They Are Doing – So Leave Them Alone – Except When Markets Malfunction

~ M: CIAPVFEP-B-IWC-APPOBAOTFP ~ Marxist: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle For Economic Progress – But – It Will Collapse – As Private Property Ownership Becomes An Obstacle To Further Progress

~ DT:BECDITLTETTM ~ Developmentalist Tradition: Backward Economies Can’t Develop If They Leave Things Entirely To The Market

~ A:NOKE-SLEA ~ Austrian: No One Knows Enough – So Leave Everyone Alone

~ (N)-S:CIAPVOEP-B-IWA-AFBLAMB ~ (Neo)-Schumpeterian: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle Of Economic Progress – But – It Will Atrophy – As Firms Become Larger And More Bureaucratic

~ K:WIGFIMNBGFTWE ~ Keynesian: What Is Good For Individuals May Not Be Good For The Whole Economy

~ I:OAN?:IAPOTS-ETTMCIR ~ Institutionalist – Old And New?: Individuals Are Products Of Their Society – Even Though They May Change Its Rules

~ B:WANSE-SWNTDCOOFOCT-R ~ Behaviouralist: We Are Not Smart Enough – So We Need To Deliberately Constrain Our Own Freedom Of Choice Through – Rules

HA-JOON CHANG ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ 95%-O-E-I-CS-MTLD-WTUOJAM ~ 95 Per Cent – Of – Economics – Is – Common Sense – Made To Look Difficult – With The Use Of Jargons And Mathematics

~ ECNBASITSTPOCI ~ Economics Can Never Be A Science In The Sense That Physics Or Chemistry Is

~ NEHYCTECETU ~ No Economist Has Yet Claimed That Economics Can Explain The Universe

~ HGAETMB-IISTITAS ~ However Great An Economic Theory May Be – It Is Specific To Its Time And Space

~ TMW:CWTBWAGI ~ The Middle Way: Capitalism Works The Best With Appropriate Government Interventions

~ TM-I-IA-C-RT-S-O-IIBO-DD-RAR-T-PCT-DO-A-ESO-TBOTMHBRDART-DPD-MOLOOME-S/CL/CN-HBWFTM-ATST-MFUTHBMDT-PD ~ The Market – Itself – Is A – Constructed – Rather Than – Spontaneous – Order – It Is Based On – Deliberately Designed – Rules And Regulations – That – Prohibit Certain Things – Discourage Others – And – Encourage Still Others – The Boundaries Of The Market Have Been Repeatedly Drawn And Redrawn Through – Deliberate Political Decisions – Many Once-Legal Objects Of Market Exchange – Slaves / Child Labour / Certain Narcotics – Have Been Withdrawn From The Market – At The Same Time – Many Formerly Unmarketable Things Have Become Marketable Due To – Political Decisions

~ TIAHGITWMATSCACAWC-IT-‘SS’-E-WWHTKOD ~ There Is A Huge Gradation In The Ways Markets And The State Combine Across Countries And Within Countries – If The – “Slippery Slope” – Existed – We Wouldn’t Have These Kinds Of Diversity

~ ‘BR’-OTMCOOD-MINTLOIBOLCTPTIWH ~ “Bounded Rationality” – Often The Main Constraint On Our Decision-Making Is Not The Lack Of Information But Our Limited Capability To Process The Information We Have

~ HTMEB-PEDAEC-FOI ~ How To Make Economics Better – Preserving Intellectual Diversity And Encouraging Cross-Fertilization Of Ideas

~ TFI-WANTKSADATEIWANTBPVOSED-BEEPACATAOL-LSETTEHITA-O-MF-IPJOWTIPWTDA ~ The Fact Is – We All Need To Know Something About Diverse Approaches To Economics If We Are Not To Become Passive Victims Of Someone Else’s Decision – Behind Every Economic Policy And Corporate Action That Affects Our Lives – Lies Some Economic Theory That Either Has Inspired Those Actions – Or – More Frequently – Is Providing Justification Of What Those In Power Want To Do Anyway

~ OWWKTTADETWWBATTTPTTAWTTUT-‘TINA’-NWLT-DETSDTPBTBODEAPV-WWHTCTDEFWIRI-A-PA-ANA-‘S’-IWTICRAW ~ Only When We Know That There Are Different Economic Theories Will We Be Able To Tell Those In Power That They Are Wrong To Tell Us That – “There Is No Alternative” – Once We Learn That – Different Economic Theories Say Different Things Partly Because They’re Based On Different Ethical And Political Values – We Will Have The Confidence To Discuss Economics For What It Really Is – A – Political Argument – And Not A – “Science” – In Which There Is Clear Right And Wrong

~ MBIT-IV-WRSPFTDEFR-SAA-F-TWHPAM-IGSSBITTUSSAG-N-QTSQ

~ Many Believers In The – Individualist View – Would Rather Sacrifice Political Freedom To Defend Economic Freedom – Support And Approval – From – Those Who Have Power And Money – It Gets Such Support Because It Takes The Underling Social Structure – As Given – Not – Questioning The Status Quo

~ P-AP:A(PM)MPBPTPTOIRTTOTP(S) ~ Principle-Agent Problem: Agents (Professional Managers) May Pursue Business Practices That Promote Their Own Interests Rather Than Those Of Their Principals (Shareholders)

~ GOOSIPSCIMMWTPT ~ Government Ownership Of Shares In Private-Sector Companies Is Much More Widespread Than People Think

