RACHEL CARSON ~ SILENT SPRING ~ 1962

~ IWASWV-N-W-N-EA-HSTRONLITSW-TPHDIT ~ It Was A Spring Without Voices – No – Witchcraft – No – Enemy Action – Had Silenced The Rebirth Of New Life In This Stricken World – The People Had Done It Themselves

~ CO-A/E/R/S-W-DAELM-IFTMP-I-T-COE-II-NOITWTMSL-B-ILT-I-FTMP-I ~ Contamination Of – Air / Earth / Rivers / Sea – With – Dangerous And Even Lethal Materials – Is For The Most Part – Irrecoverable – The – Chain Of Evil – It Initiates – Not Only In The World That Must Support Life – But – In Living Tissue – Is – For The Most Part – Irreversible

~ NC-CFOLIA-ES-NCTW-B-AR-S-TA-CTOTLOBE ~ New Chemicals – Come From Our Laboratories In An – Endless Stream – New Chemicals To Which – Bodies – Are Required – Somehow – To Adapt – Chemicals Totally Outside The Limits Of Biologic Experience

~ NC-THTPTK-EI-‘G’-A-‘B’-TTITMBO-AFWOI ~ Nonselective Chemicals – That Have The Power To Kill – Every Insect – “Good” – And – “Bad” – Though The Intended Target May Be Only – A Few Weeds Or Insects

~ TSNBC-‘I’-B-‘B’-STAITTOPAA-AE-PTGCTSOATVMOHUWTSOTFD ~ They Should Not Be Called – “Insecticides” – But – “Biocides” – Substances That Accumulate In The Tissue Of Plants And Animals – And Even – Penetrate The Germ Cells To Shatter Or Alter The Very Material Of Heredity Upon Which The Shape Of The Future Depends

~ HCIBSTCAFUSBAMTCTEEABTTODADETTOK? ~ How Could Intelligent Beings Seek To Control A Few Unwanted Species By A Method That Contaminated The Entire Environment And Brought The Threat Of Disease And Death Even To Their Own Kind?

~ C-MBGT-R-NT-MS-A-TMEMBSTTDNDUAWTI ~ Control – Must Be Geared To – Realities – Not To – Mythical Situations – And – The Methods Employed Must Be Such That They Do Not Destroy Us Along With The Insects

~ S-GF-DNTAOTPBWNW;IIAAAEMCITB ~ Single-Crop Farming – Does Not Take Advantage Of The Principles By Which Nature Works; It Is Agriculture As An Engineer Might Conceive It To Be

~ TSOTODKOOFTNHTINT ~ The Spreading Of Thousands Of Different Kinds Of Organisms From Their Native Homes To Invade New Territories

~ MOTNKINA-B-WDNUI-WTEIOUAEETIOGA-B-WSTTA ~ Much Of The Necessary Knowledge Is Now Available – But – We Do Not Use It – We Train Ecologists In Our Universities And Even Employ Them In Our Governmental Agencies – But – We Seldom Take Their Advice

~ WAT-CDR-TF-ATTWNA-WIF-TAM-A-OICSDMMIGO-HWFIAMSTMUAAITWIIOD-ATHLTWOTVTDTWIG? ~ We Allow The – Chemical Death Rain – To Fall – As Though There Were No Alternative – Whereas In Fact – There Are Many – And – Our Ingenuity Could Soon Discover Many More If Given Opportunity – Have We Fallen Into A Mesmerized State That Makes Us Accept As Inevitable That Which Is Inferior Or Detrimental – As Though Having Lost The Will Or The Vision To Demand That Which Is Good?

~ WHP-PABPC-IITHOPLOWIOTPFH-WHSENOPTCWTPWTCAOWTK-WHATCTBUWLONAIOTEO-S/W/[H]M ~ We Have Put – Poisonous And Biologically Potent Chemicals – Indiscriminately Into The Hands Of Persons Largely Or Wholly Ignorant Of Their Potentials For Harm – We Have Subjected Enormous Numbers Of People To Contact With These Poisons Without Their Consent And Often Without Their Knowledge – We Have Allowed These Chemicals To Be Used With Little Or No Advance Investigation Of Their Effect On – Soil / Water / [Hu]Man

~ FG-AUTCOLOPCF-TIOTNWTSAL ~ Future Generations – Are Unlikely To Condone Our Lack Of Prudent Concern For – The Integrity Of The Natural World That Supports All Life

~ TRTMADAWCISC ~ The Right To Make A Dollar At Whatever Cost Is Seldom Challenged

~ IITPTIBATATR-TPMDWIWTCOTPR-A-ICDSOWIFPOTF ~ It Is The Public That Is Being Asked To Assume The Risks – The Public Must Decide Whether It Wishes To Continue On The Present Road – And – It Can Do So Only When In Full Possession Of The Facts

~ EOD ~ Elixirs Of Death

~ ACOT-SWW-ITCODAOCW-SOTCCITLWFTBLTI ~ A Child Of The – Second World War – In The Course Of Developing Agents Of Chemical Warfare – Some Of The Chemicals Created In The Laboratory Were Found To Be Lethal To Insects

~ NAMDCAATTLEY-IWAGTLSIWTC-EADT-TTITVMOOB-WHBKSATNATP ~ New And More Deadly Chemicals Are Added To The List Each Year – If We Are Going To Live So Intimately With These Chemicals – Eating And Drinking Them – Taking Them Into The Very Marrow Of Our Bones – We Had Better Know Something About Their Nature And Their Power

~ FOOTA-TATLOTFC-A-VSA-MEAA-HC ~ From One Organism To Another – Through All The Links Of The Food Chains – A – Very Small Amount – May End As A Heavy Concentration

~ CAMSTPTA ~ Children Are More Susceptible To Poisoning Than Adults

~ P-TFSOT-DIOC-IAYLK ~ Potentiation – The Full Scope Of The – Dangerous Interaction Of Chemicals – Is As Yet Little Known

~ H-L-I-ISVDC-A-T-CU-ITBTTA-‘S’-CHDR ~ Herbicides – Like – Insecticides – Include Some Very Dangerous Chemicals – And – Their – Careless Use – In The Belief That They Are – “Safe” – Can Have Disastrous Results

~ ‘M’:ACOMTG ~ “Mutagens”: Agents Capable Of Modifying The Genes

~ TPEOWCFMS-TA-LU-I/T/SOE ~ The Pollution Entering Our Waterways Comes From Many Sources – There Are – Little-Understood – Interactions / Transformations / Summations Of Effect

~ PO-GW-I-POWE ~ Pollution Of – GroundWater – Is – Pollution Of Water Everywhere

~ CWST-PWIIW-WNAEI-CON? ~ Can We Suppose That – Poisons We Introduce Into Water – Will Not Also Enter Into – Cycles Of Nature?

~ CWUA-NF-WAK-TF-TITRO-T-IABA-TATTIENFTS? ~ Can We Use A – Nonspecific Fungicide – Without Also Killing – The Fungi – That Inhabit The Roots Of – Trees – In A Beneficial Association – That Aids The Tree In Extracting Nutrients From The Soil?

