MARG DE VILLIERS ~ WATER ~ 1999

~ W-ITBOCI-DNJL?-THQINHMCPSWTS-B-WKOEIPFTWDS ~ Where – In The Balance Of Competing Interests – Does Natural Justice Lie? – The Human Question Is Not How Many Can Possibly Survive Within The System – But – What Kind Of Existence Is Possible For Those Who Do Survive

~ THPIB-B-WDIITAF ~ The Human Population Is Burgeoning – But – Water Demand Is Increasing Twice As Fast

~ ‘TWOTT-FCWBFOW’ ~ “The Wars Of The Twenty-First Century Will Be Fought Over Water”

~ EYL-TASTTWSIIP ~ Everywhere You Look – There Are Signs That The Water Supply Is In Peril

~ ANWLT-1000CMPPPY-I-WS ~ Any Nation With Less Than – 1,000 Cubic Metres Per Person Per Year – Is – Water Scarce

~ PCAO-G-P-W-IGDIADADC ~ Per Capita Availability Of – Good – Potable – Water – Is Going Down In All Developed And Developing Countries

~ MOT-‘E’-SFWHABE-A-MOTWIIPIIN ~ Most Of The – “Easy” – Sources For Water Have Already Been Exploited – And – Much Of The Water Is In Places It Isn’t Needed

~ TBEATMEG-IT-TAS-1.4BCKOWOEILAFF-IT-O/L/S/G/G-FS-AO-2.5%-OTT ~ The Best Estimate Among The Many Educated Guesses – Is That – There Are Some – 1.4 Billion Cubic Kilometres Of Water On Earth In Liquid And Frozen Form – In The – Oceans / Lakes / Streams / Glaciers / Groundwater – Freshwater Stocks – Are Only – 2.5 Percent – Of The Total

~ WD-WITWTCF? ~ Water Demand – Where Is This Water To Come From?

~ WMMTNI-HB-NLI-S-H-OE-Y ~ We Must Measure Time Now In – Human Beings – No Longer In – Seconds – Hours – Or Even – Years

~ GD-I-OOTGUBLCFOP-WATIF-FFS-HM-F-C-W ~ Groundwater Depletion – Is – One Of The Great Unseen But Looming Crises Facing Our Planet – With All The Implications For – Falling Food Supplies – Human Misery – Famine – Conflict – War

~ TPOTMWOFAATNRTIIC-‘GO’-IIAMP-DO-RPACE ~ The Process Of Taking More Water Out From An Aquifer Than Naturally Returns To It Is Called – “Groundwater Overdrafting” – It Is A Modern Phenomenon – Depending On – Reliable Pumps And Cheap Energy

~ TWOTMWICACSWTI-RTAPFHU ~ The Withdrawal Of Too Much Water In Coastal Aquifers Causes Sea Water To Intrude – Ruining The Aquifer Permanently For Human Use

~ EASUTRACS-A-TIHAMOECWSLOP ~ Europeans Are Still Using Their Rivers As Convenient Sewers – And – There Is Hardly A Metre Of European Coastline Without Some Level Of Pollution

~ DAG ~ Deserts Are Growing

~ HHA-D-D-A-R-H-A-M-W ~ Humans Have Always – Discovered – Diverted – Accumulated – Regulated – Hoarded – And – Misused – Water

~ M-IC-PTTVS-EUTETROWTSWB ~ Many – Irrigating Cultures – Perished Through Their Very Success – Expanding Until They Exhausted The Resources On Which Their Success Was Based

~ ADOTE ~ Anthropogenic Degradation Of The Environment

~ PG-TEOAIRD ~ Population Growth – The Engine Of All Increased Resource Demands

~ DI-ANP-F-IC-I-APC-TOHAACOD ~ Drought Is – A Natural Phenomenon – Famine – In Contrast – Is – A Political Catastrophe – That Occasionally Happens As A Consequence Of Drought

~ WWHWBTIITW ~ Who Was Hiding What By Throwing It Into The Water

~ B-A-A=B-M-MEW-CBMCATPUTFC ~ Bio-Accumulation – And – Bio-Magnification – Make Everything Worse – Chemicals Become More Concentrated As They Pass Up The Food Chain

~ ESHCLBCOBDACG ~ Epidemiological Studies Have Confirmed Links Between Cancer Or Birth Defects And Contaminated Groundwater

~ TP-HBAT-EWW-SN ~ The Public – Having Been Assured That – Everything Was Well – Stopped Noticing

~ OABPHNATCDW-A-MT2.9BHNATSS ~ Over A Billion People Have No Access To Clean Drinking Water – And – More Than 2.9 Billion Have No Access To Sanitation Services

~ PLTD ~ Pollution Leads To Disease

~ WIBASAAS:ICDVLOTEIWIIF-TMGSVTP ~ Water Is Both A Solvent And A Sponge: Its Composition Depends Very Largely On The Environment In Which It Is Found – That Makes Groundwater So Vulnerable To Pollution

