MICHAEL SHERMER ~ AN EXGESIS OF WHY AND HOW WE ARE MORAL ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ MN ~ MORAL NATURALISM

~ WTIAGONIITTT-BISOAANO-AEH-NC-STSA ~ Whether There Is A God Or Not – Is Irrelevant To The Theory – Because – In Science Our Approach Is A Naturalistic One – All Effects Have – Natural Causes – Subject To Scientific Analysis

~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SENSE

~ MSIH-AMPIHG-E-PTTFONSOOI-A-S-TTFO-GSOOP ~ Moral Sentiments In Humans – And – Moral Principles In Human Groups – Evolved – Primarily – Through The Force Of Natural Selection Operating On Individuals – And – Secondarily – Through The Force Of – Group Selection Operating On Populations

~ AEMS ~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SOCIETY

~ HEAASPSWAAHON-F-S-SOTI-T-TEOTITTF-T-ASOBWTEF-T-TRAOTC-T-IAOS-T-SA-A-B-AAOOMOTSABCTD ~ Humans Evolved As A Social Primate Species With An Ascending Hierarchy Of Needs – From – Self-Survival Of The Individual – To – The Extension Of The Individual Through The Family – To – A Sense Of Bonding With The Extended Family – To – The Reciprocal Altruism Of The Community – To – Indirect Altruism Of Society – To – Species Altruism And Bioaltruism – As Awareness Of Our Membership Of The Species – And – Biosphere Continues To Develop

~ T-BB-HN-A-MF-ALU-BC-W-TM-SAC-HN-A-MF-ALU-CC ~ The – Most Basic – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Biological Control – Whereas – The More – Social And Cultural – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Cultural Control

~ TNOMN ~ THE NATURE OF MORAL NATURE

~ H-A-BN-MAI-GAE/AAS/CAC/PAB/VAN-SMTVWI-AWA-WAB-G ~ Humans – Are – By Nature – Moral And Immoral / Good And Evil / Altruistic And Selfish / Cooperative And Competitive / Peaceful And Bellicose / Virtuous And Nonvirtuous – Such Moral Traits Vary Within Individuals – As Well As – Within And Between – Groups

~ PM ~ PROVISIONAL MORALITY

~ MP-A-PT-TI-TAT-MP-I-MC-I-MC-MOTT ~ Moral Principles – Are – Provisionally True – That Is – They Apply To – Most People – In – Most Cultures – In – Most Circumstances – Most Of The Time

~ PRAW ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG

~ A-FP:TFOWAAI-ROW-AF ~ Ask-First Principle: To Find Out Whether An Action Is – Right Or Wrong – Ask First

~ HP:IIAHMPTASHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ Happiness Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness

~ LP:IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ Liberty Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty

~ MP:WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ Moderation Principle: When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

~PJ ~ PROVISIONAL JUSTICE

~AWAAST-LON-A-FO-C-A-H-TSO-TAB-WA-FMA-RFOA-TI-C-A-SJ-WHCTPFO-RAG-A-A-RAP-SATTIAL-PJ-IN-HAN ~ Although We Are All Subject To – Laws Of Nature – And – Forces Of – Culture – And – History – That Shape Our – Thoughts And Behaviors – We Are– Free Moral Agents – Responsible For Our Actions – There Is – Individual Culpability – And – Social Justice – Within Human Communities That Produce Feelings Of – Righteousness And Guilt – And – Administer – Rewards And Punishments – Such That There Is At Least – Provisional Justice – In The – Here And Now

~ EEE ~ ENNOBLING EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS

~ AA-EMOHP-T-MS-T-IAG-A-BTTS-POTIFO-E/H/C ~ As An – Evolved Mechanism Of Human Psychology – The – Moral Sense – Transcends – Individuals And Groups – And – Belongs To The Species – Products Of The Impersonal Forces Of – Evolution / History / Culture