~ CC-STHPOTATTSCAWSAAOI-TVNOTWOTSHBLI ~ Chemical Control – Seems To Have Proceeded On The Assumption That The Soil Could And Would Sustain Any Amount Of Insult – The Very Nature Of The World Of The Soil Has Been Largely Ignored

~ SMA-OAPOY-MBUFQIS ~ Seemingly Moderate Applications – Over A Period Of Years – May Build Up Fantastic Quantities In Soil

~ NO-IP-B-SWA ~ Not Only – Improperly Planned – But – Studded With Abuses

~ IT-EON-NV-HIEP ~ In The – Economy Of Nature – Natural Vegetation – Has Its Essential Place

~ B-DH-O-‘W’ ~ Bees – Depend Heavily – On – “Weeds”

~ TDTHATFOW-IPWITLRT-DK ~ To Destroy The Homes And The Food Of Wildlife – Is Perhaps Worse In The Long Run Than – Direct Killing

~ SS-MTAOCA-PH-KTAM ~ Selective Spraying – Minimizes The Amount Of Chemical Applied – Potential Harm – Kept To A Minimum

~ TQI-WAC-CWRWOL-WDI-A-WLTRTBCC ~ The Question Is – Whether Any Civilization – Can Wage Relentless War On Life – Without Destroying Itself – And – Without Losing The Right To Be Called Civilized

~ TATEWP ~ The Authoritarians Temporarily Entrusted With Power

~ ROD ~ Rivers Of Death

~ WMMWUO-AM-TANK-A-WMDOIARTDO ~ We Must Make Wider Use Of – Alternative Methods – That Are Now Known – And – We Must Devote Our Ingenuity And Resources To Developing Others

~ IFTS ~ Indiscriminately From The Skies

~ TF-H-CTA ~ The Facts – However – Continue To Accumulate

~ UO-PITK-IMB-AAE ~ Use Of Poisons – In The Kitchen – Is Made Both – Attractive And Easy

~ WOL-IIST ~ Warnings On Labels – Inconspicuously In Small Type

~ THP ~ The Human Price

~ I/I ~ Interrelationship / Interdependence

~ A-HB-U-A-LA-URCC-INETOCA ~ A – Human Being – Unlike – A – Laboratory Animal – Under Rigidly Controlled Conditions – Is Never Exposed To One Chemical Alone

~ TEO-ACOSIN-CBDC-B-TAOA ~ The Effect Of – A Chemical Of Supposedly Innocuous Nature – Can Be Drastically Changed – By – The Action Of Another

~ TT-GROOI-BO-ASOAMMDO ~ Trying To – Get Rid Of One Insect – Brought On – A Scourge Of A Much More Destructive One

~ ATEVO-A-IA ~ A Truly Extraordinary Variety Of – Alternatives – Is Available

ROBERT SHILLER ~ THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN SETTING THE STAGE FOR MARKET MOVES ~ IRRATIONAL EXUBERANCE ~ 2000

~ THOSBBRWTAON ~ The History Of Speculate Bubbles Begins Roughly With The Advent Of Newspapers

~ ATNM-N/M/BM/TI-PTADOOME-TATAIPOTE-SME-GOOITISTALGOP-A-TNMAEVFTSOI ~ Although The News Media – Newspapers / Magazines / Broadcast Media / The Internet – Present Themselves As Detached Observers Of Market Events – They Are Themselves An Integral Part Of These Events – Significant Market Events – Generally Occur Only If There Is Similar Thinking Among Large Groups Of People – And – The News Media Are Essential Vehicles For The Spread Of Ideas

~ NS-RHA-S/P-EOTM ~ News Stories – Rarely Have A – Simple / Predictable – Effect On The Market

~ TNMAICCTCTPATNTS-SFTR-FADIN-FAONTH-W-O-M-P-TBTA-A-WP-DAOSTETATRSC ~ The News Media Are In Constant Competition To Capture The Public Attention They Need To Survive – Survival For Them Requires – Finding And Defining Interesting News – Focusing Attention On News That Has – Word-Of-Mouth – Potential – To Broaden Their Audience – And – Whenever Possible – Defining An Ongoing Story That Encourages Their Audience To Remain Steady Customers

~ TNMANATFM-B-ATVLTMP-CN-ITFO-DPC-NBTSMFSFOPINI ~ The News Media Are Naturally Attracted To Financial Markets – Because – At The Very Least The Markets Provide – Constant News – In The Form Of – Daily Price Changes – Nothing Beats The Stock Market For Sheer Frequency Of Potentially Interesting News Items

~ TSMAHSQ-TBCIT-BC-TMFMP-A-BTOAGDISAABOTSOTN-AITTMCFABF ~ The Stock Market Also Has Star Quality – The Pubic Considers It The – Big Casino – The Market For Major Players – And – Believes That On Any Given Day It Serves As A Barometer Of The Status Of The Nation – All Impressions That The Media Can Foster And Benefit From

~ FN-MHGHIPTTETIDWTMOBOF-TOORGONOACSI-SE-FNASN-TAFRHOTECOMNT ~ Financial News – May Have Great Human Interest Potential To The Extent That It Deals With The Making Or Breaking Of Fortunes – The Only Other Regular Generator Of News On A Comparable Scale Is – Sporting Events – Financial News And Sports News – Together Account For Roughly Half Of The Editorial Content Of Many Newspapers Today

~ TMOSTTOS-IRLATDIEDW-TWOFSTISTSAROAGD-TITNASRACBS-OATTCPHATE-IA-WIDO-DI-EAAOIAOQD-APFSTDIFUBCS ~ The Media Often Seem To Thrive On Superlatives – If Reporters Look At The Data In Enough Different Ways – They Will Often Find Something That Is Close To Setting A Record On Any Given Day – The Impression That New And Significant Records Are Constantly Being Set – Only Adds To The Confusion People Have About The Economy – It Also – With Its Deluge Of – Different Indicators – Encourages An Avoidance Of Individual Assessment Of Quantitative Data – A Preference For Seeing The Data Interpreted For Us By Celebrity Sources

HA-JOON CHANG ~ SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ C:TMKAPATC-SLIA ~ Classical: The Market Keeps All Producers Alert Through Competition – So Leave It Alone

~ N-C:IKWTAD~ Neo-Classical: Individuals Know What They Are Doing – So Leave Them Alone – Except When Markets Malfunction

~ M: CIAPVFEP-B-IWC-APPOBAOTFP ~ Marxist: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle For Economic Progress – But – It Will Collapse – As Private Property Ownership Becomes An Obstacle To Further Progress

~ DT:BECDITLTETTM ~ Developmentalist Tradition: Backward Economies Can’t Develop If They Leave Things Entirely To The Market

~ A:NOKE-SLEA ~ Austrian: No One Knows Enough – So Leave Everyone Alone

~ (N)-S:CIAPVOEP-B-IWA-AFBLAMB ~ (Neo)-Schumpeterian: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle Of Economic Progress – But – It Will Atrophy – As Firms Become Larger And More Bureaucratic

~ K:WIGFIMNBGFTWE ~ Keynesian: What Is Good For Individuals May Not Be Good For The Whole Economy

~ I:OAN?:IAPOTS-ETTMCIR ~ Institutionalist – Old And New?: Individuals Are Products Of Their Society – Even Though They May Change Its Rules

~ B:WANSE-SWNTDCOOFOCT-R ~ Behaviouralist: We Are Not Smart Enough – So We Need To Deliberately Constrain Our Own Freedom Of Choice Through – Rules

TONY JUDT ~ ILL FARES THE LAND ~ 2010

~ SIPWWTWWLT-WKWTCBHNIWTAW-WNLAOAJROALA:IIG?-IIF?-IIR?-WIHBAABSOABW?-TYTB-T-PQ-EITINEA-WMLOATPT-WCGOLLT-AYWSUTCOA-TTISN ~ Something Is Profoundly Wrong With The Way We Live Today – We Know What Things Cost But Have No Idea What They Are Worth – We No Longer Ask Of A Judicial Ruling Or A Legislative Act: Is It Good? – Is If Fair? – Is It Right? – Will It Help Bring About A Better Society Or A Better World? – Those Used To Be – The – Political Questions – Even If They Invited No Easy Answers – We Must Learn Once Again To Pose Them – We Cannot Go On Living Like This – And Yet We Seem Unable To Conceive Of Alternatives – This Too Is Something New