~ TCTHHWANT-TCOGIBMOAGS ~ The Changes That Humans Have Wrought Are Not Trivial – The Chemistry Of Groundwater Is Being Modified On A Global Scale

~ TNCOFWIRSBMAMFAUN-BFATAHLOIAUW ~ The Nitrate Content Of Fresh Water Is Rising Steadily Because More And More Farmers Are Using Nitrogen-Based Fertilizers And There Are Higher Levels Of Industrial And Urban Wastes

~ ‘D’-W-ILTWMSPP ~ “Dirty” – Water – Is Likely The World’s Most Serious Pollution Problem

~ DAHBFTPMPHTIA ~ Diversified Agriculture – Has Been Found To Produce More Per Hectare Than – Irrigated Agriculture

~ ATCAF-D-AAS-TBLIR ~ A True Cost Accounting For – Dams – Almost Always Shows – The Bottom Line In Red

~ NOINMLBBUIBAGDOILIBTOOP ~ Not Only Is No More Land Being Brought Under Irrigation But A Good Deal Of Irrigated Land Is Being Taken Out Of Production

~ SOTS-TADTIH-ISATRO-MT1MHAY ~ Salination Of The Soil – To A Degree That Inhibits Farming – Is Spreading At The Rate Of – More Than 1 Million Hectares A Year

~ TPISTS-TDDTF:WGCASM-IAIC-W-L-D-A-POTWS-A-RSITS-LU-TPCEKTSA ~ The Problem Is Simple To State – Though Devastatingly Difficult To Fix: Without Great Care And Skilful Management – Irrigation Almost Inevitably Causes – Water-Logging – Depletion – And – Pollution Of The Water Supply – And – Rising Salinity In The Soil – Left Unchecked – These Problems Can Eventually Kill The Soil Altogether

~ AAWA-A-60%-OTWIFINGTTC ~ As A Working Average – Almost – 60 Percent – Of The Water Intended For Irrigation Never Gets To The Croplands

~ ‘W-S-M’ ~ “Water-Stress-Management”

~ SA ~ Shrinking Aquifers

~ WW-T-D-W-T-W-RO? ~ What Will – They – Do – When – Their – Water – Runs Out?

~ IYTARIAS-YC-TIBIARA ~ If You Turn A River Into A Sewer – You Can – Turn It Back Into A River Again

~ F-TEWS-AOWP ~ Fish – The Early Warning System – A Measure Of Water Purity

~ T-ME-HABTPW-WW-AMP ~ The – Middle East – Has Always Been The Place Where – Water Wars – Are Most Probable

~ WSTIIP-B-AAIIWAC-IIN-S-SWSEHOPOFU ~ We Say That It Is Priceless – But – Act As If It Were Absurdly Cheap – It Is Not – Surely – Something We Should Either Hoard Or Prevent Others From Using

~ T-GR-DNOO-MPSG-B-O-I-AP-BHROTS-MTP-TINMWTBH-IIITAOSS-A-PHPAUAOWLIL-A-TIGOPINNWFGTASTBM ~ The – Green Revolution – Depended Not Only On – More Productive Seed Grains – But – On – Irrigation – And – Pesticides – Both Have Run Out Their String – Maximized Their Potential – There Is No More Water To Be Had – Irrigation Is Increasing The Amount Of Saline Soil – And – Pesticides Have Poisoned An Unsettling Amount Of What Land Is Left – And – The Inexorable Grind Of Population Is Now Negating What Few Gains There Are Still To Be Made

~ BINSYWIYDW ~ Benzene Is Not Something That You Want In Your Drinking Water

~ D-TPE-DW-TMUTEOAD-SR-WCBOD ~ Desalination – To Produce Enough – Desal Water – To Make Up The Equivalent Of A Decent-Sized River – Would Cost Billions Of Dollars

~ IYCGMW-WT-ULOI ~ If You Can’t Get More Water – Well Then – Use Less Of It

~ DC ~ Dew Collectors

~ F-DI ~ Fog-Drip Irrigation

~ W-WRICBIF ~ Waste-Water Reuse Is Coming Back Into Favour

~ LFAATT ~ Learn From And Adapt Traditional Techniques

~ IIITS-WV-A-TPISTWH ~ It Is Important To Signal – Water’s Value – And – To Price It So That Waste Hurts

~ PPAAFSOGP ~ Population Projections Are A Familiar Source Of Gloomy Prognostications

~ WS-MNLTW-B-TMCLT-FS-IP-A-TTSOD-TMPP-TITMOP-FSTMMOTDW-SOLD-SUAVI ~ Water Shortages – May Not Lead To War – But – They Most Certainly Lead To – Food Shortages – Increased Poverty – And – To The Spread Of Disease – They Make People Poorer – They Increase The Migrations Of Peoples – Further Straining The Massive Megaslums Of The Developing World – Standards Of Living Deteriorate – Social Unrest And Violence Increase