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004 ~ 999

~ TBA-FFMA-OCPAMPHDBF-MP-R-MR ~ To Be A – Fully Functioning Moral Agent – One Cannot Passively Accept Moral Principles Handed Down By Fiat – Moral Principles – Require – Moral Reasoning
~ M:RAW-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Morality: Right And Wrong – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ E:T-SS-O-A-TA-M-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Ethics: The – Scientific Study – Of – And – Theories About – Moral – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ LBTW-S-ECR-FT-POBF-HDVMO-BC-T-FG-A-T-A-EX-A-A-OV ~ Long Before There Were – State-Enforced Constitutional Rights – For The – Protection Of Basic Freedoms – Humans Devised Various Mechanisms Of – Behavioral Control – To – Facilitate Goodwill – And – To – Attenuate – Excessive Greed – Avarice – And – Other Vices
~ T-RF-O-H-VAV-SAS-IF-IA-COAIP-O-MAI-B ~ The – Religious Foundation – Of – Human – Virtues And Vices – Saints And Sinners – In Fact – Is A – Codification Of An Informal Psychology – Of – Moral And Immoral – Behavior
~ HAA-HS-PS-AAS-RAM-AA-SS-T-ET ~ Humans Are A – Hierarchical Social – Primate Species – And As Such – We Need – Rules And Morals – And A – Social Structure – To – Enforce Them
~ RMS-SATEI-J/C/I-A-MO-EMS-SATEBIP(TMROOPS)A-TOMO~ Religious Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed In – Judaism / Christianity / Islam – Are – Millennia Old – Evolutionary Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed By Indigenous Peoples (The Modern Remnants Of Paleolithic Societies) Are – Tens Of Millennia Old
~ W-Q-ADF-H-Q ~ Why – Questions – Are Different From – How – Questions
~ AHSACH ~ All Humans Share A Common Humanity
~ WCCA-MS-TIN-DA-N-IR-A-PM-FAAOS-TP-EE-A-A-RBFB-SASOM-SAM-UAY-E-AETW-ET-W-BAS-O-MOTS-A-O-AS ~ We Can Construct A – Moral System – That Is Neither –Dogmatically Absolute – Nor – Irrationally Relative – A – Provisional Morality – For An Age Of Science – That Provides – Empirical Evidence – And – A – Rational Basis For Belief – Such A System Of Morality – Suggests A More – Universal And Tolerant – Ethic – An Ethic That Will – Ensure The – Well-Being And Survival – Of – All Members Of The Species – And – Of – All Species
~ M-ITEDO-HS ~ Morality – Is The Exclusive Domain Of – Homo Sapiens
~ AA-I-HA-A-JTTS-A-ITOT-CIAGS ~ All Animals – Including – Human Animals – Are – Just Trying To Survive – And – It Turns Out That – Cooperation Is A Good Strategy
~ IATTSOPP-R-HASAAIO-SO-A-BC-TROPMS-A-TPONO-BACRO-R-L-O;T-C-S-SAM-N-A-WT-IOW-L-C-T-I-S-SAT ~ In Addition To The Sanction Of Political Power – Religion – Has Also Served As An Institution Of – Social Order – And – Behavior Control – The Reinforcement Of Positive Moral Sentiments – And – The Punishment Of Negative Ones – Became A Central Role Of – Religious – Leaders – And – Organizations; They – Codified – Subjective – Social And Moral – Norms – And – With The – Invention Of Writing – Literally – Canonized – Them – In – Sacred – Scrolls And Texts
~ TWO-GAM ~ The Wedding Of – God And Mammon
~ B-SS-‘LTN’-M-O-IF/EF/C-‘O-G’-WTBDWC-TWT-CWF-DBWWC ~ Before State – Societies – “Love The Neighbor” – Meant – One’s – Immediate Family / Extended Family / Community – “Out-Groupers” – Were To Be Dealt With Cautiously – Trust Was Tentative – Conflict Was Frequent – Death By War Was Common
~ M-A-T-MN-150 ~ Morality – And – The – Magic Number – 150
~ LO-SGS-A-RTTCCO-HM-AT-HADEB-ITOT-150-IRTNOLD-C/G/GC-A-PC-WPIFG-AT-B-O-H-G-P ~ ~ Limits On – Social Group Size – Are – Related To The Carrying Capacity Of – Human Memory – And Thus – Have A Deep Evolutionary Basis – It Turns Out That – 150 – Is Roughly The Number Of Living Descendants – Children / Grandchildren / Great-Grandchildren – A – Paleolithic Couple – Would Produce In Four Generations – At The – Birthrate – Of – Hunter-Gather – Peoples
~ WGGL-TSISG-W?-TAI-MD-A-BC-OGE-200P-A-HS-INT-ETROC-A-TDWO-WITSGCBDWT-IPC-A-SP ~ When Groups Get Large – They Split Into Smaller Groups – Why? – The Answer Is – Moral Discipline – And – Behavior Control – Once Groups Exceed – 200 People – A – Hierarchical Structure – Is Needed To – Enforce The Rules Of Cooperation – And – To Deal With Offenders – Who In The Smaller Group Could Be Dealt With Through – Informal Personal Contracts – And – Social Pressure