~ TRGIAWATWIITI-B-ATFTIAGSOF-‘BWCWBI?’-‘WSWD?’ ~ The Rising Generation Is Acutely Worried About The World It Is To Inherit – But – Accompanying These Fears There Is A General Sentiment Of Frustration – “But What Can We Believe In?” – “What Should We Do”

~ S-TS-IGTBWUFTFF-WWDWTTAWSOASWW ~ Since – The State – Is Going To Be With Us For The Foreseeable Future – We Would Do Well To Think About What Sort Of A State We Want

~ IBF-A-F-FOC-FOD-FOSAAUW ~ Insecurity Breed Fear – And – Fear – Fear Of Change / Fear Of Decline / Fear Of Strangers And An Unfamiliar World

~ TCAC-THBACIIM-TPSP ~ The Consequences Are Clear – There Has Been A Collapse In Intergenerational Mobility – The Poor Stay Poor

TWTSBTWFATIM-TWTSP-TFRAPCA ~ The Wider The Spread Between The Wealthy Few And The Impoverished Many – The Worse The Social Problems – True For Rich And Poor Countries Alike

~ TY-O-GI-H-C-TTIA-NCOL-AWWCDL ~ Thirty Years – Of – Growing Inequality – Have – Convinced – That This Is A – Natural Condition Of Life – About Which We Can Do Little

~ IIOTTDAIAIP;IIQATRIT ~ It Is One Thing To Dwell Amongst Inequality And Its Pathologies; It Is Quite Another To Revel In Them

~ R-PAS-R-T-SL-WACPITSRTM20CP-TWHOATOBOT ~ Restoring – Pride And Self-Respect – To – Society’s Losers – Was A Central Platform In The Social Reforms That Marked 20th Century Progress – Today We Have Once Again Turned Our Back On Them

~ AWDITLB-AD-‘FM’~ Are We Doomed Indefinitely To Lurch Between – A Dysfunctional – “Free Market” – And – The Much-Advertised Horrors Of – “Socialism”?

~ TD-WTPIBTETIPOO ~ These Days – We Take Pride In Being Tough Enough To Inflict Pain On Others

~ WCCTEOWATCWMIAMV ~ We Cannot Continue To Evaluate Our World And The Choices We Make In A Moral Vacuum

~ MDNAG-T-C-O-CAFTCG-SB-TR-A-TCAOSAEE-C-‘IH’-BFTFITIUCFTMSOIP ~ Markets Do Not Automatically Generate – Trust – Cooperation – Or – Collective Action For The Common Good – Sustained By – Traditional Restraints – And – The Continuing Authority Of Secular And Ecclesiastical Elites – Capitalism’s – “Invisible Hand” – Benefited From The Flattering Illusion That It Unerringly Corrected For The Moral Shortcomings Of Its Practitioners

~ HSWBTMAFRAGOWTPOMWAITSME?-PWMSBROAOCTIWAT-T-‘E’-AWHDNFTY-INITH ~ How Should We Begin To Make Amends For Raising A Generation Obsessed With The Pursuit Of Material Wealth And Indifferent To So Much Else? – Perhaps We Might Start By Reminding Ourselves And Our Children That It Wasn’t Always Thus – Thinking – “Economistically” – As We Have Done Now For Thirty Years – Is Not Intrinsic To Humans

~ NCNLWSVLWOA ~ Neither Capitalism Nor Liberalism Would Survive Very Long Without One Another

~ IWT-FAD-O-T-MC-WHGRTF ~ It Was The – Fear And Disaffection – Of – The – Middle Class – Which Had Given Rise To Fascism

~ ACURT ~ All Collective Undertakings Require Trust

~ TMETS-TGTT ~ The More Equal The Society – The Greater The Trust

~ N-OC-IEQAGAWR ~ Nothing – Of Course – Is Ever Quite As Good As We Remember

~ WWHBWITSSOPROTPSTNDCA-CTETAPM-PII ~ What We Have Been Watching Is The Steady Shift Of Public Responsibility Onto The Private Sector To No Discernible Collective Advantage – Contrary To Economic Theory And Popular Myth – Privatization Is Inefficient

~ ITSR-DCSTIOTC ~ In The Short Run – Democracies Can Survive The Indifference Of Their Citizens

~ PITWYAG-NOHACSORFTTGD-IAKORHAHAEAB ~ Participation In The Way You Are Governed – Not Only Heightens A Collective Sense Of Responsibility For The Things Government Does – It Also Keeps Our Rulers Honest And Holds Authoritarian Excess At Bay

~ IWFEFTMOOCA-WSNBTSUAT-ITC-WSNBSTDTNOILTUU ~ If We Feel Excluded From The Management Of Our Collective Affairs – We Shall Not Bother To Speak Up About Them – In That Case – We Should Not Be Surprised To Discover That No One Is Listening To Us

~ CT-TILTCD-TDL ~ Convinced That – There Is Little They Can Do – They Do Little

~ TOTWTTMGITL;IFS-PSALAMVAIAUAR ~ The Only Thing Worse Than Too Much Government Is Too Little; In Failed States – People Suffer At Least As Much Violence And Injustice As Under Authoritarian Rule

~ A-CCOOOI-IWDOOINA-O-AOWCASL-LICTREOITNC ~ A – Closed Circle Of Opinion Or Ideas – Into Which Discontent Or Opposition Is Never Allowed – Or – Allowed Only Within Circumscribed And Stylized Limits – Loses Its Capacity To Respond Energetically Or Imaginatively To New Challenges

~ WNTR-LHT-CTWGU ~ We Need To Re-Learn How To – Criticize Those Who Govern Us

~ DAD-AO-TWOTY ~ Dissent And Dissidence – Are Overwhelmingly – The Work Of The Young

~ DMRWTLASIGTPC ~ Dissent Must Remain Within The Law And Seek Its Goals Through Political Channels

~ CADAYP:WITBOTIWDNTSTIOGW? ~ Cynicism And Despair Among Young People: What Is To Become Of Them If We Do Not Take Seriously The Implications Of Global Warming?

~ TWBFW-HDOTTWAAW ~ Those Who Benefit From War – Have Different Objectives Than Those Who Are Against War

~ SACACCI-TDDOCOWOI-IJAWTPOSOIAA ~ Societies Are Complex And Contain Conflicting Interests – To Deny Distinctions Of Class Or Wealth Or Influence – Is Just A Way To Promote One Set Of Interests Above Another

~ TPDLTBROTP ~ The Privileged Don’t Like To Be Reminded Of Their Privileges

~ ICFCTEDPR ~ International Capital Flows Continue To Elude Domestic Political Regulation

~ TS-MNBTP-II’-SB-P-I-C-A-U-U-C-O-IA-A-TS-OALT-DS-RAULITEOIC-IAATTATTI ~ The State – May Now Be The Primary – “Intermediate Institution” – Standing Between – Powerless – Insecure – Citizens – And – Unresponsive – Unaccountable – Corporations – Or – International Agencies – And – The State – Or At Least The – Democratic State – Retains A Unique Legitimacy In The Eyes Of Its Citizens – It Alone Answers To Them And They To It

~ F-R-CIR-O-RTDWTSPAEOOOAG-WFOR ~ Freedom – Rather – Consists In Retaining – Our – Right To Disagree With The State’s Purposes And Express Our Own Objections And Goals – Without Fear Of Retribution

~ PG-ITATRP-NTBPAPE ~ Public Goods – If They Are To Remain Public – Need To Be Provided At Public Expense

