MICHAEL SHERMER ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004 ~ 999

~ TBA-FFMA-OCPAMPHDBF-MP-R-MR ~ To Be A – Fully Functioning Moral Agent – One Cannot Passively Accept Moral Principles Handed Down By Fiat – Moral Principles – Require – Moral Reasoning
~ M:RAW-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Morality: Right And Wrong – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ E:T-SS-O-A-TA-M-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Ethics: The – Scientific Study – Of – And – Theories About – Moral – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ LBTW-S-ECR-FT-POBF-HDVMO-BC-T-FG-A-T-A-EX-A-A-OV ~ Long Before There Were – State-Enforced Constitutional Rights – For The – Protection Of Basic Freedoms – Humans Devised Various Mechanisms Of – Behavioral Control – To – Facilitate Goodwill – And – To – Attenuate – Excessive Greed – Avarice – And – Other Vices
~ T-RF-O-H-VAV-SAS-IF-IA-COAIP-O-MAI-B ~ The – Religious Foundation – Of – Human – Virtues And Vices – Saints And Sinners – In Fact – Is A – Codification Of An Informal Psychology – Of – Moral And Immoral – Behavior
~ HAA-HS-PS-AAS-RAM-AA-SS-T-ET ~ Humans Are A – Hierarchical Social – Primate Species – And As Such – We Need – Rules And Morals – And A – Social Structure – To – Enforce Them
~ RMS-SATEI-J/C/I-A-MO-EMS-SATEBIP(TMROOPS)A-TOMO~ Religious Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed In – Judaism / Christianity / Islam – Are – Millennia Old – Evolutionary Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed By Indigenous Peoples (The Modern Remnants Of Paleolithic Societies) Are – Tens Of Millennia Old
~ W-Q-ADF-H-Q ~ Why – Questions – Are Different From – How – Questions
~ AHSACH ~ All Humans Share A Common Humanity
~ WCCA-MS-TIN-DA-N-IR-A-PM-FAAOS-TP-EE-A-A-RBFB-SASOM-SAM-UAY-E-AETW-ET-W-BAS-O-MOTS-A-O-AS ~ We Can Construct A – Moral System – That Is Neither –Dogmatically Absolute – Nor – Irrationally Relative – A – Provisional Morality – For An Age Of Science – That Provides – Empirical Evidence – And – A – Rational Basis For Belief – Such A System Of Morality – Suggests A More – Universal And Tolerant – Ethic – An Ethic That Will – Ensure The – Well-Being And Survival – Of – All Members Of The Species – And – Of – All Species
~ M-ITEDO-HS ~ Morality – Is The Exclusive Domain Of – Homo Sapiens
~ AA-I-HA-A-JTTS-A-ITOT-CIAGS ~ All Animals – Including – Human Animals – Are – Just Trying To Survive – And – It Turns Out That – Cooperation Is A Good Strategy
~ IATTSOPP-R-HASAAIO-SO-A-BC-TROPMS-A-TPONO-BACRO-R-L-O;T-C-S-SAM-N-A-WT-IOW-L-C-T-I-S-SAT ~ In Addition To The Sanction Of Political Power – Religion – Has Also Served As An Institution Of – Social Order – And – Behavior Control – The Reinforcement Of Positive Moral Sentiments – And – The Punishment Of Negative Ones – Became A Central Role Of – Religious – Leaders – And – Organizations; They – Codified – Subjective – Social And Moral – Norms – And – With The – Invention Of Writing – Literally – Canonized – Them – In – Sacred – Scrolls And Texts
~ TWO-GAM ~ The Wedding Of – God And Mammon
~ B-SS-‘LTN’-M-O-IF/EF/C-‘O-G’-WTBDWC-TWT-CWF-DBWWC ~ Before State – Societies – “Love The Neighbor” – Meant – One’s – Immediate Family / Extended Family / Community – “Out-Groupers” – Were To Be Dealt With Cautiously – Trust Was Tentative – Conflict Was Frequent – Death By War Was Common
~ M-A-T-MN-150 ~ Morality – And – The – Magic Number – 150
~ LO-SGS-A-RTTCCO-HM-AT-HADEB-ITOT-150-IRTNOLD-C/G/GC-A-PC-WPIFG-AT-B-O-H-G-P ~ ~ Limits On – Social Group Size – Are – Related To The Carrying Capacity Of – Human Memory – And Thus – Have A Deep Evolutionary Basis – It Turns Out That – 150 – Is Roughly The Number Of Living Descendants – Children / Grandchildren / Great-Grandchildren – A – Paleolithic Couple – Would Produce In Four Generations – At The – Birthrate – Of – Hunter-Gather – Peoples
~ WGGL-TSISG-W?-TAI-MD-A-BC-OGE-200P-A-HS-INT-ETROC-A-TDWO-WITSGCBDWT-IPC-A-SP ~ When Groups Get Large – They Split Into Smaller Groups – Why? – The Answer Is – Moral Discipline – And – Behavior Control – Once Groups Exceed – 200 People – A – Hierarchical Structure – Is Needed To – Enforce The Rules Of Cooperation – And – To Deal With Offenders – Who In The Smaller Group Could Be Dealt With Through – Informal Personal Contracts – And – Social Pressure
~ IOTPTGO-R-YNTK-WBNS-A-WYWTTSY-TIIGTTSAOP-MCKA-G-ATO-SC-TC-CN ~ In Order To Play The Game Of – Reciprocation – You Need To Know – Whose Back Needs Scratching – And – Who You Will Trust To Scratch Yours – This Information Is Gathered Through Telling Stories About Other People – More Commonly Known As – Gossip – A Tool Of – Social Control – Through Communicating – Cultural Norms
~ M-S-A-B-WI-CI-ES-B-R-REAT-SS-T-ETROHI ~ Moral – Sentiments – And – Behaviors – Were Initially – Codified Into – Ethical Systems – By – Religion – Religion Emerged As The – Social Structure – To – Enforce The Rules Of Human Interactions
~ W-BAT-GWT-CAS-RDATP-SI-TF-CAG-ITSB-EAAS-D-EGAS-P-COC-A-RTLOCTTGT-SE-S-RR ~ ~ When – Bands And Tribes – Gave Way To – Chiefdoms And States – Religion Developed As The Principal – Social Institution – To Facilitate – Cooperation And Goodwill – It Di So By – Encouraging – Altruism And Selflessness – Discouraging – Excessive Greed And Selfishness – Promoting – Cooperation Over Competition – And – Revealing The Level Of Commitment To The Group Through – Social Events – And – Religious Rituals
~ PC-WPMB-NS-NC-A-MS-WAA-PSB-CS ~ Paleolithic Communities – Were Primarily Molded By – Natural Selection – Neolithic Communities – And – Modern Societies – Were And Are – Primarily Shaped By – Cultural Selection
~ IIAMAPO-HN-TBMAIITB-H/H/J/IL ~ It Is As Much A Part Of – Human Nature – To Be Moral As It Is To Be – Hungry / Horny / Jealous / In Love
~ TNCWGOWWAATDO-ALLTBEIYABTDY-LANLITBTL ~ The Normal Cues We Give Off When We Are Attempting To Deceive Others – Are Less Likely To Be Expressed If You Actually Believe The Deception Yourself – Liars Are Not Liars If They Believe The Lie
~ T-COMP-EAAFO-SC-TE-TSOIWG-A-TSOHGT ~ The – Codification Of Moral Principles – Evolved As A Form Of – Social Control – To Ensure – The Survival Of Individuals Within Groups – And – The Survival Of Human Groups Themselves
~ TM-O-PE ~ The Myth – Of – Pure Evil
~ TIN-SF-OOTRO-T-KL-O-N-A-HB-TWCC-E ~ There Is No – Supernatural Force – Operating Outside The Realm Of – The – Known Laws – Of – Nature – And – Human Behavior – That We Can Call – Evil
~ TCS-‘E’-DNLUTADUOTCOEB ~ To Call Something – “Evil” – Does Not Lead Us To A Deeper Understanding Of The Cause Of Evil Behavior
~ ITWNH-TWBNE ~ If There Were No Humans – There Would Be No Evil
~ WETB-M-B-HTCTB-I-SOTT-ISC-WSP-WDAOOUTIAGS-WDOA-CAOV ~ We Evolved To Be – Moral – But – Have The Capacity To Be – Immoral – Some Of The Time – In Some Circumstances – With Some People – Which Direction Any One Of Us Takes In Any Given Situation – Will Depend On A – Complex Array Of Variables
~ FW-HUA-A-FW-IFO-D-A-MC-FOTCW ~ Free Will – Holds Us Accountable – Abandon – Free Will – In Favor Of – Determinism – And – Moral Culpability – Flies Out The Courtroom Window
~ FW-AA-UF-WNAAIYDH-FW-GT-EG-A-SB-TGAWI? ~ Free Will – As A – Useful Fiction – Why Not Act As If You Do Have – Free Will – Gaining The – Emotional Gratification – And – Social Benefits – That Go Along With It?
~ CWCAESWR? ~ Can We Construct An Ethical System Without Religion?
~ IIAHLOM-TB-GFIOS-T-FTCIMB ~ It Is A Higher Level Of Morality – To Be – Good For Its Own Sake – Than – For The Consequences It May Bring
~ PMP:AFMPIMCMOTT-Y-FETAFTWDOH-B/C/C ~ Provisional Moral Principles: Applicable For Most People In Most Circumstances Most Of The Time – Yet – Flexible Enough To Account For The Wide Diversity Of Human – Behavior / Culture / Circumstances
~ B-CMBAS? ~ But – Can Morality Become A Science?
~ EUSCSAU ~ Even Unattended Stimuli Can Subtly Affect Us
~MJ-IN-CR-II-IE ~ Moral Judgment – Is Not – Calculatingly Rational – It Is – Intuitively Emotional
~ CB-PAPRIO-MI ~ Cognitive Biases – Play A Powerful Role In Our – Moral Intuitions
~ PE-A-PJ-ATBWCD-ALAHC-STWM-PTIMB ~ Provisional Ethics – And – Provisional Justice – Are The Best We Can Do – As Long As Humanity Continues – So Too Will Morality – Provisional Though It May Be
~ WCAPBM ~ We Can Also Practice Being Moral