~ IOTPTGO-R-YNTK-WBNS-A-WYWTTSY-TIIGTTSAOP-MCKA-G-ATO-SC-TC-CN ~ In Order To Play The Game Of – Reciprocation – You Need To Know – Whose Back Needs Scratching – And – Who You Will Trust To Scratch Yours – This Information Is Gathered Through Telling Stories About Other People – More Commonly Known As – Gossip – A Tool Of – Social Control – Through Communicating – Cultural Norms
~ M-S-A-B-WI-CI-ES-B-R-REAT-SS-T-ETROHI ~ Moral – Sentiments – And – Behaviors – Were Initially – Codified Into – Ethical Systems – By – Religion – Religion Emerged As The – Social Structure – To – Enforce The Rules Of Human Interactions
~ W-BAT-GWT-CAS-RDATP-SI-TF-CAG-ITSB-EAAS-D-EGAS-P-COC-A-RTLOCTTGT-SE-S-RR ~ ~ When – Bands And Tribes – Gave Way To – Chiefdoms And States – Religion Developed As The Principal – Social Institution – To Facilitate – Cooperation And Goodwill – It Di So By – Encouraging – Altruism And Selflessness – Discouraging – Excessive Greed And Selfishness – Promoting – Cooperation Over Competition – And – Revealing The Level Of Commitment To The Group Through – Social Events – And – Religious Rituals
~ PC-WPMB-NS-NC-A-MS-WAA-PSB-CS ~ Paleolithic Communities – Were Primarily Molded By – Natural Selection – Neolithic Communities – And – Modern Societies – Were And Are – Primarily Shaped By – Cultural Selection
~ IIAMAPO-HN-TBMAIITB-H/H/J/IL ~ It Is As Much A Part Of – Human Nature – To Be Moral As It Is To Be – Hungry / Horny / Jealous / In Love
~ TNCWGOWWAATDO-ALLTBEIYABTDY-LANLITBTL ~ The Normal Cues We Give Off When We Are Attempting To Deceive Others – Are Less Likely To Be Expressed If You Actually Believe The Deception Yourself – Liars Are Not Liars If They Believe The Lie
~ T-COMP-EAAFO-SC-TE-TSOIWG-A-TSOHGT ~ The – Codification Of Moral Principles – Evolved As A Form Of – Social Control – To Ensure – The Survival Of Individuals Within Groups – And – The Survival Of Human Groups Themselves
~ TM-O-PE ~ The Myth – Of – Pure Evil
~ TIN-SF-OOTRO-T-KL-O-N-A-HB-TWCC-E ~ There Is No – Supernatural Force – Operating Outside The Realm Of – The – Known Laws – Of – Nature – And – Human Behavior – That We Can Call – Evil
~ TCS-‘E’-DNLUTADUOTCOEB ~ To Call Something – “Evil” – Does Not Lead Us To A Deeper Understanding Of The Cause Of Evil Behavior
~ ITWNH-TWBNE ~ If There Were No Humans – There Would Be No Evil
~ WETB-M-B-HTCTB-I-SOTT-ISC-WSP-WDAOOUTIAGS-WDOA-CAOV ~ We Evolved To Be – Moral – But – Have The Capacity To Be – Immoral – Some Of The Time – In Some Circumstances – With Some People – Which Direction Any One Of Us Takes In Any Given Situation – Will Depend On A – Complex Array Of Variables
~ FW-HUA-A-FW-IFO-D-A-MC-FOTCW ~ Free Will – Holds Us Accountable – Abandon – Free Will – In Favor Of – Determinism – And – Moral Culpability – Flies Out The Courtroom Window
~ FW-AA-UF-WNAAIYDH-FW-GT-EG-A-SB-TGAWI? ~ Free Will – As A – Useful Fiction – Why Not Act As If You Do Have – Free Will – Gaining The – Emotional Gratification – And – Social Benefits – That Go Along With It?
~ CWCAESWR? ~ Can We Construct An Ethical System Without Religion?
~ IIAHLOM-TB-GFIOS-T-FTCIMB ~ It Is A Higher Level Of Morality – To Be – Good For Its Own Sake – Than – For The Consequences It May Bring
~ PMP:AFMPIMCMOTT-Y-FETAFTWDOH-B/C/C ~ Provisional Moral Principles: Applicable For Most People In Most Circumstances Most Of The Time – Yet – Flexible Enough To Account For The Wide Diversity Of Human – Behavior / Culture / Circumstances
~ B-CMBAS? ~ But – Can Morality Become A Science?
~ EUSCSAU ~ Even Unattended Stimuli Can Subtly Affect Us
~MJ-IN-CR-II-IE ~ Moral Judgment – Is Not – Calculatingly Rational – It Is – Intuitively Emotional
~ CB-PAPRIO-MI ~ Cognitive Biases – Play A Powerful Role In Our – Moral Intuitions
~ PE-A-PJ-ATBWCD-ALAHC-STWM-PTIMB ~ Provisional Ethics – And – Provisional Justice – Are The Best We Can Do – As Long As Humanity Continues – So Too Will Morality – Provisional Though It May Be
~ WCAPBM ~ We Can Also Practice Being Moral