~ TFT-TROO-TAOT20C-AWTLCOAHRTDT-WTFGT-I/L/S/R-TWHIFTGAO20CR-IITTROTAOTWUIARA-1929-WATFBOATWSAIWU-TIMTD ~ The First Task – To Remind Ourselves Of – The Achievements Of The 20th Century – Along With The Likely Consequences Of A Heedless Rush To Dismantle Them – We Take For Granted The – Institutions / Legislation / Services / Rights – That We Have Inherited From The Great Age Of 20th Century Reform – It Is Time To Remind Ourselves That All Of These Were Utterly Inconceivable As Recently As – 1929 – We Are The Fortunate Beneficiaries Of A Transformation Whose Scale And Impact Was Unprecedented – There Is Much To Defend

~ WAIFWIO-I/U/I/I-WHJFHTTAT ~ We Are Intuitively Familiar With Issues Of – Injustice / Unfairness / Inequality / Immorality – We Have Just Forgotten How To Talk About Them

CHARLES MACKAY ~ WITCH MANIA ~ EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS AND THE MADNESS OF CROWDS ~ 1841

~ E-FAPO-TCAAH-BUTI-NOT-PSWTETMITAOM-B-TMH-PTSESTTATWWUTF-AETSUTN-ECTB-ATAW-NVO-P-B-TWOSNH-W-WOI-CTITRTFAPAHAAW-TWWOET-TUTOUPFVTTCAAD ~ Europe – For A Period Of – Two Centuries And A Half – Brooded Upon The Idea – Not Only That – Parted Spirits Walked The Earth To Meddle In The Affairs Of Men – But – That Men Had – Power To Summon Evil Spirits To Their Aid To Work Woe Upon Their Fellows – An Epidemic Terror Seized Upon The Nations – Every Calamity That Befell – Attributed To A Witch – Not Visitations Of – Providence – But – The Works Of Some Neighbouring Hag – Whose – Wretchedness Or Insanity – Caused The Ignorant To Raise Their Finger And Point At Her As A Witch – The Word Was One Everybody’s Tongue – Thousands Upon Thousands Of Unhappy Persons Fell Victims To This Cruel And Absurd Delusion

~ PFW-IWACIWSME-A-RWSMD-T-TP-WTWT-RTW-A-CFNOIUT-HOTATOWTETD-TCWMTPFTMVP-BOIAOC-WROWP-POR ~ Prosecutions For Witchcraft – It Was A Crime Imputed With So Much Ease – And – Repelled With So Much Difficulty – That – The Powerful – Whenever They Wanted To – Ruin The Weak – And – Could Fix No Other Imputation Upon Them – Had Only To Accuse Them Of Witchcraft To Ensure Their Destruction – This Crime Was Made The Pretext For The Most Violent Persecution – Both Of Individuals And Of Communities – Whose Real Offences Were Purely – Political Or Religious

~ TTCOTFABOTFC-MWWB-IDPO-E ~ Towards The Close Of The Fourteenth And Beginning Of The Fifteenth Century – Many Witches Were Burned – In Different Parts Of – Europe

~ AANCOTSP-TCOTPTI-I-TWFTAATWTP-ITHTBPOABAMD-WTHTPITT-TTMBRUTP ~ As A Natural Consequence Of The Severe Persecution – The Crime Or The Pretenders To It – Increased – Those Who Found Themselves Accused And Threatened With The Penalties – If They Happened To Be Persons Of A Bad And Malicious Disposition – Wished They Had The Power Imputed To Them – That They Might Be Revenged Upon Their Persecutors

~ W-RAL-A-RTC-IINWT-TWIRATSII-EWTWOANT-FTEWT-TP-OWATWWS ~ When – Religion And Law – Alike – Recognized The Crime – It Is No Wonder That – The Weak In Reason And The Strong In Imagination – Especially When They Were Of A Nervous Temperament – Fancied Themselves Endued With The – Terrible Powers – Of Which All The World Was Speaking

~ TR-TCIF-MTA-CA ~ The Rack – That Convenient Instrument For – Making The Accused – Confess Anything

~ UT-C-JWP:T-POW-AUISC-W-HABITM-P;TM-WD-WATE-UPOLS ~ Upon These – Confessions – Judgment Was Pronounced: The – Poor Old Women – As Usual In Such Cases – Were – Hanged And Burned In The Market-Place; The More – Wealthy Delinquents – Were Allowed To Escape – Upon Payment Of Large Sums

~ TMTB-TMTFTB-UIBA-CP-W-WITHWOL-TTMNLTGO-IWSTB-A-P-A-I-T-TE-DATSOTS ~ The More They Burned – The More They Found To Burn – Until It Became A – Common Prayer – With – Women In The Humbler Walks Of Life – That They Might Never Live To Grow Old – It Was Sufficient To Be – Aged – Poor – And – Ill-Tempered – To Ensure – Death At The Stake Or The Scaffold

~ ‘CEC’ ~ “Convicta Et Combusta”

~ I-ACOM-SUIE-WMITSBOTL-T-DABW ~ Immediately – A Class Of Men – Sprang Up In Europe – Who Made It The Sole Business Of Their Lives – To – Discover And Burn The Witches

~ T-NF-TETARBTI ~ Torture – Never Failed – To Educe The Answer Require By The Inquisitor

~ TTI-T-PWD-FIWTNOCHCOTSOAWWWNAADITA:THWFATWHITS ~ The Truth Is – That – Pity Was Dangerous – For It Was Thought No One Could Have Compassion On The Sufferings Of A Witch Who Was Not A Dabbler In The Art: To Have Wept For A Witch Would Have Insured The Stake

~ ITMOTE-RWTGOM;FIAUR-OA-A-TP-WTCWW ~ In The Midst Of These Executions – Rare Were The Gleams Of Mercy; Few Instances Are Upon Record – Of Any – Acquittal – Taking Place – When The Charge Was Witchcraft

~ W-F-O-W-P-BAT-A-ASOMVRATCPW-LP-T-RITFOSC-SS-DOF-NUT-I-AP-WDNB-WPUI-WDTTD ~ Witch-Finding – Or – Witch-Pricking – Became A Trade – And – A Set Of Mercenary Vagabonds Roamed About The Country Provided With – Long Pins – To – Run Into The Flesh Of Supposed Criminals – Some Spot – Devoid Of Feeling – No Unusual Thing – In – Aged Persons – Who Did Not Bleed – When Pricked Upon It – Was Doomed To The Death

~ TPWWIGAOTC-W-P-I-MAW-WDNUTNOTA-A-WMTOSFFW ~ The Persons Who Were In General Accused Of This Crime – Were – Poor – Ignorant – Men And Women – Who Did Not Understand The Nature Of The Accusation – And – Who Mistook Their Own Superstitious Fears For Witchcraft

~ SDRASETACRT-S-IICTT-T-TDHPA-T-TRMHGPTAMF-AT-WMNCBUTVOAS-WIFA-NIVBTTAIVBM ~ So Deeply Rooted Are Some Errors That Ages Cannot Remove Them – Still – It Is Consoling To Think – That – The Delirium Has Passed Away – That – The Raging Madness Has Given Place To A Milder Folly – And That – We May Now Count By Units The Votaries Of A Superstition – Which In Former Ages – Numbered Its Victims By The Thousands And Its Votaries By Millions

STEPHANIE KELTON ~ THE DEFICIT MYTHS THAT HAVE HOBBLED US ~ THE DEFICIT MYTH ~ 2020

MYTH #1:

~ TFGSBLAH ~ The Federal Government Should Budget Like A Household

REALITY:

~ DTOAH ~ Don’t Think Of A Household

~ UAH-TFGITCIS-ASPTMBEWGC-TSCROOP-TGITC-A-EE-H.PB/SALG/F-MUI ~ Unlike A Household – The Federal Government Issues The Currency It Spends – A Special Power That Must Be Exercised With Great Care – The Scorekeeper Can’t Run Out Of Points – The Government Issues The Currency – And – Everyone Else – Household / Private Business / State And Local Governments / Foreigners – Merely Uses It

MYTH #2

~ DAEOO ~ Deficits Are Evidence Of Overspending

REALITY

~ TOI ~ Think Of Inflation

~ FEOO-LT-I-ADIOEOOIISI ~ For Evidence Of Overspending – Look To – Inflation – A Deficit Is Only Evidence Of Overspending If It Sparks Inflation

MYTH #3

~ OWOA-WAOTH ~ One Way Or Another – We’re All On The Hook

REALITY

~ TND(TI) ~ The National Debt (That Isn’t)

~ TNDPNFBW ~ The National Debt Poses No Financial Burden Whatsoever

MYTH #4

~ GDCOPI-MUP ~ Government Deficits Crowd Out Private Investment – Making Us Poorer

REALITY

~ TRIIOBI ~ Their Red Ink Is Our Black Ink

~ FDIOWACS-GD=NS-TTITPTDFGTBOTS ~ Fiscal Deficits Increase Our Wealth And Collective Savings – Government Deficit = Nongovernment Surplus – The Trick Is To Prevent The Deficit From Getting Too Big Or Too Small

MYTH #5

~ TD-M-L ~ Trade Deficit – Means – Losing

REALITY

~ TS-I-‘S’-S ~ Trade Surplus – Is – “Stuff” – Surplus

~ TPISSWCA;ISWCANTA ~ Trade Peace Isn’t Simply Something We Can Achieve; It’s Something We Can’t Afford Not To Achieve

REALITY

MYTH #6

~ ‘E’-P-L-SSAM-A-FU-WCATAM ~ “Entitlement” – Programs – Like – Social Security And Medicare – Are – Financially Unsustainable – We Can’t Afford Them Any More

REALITY

~ YE! ~ You’re Entitled!

~ ALATFGCTMTP-ICAATSTP-EPWHMOUAOTOA-OSSNSOSBWOAAHTSTEAAW ~ As Long As The Federal Government Commits To Making The Payments – It Can Always Afford To Support These Programs – Entitlement Programs Will Help Most Of Us At One Time Or Another – Our Social Safety Nets Strengthen Our Social Bonds With One Another And Help To Support The Economy As A Whole

STEPHANIE KELTON ~ THE DEFICIT MYTH ~ 2020

~ HC-I-E-CC-B-HAYGTPFI? ~ Health Care – Infrastructure – Education – Climate Change – But – How Are You Going To Pay For It?

~ B-WIT-FB-W-FD-TY-HB? ~ But – What If The – Federal Budget – Was – Fundamentally Different – Than Your – Household Budget?

~ WICT-IOPW-B-WHFMOTWR-B-WDNTSTTMTHBHUB ~ When It Come To – Increasing Our Public Well-Being – We Have Far More Options Than We Realize – But – We Desperately Need To See Through The Myths That Have Been Holding Us Back

~ MMT ~ Modern Monetary Theory

~ B-TITTPFWTGSIPF ~ But – The Idea That Taxes Pay For What The Government Spends Is Pure Fantasy

~ JBTANFCOTFB-DMTARLTWTGC(AS)D-RB-TAOORPR-TSOT-A-TQAQO-L/W/F/M/OM-ITGTTSTMIAETARAFS-IWA ~ ~ Just Because There Are Not Financial Constraints On The Federal Budget – Doesn’t Mean There Aren’t Real Limits To What The Government Can (And Should) Do – Regulated By – The Availability Of Our Real Productive Resources – The State Of Technology – And – The Quantity And Quality Of – Land/Workers/Factories/Machines/Other Materials – If The Government Tries To Spend Too Much Into An Economy That’s Already Running At Full Speed – Inflation Will Accelerate

~ MMT-DTRLFDAUS-IC ~ MMT – Distinguishes The Real Limits From Delusional And Unnecessary Self-Imposed Constraints

~ SONSIAPD-O-TEROABSBTC-B-SSNBCB-ABT-O-ABATS-CSF ~ Spending Or Not Spending Is A Political Decision – Obviously – The Economic Ramifications Of Any Bill Should Be Thoroughly Considered – But – Spending Should Never Be Constrained By – Arbitrary Budget Targets – Or – A Blind Allegiance To So-Called Sound Finance

~ TMICOGSII ~ The Most Important Constraint On Government Spending Is Inflation

~ IOAOTMC-LSBFAWPSTBCOMTNOOEP-TMCABT-TQI-WWTMB? ~ Instead Of Arguing Over The Monetary Cost – Lawmakers Should Be Fighting About Whose Policies Stand The Best Chance Of Meeting The Needs Of Our Entire Population – The Money Can Always Be There – The Question Is – What Will That Money Buy?

~ TRCTWFHNTDWT-FD-O-E-P/I/I/VNRWGST1970/CC-TA-RC ~ The Real Crises That We’re Facing Have Nothing To Do With The – Federal Deficit – Or – Entitlements – Poverty / Infrastructure / Inequality / Virtually No Real Wage Growth Since The 1970s / Climate Change – These Are – Real Crises

~ WNTSTTMAROATWHTPAA ~ We Need To See Through The Myths And Remember Once Again That We’ve Had The Power All Along

~ UAH-TFGITCIS-ASPTMBEWGC ~ Unlike A Household – The Federal Government Issues The Currency It Spends – A Special Power That Must Be Exercised With Great Care

~ W-C-WLON-MS-FTPBD-T-CFUDJLAH ~ When – Countries – With Little Or No – Monetary Sovereignty – Fail To Prioritize Budget Discipline – They – Can Face Unsustainable Debts Just Like A Household

~ ATTDSBLUAT-TACI-B-TNRTATGMRTWIWTIIOE ~ Adding To The Deficit Shouldn’t Be Looked Upon As Taboo – Taxes Are Critically Important – But – There’s No Reason To Assume The Government Must Raise Taxes Whenever It Wants To Invest In Our Economy

~ DSITN ~ Deficit Spending Is The Norm

~ BTGC-S(D)-ADAFU-IMF-A(C)-T-SMCF-O-WWAHGTDTNTPTT? ~ Before The Government Could – Subtract (Debit) – Any Dollars Away From Us – It Must First – Add (Credit) – Them – Spending Must Come First – Otherwise – Where Would Anyone Have Gotten The Dollars They Needed To Pay The Tax?

~ T-ITT-CADFTGC-BACPTT-SHTDTWTETC-INO-TM-TGW-IO-T-T-PTFTS-TGATSDRATTD ~ Tax – Is There To – Create A Demand For The Government’s Currency – Before Anyone Can Pay The Tax – Someone Has To Do The Work To Earn The Currency – It’s Not Our – Tax Money – The Government Wants – It’s Our – Time – To – Produce Things For The State – The Government’s Ability To Spend Doesn’t Revolve Around The Taxpayer Dollar

~ ITCHB-T-DM-WEWTUTJWS? ~ If They Couldn’t Hide Behind – The – Deficit Myth – What Excuse Would They Use To Justify Withholding Support?

