JOHN RALSTON SAUL ~ A FAIR COUNTRY ~ 2008

~ WP-IAEBO-TDITCSAA ~ Western Philosophy – Is Almost Entirely Based On – Theories Developed In Tiny Communities Such As Athens

~ WDHTBPOTCOOCWNHB-STS-C ~ We Don’t Have To Be Prisoners Of Theories Coming Out Of Countries Where Nature Has Been – So To Speak – Conquered

~ TIOACSFLAECFWAE-EC-TITCM ~ The Idea Of A Complex Society Functioning Like An Equally Complex Family Within An Ever-Enlarging Circle – That Is The Canadian Model

~ ODPCETEOFAIIWN-TWMOLAOWHTBD ~ Once Decent People Can Express The Elements Of Fairness As If It Were Normal – They Will More Or Less Agree On What Has To Be Done

~ HLCACSWADDE?-HIFWATTQ-COCOC ~ How Long Can A Country Survive With A Deeply Dysfunctional Elite? – History Is Filled With Answers To That Question – Countries Often Crumble Or Collapse

~ HCYCMITINCTATITFP? ~ How Can You Correct Mistakes If There Is No Capacity To Admit Them In The First Place?

~ FOPD-ICT-OEF ~ Fear Of Public Debate – Is Central To – Our Elite Failure

~ RIAFWU-TKTAYMCQT ~ Real Ideas Are Filled With Uncertainty – To Keep Them Alive You Must Constantly Question Them

~ Y-WNACAOM-BAAWN-O-B-RT ~ Yes – We Need A Certain Amount Of Managers – But Above All We Need – Owners – Builders – Risk Takers

~ ISOTIOUTERWHTOTLTD-NUPDOEIPBTEC-SU/DI:BOTASOD ~ In Spite Of The Importance Of Understanding The Economic Road We Have Taken Over The Last Three Decades – No Useful Public Debate On Economics Is Permitted By The Economics Community – Speaking Up / Debating Issues: Both Of These Are Signs Of Disloyalty

~ TAOACEIAA-CAD-IAIT-CAL-T-TPIOAFS-LIM-MIA ~ The Argument Of A Colonial Elite Is Always About – Control And Domination – It Always Insists That – Choices Are Limited – That – The Pie Is Of A Fixed Size – Less Is More – More Is Anarchy

~ IA-HS-M-IALCW-M-HI ~ In A – Healthy Society – More – Is A Larger Circle With – More – Happening Inside

~ RTN-WOTWSTAI-TET-TTACWA ~ Rectify The Names – Work On The Way Society Talks About Itself – To Ensure That – The Terms And Concepts Were Accurate

~ ACOF ~ A Circle Of Fairness

~ SST-WDTMTSPOTLFYAMALAHMC-TTCBSSTMCS ~ Studies Show That – Western Democracies That Maintained Their Social Programs Over The Last Twenty-Five Years Also Maintained A Large And Healthy Middle Class – Those That Cut Back Seriously Saw Their Middle Classes Shrink

~ A-GAI-AGDOAWIS-IIAPTTCWD-TOOTNMDTDTDOTLOTP-I-ICLTOOP ~ A – Guaranteed Annual Income – A Great Deal Of Administrative Waste Is Saved – It Is A Policy That Treats Citizens With Dignity – The Opposite Of The Nosey Managerial Desire To Dissect The Details Of The Life Of The Poor – Instead – It Can Lift Them Out Of Poverty

~ Y-TIANT-EMM-CEIPC ~ Yes – There Is A Need To – Encourage Much More – Citizen Engagement In Public Causes

~ ASCABU-SR-UDOO-DC ~ All Successful Civilizations Are Built Upon – Simple Realizations – Usually Dragged Out Of – Difficult Circumstances