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ A-FP ~ ASK-FIRST PRINCIPLE
~ TFOWAAIROW-AF ~ To Find Out Whether An Action Is Right Or Wrong – Ask First
~ HP ~ HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTAWHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness
~ LP ~ LIBERTY PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty
~ MP ~ MODERATION PRINCIPLE
~ WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

JOHN TIERNEY + ROY BAUMEISTER ~ SOME PRINCIPLES FOR DEALING WITH BAD APPLES ~ THE POWER OF BAD ~ 2019

~ PY-MYDWTBA ~ Protect Yourself – Minimize Your Dealings With The Bad Apple

~ RTB-STATONTBSBOIM ~ Rearrange The Barrels – Sometimes The Apple Turns Out Not To Be So Bad Once It’s Moved

~ BCWYL-DC-UC-W-O-YWPAW-WSFAP-A-COI ~ Be Careful Whom You Label – Don’t Confuse – Useful Criticism – With – Obnoxiousness – You Want People Around Who – Will Speak Frankly About Problems – And – Challenge Others’ Ideas

~ DEBATCOTO-TDFGA-NOI-HTB-BA-IWTC-NB ~ Don’t Expect Bad Apples To Change On Their Own – They Differ From Good Apples – Not Only In – How They Behave – But Also – In What They Consider – Normal Behavior

~ ITBA-NS-ADO ~ Isolate The Bad Apples – Night Shift – A Distant Office

~ IE-A-DBSAI-SD ~ Intervene Early – And – Don’t Be Shy About It – Staring Discreetly

~ WEABA-LATWB-IP-OAJ-CSQI ~ When Evaluating A Bad Apple – Look At The Whole Barrel – Individual Performance – Of A Jerk – Can Seem Quite Impressive

~ DFTGATATBB ~ Don’t Force The Good Apples To Adapt To Bad Behavior

~ DHT-FAJ-B-DBAJAI-DNB-ELB-OBOCTASE-WBRMLTANYDFSE ~ Don’t Hesitate To – Fire A Jerk – But – Don’t Be A Jerk About It – Duly Noted By – Everyone Left Behind – One Bit Of Cruelty To A Sacked Employee – Will Be Remembered Much Longer Than Anything Nice You Do For Someone Else

