ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ CHARLES ELTON ~ THREE QUESTIONS ~ PANDEMONIUM ~ 2006

~ HWTCATAAPTLHN? ~ How Will This Change Affect The Animals And Plants That Live Here Now?

~ WBASMBL? ~ What Beauty And Security May Be Lost?

~ HWTCA-‘TAIOC’ ~ How Will This Change Affect – “The Accumulating Instability Of Communities?”

DIERDRE MCCLOSKEY ~ BOURGEOIS EQUALITY ~ 2016

~ ORDNCF-PBOB-O-BDOBD-O-BBOBB-B-FP-IOI ~ Our Riches Did Not Come From – Piling Brick On Brick – Or – Bachelor’s Degree On Bachelor’s Degree – Or – Bank Balance On Bank Balance – But – From Piling – Idea On Idea

~ TMW-WCB-EL ~ The – Modern World – Was Caused By – Egalitarian Liberalism

~ TWIPR-B-OWP ~ The World Is Pretty Rich – But – Once Was Poor

~ T-RE-WTEIO-LAD-TITP-SOB-BAF-T-CP ~ The – Real Engine – Was The Expanding Ideology Of – Liberty And Dignity – That Inspired The Proliferating – Schemes Of Betterment – By And For – The – Common People

~ A-IC-TSIGUT-A(TROTBBD)-A-T(TROP)-AE-P(TROTPR)-WA-N ~ An – Ideological Change – The Strange Idea Grew Up That – Aristocracy (The Rule Of The Best By Descent) – And – Theocracy (The Rule Of Priests) – And Even – Plutocracy (The Rule Of The Present Rich) – Were All – Nasty

~ T-GE-A-1800-CF-HC-UB-LAD-F-OP-T-T-TB-ROAN-EITEOO-A-SBT-OOMIC ~ The – Great Enrichment – After – 1800 – Came From – Human Creativity – Unleashed By – Liberty And Dignity – For – Ordinary People – Through – Trade-Tested Betterment – Resting On A New – Equality In The Eyes Of Others – And – Spread By The – Overturning Of Monopoly In Competition

~ WIIC-SAS-TW-FC-EJ-MFA-CTD-T-ROTG-RDUBTEIFOTOR ~ Whatever It Is Called – Such A Society – Thronging With – Free Conversations – Easily Joined – Made For A – Creativity That Disturbed – The – Rules Of The Game – Rules Designed Unsurprisingly By The Elite In Favor Of The Old Rich

~ A-POCM-TBS-MBBFTPTB-BAF-OD-OS-C-IP-FTMPIHB ~ A – Patent Or Copyright Monopoly – To Be Sure – Must Be Broken For The Poor To Benefit – But Aside From – Overlawyered Definitions – Of So-Called – Intellectual Property – For The Most Part It Has Been

~ TMTRUTPINATDOEFRP-BTRSASPOTITTM-CATP-ISTRT-AALALSOTNTIGTTT-CDID ~ The Mechanism That Raised Up The Poor Is Not A Trickle Down Of Expenditures From Rich People – Because The Rich Spend A Smaller Proportion Of Their Incomes Than The Middle-Class And The Poor – It Stands To Reason That – As A Larger And Larger Share Of The Nations’ Total Income Goes To The Top – Consumer Demand Is Dampened

~ TIN-FL-SFA-TDOATU-WGBBGSO-NB-MTUOD ~ There Is No – Free Lunch – Springing From A – Trickle Down Or A Trickle Up – We Get Better By Getting Smarter Only – Not By – Miraculous Trickles Up Or Down

~ TGI-ET-TB-SA-MTPPR-WHH-O-RIIE-WHAH ~ The Goal Is – Ethical Trade-Tested Betterment – Such As – Making The Poor People Rich – Which Has Happened – Or – Reducing Inequality In Essentials – Which Has Also Happened

~ TP-MAD-NTPWCP-IPAH-TT-I-TOWA ~ The Persistent – Macho And Deadly – Notion That Power Will Cause Plenty – Is Popular Among Historians – The Truth – Is – The Other Way Around

~ T-AH-O-EIIA-SEII-T-EE-OIO-OE-HBSRTB-NON ~ The – Appalling History – Of – European Imperialism In Africa – Sufficiently Establishes Its Indefensibility – The – Economic Effect – Of Imperialism On – Ordinary Europeans – Has Been Shown Repeatedly To Be – Nil Or Negative