~ WTILONI-IUCAROWITBE ~ When There Is Little Or No Inflation – It’s Usually Considered A Reflection Of Weakness In The Broader Economy

~ MP-INAP-IINTIT-HLP-IWMBDCABID ~ Monetary Policy – Is Not A Panacea – It Is Not The Ideal Tool – Has Limited Potency – It Works Mainly By Driving Consumers And Businesses Into Debt

~ WMINWTGBIISOD-B-WTGIUIBTAGOFTROTE ~ What Matters Is Not Whether The Governments Budget Is In Surplus Or Deficit – But –Whether The Government Is Using Its Budget To Achieve Good Outcomes For The Rest Of The Economy

~ TTTOCW-B-I-T-BD-I-EI ~ The Threat To Our Common Well-Being – Isn’t – The – Budget Deficit – It’s – Excessive Inflation

~ AIC-MMT-IARA-A(R)C-WA-R(I)C ~ At It’s Core – MMT – Is About Replacing An – Artificial (Revenue) Constraint – With A – Real (Inflation) Constraint

~ OIAAOP-B-SIRTAWMCBDTETHCWRI ~ Overspending Is An Abuse Of Power – But – So Is Refusing To Act When More Can Be Done To Elevate The Human Condition Without Risking Inflation

~ WDNTFTD-WNTFOT-NJTPSCTPTSTOM-B-ATHAMEDATFROTWCAIWWSA-TDITRWCHNT-OBTI ~ We Don’t Need To Fix The Debt – We Need To Fix Our Thinking – Not Just To Prevent Senseless Cuts To Programs That Support Tens Of Millions – But – Also To Have A More Enlightened Debate About The Full Range Of Things We Could Accomplish If We Weren’t So Afraid – The Debt Isn’t The Reason We Can’t Have Nice Things – Our Broken Thinking Is

~ FEDTEIOPOTE-TIAEAOSISOP-TJNWAI-GD=NS-EDTGSHTGS-A-TIOOPTDG-TN-TTITPTDFGTBOTS ~ For Every Deficit That Exists In One Part Of The Economy – There Is An Equal And Opposite Surplus In Some Other Part – There’s Just No Way Around It – Government Deficit = Nongovernment Surplus – Ever Dollar The Government Spends Has To Go Somewhere – And – There Is Only One Place Those Dollars Can Go – The Nongovernment – The Trick Is To Prevent The Deficit From Getting Too Big Or Too Small

~ STM-O-TTL-CLTP ~ Spending Too Much – Or – Taxing Too Little – Can Lead To Problems

~ DCBTB-B-TCABTS ~ Deficits Can Be Too Big – But – They Can Also Be Too Small

~ ITGI-BSP-WNFDTCRME-FE-II-HC/E/P-B-W-BPS-A-WFDHL-AM-IF-TDAHIO-SBA-TGSBITE ~ If The Goal Is – Broadly Shared Prosperity – We Need Fiscal Deficits That Channel Resources More Equitably – For Example – Investing In – Health Care / Education / Public Infrastructure – Benefit – Workers – Better Public Services – And – When Fiscal Deficits Help Low- And Middle-Income Families – Those Dollars Aren’t Hoarded In Off-Shore Bank Accounts – They Get Spent Back Into The Economy

~ CWMSANATMOFM ~ Countries With Monetary Sovereignty Are Not At The Mercy Of Financial Markets

~ TSNPRBFDAIR ~ There’s Simply No Preordained Relationship Between Fiscal Deficits And Interest Rates

~ J-AAOP ~ Joblessness – Is An Official Policy

~ AFJG-N-P-B-IBTTTPOUD(AOTSTEOU)WA-JG-FT-INLATTFE-A-TWANLNTPU ~ A – Federal Job Guarantee – No – Panacea – But – It Begins To Tackle The Problem Of Unemployment Directly (As Opposed To Subsidizing The Effects Of Unemployment) – With A – Job Grantee – Free Trade – Is No Longer A Threat To Full Employment – And – Trade Wars Are No Longer Necessary To Prevent Unemployment

~ MCATWASIASWTCROTOC-IPTBAGEFAOTP ~ Many Countries Around The World Are Stuck In A Situation Where They Can’t Rely On Their Own Currency-Issuing Powers To Build A Good Economy For All Of Their People

~ F-WMDWOPA ~ First – We Must Decide What Our Priorities Are

~ WSSATQ-HWWPFI?-A-SA-HWWRI? ~ We Should Stop Asking The Question – How Will We Pay For It? – And – Start Asking – How Will We Resource It?

~ TDTM:GJ/S/H-C/E-I/C/D ~ The Deficits That Matter: Good Jobs / Savings / Health-Care / Education / Infrastructure / Climate / Democracy

~ AEFTP-IOE-IOMS-WCMIWFU ~ An Economy For The People – It’s Our Economy – It’s Our Monetary System – We Can Make It Work For Us

THOMAS HOMER DIXON ~ COMMANDING HOPE ~ 2020

~ TPWHTRAWIP ~ The Power We Have To Renew A World In Peril

~ A-‘S’-G-OT-CAS-T-ES-T-OAO-AT-CBAWC ~ A – “Superordinate” – Goal – One That’s – Clear And Specific – That – Everyone Shares – That – Overrides All Others – And That – Can’t Be Achieved Without Cooperation

~ WBT-1.5D-T-IN-I-IWBOOT-S-P-SF-PSHFP ~ Warming Beyond The – 1.5 Degree – Threshold – Is Now – Inevitable – It Will Be One Of The – Slow-Process – Structural Factors – Profoundly Shaping Humanity’s Future Possibilities

~ OC-CAFMDFSTO-B-ITDCWUCU-AOU-TWI-WEFO-BNC ~ Of Course – Conditions Are Far More Dire For Some Than Others – But – If The Dangerous Changes We’ve Unleashed Continue Unabated – All Of Us – The Wealthiest Included – Will Eventually Find Our – Basic Needs Compromised

~ IWGTPT-WN-PAG-TCTFA-IAC-VOTF-T-PE-CTTH-AICWEO-A-RA-AT-WWETTR ~ If We’re Going To Pull Together – We Need – Principles And Goals – That Combine To Form An – Inspiring And Coherent – Vision Of The Future – That – People Everywhere – Can Take To Heart – Affirm In Conversation With Each Other – And – Rally Around – And Then – Work With Excitement Together To Reach

~ RPTH ~ ~ The Path To Hope

~ HB-CCNAOT-SR-SB-BTTR-CTBAT-A-TACTOT ~ Human Beings – Can Create New Aspects Of Their – Social Reality – Simply By – Believing That They’re Real – Communicating Those Beliefs Among Themselves – And – Then Acting Concretely Together On Them

~ IOCADETDUTAMUS-TCATCOTSMR-HUT-VAOD-THAO-PAB-TC-A-EE-TTTPUAAMUD ~ Instead Of Creating A Digital Environment That Draws Us Together And Makes Us Smarter – The Companies At The Core Of The Social Media Revolution – Have Used The – Vast Amounts Of Data – They Harvest About Our – Preferences And Behaviors – To Create – An – Emotional Environment – That Tends To Pull Us Apart And Make Us Dumber

~ M-E-O-S-A-C-O-L-GMR-B-CA-AIE-O-C-CAE-S-A-ATETWBA-O-A-(S)A-SEMUFCI-EUTCIGOL-MFPP-A-DTTBDPTEFACOW-TAU-TA-S-EOFITF ~ More – Eyeballs – On – Sites – And – Clicks – On – Links – Generate More Revenue – By – Creating An – Addictive Information Environment – Of – Constant – Cognitive And Emotional – Stimulus – And – Among The Emotions That Work Best Are – Outrage – And – (Social) Anxiety – Such Emotions Make Us Feel Chronically Insecure – Encourage Us To Coalesce Into Groups Of The Like-Minded For Psychological Protection – And – Dissolve The Trust Between Divers Peoples That’s Essential For A Consensus On What’s – True And Untrue – They Also – Subtly – Erode Our Faith In The Future

~ MME-A-PC-A-T-C-WPITRD-CB-AEFFG ~ Modern Market Economies – Are – Prodigiously Creative – And – That – Creativity – When Pointed In The Right Direction – Can Be – An Extraordinary Force For Good