JOHN TIERNEY + ROY BAUMEISTER ~ THE POWER OF BAD ~ 2019

~ NE ~ Negativity Effect
~ NB/ND/NE:TUTF-N-EAE-TAUMST-P-O ~ Negativity Bias / Negativity Dominance / Negativity Effect: The Universal Tendency For – Negative – Events And Emotions – To Affect Us More Strongly Than – Positive – Ones
~ DBAWOC-B-UBASOP-STHFITC-A-MATFS-BIS-B-GCP-IWKWWUA ~ Devastated By A Word Of Criticism – But – Unmoved By A Shower Of Praise – See The Hostile Face In The Crowd – And – Miss All The Friendly Smiles – Bad Is Stronger – But – Good Can Prevail – If We Know What We’re Up Against
~ B-RT-NE-A-OOIR-WC-BDP-TMEATF-A-ETRBOTB-BL/BN/BF-C-PI-TMP-IF-TMU-S/S/K ~ By – Recognizing The – Negativity Effect – And – Overriding Our Innate Responses – We Can – Break Destructive Patterns – Think More Effectively About The Future – And – Exploit The Remarkable Benefits Of This Bias – Bad Luck / Bad News / Bad Feelings – Create – Powerful Incentives – The Most Powerful – In Fact – To Make Us – Stronger / Smarter / Kinder
~ T-NE-DR-BC-PTAE-SBS-IMP-PP-ED ~ The – Negativity Effect – Destroys Reputations / Bankrupts Companies / Promotes Tribalism And Xenophobia / Spreads Bogus Scares / Ignites Moral Panics / Poisons Politics / Elects Demagogues
~ TASMM-SP-O-FAV-T-MOB-WH-PFAP-B-FTP-A-FH ~ There Are So Many More – Skilled Purveyors – Of – Fear And Vitriol – The – Merchants Of Bad – Who Have – Prospered Financially And Politically – By – Frightening The Public – And – Fomenting Hatred
~ T-UOB-IIPT-STM-A-ETW ~ The – Upside Of Bad – Is Its Power To – Sharpen The Mind – And – Energize The Will
~ BM-C-UF-TDGA ~ Bad Moments – Create – Unconscious Feelings – That Don’t Go Away
~ PEATT-SMES-B-OF-TSOB-CBD-A-WWFH-G-DAWFU ~ Paying Extra Attention To Threats – Still Makes Evolutionary Sense – But – Our Fine-Tuned Sense Of Bad – Can Be Debilitating – And – What Worked For Hunger-Gathers Doesn’t Always Work For Us
~ BT-AHIM-A-TUTMJASA-J-FM ~ Bad Today – Also Has Its Merchants – And – They Use The Media Just As Skilfully As – Junk-Food Marketers
~ WAPT-OOA-AWA-OPTCOD ~ We’re All Prone To – Overestimate Our Abilities – As Well As – Our Power To Control Our Destiny
~ CC-TN-ESO-HT-LTATLEWO ~ Crisis Crisis – The Never-Ending Series Of – Hyped Threats – Leading To Actions That Leave Everyone Worse Off
~ HBIB? ~ How Bad Is Bad?
~ TPW-BAG-YNT-EYRM ~ To – Properly Weigh – Bad Against Good – You Need To – Engage Your Rational Mind
~ PR-TNOGEFEBE ~ Positivity Ratio – The Number Of Good Events For Every Bad Event
~ T-ROF-IT-FGT-T-O-OBT-IDATEPIES-NTEKO-GAB-E-SFOBAIP ~ The – Rule Of Four – It Takes – Four Good Things – To – Overcome – One Bad Thing – It Doesn’t Apply To Every Person In Every Situation – Nor To Every Kind Of – Good And Bad – Event – Some Forms Of Bad Are Incomparably Powerful
~ T-W-T-H-E-NTIBTDWTBOIC-IMAWFOTC ~ The – What-The-Hell – Effect – Now That I’ve Broken The Diet With The Bowl Of Ice Cream – I May As Well Finish Off The Carton
~ TTDOOYH-IOTYFITM-MARB-H-ASR-III-X-S-IWD-Y-ARTTRBCDAII ~ Take The Decision Out Of Your Hands – Instead Of Trusting Your Feelings In The Moment – Make A Rule Before-Hand – A Simple Rule – If I’m In – X – Situation – I Will Do – Y – A Rule That The Rational Brain Can Deploy Against Irrational Impulses
~ WTOSB-A-CS-TG-RTA-NL-TB ~ We’re Too Often Swayed By – A – Clear Short-Term Gain – Rather Than A – Nebulous Long-Term Benefit
~ NIATDTS-A-IHC ~ Negativity Is A Tough Disease To Shake – And – It’s Highly Contagious
~BAT-HYT-RTSSNOS-WDMMFYRT-AGWOD ~ Being Able To – Hold Your Tongue – Rather Than Say Something Nasty Or Spiteful – Will Do Much More For Your Relationship Than – A Good Word Or Deed
~ DO ~ Don’t Overpromise
~ DECFGTEM ~ Don’t Expect Credit For Going The Extra Mile
~ RT-BIITEOTB-AOTSTTTROTW-CDARIILLTOP ~ Remember That – Bad Is In The Eye Of The Beholder – An Offense That Seems Trifling To The Rest Of The World – Can Destroy A Relationship If It Looms Large To One Person
~ PTBMTGU ~ Put The Bad Moments To Good Use
~TBYB ~ Think Before You Blame
~ WYF-BIAIR ~ When You’re Fighting – Bring In An Imaginary Referee
~ GASO ~ Get A Second Opinion
~ SJ ~ Suspend Judgment
~ DTTB ~ Don’t Take The Bait
~ IYMR-DE ~ If You Must Respond – Don’t Escalate
~ FT-NGR-INSMWYDOO-IWYDO ~ Follow The – Negative Golden Rule – It’s Not So Much What You Do Onto Others – It’s What You Don’t Do
~ TFB-B-R-TTBATNS-AIADTT-TBFLOAITEFOD ~ The Fearful Brain – Bad – Rules – Throughout The Brain And The Nervous System – Attention Is Automatically Drawn To Threats – The Brain Focuses Longer On An Image That Evokes Fear Or Disgust
~ WMAACOTOATBFOOMAF ~ We’re Marvellously Adept At Convincing Ourselves That Others Are To Blame For Our Own Mistakes And Failures
~ ACISC ~ A Carrot In Stick’s Clothing
~ C/A/N/O/E ~ Conscientiousness / Agreeableness / Neuroticism / Openness / Extraversion
~ O-L/D/EU-P-WETSTWT-IDMITWOPWMOTG-TSCCFTDD ~ One – Lazy / Disagreeable / Emotionally Unstable – Person – Was Enough To Sabotage The Whole Team – It Didn’t Matter If There Was One Particularly Wonderful Member Of The Group – The Star Couldn’t Compensate For The Dud’s Damage
~ SR-IJOOMVOBN-IAYMSAPTOT ~ Social Rejection – Isn’t Just One Of Many Varieties Of Bad News – It Affects You More Strongly And Profoundly Than Other Types
~ SR-IMST-SA ~ Social Rejection – Is Much Stronger Than – Social Acceptance
~ TFSIDWBAITIT ~ The First Step In Dealing With Bad Apples Is To Identify Them
~ OP-TI-HA-TNE ~ Online Perils – The Internet – Has Amplified – The Negativity Effect
~ CE ~ Counternegativity Experts
~ IYFI-SLTLA-ES-A-R-P-O-CAM-A-SMTLA-SOY-FAF ~ If You’re Feeling Insecure – Spend Less Time Looking At – Elaborately Staged – And – Retouched – Photos – Of – Celebrities And Models – And – Spend More Time Looking At – Snapshots Of Your – Friends And Family
~ T-CC-TEOPNBBC ~ The – Crisis Crisis – The Exploitation Of People’s Negativity Bias By Crisismongers
~ TMOB ~ The Merchants Of Bad
~ T-NB-MUPT-QGAIOIAATWG-AT-GLFMO-T-W-H-I-IETA ~ The – Negativity Bias – Makes Us Prone To – Quickly Generalize Any Individual’s Offence Into Animus Against The Whole Group – And Then – Go Looking For More Offenders – The – Witch-Hunting – Instinct – Is Easy To Arouse
~ RLAGPTW-TSWDAG-OW-HSIWMTEW ~ Remarkably Little Attention Gets Paid To Whether – The Solution Will Do Any Good – Or Whether – History Suggests It Will Make Things Even Worse
~ WA-THDT-IOA-LRDT ~ Worrying About – Tiny Hypothetical Dangers Tomorrow – Instead Of A – Large Real Danger Today
~ S-GPFTP-TP-IOS ~ Stop – Giving Prizes For Terror Pornography – The Publicity – Inspires Other Sociopaths
~ WRONG ~ Page 228 ~ “vaping – safer” ~ vaping (“pens”) mixtures just like tobacco (cigarette) mixtures (you mention this) it’s the additives (details) that make the poison (evil)
~ WRONG ~ Page 243 ~ “fake news” ~ very real polarizing effect on society ~ weaponized by authoritarian states (Russia / China / Iran / Saudi Arabia / North Korea for specific domestic political objectives and generally as destabilizing (polarizing) propaganda directed at their perceived enemies
~ IDEA ~ Climate Change ~ an excellent example of a serious problem (which has sometimes been treated as if it were “tiny hypothetical dangers tomorrow”)

AMARTYA SEN ~ THE IDEA OF JUSTICE ~ 2009

~ MAON-ACB-PWAD ~ Many Acts Of Nastiness – Are Committed By – People Who Are Deluded

~ OOTMPIFO-R-ITIHUT-SI-A-BB ~ One Of The Main Points In Favour Of – Reason – Is That It Helps Us To – Scrutinize Ideology – And – Blind Belief

~ R-CBCW-TRWO-V-A-T-OP/OC/OC-A-W-EDGFRAT-WCARA-OOM-A-TTLNTRT ~ Reasoning – Can Be Concerned With – The Right Way Of – Viewing – And – Treating – Other People / Other Cultures / Other Claims – And – With – Examining Different Grounds For Respect And Tolerance – We Can Also Reason About – Our Own Mistakes – And – Try To Learn Not To Repeat Them

~ M-CD-F-CI-RF-UF-MAC-BO-R-A-CS ~ Millions – Can Die – From – Calamitous Inaction – Resulting From – Unreasoned Fatalism – Masquerading As Composure – Based On – Realism – And – Common Sense

~ T-N-A-D-OT-NE-AHSP ~ The – Neglect – And – Deterioration – Of The – Natural Environment – A Hugely Serious Problem

~ TPC-CB-H-N-O-CO-WN-CS-NJ-GWTO ~ To Prevent Catastrophes – Caused By – Human – Negligence – Or – Callous Obduracy – We Need – Critical Scrutiny – Not Just – Good Will Towards Others