MATT TAIBBI ~ GRIFTOPIA ~ 2010

~ BE-A KOH-TCS-TKNJLDD-OTPI-C-N-COH ~ Bubble Economics – A Kind Of High-Tech Casino Scam – That Kills Neighborhoods Just Like Dope Does – Only The Product Is – Credit – Not – Crack Or Heroin

~ TGC ~ The Grifter Class

~ TIHRS-CPMIHTNTATRIOTP ~ The Insurmountable Hurdle For So-Called Populist Movements Is Having The Nerve To Attack The Rich Instead Of The Poor

~ TDFU-WFT ~ They Don’t Feed Us – We Feed Them

~ ITETPWADAOTDR ~ In The End The Printed Wealth All Disappeared And Only The Debts Remained

~ APRMFTS-GPFTA ~ A Pure Free Market For The Suckers – Golden Parachutes For The Atlases

~ WPFT-IO-AGOHI-O-AAEG-O-AB-NSORAH ~ We Paid For This – Instead Of – A Generation Of Health Insurance – Or – An Alternative Energy Grid – Or – A Brand-New System Of Roads And Highways

~ IYCFASITC-WSITSOL-ID ~ If You Can’t Fit A Story Into The Culture-War Storyline In Ten Seconds Or Less – It Dies

~ OG-AD-DD ~ Organized Greed – Always Defeats – Disorganized Democracy

~ BIAF-TDS ~ Born In A Four-Thousand Dollar Suite

~ AYHHIWBFYTMMISFYABFDAW ~ Ask Yourself How Hard It Would Be For You To Make Money If Someone Fronted You A Billion Free Dollars A Week

~ S-BOYH-ETD-TBT-YABJ ~ Stolen – Billions Of Your Hard-Earned Tax Dollars – To Buy Themselves – Yachts And BlowJobs

DANIEL PINK ~ WHEN ~ RIVERHEAD BOOKS ~ 2018

~ WAKT-TIE-TI-WDKMAT ~ We All Know That – Timing Is Everything – Trouble Is – We Don’t Know Much About Timing

~ OCADNRSOTCOAD-WA-S/F/S/MC/LC-ISPOTDTO-TDFAMETWR ~ Our Cognitive Abilities Do Not Remain Static Over The Course Of A Day – We Are – Smarter / Faster / Dimmer / Slower / More Creative / Less Creative – In Some Parts Of The Day Than Others – These Daily Fluctuations Are More Extreme Than We Realize

~ WWWUOBTSR-T-GBO-ELAA-A-T-EOEF-OATC-OPOD ~ When We Wake Up Our Body Temperature Slowly Rises – That – Gradually Boosts Our – Energy Levels And Alertness – And That – Enhances Our Executive Functioning – Our Ability To Concentrate – Our Powers Of Deduction

~ AAEL-PDTA-WTDCAC-FIOATRF-A-COI ~ Alertness And Energy Levels – Plummet During The Afternoons – With That Drop Comes A Corresponding – Fall In Our Ability To Remain Focused – And – Constrain Our Inhibitions

~ B-IPAD-TRLVAFI-ATLM-AFDCHUSCWMHMWOFWT-FAP-LOIC-IAB-FIP-IAF ~ But – Insight Problems Are Different – They Require Less Vigilance And Fewer Inhibitions – At Those Looser Moments – A Few Distractions Can Help Us Spot Connections We Might Have Missed When Our Filters Were Tighter – For Analytic Problems – Lack Of Inhibitory Control – Is A Bug – For Insight Problems – It’s A Feature

~ AOUETDITS-AP-AT-A-AR-WYD-DNLMTCIYPP ~ All Of Us Experience The Day In Three Stages – A Peak – A Trough – And – A Rebound – Whatever You Do – Do Not Let Mundane Tasks Creep Into Your Peak Period

~ TMPLBHTKI-A-A-D-BPAP ~ The Most Powerful Lunch Breaks Have Two Key Ingredients – Autonomy – And – Detachment – Both Psychological And Physical

~ LITMIMOTD ~ Lunch Is The Most Important Meal Of The Day

~ N-CTKB-TICP-A-TBMAPH ~ Naps – Confer Two Key Benefits – They Improve Cognitive Performance – And – They Boost Mental And Physical Health

~ SAANCRBP ~ Simply Anticipating A Nap Can Reduce Blood Pressure

~ BHAFGITMOUU-B-IF-CMTTE ~ Beginnings Have A Far Greater Impact Than Most Of Us Understand – Beginnings – In Fact – Can Matter To The End

~ IME-WSBATTPOBAATMASS-ITF-MAFS-A-ITBIBYC-WCEOTAAGS ~ In Most Endeavors – We Should Be Awake To The Power Of Beginnings And Aim To Make A Strong Start – If That Fails – Make A Fresh Start – And – If The Beginning Is Beyond Our Control – We Can Enlist Others To Attempt A Group Start