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ A-FP ~ ASK-FIRST PRINCIPLE
~ TFOWAAIROW-AF ~ To Find Out Whether An Action Is Right Or Wrong – Ask First
~ HP ~ HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTAWHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness
~ LP ~ LIBERTY PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty
~ MP ~ MODERATION PRINCIPLE
~ WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

NICHOLAS CARR ~ THE GLASS CAGE ~ 2014

~ AHC-ACTATOO-W/T/L-IC-NOP-A-LOC-ICOUT-SAM ~ Automation’s Human Consequences – Automation Can Take A Toll On Our – Work / Talents / Lives – It Can – Narrow Our Perspectives – And – Limit Our Choices – It Can Open Us To – Surveillance And Manipulation

~ ACB-O-CC-O-FOH-ISWTTACLAEHT-C-WWDAWWA ~ As Computers Become – Our – Constant Companions – Our – Familiar Obliging Helpmates – It Seems Wise To Take A Closer Look At Exactly How They’re – Changing – What We Do And Who We Are

~ HDYT-TI-I-TLOC-IT-R-S-B-S-I-O-AA? ~ How Do You Translate – The Ineffable – Into – Lines Of Code – Into The – Rigid – Step-By-Step – Instructions – Of – An Algorithm?

~ MOTCTWCUH-ITO-AAB-OCGQE-TCBTMOAT-SP-MJ-A-LFE ~ Many Of The Cognitive Talents We’ve Considered Uniquely Human – It Turns Out – Are Anything But – Once Computers Get Quick Enough – They Can Begin To Mimic Our Ability To – Spot Patterns – Make Judgments – And – Learn From Experience

~ ALOTVSTTPD-DARAB ~ A Lot Of The Very Smart Things That People Do – Don’t Actually Require A Brain

~ CAA-W-OAS-IBMBS ~ Creative And Analytical – Work – Of All Sorts – Is Being Mediated By Software

~ TTWAIT-IOGUWWDN-ATCOWWD ~ The Trouble With Automation Is That – It Often Gives Us What We Don’t Need – At The Cost Of What We Do

~ E-HTA-A-O-S-C-KW-ASTWCB-D-SS-TTTMOJIA-D-PR ~ Even – Highly Trained Analysts – And – Other – So-Called – Knowledge Workers – Are Seeing Their Work Circumscribed By – Decision-Support Systems – That Turn The Making Of Judments Into A – Data-Processing Routine

~ BTODOT-CT-O-SRTTLO-TSMIELLTW-EIE-T-TOS-A-GUASO-AAS-ATO-AFUFTWMUFF ~ By Taking Over Difficult Or Time-Consuming Tasks – Or – Simply Rendering Those Task Less Onerous – The Software Makes It Even Less Likely That We’ll – Engage In Efforts – That – Test Our Skills – And – Give Us A Sense Of – Accomplishment And Satisfaction – All Too Often – Automation Frees Us From That Which Makes Us Feel Free

~ DW-A-CROU-DW-A-SUOTMCAFE-TCAHTPD-TPCAEH-HDYMTEO-AEOEAE-O-AWOAAA-O-ASDOS? ~ Deployed Wisely – Automation – Can Relieve Of Us – Drudge Work – And – Spur Us On To More Challenging And Fulfilling Endeavors – The Costs Are Harder To Pin Down – The Personal Costs Are Even Hazier– How Do You Measure The Expense Of – An Erosion Of Effort And Engagement – Or – A Waning Of Agency And Autonomy – Or – A Subtle Deterioration Of Skill?

~ TCWM-O-FTM-AWTWHOTC-A-WTKFO-ANJ-POEC-T-EC-TS-TSOOL-A-TPWMFOITW ~ The Choices We Make – Or – Fail To Make – About Which Tasks We Hand Off To Computers – And – Which To Keep For Ourselves – Are Not Just – Practical Or Economic Choices – They’re – Ethical Choices – They Shape – The Substance Of Our Lives – And – The Place We Make For Ourselves In The World

~WD-HB-M? ~ WD-HB-M? ~ What Does – Human Being – Mean?

~ TRATG ~ The Robot At The Gate

~ TEBSLTGOFTTLF-IAAS-PCWTWCTP ~ The Economy’s Bounties Seem Likely To Go On Flowing To The Lucky Few – In An Automated System – Power Concentrates With Those Who Control The Programming

~ E-TMPS-ENMCT-AH ~ Even – The Most Powerful Supercomputer – Evidence No More Consciousness Than – A Hammer

~ TMEO-AEOS/ADOP/ASOR-SGUAP-A-GC-CABA-CG ~ The Mounting Evidence Of – An Erosion Of Skills / A Dulling Of Perception / A Slowing Of Reactions – Should Give Us All Pause – *A – Glass Cockpit – Can Also Be A – Glass Cage

~ TDE-A-LSD-DJPASFSICOAJ-IATCOTET-IT-R/A/S-O-TPWTPII-ARBWAW ~ The Degeneration Effect – A – Labor-Saving Device – Doesn’t Just Provide A Substitute For Some Isolated Component Of A Job – It Alters The Character Of The Entire Task – Including The – Roles / Attitudes / Skill – Of – The People Who Take Part In It – Automation Remakes Both Work And Worker

~ IBATPI-TER-TC-ABITP-C/L-I ~ In Bringing A Third Party Into – The Exam Room – The Computer – Also Brings In That Party’s – Commercial / Legal – Interests

~ PASBDAP-A-YPDBT ~ Put A Screen Between Doctor And Patient – And – You Put Distance Between Them

~ TGINL-TRTPOHT-TSBOK-B-R-TRIR ~ The Goal Is No Longer – To Replicate The Process Of Human Thought – That’s Still Beyond Our Ken – But – Rather – To Replicate Its Results

~ TSAAEOCC-CM-LAD-IT-UD-NTM-IITDMAT ~ The Speed And Apparent Exactitude Of Computer Calculations – Can Mask – Limitations And Distortions – In The – Underlying Data – Not To Mention – Imperfections In The Data-Mining Algorithms Themselves

~ ALDSHAAOSCAWTRO-INHTBMBMC ~ Any Large Data Set Holds An Abundance Of Spurious Correlations Along With The Reliable Ones – It’s Not Hard To Be Misled By Mere Coincidence

~ TL-O-ODD-WHUSA-MD-MTTBVTO-F/H/W-B ~ TL-O-ODD-WHUSA-MD-MTTBVTO-F/H/W-B ~ The Labors – Our – Obliging Digital Deities – Would Have Us See As – Mere Drudgery – May Turnout To Be Vital To Our – Fitness / Happiness / Well-Being