~ NGO-UI-A-UFS ~ Not Giving Or – Unscrutinized Instincts – An – Unconditional Final Say

~ JAF-B-WIF?-ICBSAADFI ~ Justice As Fairness – But – What Is Fairness? – It Can Broadly Be Seen As A Demand For Impartiality

~ HTTNO-DATM-A-TAA-OSOPOJFTTEG ~ How To Take Note Of – Diversities Among The Members – And – To Arrive At – One Set Of Principles Of Justice Fair To The Entire Group

~ LCBRTBOAFTCOF ~ Liberty Cannot Be Reduced To Being Only A Facility That Complements Other Facilities

~ T-IR-O-AB ~ The – Inescapable Relevance – Of – Actual Behaviour

~ WRHTP-CBB-ACCOATOJ ~ What Really Happens To People – Cannot But Be – A Central Concern Of A Theory Of Justice

~ TROGP ~ The Relevance Of Global Perspectives

~ TCNOIC ~ The Contingent Nature Of Institutional Choice

~ TNIOUP-BB-IB-IVIFS-BA-B-PC ~ The Negative Influence Of Unchecked Power – Both Because – Institutional Balance – Is Very Important For Society – But Also – Because – Power Corrupts

~ IAF-ATOJ-HTGAIPTTROI-H-ITPJRTTTITMOJ-TBUONBCSTWAHITW-NMHETIATTB ~ Institutions As Foundations – Any Theory Of Justice – Has To Give An Important Place To The Role Of Institutions – However – Institutions That Promote Justice Rather Than Treating The Institutions Themselves Manifestations Of Justice – The Basic Unreliability Of Not Being Constantly Sensitive To What Actually Happens In The World – No Matter How Excellent The Institution Are Taken To Be

~ NOA-DAC-POTSMOTTOJ-IIATCT-TN-R-A-R-OTT-DOCF-DAD ~ Not Only Are – Dialogue And Communication – Part Of The Subject Matter Of The Theory Of Justice – It Is Also The Case That – The Nature – Robustness – And – Reach – Of The Theories – Depend On Contributions From – Discussion And Discourse

~ IIU-THADOTFOHB-TSSPWLM-FONTBIITFC ~ It Is Unsustainable – To Have A Defence Of The Freedom Of Human Beings – That Separates Some People Whose Liberties Matter – From Others Not To Be Included In That Favoured Category

~ JOJ-CBAEPA-TIUTO ~ Judgements Of Justice – Cannot Be An Entirely Private Affair – That Is Unfathomable To Others

~ TICAII-ITNOT-IAP-OTWANPTTSCOAP-B-WBSOTCODT ~ There Is Clearly An Important Issue – In The Neglect Of The – Interests And Perspectives – Of Those Who Are Not Parties To The Social Contract Of A Polity – But – Who Bear Some Of The Consequence Of Decisions Taken

~ TLRO-OP-ADTO-UAU-P-TBBIC-A-EUTBF-TITCF-DS-IS ~ The Liberating Role Of – Open Impartiality – Allows Different Types Of – Unprejudiced And Unbiased – Perspectives – To Be Brought Into Consideration – And – Encourages Us To Benefit From – The Insights That Come From – Differently Situated – Impartial Spectators

~ WWCS-I-NIOWWSIRTWWATTS ~ What We Can See – Is – Not Independent Of Where We Stand In Relation To What We Are Trying To See

~ WION?-TQOODTONHAHPITHOEIITW-WAIL-TAFN-NLITWT ~ Who Is Our Neighbour? – The Question Of One’s Duty To One’s Neighbours Has A Huge Place In The History Of Ethical Ideas In The World – We Are Increasingly Linked – There Are Few Non-Neighbours Left In The World Today

~ TAO-TCEHBHCTDMOMET-WMOTGPOTDHAETSDATVOTA-TDHN-H-ABPIE-TEAOEM-TEAAIPOUHB-TGEPIRIBRIS ~ The Assumption Of – The Completely Egoistic Human Being – Has Come To Dominate Much Of Mainstream Economic Theory – While Many Of The Great Practitioners Of The Discipline Have Also Expressed Their Serious Doubts About The Veracity Of That Assumption – This Dichotomy Has Not – However – Always Been Present In Economics – The Early Authors On Economic Matters – Took Ethics As An Important Part Of Understanding Human Behaviour – They Gave Ethical Principles Important Roles In Behavioural Relations In Society

~ BCOTDAPOO-NNBSAAVOR ~ Being Considerate Of The Desires And Pursuits Of Others – Need Not Be Seen As A Violation Of Rationality

~ TATGWOBATAO-MBTC-N-AC-TCBE-A-SN-TMWVITD ~ There Are Two Grand Ways Of Bringing About The Attainment Of – Mutual Benefits Through Cooperation – Namely – Agreed Contracts – That Can Be Enforced – And – Social Norms – That May Work Voluntarily In That Direction

~ PACD ~ Poverty As Capability Deprivation

~ MCBD-NOT-DTPOD-B-A-TRII ~ Much Can Be Done – Not Only To – Diminish The Penalty Of Disability – But – Also – To – Reduce Its Incidence

~ WHTCBT-FOA-A-TNOT-CAO-THAA-UOL ~ We Have To Consider Both The – Freedom Of Action – And – The Nature Of The – Consequences And Outcomes – To Have An Adequate – Understanding Of Liberty

~ COD-NMHVTMBITR-MFSWOATDAO-PG ~ Critics Of Democracy – No Matter How Vigorous They May Be In Their Rejection – Must Find Some Way Of Addressing The Deep Attraction Of – Participatory Governance

~ TVT-D-IBSA-‘GBD’-HG-WS ~ The View That – Democracy – Is Best Seen As – “Government By Discussion” – Has Gained – Widespread Support

~ WDNHTBBIACWALDH-T-CTPT ~ We Do Not Have To Be Born In A Country With A Long Democratic History – To – Choose That Path Today

~ IAU-FOV-R-O-O-CAA-T-FOTP-I-CTTP ~ Informed And Unregimented – Formation Of Values – Requires – Openness – Of – Communication And Argument – The – Freedom Of The Press – Is – Crucial To This Process

~ I-AMIRTS-TROM-AEO-DOD-I-T-LCBGWHTRMR ~ If – A Majority Is Ready To Support – The Rights Of Minorities – And Even Of – Dissenting Or Discordant – Individuals – Then – Liberty Can Be Guaranteed Without Having To Restrain Majority Rule

~ O-MEIPR-I-QCT-TPOJ ~ Open-Minded Engagement In Public Reasoning – Is – Quite Central To – The Pursuit Of Justice

~ JBSTBD ~ Justice Being Seen To Be Done

~ N-P-A-RFJ ~ Non-Parochialism – A – Requirement Or Justice

HENRIETTE KLAUSER ~ WITH PEN IN HAND ~ 2003

~ THPOW ~ The Healing Power Of Writing

~ AWEODF-WR-I-P-A-P-WFTPOOW-BTDOSOTPFOH-A-RIWH ~ As We Expressed Our Deepest Feelings – Without Reserve – In – Poetry – And – Prose – We Felt The Power Of Our Words – Begin To Draw Out Some Of The Pain From Our Hearts – And – Replace It With Hope

~ AST-ATAOU:W ~ A Simple Tool – Available To All Of Us: Writing

~ R;GIAD ~ Rapidwriting: Get It All Down

~ TW:YCHTT ~ Twilight Writing: You Can Handle The Truth

~ RHM:WPWTS ~ Resistance Has Meaning: Write Past Wanting To Stop

~ LFYPS:IYB ~ Learn From Your Physical Self: Interview Your Body

~ OHWTP ~ Others Have Walked This Path

~ WH ~ Writing Heals

~ WPG-MCM-OO-A-U-T-PG ~ Writing Provides Grounding – Making Concrete Marks – Out Of – Abstract – Unarticulated – Thoughts – Provides Grounding