~ BSWUFLTWK-TELTTE ~ Beginnings Stay With Us Far Longer Than We Know – Their Effects Linger To The End

~ WWRA-M-SWS-B-OTWJ-AMSAUTWSHOOT-U-O-WROOT ~ When We Reach A – Midpoint – Sometimes We Slump – But – Other Times We Jump – A Mental Siren Alerts Us That We’ve Squandered Half Of Our Time – Uh-Oh – We’re Running Out Of Time

~ TEPOESMOOOASD-NBTFE-B-BCM-EATE ~ The Encoding Power Of Endings Shapes Many Of Our Opinions And Subsequent Decisions – Not By The Full Experience – But – By Certain Moments – Especially At The End

~ Y-WEBS-WWEA-AT-OAK-WSO-ERP-A-SO-AOA-N-WB-TCF-WE ~ Yet – When Endings Become Salient – Whenever We Enter An – Act Three – Of Any Kind – We Sharpen Our – Existential Red Pencils – And – Scratch Out – Anyone Or Anything – Nonessential – Well Before – The Curtain Falls – We Edit

~ PITACW-L-RLTCMMTTPWKIWS-N ~ People Informed That A Chocolate Was – Last – Reported Liking That Chocolate Much More Than The People Who Knew It Was Simply – Next

~ TBEDLU-H-I-TP-AROUI-AFMOT ~ The Best Endings Don’t Leave Us – Happy – Instead – They Produce – A Rush Of Unexpected Insight – A Fleeting Moment Of Transcendence

~ C/C/C-ITE-WSM ~ Closings / Conclusions / Culminations – In The End – We Seek Meaning

~ B-PSOTAE-IALTIE-IPTHAS ~ Belongingness – Profoundly Shapes Our Thoughts And Emotions – Its Absence Leads To Ill Effects – Its Presence To Health And Satisfaction

~ IUTBT-TWE-N-IBT-EIT ~ I Used To Believe That – Timing Was Everything – Now – I Believe That – Everything Is Timing

NEIL POSTMAN ~ AMUSING OURSELVES TO DEATH ~ 1983

~ PDITAOSB ~ Public Discourse In The Age Of Show Business

~ TNITM ~ The Medium Is The Metaphor

~ O-P-R-N-E-A-C-HBTI-CAO-SB-TRITWAAPOTVOAOTD ~ Our – Politics – Religion – News – Athletics – Education – And – Commerce – Have Been Transformed Into – Congenial Adjuncts Of – Show Business – The Result Is That We Are A People On The Verge Of Amusing Ourselves To Death

~ IETWC-AIIETGBTFOTTI ~ In Every Tool We Create – An Idea Is Embedded That Goes Beyond The Function Of The Thing Itself

~ OMAOM-OMCTCOOC ~ Our Media Are Our Metaphors – Our Metaphors Create The Content Of Our Culture

~ ENTIAT-IGATA ~ Every New Technology For Thinking Involves A Tradeoff – It Giveth And Taketh Away

~ TFIWIAE-AWTIWB ~ The Form In Which Ideas Are Expressed – Affects What Those Ideas Will Be

~ TAOSB ~ The Age Of Show Business

~ C-FI-HODIOTIPYOM-ROT-OI-TMP- CYTAYPFTD-O-TTSAYWNOHT-OPI-ISPYARTS? ~ Context-Free Information – How Often Does It Occur That Information Provided You On Morning – Radio Or Television – Or In – The Morning Newspaper – Causes You To Alter Your Plans For The Day – Or – To Take Some Action You Would Not Otherwise Have Taken – Or – Provides Insight Into Some Problem You Are Required To Solve?

~ B-MOODNII-COITGUSTTABCLTAMA ~ But – Most Of Our Daily News Is Inert – Consisting Of Information That Gives Us Something To Talk About But Cannot Lead To Any Meaningful Action

~ AGLOI:TNEFYAVOOAWYCDNETOTAMN-AWYCDN ~ A Great Loop Of Impotence: The News Elicits From You A Variety Of Opinions About Which You Can Do Nothing Except To Offer Them As More News – About Which You Can Do Nothing

~ EBEB-FTFT-WWSIWANQWHA-AW-IAC-DNPAR ~ Everything Became Everyone’s Business – For The First Time – We Were Sent Information Which Answered No Question We Had Asked – And Which – In Any Case – Did Not Permit A Reply

~ AP-CIASITGFAIIASU-B-TUTP-CPIN-A-O-P-S-O-C-IITOULFIWNGCTOL-AT-OC-IT-A ~ A Pseudo-Context Is A Structure Invented To Give Fragmented And Irrelevant Information A Seeming Use – But – The Use The Pseudo-Context Provides Is Not – Action – Or – Problem-Solving – Or – Change – It Is The Only Use Left For Information With No Genuine Connection To Our Lives – And That – Of Course – Is To – Amuse