~ OB-IBE-T-OIOISFOB-LUTDTIOIOWTWOT ~ Our Belief – Intuitive But Erroneous – That – Our Intellect Operates In Isolation From Our Body – Leads Us To Discount The Importance Of Involving Ourselves With The World Of Things

~ TAWT-BTGC-WL-TMBCGU ~ There Are Ways To – Break The Glass Cage – Without Losing – The Many Benefits Computers Grant Us

~ AFTP ~ Automation For The People

~ MSTFOTM-SOL0ETM-AT-W-BD/M/EACOCNA ~ Machines Share The Fallibility Of Their Makers – Sooner Or Later – Even The Most – Advanced Technology – Will – Break Down / Misfire – Encounter A – Cluster Of Circumstances – Never Anticipated

~ DA-MWGYTRDAT-MOTT-B-IYP-SOS-DFT-PP-YGTBGT-DH-W-TITER-T-RAO-T-CC ~ Doctor Algorithm – May Well Give You The Right Diagnosis And Treatment – Most Of The Time – But – If Your Particular – Set Of Symptoms – Doesn’t Fit The – Probability Profile – You’re Going To Be Glad That – Doctor Human – Was – There In The Examination Room – To – Review And Overrule – The – Computer’s Calculations

~ A-AT-B-MC-A-MI-TPSOFM-VBHTDT-TE ~ As – Automation Technologies – Become – More Complicated – And – More Interconnected – The Potential Sources Of Failure Multiply – Vulnerabilities Become Harder To Discern Too – Tested Exhaustively

~ A-S-E/O-I-SD-A-G-BI-HOTO-LOSC-CSCA-MA ~ A – Small – Error / Oversight – In – System Design – A – Glitch – Buried In – Hundreds Of Thousands Of – Lines Of Software Code – Can Still Cause A – Major Accident

~ P-A-M-M-PWOS-AJT-H-WON-WM-A-PBA ~ People – As – Mere – Monitors – Passive Watchers Of Screens – A Job That – Humans – With Our Notoriously – Wandering Minds – Are – Particularly Bad At

~ YHTDTMTSTW ~ You Have To Design The Machine To Suit The Worker

~ ASBEMC-TP-BI-UL ~ As Society Becomes Ever More Computerized – The Programmer – Becomes Its – Unacknowledged Legislator

~ ITHF-DNRTHF ~ Ignoring The Human Factor – Does Not Remove The Human Factor

~ H-CA ~ Human-Centred Automation

~ WGTPTRC? ~ Who Gets To Program The Robot’s Conscience?

~ IAMATBSLITW-MC-WHTBT-HI-I-SC ~ If Autonomous Machines Are To Be Set Loose In The World – Moral Codes – Will Have To Be Translated – However Imperfectly – Into – Software Codes

~ TFSFTBARWBASHRTW-IWC-W-A-M-S-F ~ The First Shot Freely Taken By A Robot Will Be A Shot Heard Round The World – It Will Change – War – And – Maybe – Society – Forever

~ THBIIOCOTTAO-EGOSAAT-DUAFO-IS ~ The Human Brain Is Incapable Of Concentrating On Two Things At Once – Every Glance Or Swipe At A Touchscreen – Draws Us Away From Our – Immediate Surroundings

~ WCBAWS-A-WIATC-A-HRA-BTSD ~ What Can’t Be Accomplished With Software – And – What Isn’t Amenable To Computation – And – Hence Resists Automation – Begins To Seem Dispensable

~ WWETGC-WRTSMOOB-TDFU-IEU ~ When We Enter The Glass Cage – We’re Required To Shed Much Of Our Body – That Doesn’t Free Us – It Emaciates Us

~ GPPOM ~ Giving People Precedence Over Machines

~ T-CC-ATTOODL-T-AGAC-P-I-F ~ To – Cede Choices – About The Texture Of Our Daily Lives – To – A Grand Abstraction Called – Progress – Is – Folly

JAY LIFTON ~ EIGHT CRITERIA FOR THOUGHT REFORM ~ THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM ~ 1961

~ M(E)C ~ MILIEU (ENVIRONMENTAL) CONTROL

~ COTM-FOI-A-SI ~ Control Over The Members’ – Flow Of Information – And – Social Interaction

~ MAITKAEOTO ~ Members Are Instructed To Keep An Eye On The Others

~ MM ~ MYSTICAL MANIPULATION

~ TGASIWNAP ~ The Group Attributes Supernatural Influences Where None Are Present

~ MATHA-C-LT-IWTAT ~ Members Are To Have A – Child-Like Trust – In Whatever They Are Taught

~ MF-‘C’-A-T-TAAPOSVIAU ~ Members Feel – “Chosen” – And – That ­– They Are A Part Of Something Very Important And Urgent

~ DFP ~ DEMAND FOR PURITY

~ UR-A-US-AIUTM ~ Unreasonable Rules – And – Unreachable Standards – Are Imposed Upon The Members

~ C ~ CONFESSION

~ TIGAY-CBUAY ~ The Information Gained About You – Can Be Used Against You

~ SS ~ SACRED SCIENCE

~ T-TOTG-AVA-T-U/U-T ~ The – Teachings Of The Group – Are Viewed As – The – Ultimate / Unquestionable – Truth