~ ISC-TU-AC-C-P-BTNCITAWO-IO-TASANPIAB ~ In Some Countries – Trade Unions – Are Considered – Counter-Productive – Blocking The Necessary Changes In Technologies And Work Organization – In Others – They Are Seen As Natural Partners In Any Business

~ OPPAPTTPITOF-TWHMALOMMDI-A-TTTCBRITTHE-LBEFTR-TP-OATOI-BTD-FRT-LWS-LROB-A-FWR ~ Once Poor People Are Persuaded That Their Poverty Is Their Own Fault – That Whoever Has Made A Lot Of Money Must Deserve It – And – That They Too Could Become Rich If They Tried Hard Enough – Life Becomes Easier For The Rich – The Poor – Often Against Their Own Interest – Begin To Demand – Fewer Redistribute Taxes – Less Welfare Spending – Less Regulation On Business – And – Fewer Worker Rights

~ Y-MPAS-SMOTT-B-TAAMB-P/CS/A/SOF(J)/H/CTAI/SOD/V/F/L/POB/IC-A-MEB

~ Yes – Most People Are Self-Seeking Much Of The Time – But – They Are Also Moved By – Patriotism / Class Solidarity / Altruism / Sense Of Fairness (Or Justice) / Honesty / Commitment To An Ideology / Sense Of Duty / Vicariousness / Friendship / Love / Pursuit Of Beauty / Idle Curiosity – And – Much Else Besides

~ WAGTROOTP-STS-IWDNFWTCTIOOEAOTE ~ We Are Going To Run Out Of The Planet – So To Speak – If We Do Not Find Ways To Control The Impacts Of Our Economic Activities On The Environment

~ TD-CB-S-AWA-C-O-EP ~ Technological Developments – Can Be – Solutions – As Well As – Causes – Of – Environmental Problems

~ TPTTNFIMBTCTBHSWBA ~ The Possibility That These New Financial Instruments Might Be Too Complicated To Be Handled Safely Was Brushed Away

~ IC-HMT-FS-M-IAU-II-HA-HTI-OT-FS ~ Increasing Complexity – Has Made The – Financial System – More – Inefficient And Unstable – Increasing Interconnectedness – Has Also – Heightened The Instability – Of The – Financial System

~ THBAVIITFOFC ~ There Has Been A Vast Increase In The Frequency Of Financial Crises

~ TROT-‘SVM’-M-ITEO-NF-H-DRTRAF-L-TI-I-N-FC ~ The Rise Of The – “Shareholder Value Maximization” – Model – In The Era Of – New Finance – Has – Dramatically Reduced The Resources Available For – Long-Term Investments – In – Non-Financial Corporations

~ N-FC-HBIDOTFAFTP ~ Non-Financial Companies – Have Become Increasingly Dependent On Their Financial Activities For Their Profits

~ F-NTBSREBIIS-P ~ Finance – Needs To Be Strictly Regulated Exactly Because It Is So – Powerful

~ CL-WCWIAJ-TMAPDAA-T-B-WFAYA-IMNFTPTTF ~ Child Labour – When Children Work In Adult Jobs – Their Mental And Physical Developments Are Arrested – Thus – By – Working From A Young Age – Individuals May Not Fulfill Their Potential To The Full

~ TWS-WITMDAOLFTMOP-EWTAOCA-‘NW’-DAT-IM-ED-PAMCA-C-RT-W-TRITWHAWAWI-ATDL-WSWWA ~ Taking Work Seriously – Work Is The Most Dominant Aspect Of Life For The Majority Of People – Even When They Are Officially Classified As – “Not Working” – Despite All This – In Most – Economic Discussions – People Are Mainly Conceptualized As – Consumers – Rather Than – Workers – The Reality Is That What Happens At Work Affects Workers Immeasurably – At The Deepest Level – Work Shapes Who We Are

~ F-E-OTMI-A-OA-PGITACC-ICTBSU-A-T-I-THCOU-EH/D/H/S-AHR ~ Full Employment – Once The Most Important – And – Often Achieved – Policy Goal In The Advanced Capitalist Countries – Is Considered To Be Something Unachievable – And – Thus – Irrelevant – The Human Costs Of Unemployment – Economic Hardship / Depression / Humiliation / Suicide – Are Hardly Recognized

~ W-TWMS-WCBAMBEAAMFS ~ Without – Taking Work More Seriously – We Cannot Build A More Balanced Economy And A More Fulfilled Society

~ PE:AM-‘H’-N ~ Political Economy: A More – “Honest” – Name

~ S-A-O-F-N-CTEOTTISDMBTTMOD-TONO-E-TSOPMOTE ~ Sometimes – An – Old – Forgotten – Name – Conveys The Essence Of The Thing It Is Describing Much Better Than The Modern One Does – The Old Name Of – Economics – The Study Of Political Management Of The Economy

~ TIAHSOOO-TAROTS-OWDF-EV-TPPOE-WTGSOSND-BM-BN ~ There Is A Huge Spectrum Of Opinion On – The Appropriate Role Of The State – Once We Depart From – Extreme Views – The Possible Permutations Of Exactly – What The Government Should Or Should Not Do – Become Mind-Bogglingly Numerous

~ TINS-‘S’-W-TDTBBMAP ~ There Isn’t A Single – “Scientific” – Way – To Draw The Boundary Between Market And Politics

~ EIAPA-YMATA-OQ-WB? ~ Economics Is A Political Argument – You Must Ask The Age-Old Question – Who Benefits?