~ TINSOPI-P/N/E/R/S/S-TDNFIWTT-WMTAPUOTSISBTBOT ~ There Is No Subject Of Public Interest – Politics / News / Education / Religion / Science / Sports – That Does Not Find Its Way To Television – Which Means That All Public Understanding Of These Subjects Is Shaped By The Biases Of Television

~ WRTAT-OWIOT-TI-IC-IE-WINOIPCASCBTCIWWNATI-ITFG-AAN-O-CIAAILTSIT-ASMIPAE ~ We Rarely Talk About Television – Only What Is On Television – That Is – Its Content – Its Ecology – Which Includes Not Only Its Physical Characteristics And Symbolic Code But The Conditions In Which We Normally Attend To It – Is Taken For Granted – Accepted As Natural – One – Cultural Institution After Another Is Learning To Speak Its Terms – All Subject Matter Is Presented As Entertaining

~ TIOCPMOKAI-T-ATITCP-HTSTWBTMFHTWIPTBS-TNODICATDLBWISBAWINBHTSWEPD-TNBBSB ~ Television Is Our Culture’s Principal Mode Of Knowing About Itself – Therefore – And This Is The Critical Point – How Television Stages The World Becomes The Model For How The World Is Properly To Be Staged – The Nature Of Discourse Is Changing As The Demarcation Line Between What Is Show Business And What Is Not Becomes Harder To See With Each Passing Day – There’s No Business But Show Business

~ ‘N…T’ ~ “Now… This”

~ IOT-CRRATDTOT-T-PLNNTTVMWRPTTPCGASOV-OMLLALBBTTT-OEW-LLAT-TBIFBL ~ If On Television – Credibility Replaces Reality As The Decisive Test Of Truth-Telling – Political Leaders Need Not Trouble Themselves Very Much With Reality Provided That Their Performances Consistently Generate A Sense Of Verisimilitude – One May Look Like A Liar But Be Telling The Truth – Or Even Worse – Look Like A Truth-Teller But In Fact Be Lying

~ TIATMO-‘BI’-BCASOITMPBCD-MI-M-I-F-O-S-I-SFMST-BDOAI ~ Television Is Altering The Meaning Of – “Being Informed”– By Creating A Species Of Information That Might Properly Be Called Disinformation – Misleading Information – Misplaced – Irrelevant – Fragmented – Or – Superficial – Information – Something Far More Serious Than – Being Deprived Of Authentic Information

~ TTCINAAATCOP-IIATCOTC ~ The Television Commercial Is Not At All About The Character Of Products – It Is About The Character Of The Consumers

~ TTCHOBAF-MBOV-Y-MCFV-WMT-TBOBHNBP-T-TCIAPABP-D ~ The Television Commercial Has Oriented Business Away From – Making Products Of Value – Toward – Making Consumers Feel Valuable – Which Means That – The Business Of Business Has Now Become Pseudo-Therapy – The Consumer Is A Patient Assured By Psycho-Dramas

~ TITLOAGTC:P-AS-AS-O-AF-TCFVACACIOT ~ This Is The Lesson Of All Great Television Commercials: Provide – A Slogan – A Symbol – Or – A Focus – That Creates For Viewers A Comprehensive And Compelling Image Of Themselves

~ IT-AOSAIP-PDIENOOICBOHCAW ~ ~ In The – Age Of Show Business And Image Politics – Political Discourse Is Emptied Not Only Of Ideological Content But Of Historical Content – As Well

~ TOAVHAKATVOPTMWAAAMOPD-B-MOTCNHEHFASIWTMWITWDNA-TKTCINNWAPDTTFOAJ ~ Tyrants Of All Varieties Have Always Known About The Value Of Providing The Masses With Amusements As A Means Of Pacifying Discontent – But – Most Of Them Could Not Have Even Hoped For A Situation In Which The Masses Would Ignore That Which Does Not Amuse – To Know That Censorship Is Not A Necessity When All Political Discourse Takes The Form Of A Jest

~ TATWBWTSOACMBS-TO:CBAP-TH:CBB ~ There Are Two Ways By Which The Spirit Of A Culture May Be Shriveled – The Orwellian: Culture Becomes A Prison – The Huxleyan – Culture Becomes A Burlesque

~ IMLDIOWAIBR-OL-WI-TGOTPAEI-SER-I-WEP ~ It Makes Little Difference If Our Wardens Are Inspired By Right- Or Left-Wing Ideologies – The Gates Of The Prison Are Equally Impenetrable – Surveillance Equally Rigorous – Icon-Worship Equally Pervasive

~ A-O-WIMETR-ATO-TA-H ~ An – Orwellian – World Is Much Easier To Recognize – And To Oppose – Than A – Huxleyan

~ PCHNYATPTTII-TISOTFTBOVETHAEAOL ~ Public Consciousness Has Not Yet Assimilated The Point That Technology Is Ideology – This In Spite Of The Fact That Before Our Very Eyes Technology Has Altered Every Aspect Of Life