~ ‘MI’ ~ “Motivated Inference”

~ HIDEIN-A-S-IDOI ~ Humanity Is Deeply Enmeshed In Nature – And – So – Intimately Dependent On It

~ B-MOUSWOCW-EWAESINBU-B-IOOR-A-GOLM ~ But – Most Of Us Stick With Our Current Worldview – Even When Abundant Evidence Shows It’s Not Benefiting Us – Because – It Orders Our Reality – And – Gives Our Lives Meaning

~ IISITHOCBTCMAD ~ It’s So Important To Help Our Children Believe They Can Make A Difference

~ H-IIF-D-O-I-W-C-CTBD ~ Humanity – If In Fact – Doomed – Only – If – We – Collectively – Choose To Be Doomed

~ H-CAW-AIUP-UEOU-FABROC-TOOAFTPT-AMOAC-‘W’ ~ Humanity – Can’t And Won’t – Address Its Urgent Problems – Until Enough Of Us – From A Broad Range Of Cultures – Think Of Ourselves As Facing These Problems Together – As Members Of A Common – “We”

~ BO-CP-AN-GIBTCAS-WN-BCA-ATWS-TATS ~ Because Our – Critical Problems – Are Now – Global – In Both Their Causes And Scope – We Need – Broad Collective Action – Across The World’s Societies – To Address Them Successfully

~ ‘POC’-MB-OOO-B-LI ~ “Protect Our Children” – Must Be – One Of Our – Bottom-Line Injunctions

JOHN CLEESE ~ CREATIVITY ~ 2020

~ C-NWOTAT-CBSIEAOL ~ Creativity – New Ways Of Thinking About Things – Can Be Seen In Every Area Of Life

~ WYCFAWODTTIBTWHBDB-YABC ~ Wherever You Can Find A Way Of Doing Things That Is Better Than What Has Been Done Before – You Are Being Creative

~ ACBC ~ Anyone Can Be Creative

~ YCTPHTCCIWTWBC ~ You Can Teach People How To Create Circumstances In Which They Will Become Creative

~ PTWI-BGTB-O-A-CI-O ~ Put The Work In – Before Going To Bed – Often – A – Creative Idea – Overnight

~ WSTABAY-YD-YDFCETA ~ When Someone Throws A Brick At You – You Duck – You Don’t First Carefully Evaluate The Alternatives

~ Y-U-CIKTYSTTLOTU-A-TLOTUINV-ISY-I-IGY-F-INYAWYIKWIGA ~ Your – Unconscious – Communicates Its Knowledge To You Solely Through The Language Of The Unconscious – And – The Language Of The Unconscious Is Not Verbal – It Shows You – Images – It Gives You – Feelings – It Nudges You Around Without You Immediately Knowing What It’s Getting At

~ B-SMOCIATU-TIALTWYCSAI! ~ Because – So Much Of Creativity Is About The Unconscious – There Is A Limit To What You Can Say About It!

~ B-CP-AMBATTVSOWTWAGWWLSU ~ But – Creative People – Are Much Better At Tolerating The Vague Sense Of Worry That We All Get When We Leave Something Unresolved

~ N-THPOBC-HDWLTPLAC? ~ Now – The Harder Part Of Being Creative – How Do We Learn To Play Like A Child?

~ TGKOCII-IPYMAFWYWTBTA-ICT-M-TRT-YP-SOC-A-GBIA-SODF ~ The Greatest Killer Of Creativity Is Interruption – It Pulls Your Mind Away From What You Want To Be Thinking About – It Can Take – Minutes – To Return To – Your Previous – State Of Consciousness – And – Get Back Into A – State Of Deep Focus

~ WYBCTINSTAAM-YCPKIYAGDAWAUYGDI ~ When You’re Being Creative There Is No Such Thing As A Mistake – You Can’t Possibly Know If You Are Going Down A Wrong Avenue Until You’ve Gone Down It

~ WYPWIAF-YNKWAVPMCF ~ When You’re Playing With Images And Feelings – You Never Know Where A Vital Prompting May Come From

~ IIANT-HCYPUISA?-DR-LTNNOYSB-C-A-C-A-C ~ If It’s A New Thought – How Can You Possibly Understand It Straight Away? – Don’t Rush – Let These New Notions Of Yours Slowly Become – Clearer – And – Clearer – And – Clearer

~ WT-NI-HBPC-BIY-C/A/F-S-M-TAI ~ When This – New Idea – Has Become Pretty Clear – Bring In Your – Critical / Analytical / Fact-Seeking – Mind – To Assess It

~ WYFHA-NI-YDGTCTS0N-A-‘W’-I-SBABYLBUTHTTG-TB-CAS ~ When You First Have A – New Idea – You Don’t Get Too Critical Too Soon – New – And – “Woolly” – Ideas – Shouldn’t Be Attacked By Your Logical Brain Until They’ve Had Time To Grow – To Become – Clearer And Sturdier

~ S-EP-UYHACSOWIITYCUW-TYCBY-CT-I-NB ~ So – Exercise Patience – Until You Have A Clear Sense Of What It Is That You’ve Come Up With – Then You Can Bring Your – Critical Thinking – In – Not Before

~ BAFBTCMOTATAMOT-U-F-YGTSTABS-TIC-I-IW-CP-DATT ~ Backwards And Forwards Between The Creative Mode Of Thinking And The Analytical Mode Of Thinking – Until – Finally – You Get To Something That’s A Bit Special – This Is Called – Iteration – Its What – Creative People – Do All The Time

~ ‘TB’-‘HB’-TNEO ~ “Tortoise Mind” – “Hare Brain” – They Need Each Other

~ YL-A-LF-SOS-YA-INS-IC-‘BIB’ ~ You’re Learning – And – Learning From – Something Or Someone – You Admire – Is Not Stealing – It’s Called – “Being Influenced By”

~ MAIL ~ Making An Imaginative Leap

~ P-KYF ~ Playing – Keeps You Fresh

~ GDIATWOYT ~ Getting Discouraged Is A Total Waste Of Your Time

~ YTFYM ~ Your Thoughts Follow Your Mood

~ TYI ~ Testing Your Ideas

MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI ~ CREATIVITY ~ 1996

~ IIET-ECBCCITE-TB-TTMPTMC-A-AGCAIANTROASI-ALFOITD-B-CAYOHW ~ It Is Easier To – Enhance Creativity By Changing Conditions In The Environment – Than By – Trying To Make People Think More Creatively – And – A Genuinely Creative Accomplishment Is Almost Never The Result Of A Sudden Insight – A Lightbulb Flashing On In The Dark – But – Comes After Years Of Hard Work

~ MOTTTA-I-I-A-H-ATROC ~ Most Of The Things That Are – Interesting – Important – And – Human – Are The Results Of Creativity

~ C-WWAIII-WFTWALMFTDTROL ~ Creativity – When We Are Involved In It – We Feel That We Are Living More Fully Than During The Rest Of Life

~ AIALR-TIJSMIWCPAAGT-TACIAED-TMBSAA ~ Attention Is A Limited Resource – There Is Just So Much Information We Can Process At Any Given Time – To Achieve Creativity In An Existing Domain – There Must Be Surplus Attention Available

~ CGICTBOD ~ Creativity Generally Involves Crossing The Boundaries Of Domains

~ ITFOFCAA-ITMOAPITWORAE-TMTEICBIEE ~ If Too Few Opportunities For Curiosity Are Available – If Too Many Obstacles Are Placed In The Way Of Risk And Exploration – The Motivation To Engage In Creative Behavior Is Easily Extinguished