~ E-CBAWTAF-PF-B-NT-NW ~ Empire – Can Be A Way To A Few – Private Fortunes – But – Not To – National Wealth

~ IWPTBP-NTOWA ~ It Was Plenty That Bred Power – Not The Other Way Around

~ AC-B-U-N-P-OII-E-B-I ~ Accumulated Capital – Becomes – Unusually – Nonroutinely – Profitable – Only If It – Embodies – Betterment – Innovism

~ B-K-UMTOE-HACOAOC ~ But – Knowledge – Unlike Most Treasures On Earth – Has A Chance Of Accumulating Over Centuries

~ TAB-T-FW-TBI-B-A-FP-TE-T-P-TTEOOV-TTAATC-‘N’-‘GIG’-TOB-EB-SE-AB-AIT-B-T/H/K-DNGPTAFHL-F/H/L-D ~ Trade And Betterment – Threatened – From Within – The Bourgeoisie Itself – By – A – Foolish Pride – That Elevates – Trading – Prudence – To The Exclusion Of Other Virtues – The Threat Appears As The Crudely – “Neoliberal” – “Greed-Is-Good” – Theory Of Behavior – Encouraged By – Some Economists – And By – All Inside Traders – But – Taking / Having / Keeping – Do Not Give Purpose To A Full Human Life – Faith / Hope / Love – Do

~ M-E-N-M-L-HST ~ Mainly – Ethics – Not – Mainly – Laws – Held Societies Together

~ T-GE-DNAFG-PR-WEAOAA-IAF-R-T-TB ~ The – Great Enrichment – Did Not Arise From Good – Property Rights – Which Existed All Over And Anciently – It Arose From – Revolutionary – Trade-Tested Betterment

~ Ethics – What Is Honored Or Dishonored By Society – Is What Changed Quickly – Not – The Institutional Environment – The Institutions – Such As – Criminal / Contract / Property / Corporate – Law – Changed – After The Ethical Change – Not Before – Ideas And Ethics Changed – The Institutions Did Not

~ GCBSFALT-A-COTAOQLPG ~ Governments Can Be Stupid For A Long Time – And – Can Obstruct The Achievement Of Quite Large Potential Gains

~ B-T-RAP-RTG-T-PAOP-HBRHB-GR ~ Because – The – Rich And Powerful – Run The Government – The – Poor And Other Powerless – Have Been Regularly Hurt By – Governmental Regulation

~ NM-BD-CBM-W-IAI ~ Not Many – Business Decisions – Could Be Made – Without – Identity And Impulse

~ B-TEGLFTHTNOIMB-S-L-RAVTV-IPTVO-P-WI-TSITT-I-TWOS-MU ~ But – The Economists’ Great Love For The Hypothesis That No One Is Motivated By – Say – Love – Reduces All Virtues To Vice – In Particular The Vice Of – Pride – Which Is – To Speak In Theological Terms – Idolatry – The Worship Of Self – Max U

~ TVOTP-C/L/J/T/F/H-AV-A-NMAWOGPP ~ The Virtues Other Than Prudence – Courage / Love / Justice / Temperance / Faith / Hope – Are Virtues – And – Not Merely Another Way Of Getting Prudent Pleasure

~ NTHMIIAC-WTWWMWWC ~ Numbers Tell How Much Is In A Classification – Words Tell What We Mean When We Count

~ T-NE-WO-B/N/R-T/C/D/E/L/D ~ The – New Ethic – Was Of – Betterment / Novelty / Risk-Taking / Creativity / Democracy / Equality / Liberty / Dignity

~ IIAWU ~ Irrationality Is Always With Us

~ WCWWWDU ~ What Changed Was What Was Deemed Useful

~ PL-AN-B-TANLSF-TSB-S-GE-OTP150Y ~ Property Laws – Are Necessary – But – They Are Nothing Like Sufficient For – The Startling Betterment – Startling – Great Enrichment – Of The Past 150 Years

~ IIACOSO-R-T-TPR-WTCII-N-WIGW ~ It Is A Cliche Of Studies Of – Revolution – That – The Poor Revolt – When Their Condition Is Improved – Not – When It Gets Worse

~ FC-TSO-RD-KBPBIH ~ For Centuries – The Specter Of – Radical Democracy – Kept Being Pushed Back Into Hell

~ TIO-EAL-A-DFAH-C-AT-P-AS-M-AT-S-P ~ The Idea Of – Equality Of Liberty – And – Dignity For All Humans – Caused – And Then – Protected – A Starling – Material – And Then – Spiritual – Progress