~ TLOTG-I-LAC ~ The Leader Of The Group – Is – Likewise – Above Criticism

~ LTL ~ LOADING THE LANGUAGE

~ TGL-STPO-CTT-A-SDCA ~ The Group’s Language – Serves The Purpose Of – Constructing Their Thinking – And – Shutting Down Critical Thinking Abilities

~ ‘GS’-FMTCEASDSBOCOOI ~ “Groupspeak” Forces Members To Censor, Edit And Slow Down Spontaneous Bursts Of Criticism Or Opposite Ideas

~ DOP ~ DOCTRINE OVER PERSON

~ AMRTOPHOII-TASTTIRTTGCAITOEAFATC ~ As Members Rewrite Their Own Personal History Or Ignore It – They Are Simultaneously Taught To Interpret Reality Through The Group Concepts And Ignore Their Own Experiences And Feelings As They Occur

~ DOE ~ DISPENSING OF EXISTENCE

~ TG-TE-ETTMAPOA-E-O-SG-OACUOU ~ The Group’s – Totalistic Environment – Emphasizes That The Members Are Part Of An – Elite – Or – Special Group – Outsiders Are Considered Unworthy Or Unenlightened

JOHN TIERNEY + ROY BAUMEISTER ~ TRAINING THE FEARLESS MIND ~ THE POWER OF BAD ~ 2019

~ TAI-TAAFHYOI-A-TATPYMHYMFP ~ Talk About It – Talking About A Fear Helps You Overcome It – And – Talking About The Progress You’re Making Helps You Make Further Progress

~ MTRT-PTWIYM-O-OP ~ Map The Runaway Train – Plot The Waypoints In Your Mind – Or – On Paper

~ TTT-OYI-TWOTRTP-DPBAOOTUYC ~ Throttle The Train – Once You’ve Identified – The Waypoints On The Rout To Panic – Don’t Proceed Beyond Any One Of Them Unless You’re Calm

~ RYM-PYWCS:SSTCBRIYMTOTINT-TSSB-SAR-TMAORWIC ~ Recite Your Mantra – Prepare Yourself With Coping Statements: Simple Sentences That Can Be Repeated In Your Mind To Overwhelm The Irrational Negative Thoughts – The Statements Should Be – Short And Realistic – The Mere Act Of Repeating Words Is Calming

~ B-ADBIASTTBTWS-IAAWFYMTCOSOTYF ~ Breathe – A Deep Breath Is A Signal To The Body That We’re Safe – It’s Also A Way For Your Mind To Concentrate On Something Other Than Your Fear

JOHN TIERNEY + ROY BAUMEISTER ~ SOME PRINCIPLES FOR DEALING WITH BAD APPLES ~ THE POWER OF BAD ~ 2019

~ PY-MYDWTBA ~ Protect Yourself – Minimize Your Dealings With The Bad Apple

~ RTB-STATONTBSBOIM ~ Rearrange The Barrels – Sometimes The Apple Turns Out Not To Be So Bad Once It’s Moved

~ BCWYL-DC-UC-W-O-YWPAW-WSFAP-A-COI ~ Be Careful Whom You Label – Don’t Confuse – Useful Criticism – With – Obnoxiousness – You Want People Around Who – Will Speak Frankly About Problems – And – Challenge Others’ Ideas

~ DEBATCOTO-TDFGA-NOI-HTB-BA-IWTC-NB ~ Don’t Expect Bad Apples To Change On Their Own – They Differ From Good Apples – Not Only In – How They Behave – But Also – In What They Consider – Normal Behavior

~ ITBA-NS-ADO ~ Isolate The Bad Apples – Night Shift – A Distant Office

~ IE-A-DBSAI-SD ~ Intervene Early – And – Don’t Be Shy About It – Staring Discreetly

~ WEABA-LATWB-IP-OAJ-CSQI ~ When Evaluating A Bad Apple – Look At The Whole Barrel – Individual Performance – Of A Jerk – Can Seem Quite Impressive

~ DFTGATATBB ~ Don’t Force The Good Apples To Adapt To Bad Behavior

~ DHT-FAJ-B-DBAJAI-DNB-ELB-OBOCTASE-WBRMLTANYDFSE ~ Don’t Hesitate To – Fire A Jerk – But – Don’t Be A Jerk About It – Duly Noted By – Everyone Left Behind – One Bit Of Cruelty To A Sacked Employee – Will Be Remembered Much Longer Than Anything Nice You Do For Someone Else