~ WIT ~ Writing Is Therapeutic

~ TAOMTPATP-CBM-CACS ~ The Act Of Moving The Pen Across The Page – Can Be Meditative – Creating A Calming State

~ TINROWWTW ~ There Is No Right Or Wrong Way To Write

~ TT-I-CC-WW-A-IA ~ Taking Time – Is – Counter Culture – We Want – An – Instant Answer

~ SPW-T-BWTW ~ Some People Write – Then – Burn What They Wrote

~ UYPWAABOYP-LB-YWSHFYHC ~ Use Your Past Writing As A Benchmark Of Your Progress – Look Back – You Will See How Far You Have Come

~ WIPOTPTGYTTOS-YMNFLW-DIA ~ Writing Is Part Of The Process That Gets You To The Other Side – You May Not Feel Like Writing – Do It Anyway

~ RE-CTTS ~ Raw Emotions – Coming To The Surface

~ L-MI-C-A ~ Listing – Makes It – Concrete – Attainable

~ ASIP ~ A Shift In Perception

~ A-IO-A-ATD-EATSPUIFM-A-MLTAUB ~ Action – Is Often – An – Antidote To Depression – Even A Tiny Step Puts You In Forward Motion – And – May Lead To An Unpredictable Boon

~ OWTFYAOWIMIOY-I-TDAPOYH-A-PIOI-WYAFATPM ~ One Way To Focus Your Awareness On What Is Moving Inside Of You – Is – To Draw A Picture Of Your Heart – And – Pencil Inside Of It – Whatever You Are Feeling At This Precise Moment

~ KOW-A-LTPAFY ~ Keep On Writing – And – Let The Pen Answer For You

~ S-WMYS-HAMFY-IYWBPETLFI ~ Sometimes – What Makes You Sad – Has A Message For You – If You Will Be Patient Enough To Listen For It

~ WBAFTI-W-HTIOMA-WNA-B-WYWSD-ISBTY ~ Writing Brings A Fullness To Ideas – Which – Holding Them In Our Mind Alone – Will Never Accomplish – Because – When You Write Something Down – It Speaks Back To You

~ T-ATEOTD-WBYL-A-WMYS ~ Track – At The End Of The Day – What Brought You Light – And – What Made You Sad

~ LYWSBTY ~ Let Your Writing Speak Back To You

~ BGTBAN-WOSYAGW-A-SOI-PTPAAQ-A-DBFANKTA-LTQSIYC-FTINM-WUWCTM-DNBCINISIT-NTIOP-YBIWOI-YWBATTAWIPIDYD ~ Before Going To Bed At Night – Write Out Something You Are Grappling With – And – Sleep On It – Pose The Problem As A Question – And – Don’t Be Frantic About Not Knowing The Answer – Let The Question Seep Into Your Consciousness – First Thing In The Morning – Write Up Whatever Comes To Mind – Do Not Be Concerned If No Immediate Solution Is There – Now That It’s On Paper – Your Brain Is Working On It – You Will Be Alert To The Answer When It Presents Itself During Your Day

~ TIA-FAR-TCF-CWHBBUFY-T-P ~ There Is A – Freedom And Release – That Comes From – Consigning What Has Been Bottled Up For Years – To – Paper

~ WYHAROYW-IPAIIDP ~ When You Have A Record Of Your Whining – It Provides An Insight Into Destructive Patterns

~ LIP-FYP ~ Life Is Precious – Follow Your Passion

~ AJ-IAWTRI-ANH-S-TBTY-O-S-S ~ A Journal – Is A Way To Ramble Incessantly – And Not Have – Someone – Talk Back To You – Or – Say – Stop

~ WYH/GYT/PTP-O-SAV-AAII-YJ ~ Wring Your Hands / Gnash Your Teeth / Pound The Pillow – Or – Seethe And Vent – All About It In – Your Journal

~ APOA-CTD ~ A Pattern Of Abuse – Connecting The Dots

~ L-UAU-DV-E ~ Left – Unchecked And Unchallenged – Domestic Violence – Escalates

~ WGTTC ~ Writing Gets To The Core

~ CWAMAAIEIYL-NFP-B-FY-T-NWSY-A-P-TSWAFS-CF-A-F-BH-WCWWA-S/G-TMYW-TMYWR ~ Consider Writing A Memoir About An Important Event In Your Life – Not For Publication – But – For Yourself – To – Name What Shaped You – And – Perhaps – To Share With A Few Select – Close Friends – And – Family – Be Honest – Write Continuously Without Worrying About – Style / Grammar – The More You Write – The More You Will Remember

~ WAR ~ Writing And Ritual

~ BC-I-JW-WTCPI-IDHTBP ~ Be Creative – In – Journal Writing – Whatever That Creative Process Is – It Doesn’t Have To Be Perfect

~ T-A-ET ~ Thanks – And – Ever Thanks

ROY BAUMEISTER + JOHN TIERNEY ~ WILLPOWER ~ 2011

~ W-LAM-BFFO-B-CABSOTLTTE ~ Willpower – Like A Muscle – Becomes Fatigued From Overuse – But – Can Also Be Strengthened Over The Long Term Through Exercise

~ MMP-PAS-COFOS-C:CSAB/IV/UIS/PAW/AADA/UD/LOE/CA/EA ~ Most Major Problems – Personal And Social – Center On Failure Of Self-Control: Compulsive Spending And Borrowing / Impulsive Violence / Underachievement In School / Procrastination At Work / Alcohol And Drug Abuse / Unhealthy Diet / Lack Of Exercise / Chronic Anxiety / Explosive Anger

~ PS-C-CWJAEKOIT ~ Poor Self-Control Correlates With Just About Ever Kind Of Individual Trauma

~ TASATNM-RFASMEB ~ To Avoid Smirking At The Next Meeting – Refrain From Any – Strenuous Mental Exercises – Beforehand

~ WSRD-T-I-DW-WD-A-T-CE ~ What Stress Really Does – Though – Is – Deplete Willpower – Which Diminishes – Ability – To – Control Emotions

~ YHA-FAOW-T-BDAYUI-YUTS-SOW0FAMOT ~ You Have A – Finite Amount Of Willpower – That – Becomes Depleted As You Use It – You Use The Same – Stock Of Willpower – For All Manner Of Tasks

~ FOOPAAT ~ Focus On One Project At A Time

~ TWTT-QS-WA-RTE-O-CBOA-TTFAAT-TM-SD-O-W-ABP-IT-MORASTI ~ Those Who Try To – Quit Smoking – While Also – Restricting Their Eating – Or – Cutting Back On Alcohol – Tend To Fail At All Three – Too Many – Simultaneous Demands – On – Willpower – A Better Plan – Is To – Make One Resolution An Stick To It

~ NG-NW-ATBUGDS-C-ISTCSTTE-WPHMDFS-C-THFSI-EJETHTES-CSTMPHFSF ~ No Glucose – No Willpower – As The Body Uses Glucose During Self-Control – It Starts To Crave Sweet Things To Eat – When People Have More Demands For Self-Control – Their Hunger For Sweets Increases – Even Just Expecting To Have To Exert Self-Control Seems To Make People Hungry For Sweet Foods

~ IYH-A-T-A-IM-O-A-VP-DTIOWG ~ If You Have – A – Test – An – Important Meeting – Or – A – Vital Project – Don’t Take It On Without Glucose

~ DACWABC-HBFTB-EMDT-DWMI-Y0IS-IUSMOYGTFTC-T-TNELFTB ~ Driving A Car With A Bad Cold – Has Been Found To Be – Even More Dangerous Than – Driving When Mildly Intoxicated – Your – Immune System – Is Using So Much Of Your Glucose To Fight The Cold – That – There’s Not Enough Left For The Brain