~ TBATATCEWAPFSC-TMTTIN-TMTATTIAAFTCI-ATLH-SPAS ~ To Be Unaware That A Technology Comes Equipped With A Program For Social Change – To Maintain That Technology Is Neutral – To Make The Assumption That Technology Is Always A Friend To Culture Is – At This Late Hour – Stupidity Plain And Simple

~ NMIEDIIUUWIDA-TAITBTS ~ No Medium Is Excessively Dangerous If Its Users Understand What Its Dangers Are – To Ask Is To Break The Spell

~ TCTOCT-TTPDWHISPSFID-WGU-U-IWBNTTMCAS-O-LRODHBOGVTL-SO-B-HSVLOITMP-A-HCALAMPFTATMHS ~ The Central Thesis Of Computer Technology – That The Principal Difficulty We Have In Solving Problems Stems From Insufficient Data – Will Go Unexamined – Until – It Will Be Noticed That The Massive Collection And Speed-Of-Light Retrieval Of Data Have Been Of Great Value To Large-Scale Organizations – But – Have Solved Very Little Of Importance To Most People And – Have Created At Least As Many Problems For Them As They May Have Solved

~ MC ~ Media Conscious

~ WATP-BNW-WNTTWLIOT-B-TTDNKWTWLAAWTHST ~ What Afflicted The People In – Brave New World – Was Not That They Were Laughing Instead Of Thinking – But – That They Did Not Know What They Were Laughing About And Why They Had Stopped Thinking

NASSIM TALEB ~ GLOSSARY ~ ANTIFRAGILE ~ 2012

PB-SIWSANS ~ Procrustean Bed – Situations In Which Simplifications Are Not Simplifications

~ L-B-H-T-FE-TMILATTOMTISTIAD ~ Lecturing-Birds-How-To-Fly Effect – To Make It Look As Though Technology Owes More To Institutional Science Than It Actually Does

~ T-TATTROOL ~ Touristification – The Attempt To Take Randomness Out Of Life

~ BS-ADS-ACOTE-OSAOE ~ Barbell Strategy – A Dual Strategy – A Combination Of Two Extremes – One Safe And One Extreme

~LF-MTW-PPOMALEFTECRW ~ Ludic Fallacy – Mistaking The Well-Posed Problems Of Mathematics And Laboratory Experiments For The Ecologically Complex Real World

~ DC(SITG)-YMOBPAOBTWCTTACB-A-HSTL-IAW-TPACIBW ~ Doxastic Commitment (Soul In The Game) – You Must Only Believe Predictions And Opinions By Those Who Committed Themselves To A Certain Belief – And – Had Something To Lose – In A Way – To Pay A Cost In Being Wrong

~GLF-MTSOIOENK=FA-LVFTO-LT-O-MTWC-‘RI’-ASM ~ Green Lumber Fallacy – Mistaking The Source Of Important Or Even Necessary Knowledge – For Another – Less Visible From The Outside – Less Tractable – One – Many Things We Call – “Relevant Knowledge” – Aren’t So Much

~ EI-FOETA(OP)-RTTR ~ Ethical Inversion – Fitting One’s Ethics To Actions (Or Profession) – Rather Than The Reverse

~ NF-ONTFA-S-O-P-TASOCODF ~ Narrative Fallacy – Our Need To Fit A – Story – Or – Pattern – To A Series Of Connected Or Disconnected Facts

~ SK-YKWIWWMCTYKAE ~ Subtractive Knowledge – You Know What Is Wrong With More Certainty Than You Know Anything Else

~ SP-PTFBRWIFFI-RTNATI ~ Subtractive Prophecy – Predicting The Future By Removing What Is Fragile From It – Rather Than Naively Adding To It

~ LE-AN-IILEWEDOIL ~ Lindy Effect – Anything Nonperishable – Increases In Life Expectancy With Every Day Of Its Life

~ N-ALOCFIOS-FTF-B-A-N-S ~ Neomania – A Love Of Change For Its Own Sake – Forecasting The Future – By – Adding – Not – Subtracting

PSEUDO-EVENT ~ CHARACTERISTICS ~ DANIEL BOORSTIN ~ THE IMAGE ~ 1961

~ IINS-SH-P-P-O-I-I ~ It Is Not Spontaneous – Someone Has – Planned – Planted – Or – Incited – It

~ T-II-A-I ~ Typically – It Is – An – Interview

~ IIPP(NAE)FTIPOBROR-ISIMBHWIIR ~ It Is Planned Primarily (Not Always Exclusively) For The Immediate Purpose Of Being Reported Or Reproduced – It’s Success Is Measured By How Widely It Is Reported

~ IRTTUROTSIA-IIALFTA ~ It’s Relation To The Underlying Reality Of The Situation Is Ambiguous – It’s Interest Arises Largely From This Ambiguity

~ UIIITBAS-FP ~ Usually It Is Intended To Be A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

CHARLES CALOMIRIS + STEPHEN HABER ~ FRAGILE BY DESIGN ~ 2014

~ TGOBB ~ The Game Of Bank Bargains

~ NBWS-A-NSWB ~ No Banks Without States – And – No States Without Banks

~ I-SAEB-A-SAGI-WATSR? ~ If – Stable And Efficient Banks – Are – Such A Good Idea – Why Are They So Rare?