JOHN TIERNEY + ROY BAUMEISTER ~ THE POWER OF BAD ~ PENGUIN PRESS ~ 2019

~ NE ~ Negativity Effect
~ NB/ND/NE:TUTF-N-EAE-TAUMST-P-O ~ Negativity Bias / Negativity Dominance / Negativity Effect: The Universal Tendency For – Negative – Events And Emotions – To Affect Us More Strongly Than – Positive – Ones
~ DBAWOC-B-UBASOP-STHFITC-A-MATFS-BIS-B-GCP-IWKWWUA ~ Devastated By A Word Of Criticism – But – Unmoved By A Shower Of Praise – See The Hostile Face In The Crowd – And – Miss All The Friendly Smiles – Bad Is Stronger – But – Good Can Prevail – If We Know What We’re Up Against
~ B-RT-NE-A-OOIR-WC-BDP-TMEATF-A-ETRBOTB-BL/BN/BF-C-PI-TMP-IF-TMU-S/S/K ~ By – Recognizing The – Negativity Effect – And – Overriding Our Innate Responses – We Can – Break Destructive Patterns – Think More Effectively About The Future – And – Exploit The Remarkable Benefits Of This Bias – Bad Luck / Bad News / Bad Feelings – Create – Powerful Incentives – The Most Powerful – In Fact – To Make Us – Stronger / Smarter / Kinder
~ T-NE-DR-BC-PTAE-SBS-IMP-PP-ED ~ The – Negativity Effect – Destroys Reputations / Bankrupts Companies / Promotes Tribalism And Xenophobia / Spreads Bogus Scares / Ignites Moral Panics / Poisons Politics / Elects Demagogues
~ TASMM-SP-O-FAV-T-MOB-WH-PFAP-B-FTP-A-FH ~ There Are So Many More – Skilled Purveyors – Of – Fear And Vitriol – The – Merchants Of Bad – Who Have – Prospered Financially And Politically – By – Frightening The Public – And – Fomenting Hatred
~ T-UOB-IIPT-STM-A-ETW ~ The – Upside Of Bad – Is Its Power To – Sharpen The Mind – And – Energize The Will
~ BM-C-UF-TDGA ~ Bad Moments – Create – Unconscious Feelings – That Don’t Go Away
~ PEATT-SMES-B-OF-TSOB-CBD-A-WWFH-G-DAWFU ~ Paying Extra Attention To Threats – Still Makes Evolutionary Sense – But – Our Fine-Tuned Sense Of Bad – Can Be Debilitating – And – What Worked For Hunger-Gathers Doesn’t Always Work For Us
~ BT-AHIM-A-TUTMJASA-J-FM ~ Bad Today – Also Has Its Merchants – And – They Use The Media Just As Skilfully As – Junk-Food Marketers
~ WAPT-OOA-AWA-OPTCOD ~ We’re All Prone To – Overestimate Our Abilities – As Well As – Our Power To Control Our Destiny
~ CC-TN-ESO-HT-LTATLEWO ~ Crisis Crisis – The Never-Ending Series Of – Hyped Threats – Leading To Actions That Leave Everyone Worse Off
~ HBIB? ~ How Bad Is Bad?
~ TPW-BAG-YNT-EYRM ~ To – Properly Weigh – Bad Against Good – You Need To – Engage Your Rational Mind
~ PR-TNOGEFEBE ~ Positivity Ratio – The Number Of Good Events For Every Bad Event
~ T-ROF-IT-FGT-T-O-OBT-IDATEPIES-NTEKO-GAB-E-SFOBAIP ~ The – Rule Of Four – It Takes – Four Good Things – To – Overcome – One Bad Thing – It Doesn’t Apply To Every Person In Every Situation – Nor To Every Kind Of – Good And Bad – Event – Some Forms Of Bad Are Incomparably Powerful
~ T-W-T-H-E-NTIBTDWTBOIC-IMAWFOTC ~ The – What-The-Hell – Effect – Now That I’ve Broken The Diet With The Bowl Of Ice Cream – I May As Well Finish Off The Carton
~ TTDOOYH-IOTYFITM-MARB-H-ASR-III-X-S-IWD-Y-ARTTRBCDAII ~ Take The Decision Out Of Your Hands – Instead Of Trusting Your Feelings In The Moment – Make A Rule Before-Hand – A Simple Rule – If I’m In – X – Situation – I Will Do – Y – A Rule That The Rational Brain Can Deploy Against Irrational Impulses
~ WTOSB-A-CS-TG-RTA-NL-TB ~ We’re Too Often Swayed By – A – Clear Short-Term Gain – Rather Than A – Nebulous Long-Term Benefit
~ NIATDTS-A-IHC ~ Negativity Is A Tough Disease To Shake – And – It’s Highly Contagious
~BAT-HYT-RTSSNOS-WDMMFYRT-AGWOD ~ Being Able To – Hold Your Tongue – Rather Than Say Something Nasty Or Spiteful – Will Do Much More For Your Relationship Than – A Good Word Or Deed
~ DO ~ Don’t Overpromise
~ DECFGTEM ~ Don’t Expect Credit For Going The Extra Mile
~ RT-BIITEOTB-AOTSTTTROTW-CDARIILLTOP ~ Remember That – Bad Is In The Eye Of The Beholder – An Offense That Seems Trifling To The Rest Of The World – Can Destroy A Relationship If It Looms Large To One Person
~ PTBMTGU ~ Put The Bad Moments To Good Use
~TBYB ~ Think Before You Blame
~ WYF-BIAIR ~ When You’re Fighting – Bring In An Imaginary Referee
~ GASO ~ Get A Second Opinion
~ SJ ~ Suspend Judgment
~ DTTB ~ Don’t Take The Bait
~ IYMR-DE ~ If You Must Respond – Don’t Escalate
~ FT-NGR-INSMWYDOO-IWYDO ~ Follow The – Negative Golden Rule – It’s Not So Much What You Do Onto Others – It’s What You Don’t Do
~ TFB-B-R-TTBATNS-AIADTT-TBFLOAITEFOD ~ The Fearful Brain – Bad – Rules – Throughout The Brain And The Nervous System – Attention Is Automatically Drawn To Threats – The Brain Focuses Longer On An Image That Evokes Fear Or Disgust
~ WMAACOTOATBFOOMAF ~ We’re Marvellously Adept At Convincing Ourselves That Others Are To Blame For Our Own Mistakes And Failures
~ ACISC ~ A Carrot In Stick’s Clothing
~ C/A/N/O/E ~ Conscientiousness / Agreeableness / Neuroticism / Openness / Extraversion
~ O-L/D/EU-P-WETSTWT-IDMITWOPWMOTG-TSCCFTDD ~ One – Lazy / Disagreeable / Emotionally Unstable – Person – Was Enough To Sabotage The Whole Team – It Didn’t Matter If There Was One Particularly Wonderful Member Of The Group – The Star Couldn’t Compensate For The Dud’s Damage
~ SR-IJOOMVOBN-IAYMSAPTOT ~ Social Rejection – Isn’t Just One Of Many Varieties Of Bad News – It Affects You More Strongly And Profoundly Than Other Types
~ SR-IMST-SA ~ Social Rejection – Is Much Stronger Than – Social Acceptance
~ TFSIDWBAITIT ~ The First Step In Dealing With Bad Apples Is To Identify Them
~ OP-TI-HA-TNE ~ Online Perils – The Internet – Has Amplified – The Negativity Effect
~ CE ~ Counternegativity Experts
~ IYFI-SLTLA-ES-A-R-P-O-CAM-A-SMTLA-SOY-FAF ~ If You’re Feeling Insecure – Spend Less Time Looking At – Elaborately Staged – And – Retouched – Photos – Of – Celebrities And Models – And – Spend More Time Looking At – Snapshots Of Your – Friends And Family
~ T-CC-TEOPNBBC ~ The – Crisis Crisis – The Exploitation Of People’s Negativity Bias By Crisismongers
~ TMOB ~ The Merchants Of Bad
~ T-NB-MUPT-QGAIOIAATWG-AT-GLFMO-T-W-H-I-IETA ~ The – Negativity Bias – Makes Us Prone To – Quickly Generalize Any Individual’s Offence Into Animus Against The Whole Group – And Then – Go Looking For More Offenders – The – Witch-Hunting – Instinct – Is Easy To Arouse
~ RLAGPTW-TSWDAG-OW-HSIWMTEW ~ Remarkably Little Attention Gets Paid To Whether – The Solution Will Do Any Good – Or Whether – History Suggests It Will Make Things Even Worse
~ WA-THDT-IOA-LRDT ~ Worrying About – Tiny Hypothetical Dangers Tomorrow – Instead Of A – Large Real Danger Today
~ S-GPFTP-TP-IOS ~ Stop – Giving Prizes For Terror Pornography – The Publicity – Inspires Other Sociopaths
~ WRONG ~ Page 228 ~ “vaping – safer” ~ vaping (“pens”) mixtures just like tobacco (cigarette) mixtures (you mention this) it’s the additives (details) that make the poison (evil)
~ WRONG ~ Page 243 ~ “fake news” ~ very real polarizing effect on society ~ weaponized by authoritarian states (Russia / China / Iran / Saudi Arabia / North Korea for specific domestic political objectives and generally as destabilizing (polarizing) propaganda directed at their perceived enemies
~ IDEA ~ Climate Change ~ an excellent example of a serious problem (which has sometimes been treated as if it were “tiny hypothetical dangers tomorrow”)