~ WYT-S ~ When You’re Tired – Sleep

~ SD-HBSTITPOG-W-PICF-S-C ~ Sleep Deprivation – Has Been Shown To Impair The Processing Of Glucose – Which – Produces Immediate Consequences For Self-Control

~ TGTMOOOW-UITSAETTS ~ To Get The Most Out Of Our Willpower – Use It To Set Aside Enough Time To Sleep

~ TFSI-S-C-I-TSA-CG ~ The First Step In – Self-Control – Is – To Set A – Clear Goal

~ TRO-CG-I-U-IO-A ~ The Result Of – Conflicting Goals – Is – Unhappiness – Instead Of – Action

~ YIN ~ Your Inner Nag

~ UT-A-UG-TTPIOM ~ Uncompleted Tasks – And – Unmet Goals – Tend To Pop Into One’s Mind

~ TPO-DT-INAITTUIWTFTT-I-TUIATCM-T-MAP-OTPIM-TUCSN ~ The Persistence Of – Distracting Thoughts – Is Not An Indication That The Unconscious Is Working To Finish The Task – Instead – The Unconscious Is Asking The Conscious Mind – To – Make A Plan – Once The Plan Is Made – The Unconscious Can Stop Nagging

~ DF ~ Decision Fatigue

~ S-TT-I-NAGSFL ~ Short-Term Thinking – Is – Not A Great Strategy For Life

~ SYFO-HFYC-O-HMRTBD?-TS-MAA-F-I-O-TRA ~ Should You Focus On – How Far You’ve Come – Or – How Much Remains To Be Done? – To Stoke – Motivation And Ambition – Focus – Instead – On – The Road Ahead

~ WW ~ Willpower Workouts

~ ISRFHTBITF-YOIA-C/C-S-SYM-UC ~ In Setting Rules For How To Behave In The Future – You’re Often In A – Calm / Cool – State – So You Make – Unrealistic Commitments

~ TA-MT-TEYTCWFTMWII-TTRWTI-B-ITLRTLYLDFTMWITASCTS ~ There Are – Mental Tricks – That Enable You To Conserve Willpower For Those Moments When It’s Indispensable – These Techniques Require Willpower To Implement – But – In The Long Run They Leave You Less Depleted For Those Moments When It Takes A Strong Core To Survive

~ P:LYIAVP-MI-I/UD/S-T-LTP ~ Precommitment: Lock Yourself Into A Virtuous Path – Make It – Impossible / Unthinkably Disgraceful / Sinful – To – Leave The Path

~ TBAF-YW-A-AP-I-WED ~ The Best Advice For – Young Writers – And – Aspiring Professors – Is – Write Every Day

~ H(LH)-I-OP ~ Heaven (Like Hell) – Is – Other People

~ PORST-BAITWIS ~ Plenty Of Research Suggests That – Being Alone In The World Is Stressful

~ L-A-LP-TTHMO-JAEKO-MAPI-T-PWLIRSN ~ Loners – And – Lonely People – Tend To Have More Of – Just About Every Kind Of – Mental And Physical Illness – Than – People Who Live In Rich Social Networks

~ POTGPCFTPAOSTAL ~ Part Of The Group’s Power Comes From The Passive Act Of Sitting There And Listening

~ APGCSMROYSIOL-P-IYKTAWBMY ~ A Personal Goal Can Seem More Real Once You Speak It Out Loud – Particularly – If You Know The Audience Will Be Monitoring You

~ TB-RIN-I-TPCOTS-EM-A-IINTL-TCAS-B-TMPDTETINMCBM-S-H-O-OBC ~ The Broad – Rise In Narcissism – Is – The Problem Child Of The Self-Esteem Movement – And – It Is Not Too Likely – To Change Anytime Soon – Because – The Movement Persists Despite The Evidence That It’s Not Making Children Become More – Successful – Honest – Or – Otherwise Better Citizens

~ WTGGT-PWHS-EODTSB ~ When The Going Gets Tough – People With High Self-Esteem Often Decide They Shouldn’t Bother

~ NAEAT-CNAWCR-AT-BHAFOTR-I-AVFOHD ~ Nearly All Experts Agree That – Children Need And Want Clear Rules – And That – Being Held Accountable For Obeying The Rules – Is – A Vital Feature Of Healthy Development

~ ALOASDTTT-TOTBOOTSPO-CB ~ A Lack Of Adult Supervision During The Teenage Years – Turned Out To Be One Of The Strongest Predictors Of – Criminal Behavior

~ TCWMTHO-WWFMIOTGTM-T-SBDT ~ The Children Who Manged To Hold Out – Who Waited Fifteen Minutes In Order To Get Two Marshmallows – Typically – Succeeded By Distracting Themselves

~Y-CAII-B-YNWTCA ~ Yes – Controlling Attention Is Important – But – You Need Willpower To Control Attention

~ TFSI-S-C-IT-ERG ~ The First Step In – Self-Control Is To – Establish Realistic Goals

~ T-CB-WPOTOSOTR-A-HWETR ~ The – Candy Bowl – Was Placed On The Other Side Of The Room – And – Hence Was Easier To Resist

~ ITWTTDD-B-A-ILSOTMTS-L-RT-N ~ It Takes Willpower To Turn Down Dessert – But – Apparently – It’s Less Stressful On The Mind To Say – Later – Rather Than – Never

~ WTDCA-DGLAFT-VTYWEAOT-SOL-B-JNT ~ When The Dessert Cart Arrives – Don’t Gaze Longingly At Forbidden Treats – Vow That You Will Eat All Of Them – Sooner Or Latter – But – Just Not Tonight

~ TBWTRSIYLIT-SSU ~ The Best Way To Reduce Stress In Your Life Is To – Stop Screwing Up

~ OOTMOYWIR:DKPIO ~ One Of The Most Obvious Yet Widely Ignored Rules: Don’t Keep Putting It Off

~ BOM-BD-W-YEID-B-YTTFO-W-S-TG-A-DC ~ Beware Of Making – Binding Decisions – When – Your Energy Is Down – Because – You’ll Tend To Favor Options – With – Short-Term Gains – And – Delayed Costs

~ TNA-YM-FI-RTSYD-W-NM-DT-YMIG-WNI ~ The Nothing Alternative – You Might – For Instance – Resolve To Start Your Day – With – Ninety Minutes – Devoted To – Your Most Important Goal – With No Interruptions

~ KT-M-I-CFAKOP-A-ICEWIYDMAPAA ~ Keep Track – Monitoring – Is – Crucial For Any Kind Of Plan – And – It Can Even Work If You Don’t Make A Plan At All

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ THE SLIPPERY SLOPE ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ S-MFT-OWA-MP-HII-WSF-T-O-M/C/B ~ Skeptics Might Fear That – Once We Accept – Modest Paternalism – Highly Intrusive Interventions – Will Surely Follow – To – Outright – Manipulation / Coercion / Bans

~ ROA-S-S-A-DTQOW-PHMIAOT-P-CTCTDRTTROOTFOAHSS-IOPAW-MPOT-A-DWITT-PSOTS ~ Reliance On A – Slippery-Slope – Argument – Ducks The Question Of Whether – Proposals Have Merit In And Of Themselves – Policies – Constructive To Criticize Them Directly Rather Than To Rely Only On The Fear Of A Hypothetical Slippery Slope – If Our Proposals Are Worthwhile – Make Progress On Those – And – Do Whatever It Takes To – Pour Sand On The Slope

~ LCOOR-RTSOTOSS-P-ED-T-RFOC-SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TRDBAAM ~ Low Cost Opt-Out Rights – Reduces The Steepness Of The Ostensibly Slippery Slope – Proposals – Emphatically Designed – To – Retain Freedom Of Choice – So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Risks Decried By Antipaternalists Are Modest