~ TN-RDOBC ~ The Non-Random Distribution Of Banking Crises

~ TCBNBSWTPPOTS ~ There Can Be No Banking Systems Without The Police Power Of The State

~ TITBSCEOASOGRISALFT ~ The Idea That Banking Systems Can Exist Outside A System Of Government Regulation Is Simply A Libertarian Fairy Tale

~ TINE–TGOBB-PAIIBR ~ There Is No Escaping – The Game Of Bank Bargains – Politics Always Intrudes Into Bank Regulation

~ A-B-I-B-D-APUE-TIA-B-TNFOB-DOTSOPRTOGCP-BNPG ~ A – Bank – Is – By – Design – A Potentially Unstable Enterprise – This Instability Arises – Because – The Normal Functioning Of Banks – Depends On Three Sets Of Property Rights That Only Government Can Provide – Banks Need Powerful Governments

~ B-AAAP-A-AHB ~ Banking – Is All About Politics – And – Always Has Been

~ ABCSDT-ISHLLOOLP-O-TG-COT-IDSB-GP-T-BC-A-ETI-C ~ A Bank Cannot Simply Declare That – Its Shareholders Have Limited Liability Or Other Legal Protections – Only – The Government – Can Offer These – It Does So By – Granting Privileges – Through – Bank Charters – And – Enforcing Them In – Courts

~ TRT-TAOLHTBFBOIB-IS-TPWAATRTG-RTALS-DNHTOTAA ~ The Reason That – Taxpayers Are Often Left Holding The Bag For Bailing Out Insolvent Banks – Is That – The People Who Are Arranging The Rules That Govern – Risk Taking And Loss Sharing – Do Not Have To Obtain Taxpayers’ Active Agreement

~ TITE-CR-AETCAM ~ The Institutions That Enforce – Contract Rights – Are Expensive To Create And Maintain

~ TIA-SER-C-WROL(CGBA)-IL-A-SCG ~ There Is A – Strong Empirical Relationship – Connecting – Weak Rule Of Law (Countries Governed By Autocrats) – Insider Lending – And – Slow Credit Growth

~ T-AASO-RE-F-TBS-OWTI-DI-O-GBOB ~ Taxpayers – Are A Source Of – Rent Extraction – From – The Banking System – Only When There Is – Deposit Insurance – Or – Government Bailouts Of Banks

~ ENHSFOG-CB-CBAN-SEAOFATST-RTPS-1600-TTICBBHTATIOTTGCTTCOAVS:R-M-A-F ~ Every Nation-State Has Some Form Of Government-Chartered Bank – Chartered Banks And Nation-States Emerged As Organizational Forms At The Same Time – Roughly The Period Since – 1600 – The Two Institutions Coevolved Because Banks Helped To Align The Incentives Of The Three Groups Crucial To The Creation Of A Viable State: Rulers – Merchants – And – Financiers

~ MCBEASE:MISAE-CENTTFTAW-A-MAADNTTHSTPO ~ Modern Chartered Banks Evolved As States Evolved: Monarchs In Seventeenth- And Eighteenth-Century Europe Needed Them To Finance Trade And War – And – Modern Autocracies And Democracies Need Them To Help Sustain The Political Order

~ TCBWNIO:IWTOOALSO-IE-I-TIONKOC-SA-DAABOE-A-TCONFO-PO-SA-TJ-SC ~ The Chartered Bank Was Not Invented Overnight: It Was The Outcome Of A Long Series Of – Institutional Experiments – Including – The Invention Of New Kinds Of Contacts – Such As – Debt Annuities And Bills Of Exchange – And – The Creation Of New Forms Of – Property Ownership – Such As – The Joint-Stock Company

~ RWAIGFBTWDWAUCOL ~ Rulers Would Act In Good Faith Because They Were Dealing With A Untied Coalition Of Lenders

~ J-SCAACFTR: BEIC(1600)-DEIC(1602)-DWIC(1621)-HBC(1670)-MC(1684) ~ Joint-Stock Companies And A Charter From The Ruler: British East India Company (1600) – Dutch East India Company (1602) – Dutch West India Company (1621) – Hudson Bay Company (1670) – Mississippi Company (1684)

~ ORHUTIO-T-C-J-SC-AAWTFTCOAOE-TRTTCS-MC-FABROOAOS-TC-IE-CTBOSI-SF-EOWW-G-PVP ~ Once Rulers Hit Upon The Idea Of – The – Chartered – Joint-Stock Company – As A Way To Finance The Creation Of An Overseas Empire – They Realized That They Could Sell – Monopoly Charters – For A Broad Range Of Other Activities Of State – They Could – In Effect – Carve The Business Of State Into – Separate Franchises – Each Of Which Was – Given – Particular Valuable Privileges