GEORGE LAKOFF + MARK JOHNSON ~ TRUTH ~ METAPHORS WE LIVE BY ~ 1980

~ TITTI-AOT-INO-M-B-SAP-D-TIARTACSTIDILPBM-MOOMHEIOCOALP-B-M-AIUUB-PIP-PL/RL/BL/A/M/E ~ The Idea That There Is – Absolute Objective Truth – Is Not Only – Mistaken– But – Socially And Politically – Dangerous – Truth Is Always Relative To A Conceptual System That Is Defined In Large Part By Metaphor – Most Of Our Metaphors Have Evolved In Our Culture Over A Long Period – But – Many – Are Imposed Upon Us By – People In Power – Political Leaders / Religious Leaders / Business Leaders / Advertisers / Media / Etc

~ IACWT-MOO-IVMA-A-TIAAT-TPWGT-ITMOTC-GTDWWCTBT-AAO-T ~ In A Culture Where The – Myth Of Objectivism – Is Very Much Alive – And – Truth Is Always Absolute Truth – The People Who Get To – Impose Their Metaphors On The Culture – Get To Define What We Consider To Be True – Absolutely And Objectively – True

~ TIOTIODL-WBOA-B-PAS-O-WWTTBT ~ The Importance Of Truth In Our Daily Lives – We Base Our Actions – Both – Physical And Social – On – What We Take To Be True

~ OTW-TMTU-B-IHSV-A-AUTFIOW ~ On The Whole – Truth Matters To Us – Because – It Has Survival Value – And – Allows Us To Function In Our World

~ TIBOU ~ Truth Is Based On Understanding