~ I-N-I-MT-MW ~ Ideas – Not – Institutions – Made The – Modern World

~ NR-D-M-AAL-V-RT-G-GLOSP-AFI-SD-AALL-IF ~ Negotiated Rights – Deal-Making – And At Length – Voting – Replaced The – God-Given Laws Of Social Position – At First In – Stirring Declarations – And At Long Last – In Fact

~ BCBCBC-MC ~ Behavior Can Be Changed By Compulsion – Minds Cannot

~ TFITPBMTOOAIIASLIIAME-WEMHTSITF ~ The Fact Is That Persuasion Beyond Mere Transmittal Of Offers And Information Is A Startlingly Large Item In A Modern Economy – We Economist Might Have To Stop Ignoring The Fact

~ STR ~ Sweet Talk Rules

~ TWITT ~ The Word’s The Thing

~ BBU ~ Betterocracy Became Usual

~ TTC-C-A-C-ITRM-ITTF-REE ~ Trade Test Cooperation – Competition – And – Conservation – In The Right Mix – Is The Ticket For – Rapid Economic Evolution

~ LSUAMAWSL ~ Language Speaks Us As Much As We Speak Language

~ I-F-GOI-M ~ Ideas – For – Good Or Ill – Matter

~ PWTBTBIT ~ People Want To Believe That Beauty Is Truth

~ DITP-WITS-PBHU ~ Dogma Is The Problem – Which Is To Say – Passionate Beliefs Held Uncritically

~ WGAS-TNTBAS-A-HIUANWODI~ When Goods Are Scarce – They Need To Be Allocated Somehow – And – Hierarchy Is Usually A Nasty Way Of Doing It

~ RMU-B-CRUU ~ Rhetoric Made Us – But – Can Readily Unmake Us

~ WE-IA-CTF ~ Widespread Evil – Is A – Comfort To Fools

GLYNNIS HOOD ~ THE BEAVER MANIFESTO ~ 2013

~ TBM ~ The Beaver Manifesto

~ TFT-BSE-I-NA-A-E-INSOAM ~ The Fact That – Beavers Still Exist – In – North America – And – Europe – Is Nothing Short Of A Miracle

~ IMP-AWWBIAWWWATLIS-IATWWCBHIAAA-THADABATC-TBOUAU-‘G’-S ~ In Most Places – A World Without Beavers Is A World Without Water And The Life It Supports – In A Time When Water Consumption By Humans Is At An All-Time High And Droughts Are Becoming All Too Common – The Beaver Offers Us An Undeniably – “Green” – Solution

~ SMSADTTBBAWPWT ~ So Many Species Are Drawn To The Beaver’s Benefits And Would Perish Without Them

~ MOOELWBTB-EDITHOOC-WASPOAWTHTC ~ Much Of Our Ecological Landscape Was Born Through Beavers – Even Deep In The Heart Of Our Cities – We Are Still Part Of A World They Helped To Create

~ B-1900-BW-AE-I-NA ~ By – 1900 – Beavers Were – Almost Extinct – In – North America

~ O-4.7M-BP-AATAHOBB-1769-1868-TFDNITGNOPTDNMTGAWD ~ Over – 4.7 Million – Beaver Pelts – Arrived At The Auction Houses Of Britain Between – 1769 – 1868 – These Figures Do Not Include The Great Numbers Of Pelts That Did Not Make The Grade And Were Discarded

~ ROPCWH-ROB-HBUTREDL ~ Regardless Of Potential Conflicts With Humans – Reintroductions Of Beavers – Have Been Used To Restore Ecologically Damaged Landscapes

~ IMS-IIATT-SSTBAAP-A-MA-APTNUTAWCATCECIB ~ In Many Situations – It Is Also Time To – Stop Seeing The Beaver As A Pest – And – More As – A Pilot To Navigate Us Through A Warming Climate And The Complex Ecological Challenges It Brings

~ TBP-BA-T-F-W-A-ES-DT-DO2002-WI ~ The Benefit Of – Beaver Activity – To – Farmers – Wildlife – And – Ecological Systems – During The – Drought Of 2002 – Were Immeasurable

~ TDB-BAH-A-BAP-HBAMITNAPFC ~ This Dichotomy Between – Beaver As Hero – And – Beaver As Pest – Has Been A Mainstay In The North American Psyche For Centuries

~ B-C-OTTT:T-A-WTC ~ But – Creativity – Often Takes Two Things: Time – And – Willingness To Change