~ ITNGITFTFWZAS-C-WMETTB-O-AWA-C ~ If The Next Generation Is To Face The Future With Zest And Self-Confidence – We Must Educate Them To Be – Original – As Well As – Competent

~ TMIMWCLFCP:HTFPAEITCOE ~ The Most Important Message We Can Learn From Creative People: How To Find Purpose And Enjoyment In The Chaos Of Existence

~ CDNHIPH-B-ITIBAPTAASCC-IIA-S-RTA-I-P ~ Creativity Does Not Happen Inside People’s Heads – But – In The Interaction Between A Person’s Thoughts And A SocioCultural Context – It Is A – Systemic – Rather Than An – Individual – Phenomenon

~ A-L-C-A-POSRTOI ~ Accidents – Like – Creativity – Are – Properties Of Systems Rather Than Of Individuals

~ BITRPATRT-ICI-B-MPNRTTASIAPS-TC-A-EFKWTDWTRHT ~ Being In The Right Place At The Right Time – Is Clearly Important – But – Many People Never Realize That They Are Standing In A Propitious Space-Time Convergence – And – Even Fewer Know What To Do When The Realization Hits Them

~ WAGDO-C-W-A-I-I-WTALAIHTW-IIDTRAIP ~ Without A Good Dose Of – Curiosity – Wonder – And – Interest – In – What Things Are Like And In How They Work – It Is Difficult To Recognize An Interesting Problem

~ OTE-AFATCPEITE-IAGAF-RPN-ECPIMTAEWTT ~ Openness To Experience – A Fluid Attention That Constantly Processes Events In The Environment – Is A Great Advantage For – Recognizing Potential Novelty – Every Creative Person Is More Than Amply Endowed With These Traits

~ YCATMOCJBAACPS ~ You Cannot Assume The Mantle Of Creativity Just By Assuming A Certain Personality Style

~ CI-TTBS-YANATST ~ Creative Individuals – Tend To Be Smart – Yet Also Naive At The Same Time

~ APLAITOCI ~ A Playfully Light Attitude Is Typical Of Creative Individuals

~ CI-ABIAFAOE-A-ARSORATO ~ Creative Individuals – Alternate Between Imagination And Fantasy At One End – And – A Rooted Sense Of Reality At The Other

~ CI-AARHAPATST ~ Creative Individuals – Are Also Remarkably Humble And Proud At The Same Time

~ CI-TACE-E-RGRS ~ Creative Individuals – To A Certain Extent – Escape – Rigid Gender Role Stereotyping

~ G-CP-ATTB-RAI-YIIITBCWHFIADOC-A-APMBITIOSADIOTLIR;H-HOSMBTACEA-T-SIIDTSHAPCBCWBBTACAATST-RAI-BOTLTDU;CTCWRTWHBVITPRLTNTIAAAI ~ Generally – Creative People – Are Thought To Be – Rebellious And Independent – Yet Is Is Impossible To Be Creative Without Having First Internalized A Domain Of Culture – And – A Person Must Believe In The Importance Of Such A Domain In Order To Learn Its Rules; Hence – He Or She Must Be To A Certain Extent A – Traditionalist – So It Is Difficult To See How A Person Can Be Creative Without Being Both Traditional And Conservative And At The Same Time – Rebellious And Iconoclastic – Being Only Traditional Leaves The Domain Unchanged; Constantly Taking Chances Without Regard To What Has Been Valued In The Past Rarely Leads To Novelty That Is Accepted As An Improvement

~ M-CP-A-VPATW-Y-TCBEOAIAW ~ Most – Creative Persons – Are – Very Passionate About Their Work – Yet – They Can Be Extremely Objective About It As Well

~ B-U-I-TTCT-PM-TI-TTWHTLAHAAGSOPI ~ But – Usually – Insights – Tend To Come To – Prepared Minds – That Is – To Those Who Have Thought Long And Hard About A Given Set Of Problematic Issues

~ W-ABC-ALI-WAUTPLTMA-SNC-TKOIIROIIN-IIURIDF-IMETNSSOR ~ Without – A Burning Curiosity – A Lively Interest – We Are Unlikely To Persevere Long To Make A – Significant New Contribution – This Kind Of Interest Is Rarely Only Intellectual In Nature – It Is Usually Rooted In Deep Feelings – In Memorable Experiences That Need Some Sort Of Resolution

~ B-TAASIWNHATQY-NEKTTIAP ~ But – There Are Also Situations In Which Nobody Had Asked The Question Yet – Nobody Even Knows That There Is A Problem

~ WITKOTD-TCOTF-A-TBPOTWOMAO ~ We Internalize The Knowledge Of The Domain – The Concerns Of The Field – And – They Become Part Of The Way Our Minds Are Organized

~ WWSAIOSASTAIWW-WWMBSITNOTPWOMWAI ~ When We Sit Alone In Our Study And Say That An Idea Won’t Work – What We May Be Saying Is That None Of The People Whose Opinions Matter Will Accept It

~ CT-EITGFWT-HOTWIKAAWTTAS-I-DTTIBGOTOSOTC ~ Creative Thoughts – Evolve In This Gap Filled With Tension – Holding On To What Is Known And Accepted While Tending Toward A Still Ill-Defined Truth That Is Barely Glimpsed On The Other Side Of The Chasm

~ TCOG ~ The Clarity Of Goals

~ B-CAS-TMO-AAA ~ Balancing – Challenges And Skills – The Merging Of – Action And Awareness

~ CI-TTGTCOVA-WTWHTCOS ~ Creative Individuals – Tend To Gravitate Toward Centers Of Vital Activity – Where Their Work Has The Chance Of Succeeding

~ IE-U-TINE-A-PTNWB-TPTADSIC-Y-HAHTROICBHITCTOWAOOU ~ Inspiring Environments – Unfortunately – There Is No Evidence – And – Probably There Never Will Be – To Prove That A Delightful Setting Induces Creativity – Yet – Having A Home That Reinforces One’s Individuality Cannot But Help Increase The Chances That One Will Act Out One’s Uniqueness

~ WHT-PADI-A-HEC-IAETWHBTRO-WIIETFTOWACCOTTAH ~ What Helps To – Preserve And Develop Individuality – And – Hence Enhance Creativity – Is An Environment That We Have Built To Reflect Ourselves – Where It Is Easy To Forget The Outside World And Concentrate Completely On The Task At Hand

~ M-CI-FOEWTBRAF-S/E/W-A-ABT-EWIITTDO-A-WMINWOKTASOTAFS;WCITBMOOOT ~ Most – Creative Individuals – Find Out Early What Their Best Rhythms Are For – Sleeping / Eating / Working – And – Abide By Them – Even When It Is Tempting To Do Otherwise – Again – What Matters Is Not Whether One Keeps To A Strict Or To A Flexible Schedule; What Counts Is To Be Master Of One’s Own Time

~ BAP-INARF-LC-AMTUK-CAOS-ATB ~ Being A Prodigy – Is Not A Requirement For – Later Creativity – A More Than Usually Keen – Curiosity About One’s Surroundings – Appears To Be

~ TDT-B-IAD-TISCOECP ~ The – Dialectical Tension – Between – Involvement And Detachment – That Is So Characteristic Of Every Creative Process

~ P-IIT-AR-WIT-LAFOA-TG-TEO-UF ~ Paradoxically – It Is The – Abstract Rules – We Invent To – Limit And Focus Our Attention – That Give Us – The Experience Of – Untrammelled Freedom

~ CP-A-CS-TDATTUWIHAT-A-TDATAEDE ~ Creative People – Are – Constantly Surprised – They Don’t Assume That They Understand What Is Happening Around Them – And – They Don’t Assume That Anybody Else Does Either