~ IMC-SKONII-A-CA-W-POP-MDS ~ In Many Cases – Some Kind Of Nudge Is Inevitable – And – Choice Architects – Whether – Private Or Public – Must Do Something

~ OLTUPTPDNA-B-PAP-I-NRTDHSSAH-WTRSI-IIBPFTOASSTTDNSTARAA-B-TRANT-A-STANSS ~ Often Life Turns Up Problems That People Did Not Anticipate – Both – Private And Public – Institutions – Need Rules To Determine How Such Situations Are Handled – When Those Rules Seem Invisible – It Is Because People Find Them Obvious And So Sensible That They Do Not See Them As Rules At All – But – The Rules Are Nonetheless There – And – Sometimes They Are Not So Sensible

~ TWMTA-SS-AI-TDTTSTB-CFNOFTS-TIAM ~ Those Who Make This Argument – Sometimes Speak – As If – The Default Terms That Set The Background – Come From Nature Or From The Sky – This Is A Mistake

DONALD PROTHERO ~ REALITY CHECK ~ 2013

~ A-S-IS-WDNBTJBSPT-B-TTAE-ITEIS-T-TSMATTCIR ~ A – Skeptic – Is Someone – Who Does Not Believe Things Just Because Someone Proclaims Them – But – Tests Them Against Evidence – If The Evidence Is Solid – Then – The Skeptic Must Acknowledge That The Claim Is Real

~ A-D-I-IC-T-AAOV-A-NAOEWCTM ~ A – Denier – Is – Ideologically Committed – To – Attacking An Opposing Viewpoint – And – No Amount Of Evidence Will Change Their Minds

~ CI-H-NC ~ Crazy Ideas – Have – Negative Consequences

~ JB-TEOT-DNM-TAROCC ~ Just Because – Two Events Occurred Together – Does Not Mean – They Are Related Or Causally Connected

~ CB-HTTSWTETS-A-FWTDNME-WHETATSOEBS-A-IOTTDETSWMBW ~ Confirmation Bias – Humans Tend To See What They Expect To See – And – Forget When Things Do Not Match Expectations – We Hear Evidence That Appears To Support Our Existing Belief Systems – And – Ignore Or Try To Discount Evidence That Suggests We Might Be Wrong

~ OSCTSITQOAAINTOOC-A-UTMTOOWIAI ~ One Should Check To See If The Quotation Of An Authority Is Not Taken Out Of Context – And – Used To Mean The Opposite Of What Its Author Intended

~ YPY-OTSOY-DAA-NB-FYD ~ You Prove Yourself – On The Strength Of Your – Data And Arguments – Not By – Flaunting Your Degree

~ EITAT ~ Expertise In The Appropriate Topic

~ COI ~ Conflict Of Interest

~ BOP-WSCHBR-A-ALAOESAPEOAP-T-TBOP-FOTDWSTOTC-IINE-TPOOSPOCD-O-T-NOLI-TMSTTPOTESTV ~ Burden Of Proof – When Scientific Consensus Has Been Reached – And – A Large Amount Of Evidence Supports A Particular Explanation Of A Phenomenon – Then – The Burden Of Proof – Falls On The Dissenter Who Seeks To Overthrow The Consensus – It Is Not Enough – To Point Out One Small Piece Of Contrary Data – Or – To – Nitpick One Little Inconsistency – They Must Show That The Preponderance Of The Evidence Supports Their View

~ CINC-IIHNTTTLTETCITAATOCTO-BWSTTEAR-WNTEMCOTEOOAOA-WMPSTTDWTCBTTEIR-O-JDTRC ~ Correlation Is Not Causation – It Is Human Nature To Try To Link Two Events That Coincide In Time And Assume That One Causes The Other – Before We Say That Two Events Are Related – We Need To Examine Many Cases Of These Events Occurring Over And Over Again – We Must Perform Statistical Tests To Determine Whether The Connection Between The Two Events Is Real – Or – Just Due To Random Chance

~ ADNMS ~ Anecdotes Do Not Make Science

~ B-PAEATTCI-A-WNGTUNMWEGAT ~ But – Pseudoscientists Are Emotionally Attached To Their Cherished Ideas – And – Will Not Give Them Up No Matter What Evidence Goes Against Them

~ LATTROTE ~ Look At The Track Record Of The Expert

~ OFPPDTC? ~ Our Fellow Planetary Passengers Do They Count?

~ BAP-RTTPFCAT-SE-BTRO-E-O-SOTP-I-TOTHTOAAOTPOT-BFME-OTP-600MY-BNETIT-TC-A-B-20,000-AA-M-S-W-E-TIEFTARSITGP-B-WRDNKHMCBLBT-EPE-C ~ Biologists And Paleontologists – Refer To The Past Few Centuries As The – Sixth Extinction – Because The Rate Of – Extinction – Of – Species On This Planet – Is – Thousands Of Times Higher Than Occurred At Any Of The Previous Of The – Big Five Mass Extinctions – Of The Past – 600 Million Years – Biologists Now Estimate That In The – Twentieth Century – Alone – Between – 20,000 – And A – Million – Species – Went – Extinct – This Is Enormously Faster Than Any Rate Seen In The Geologic Past – But – We Really Do Not Know How Many Can Be Lost Before The – Entire Planetary Ecosystem – Collapses

~ TDOS-TUA ~ The – Denial Of Science – Threatens Us All

~ ME-CE:ACGNTCATBANEADPOVOAORTFTSTROTIOHOSNS ~ Media Echo-Chamber Effect: Anyone Can Get News That Confirms All Their Biases And Never Encounter A Different Point Of View Or An Outside Reality That Falsifies The Stuff They Read On The Internet Or Hear On Some News Sources

~ ‘SI’-PWA-AEIAA-WE-A-SBASM-B-WH-SBWTHL-STC-AAR-IIIITDTCABS ~ “Smart Idiots” – People Who Are – Actively Engaged In An Argument – Well Educated – And – Smart By Any Standard Measure – But – Who Have – Selectively Biased What They Have Learned – So They Can – Argue Against Reality – If It Is Important To Defending Their Community And Belief System

MARK GOULSTON ~ JUST LISTEN ~ 2010

~ JL ~ Just Listen

~ PC:FRTL;FLTC;FCTWTD;FWTDTD;FDTGTDACTD ~ Persuasion Cycle: From Resisting To Listening; From Listening To Considering; From Considering To Willing To Do; From Willing To Do To Doing; From Doing To Glad They Did And Continuing To Do

~ YGTTPBHT-‘BI’-‘BI’-OWPMF-‘R’-T-‘L’-T-‘C’-WYAS ~ You Get Through To People By Having Them – “Buy In” – “Buy-In” – Occurs When People Move From – “Resisting” – To – “Listening” – To – “Considering” – What You Are Saying

~ I-TKTG-‘B-IA-TMPTTROTCINWYTT-B-WYGTTTY-A-WHITMITP ~ Ironically – The Key To Gaining – “Buy-In” – And – Then Moving People Through The Rest Of The Cycle Is Not What You Tell Them – But – What You Get Them To Tell You – And – What Happens In Their Minds In The Process

~ T-RW-H-TPTH ~ The – Right Words – Have – Tremendous Power To Heal

~ WOLAOPAVD-OB-WISW ~ While Our Lives And Our Problems Are Very Different – Our Brains – Work In Similar Ways

~ Y-A-ASADIYB-FIAIISATTY-TT-D-NTBP-EACTYE-CLIOAW-S-WYRS-YA-ISOY-HB-CYTAOPI-AH-YBIASP-T-FC-INLIC-YATRDD-YWMF-SHFYS-IMTHFTFETF ~ Your – Amygdala – A Small Area Deep In Your Brain – Flies Into Action If It Senses A Threat To You – This Threat – Doesn’t – Need To Be Physical – Even A Challenge To Your Ego – Can Light It Off As Well – Sometimes – When You’re Really Scared – Your Amygdala – Instantly Shuts Out Your – Higher Brain – Causing You To Act On Primitive Instinct – Amygdala Hijack – Your Brain’s Intelligent And Sensible Pilot – The – Frontal Cortex – Is No Longer In Control – Your Ability To Reason Drops Drastically – Your Working Memory Falters – Stress Hormones Flood Your System – It Make Take Hours For The Full Effects To Fade