~ TC-‘TITOTTW-W-NN-HBTFR ~ The Comment – “This Is The Only Thing That Works” – When – Nothing New – Had Been Tried For – Years

~ IOBWYLEI ~ Innovation Often Begins When You Least Expect It

~ WWTC-EWW-B-WWITB-W-BW-MLO-LO ~ We Want To Co-Exist With Wildlife – But – We Want It To Be – Well-Behaved Wildlife – Much Like Our – Lawn Ornaments

~ T-SF-HLRTPOT-SAB-OTP-WOMOOCFT-PI-N ~ Today – Synthetic Fabrics – Have Largely Replaced The Products Of The – Silkworm And Beaver – Of The Past – We Obtain Many Of Our Clothes From The – Petrochemical Industry – Now

~ TAOSFB/HCB-A-TT-TAP-TASRI-TI-EW ~ There Are Other Solutions For Beaver/Human Conflicts – But – Again – They Take – Time And Patience – That Are So Rare In – Today’s Instant-Everything World

~ IISAAWTNTSHASABMLABLBIAE ~ It Is Society As A Whole That Needs To See How Animals Such As Beavers Modify Landscapes And Bring Life Back Into Arid Environments

~ WANFASWWCEHTDWMFASD ~ We Are Now Facing A Scenario Where We Could Easily Have To Deal With More Frequent And Severe Droughts

~ ATGD-TRTFWBAFOTFS ~ As The Glaciers Diminish – The Rivers They Feed Will Become A Fraction Of Their Former Size

~ WWNMT-ACOB-TSWITCDTPOARWC-B-ISWBABTKTA ~ We Will Need More Than – A Colony Of Beavers – To Stop What Is To Come During This Period Of A Rapidly Warming Climate – But – It Sure Would Be A Benefit To Keep Them Around

~ BKHTKWA-IIALET-ED-DS-A-TTR-WABDFF ~ Beavers Know How To Keep Water Around – It Is A Lot Easier Than – Excavating Dugouts – Damning Streams – And – Trying To Replicate – What A Beaver Does For Free

~ EITLAGO-TMBE ~ Even If The Laws Are Good Ones – They Must Be Enforced

~ GCWATLTW-B-ITINC-T-PPATFLTET-TAJ-WWI ~ Governments Can Write All The Legislation They Want – But – If There Is No Commitment – To – Providing People At The Field Level To Enforce Them – They Are Just – Words Without Intent

~ CA-NP-FOO-CATR-TOO-L-O-NH-WTT ~ Changing A – National Psyche – From One Of – Complete Access To Resources – To One Of – Limited – Or – No Harvest – Would Take Time

~ B-GW-A-OOWR-PNCF-TC-WW-RTTC-A-TTIT-RTBS ~ But – Global Warming – And – Overexploitation Of Water Resources – Pose New Challenges For – The Commons – Whether We – Rise To These Challenges – And – Turn Tragedy Into Triumph – Remains To Be Seen

~ ANHATWMMS ~ A More Holistic Approach To Wildlife Management Makes Sense

~ TLONAAEEWTB-A-WITEGA-BRTHTPBTTVOOL-WTPACTCAM-TLOTLDU ~ The Landscapes Of North America And Europe Evolved With The Beaver – And – Without It Their Ecology Goes Awry – Beavers Represent The Heart That Pumps Blood Through The Veins Of Our Landscape – Without The Ponds And Channels They Create And Maintain – The Lifeblood Of The Land Dries Up

~ DCOOOROAGS-WSSOWIEARTWP ~ Despite Centuries Of Overexploitation Of Resources On A Global Scale – We Still Stumble Our Way Into Ecosystems And Remove The Working Parts

~ TBHSTTUASABAPMOOEC ~ The Beaver Has Something To Teach Us About Survival And Becoming A Productive Member Of Our Ecological Community

~ WWSAPIASPC-WRCIWTLTWCTMAETMAPPBTI ~ When We See A Product In A Shiny Plastic Case – We Rarely Connect It With The Land That Was Cleared To Mine And Extract The Minerals And Petroleum Products Behind That Innovation

~ WAIRFTVETOUEWNTS ~ We Are Increasingly Removed From The Very Environment That Offers Us Everything We Need To Survive

~ BDD ~ Beaver Deficit Disorder

~ WWTTTTLFOSDOOOAAWTSOWATRWUIANL ~ Whether We Take The Time To Learn From Other Species Depends On Our Own Adaptability And Willingness To See Our World And The Resources Within Us In A New Light