~ TDOTCBWDBTEN:TFTOILD-A-TFWTWIBAL ~ The Development Of The Chartered Bank Was Driven By Two Essential Needs: To Finance Trade Over Increasingly Long Distances – And – To Finance Wars That Were Increasingly Bloody And Long

~ TCOTCBAAFIOTMSSGRTAFI:F(P)M ~ The Creation Of The Chartered Bank As A Fundamental Institution Of The Modern State Soon Gave Rise To Another Fundamental Innovation: Fiat (Paper) Money

~ CBCTPMGRIESATCOTIGSDTGD-GIVTATEIAMPIOT-PEAMSP-RTPPTMPCWMAFIVOTC ~ Central Banks Came To Play Much Greater Roles In Economic Stabilization After The Collapse Of The Intentional Gold Standard During The Great Depression – Governments Increasingly Valued The Ability To Engage In Activist Monetary Policy In Order To – Promote Employment And Maintain Social Peace – Rather Than Passively Pursue The Monetary Policy Consistent With Maintaining A Fixed International Value Of Their Currency

~ SMBABMS ~ States Made Banks And Banks Made States

~ T-IR-HISO-TRIPF-NBOI ~ The – Industrial Revolution – Happened In Spite Of – The Revolution In Public Finance – Not Because Of It

~ IIGBBE-T-ACBTEAMOTCOFC-A-ICWVISIPOMO-WFTOB-WIINAC-AAPEWTMOSR ~ It Is Generally Believed By Economists – That – A Central Bank That Enjoys A Monopoly Over The Creation Of Fiat Currency – And – Is Charged With Varying Its Supply In Pursuit Of Macroeconomic Objectives – Will Fulfill Those Obligations Better – When It Is Not Also Charge – As A Private Entity With The Maximization Of Shareholder Returns

~ BCDJH-BSASTCWTCAMIC:B-TOSRITLAOI-A-HICOTBSTATLAWTRLAI ~ Banking Crises Don’t Just Happen – Banking Systems Are Susceptible To Collapse When Two Conditions Are Met In Combination: Banks – Take On Sufficient Risk In Their Loans And Other Investments – And – Have Inadequate Capital On Their Balance Sheets To Absorb The Losses Associated With Those Risky Loans And Investments

~ TPOAPC-IPTPT-GAPOTGAWST-[S]H-K-INITL-RPI-B-III-[H]H-OS-TI ~ The Power Of A Political Coalition – Is Precisely The Power To – Get A Public Official To Go Along With Something That – [S/]He – Knows – Is Not In The Long-Run Public Interest – Because – It Is In – His[/Her] – Own Short-Term Interest

~ B-PBIAETIIUBITTP:IDUITTOPACBTMFOOPRTFOHOPIESCC ~ Blame – Placing Blame Is An Enterprise That Is Inherently Unproductive Because It Trivializes The Problem: It Distracts Us Into Thinking That Our Problems Are Caused By The Moral Flaws Of Other People Rather Than Focusing On How Our Political Institutions Encourage Socially Costly Coalitions

~ TROTM-T-B-T-F-P-BAIS-TS-EBLB

~ The Rise Of The Megabanks – Too-Big-Too-Fail – Protection – Became An Increasingly Significant – Taxpayer Subsidy – Enjoyed By Large Banks

~ WATHFODE ~ Warnings Appear To Have Fallen On Deaf Ears

~ T-TOMDTB-TSC-RFAF-TWOLTMMRMTTHMB ~ The – Tsunami Of Mortgage Defaults That Became – The Subprime Crisis – Reflected First And Foremost – The Willingness Of Lenders To Make Much Riskier Mortgages Than They Had Made Before

~ RF-TPWNALOR-JPAPOIR ~ Regulatory Failure – The Problem Was Not A Lack Of Regulation – Just Piles And Piles Of Ineffectual Regulation

~ WGTTMTRNCWYACTTGIGTBYO? ~ Why Go To The Markets To Raise New Capital When You Are Confident That The Government Is Going To Bail You Out?

~ RAAOTPEIWTO ~ Regulators Are Aware Of The Political Environment In Which They Operate

~ BFAC:TCTTMMTO-FW-BSOH-QLAOFOATMTLORTWTTAACC-O-TCTWRBEAWREAAGGSN ~ Bankers Faced A Choice: They Could Try To Make Money The Old-Fashioned Way – By Seeking Out High-Quality Lending And Other Financial Opportunities And Then Matching The Level Of Risk They Were Taking To An Appropriate Capital Cushion – Or – They Could Take Wild Risks By Exploiting A Weak Regulatory Environment And A Generous Government Safety Net

~ T-T-B-T-F-P-P:I-IHNBC ~ The – Too-Big-To-Fail – Problem – Persists: Indeed – It Has Now Be Codified

~ RIAPOMH ~ Reality Is A Plague On Many Houses