~ IYTTTFARWAPWI-FAH-Y-WYT-B-I-B-TAHTBP-A-TPHBCSIC ~ If You’re Trying To Talk Facts And Reason With A Person Who’s In – Full Amygdala Hijack – You’re – Wasting Your Time – But – Intervene – Before – The Amygdala Hits The Boiling Point – And – The Person’s Higher Brain Can Stay In Control

~ MN ~ Mirror Neurons

~ WC-MTW-CTIN-TTWI-LAA-A-ETWMTW-ICALRHTBMB ~ We Constantly – Mirror The World – Conforming To Its Needs – Trying To Win Its – Love And Approval – And – Each Time We Mirror The World – It Creates A Little Reciprocal Hunger To Be Mirrored Back

~ MNRC ~ Mirror Neuron Receptor Deficits

~ GTTYF-B-ICOYOWAE-B-MOTT-TWSCS-S-T-FAMIR-F-TCIASS-I-GYUCF ~ Get Through To Yourself First – Be – In Control Of Your Own Thoughts And Emotions – Because – Most Of The Time – That’s Where Successful Communicating Starts – So – The – First And Most Important Rule – For – Taking Control In A Stressful Situation – Is – Getting Yourself Under Control First

~ O-ACE-IMYBFPTO-IT-PWTWYF-AES ~ One – Absolutely Crucial Element – In Moving Your Brain From Panic To Logic – Is To – Put Words To What You’re Feeling – At Each Stage

~ RYTL ~ Rewire Yourself To Listen

~ GROTF-TSYTYAKAS-‘L’/’L’/’W’/’H’/’I’-I-IR-BOWYNTK-RT-MB-A-YRTSRPYTWU ~ Get Rid Of The Filter – The Stuff You Think You Already Know About Someone – “Lazy” / “Loser” / “Whinny” / “Hostile” / “Impossible” – Is – In Reality – Blocking Out What You Need To Know – Remove The – Mental Block – And – You’re Ready To Start Reaching People You Thought Were Unreachable

~ OYM-A-LFTRBTB-A-YTTFSTBDB-A-CWA-‘I’-P ~ Open Your Mind – And – Look For The Reasons Behind The Behavior – And – You’ll Take The First Step Toward Breaking Down Barriers – And – Communicating With An – “Impossible” – Person

~ MTOPF-‘F’-WPF-F-TFLA-A-WTFLA-TFLAAA-A-TOTUTTMYTTS ~ Make The Other Person Feel – “Felt” – When People Feel – Felt – They Feel Less Alone – And – When They Fell Less Alone – They Feel Less Anxious And Afraid – And – That Opens Them Up To The Message You’re Trying To Send

~ BE-I-T-I-DJ-AI-BI ~ Be More – Interested – Than – Interesting – Don’t Just – Act Interested – Be Interested

~ TMOS-A-I-HDASIYAIO;TMOI-I-HMYTTITWY ~ The Measure Of Self-Assurance – Is – How Deeply And Sincerely Interested You Are In Others; The Measure Of Insecurity – Is – How Much You Try To Impress Them With You

~ MPFV ~ Make People Feel Valuable

~ ‘IMADTYH’ ~ “It Makes A Difference That You’re Here”

~ ISTGOOYWTMTAPIYL-C/K/O-FI-OTMOTH-M-E-T-U-P-HIC-IT-TFAITWITTWE-IS-TPADYCFT-SR-TNTM-WTTSDYC?-TYNTSTN ~ It’s Smart To Go Out Of Your Way To Make The Annoying People In Your Life – Complainers / Kvetchers / Obstructers – Feel Important – One Thing Most Of These High-Maintenance – Easy-To-Upset – People – Have In Common – Is That – They Feel As If The World Isn’t Treating Them Well Enough – In Short – These People Are Driving You Crazy For The – Simple Reason – They Need To Matter – Want Them To Stop Driving You Crazy? – Then You’ll Need To Satisfy That Need

~ T-GP-IYL-NADRTTV-A-T-AP-IYL-MNDIBTNIEM-GBOTWTW-AFTTM-A-TGYWYN ~ The – Good People – In Your Life – Need And Deserve Reassurance That They’re Valued – And – The – Annoying People – In Your Life – May Not Deserve It But They Need It Even More – Give Both Of Them What They Want – A Feeling That They Matter – And – They’ll Give You What You Need

~ ECFT-B-NOSNTCFI ~ Everyone Competes For Time – But – No One Should Need To Compete For Importance

~ HPT-E-EAM ~ Help People To – Exhale – Emotionally And Mentally

~ MAPAFD-IWSCOIDTWLSOOIL-TG-A-I-LFWWRUN-ATP-WTBLFAEEFOPTBEROR ~ Moving A Person Away From Distress – It’s When Stress Crosses Over Into Distress That We Lose Sight Of Our Important Long-Term Goals – And – Instead – Look For What Will Relieve Us Now – At That Point – We’re Too Busy Looking For An Emergency Exit From Our Pain To Be Either Rational Or Reachable

~ YCRAPW-V-B-YWUDYOC ~ You Can’t Reach A Person Who’s – Venting – Because – You Wind Up Defending Yourself Or Counterattacking

~ WYGA-DP-BR-APAASTE-YDJGTSBTN-YAIOI-B-IATGAPTCD-YBA-MB-BTPAY-A-WYBTB-YCCAI ~ When You Give A – Distressed Person – Breathing Room – A Place And A Space To Exhale – You Don’t Just Get The Situation Back To Normal – You Actually Improve On It – Because – In Addition To Getting A Person To Calm Down – You Build A – Mental Bridge – Between The Person And Yourself – And – When You Build That Bridge – You Can Communicate Across It

~ TBTTDWSI-V/W/C-IT-AI ~ The Best Thing To Do When Someone Is – Venting / Whining / Complaining – Is To – Avoid Interrupting

~ CYDATD ~ Check Your Dissonance At The Door

~ WASL-BYN-WYACAEIYMYFL-BYT-RDIY-FYF-A-BYN-I ~ When All Seems Lost – Bare Your Neck – When You Are Cornered And Everything Inside You Makes You Feel Like – Baring Your Teeth – Reach Deeper Into Yourself – Feel Your Fear – And – Bare Your Neck – Instead

~ SC-O-TP ~ Steer Clear – Of – Toxic People

~ YCBCAOTAATSM ~ You Can’t Be Curious And On The Attack At The Same Moment

~ BYWASSEP-FOITRIAP ~ Before You Worry About Solving Someone Else’s Problem – Find Out If There Really Is A Problem

~ DGD;GD ~ Don’t Get Defensive; Go Deeper

~ SPBOETMPHAYATBMLTGYTPAUA ~ Show Poise By Openly Expressing The Misgivings People Have About You And They’ll Be More Likely To Give You Their Positive And Undivided Attention

~ WYAPQ-RTA ~ When You Ask People Questions – Respect Their Answers

~ WYCGT-FTF-T-SBS ~ When You Can’t Get Through – Face To Face – Try – Side By Side

~ DQ-MPTY-TAT-LT-FITB-A-TFYTWT ~ Direct Questions – Make People Think You’re – Talking At Them – Let Them – Fill In The Blanks – And – They’ll Feel You’re Talking With Them

~ ATBTYC-AT-BTP-T-AY-WWTLT ~ Assemble The Best Team You Can – And Then – Become The Person – They – And You – Would Want To Lead Them