STEVE KEEN ~ CAN WE AVOID ANOTHER FINANCIAL CRISIS? ~ 2017

~ M-CBDDF-M ~ Macroeconomics – Cannot Be Derived Directly From – Microeconomics

~ TDTH-OPCBDEFLOSIACCIGST-‘E’~ The Discovery That Higher-Order Phenomena Cannot Be Directly Extrapolated From Lower-Order Systems Is A Commonplace Conclusion In Genuine Sciences Today – “Emergence”

~ TWPO-W-O-NBO-TPOI-H20-MT-BBO-IBLO(I)-H2O-M ~ The Wonderful Properties Of – Water – Occur – Not Because Of – The Properties Of Individual – H2O – Molecules Themselves – But Because Of – Interactions Between Lots Of (Identical) – H2O – Molecules

~ GFC ~ Global Financial Crisis

~ ACCBPOFAD-ITPSCBETCB ~ A Crisis Can Be Put Off For A Decade – If The Private Sector Can Be Enticed To Continue Borrowing

~ T-PS-R-TLOCWTTUB-A-MAPVO-TIWTBC ~ The – Political System – Rewards – The Lackey Of Credit Who Triggers The Unsustainable Boom – And – Makes A Political Victim Of – The Incumbent When The Boom Collapses

~ TGEHBSWALOPD-T-INOUSTEOTSWW-BAU-ITHOC ~ The Global Economy Has Been Saddled With A Level Of Private Debt – That – Is Not Only Unprecedented Since The End Of The Second World War – But Also Unprecedented – In The History Of Capitalism

~ WYMTOHWTGSM-WISMTIGBIT-TBTAOMIC-ATFPSA-TBTGSBBITLRIIFABT-GSATROMCSTPB-A-WASWAGJTDWTRITLFD ~ Whatever You Might Think Of How Well The Government Spends Money – When It Spends More Than It Gets Back In Taxation – This Boosts The Amount Of Money In Circulation – And That Finances Private Sector Activity – The Belief That Governments Should Be Balanced In The Long Run Is In Fact A Belief That – Governments Should Abdicate The Role Of Money Creation Solely To Private Banks – And – We’ve All Seen What A Great Job They’ve Done With That Responsibility In The Last Few Decades

~ D-Z-T-B ~ Debt-Zombies-To-Be

~ WDOD ~ Walking Dead Of Debt – Private Debt – Its Primary Cause

KARL POLANYI ~ THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION ~ 1944

~ C&M-ABOTAT-TDFMGITOIIHB ~ Capitalism And Marxism – Are Based On The Assumption That – The Desire For Material Gain Is The Overriding Instinct In Human Behaviour

~ ‘ED’-GUHPASHOEHQ-TCF-H-D-A-MR ~ “Economic Determinism” – Greatly Underestimates Human Potential And Strips Humans Of Essential Human Quality – The Capacity For – Honour – Decency – And – Moral Responsibility

~ ‘ED’-TBT-THOH-IGBLWAIOHWAA-ITMASIE ~ “Economic Determinism” – The Belief That – The History Of Humanity – Is Governed By Laws Which Are Independent Of Humanity’s Will And Action – Is The Most Absurd Superstition In Existence

~ Any – Economic System – That Does Not Consider – Social Costs – Is Not Giving A – Full Economic Accounting

~ ME-SNB-TFAFG-BR-TW-BOS ~ Market Efficiency – Should Not Be – The First And Foremost Goal – But Rather – The Well-Being Of Society

~ HAMNOTSTOPAMW-B-BATLI-S-C-A-J-C ~ Humans Are Motivated Not Only To Secure Their Own Physical And Material Well-Being – But Also – To Live In – Strong – Cohesive – And – Just – Communities

~ WA-MB-AWAB-PO ~ We Are – Moral Beings – As Well As Being – Physical Ones

~ OOP-INAAREAFS-BR-ACR-GBSAESR ~ Ownership Of Property – Is Not An Absolute Right Enjoyed Apart From Society – But Rather – A Conditional Right – Granted By Society And Entailing Social Responsibilities

~ ‘TM’-IAACSBOM-ML-DBAFTPCTTEOO-W-GTNIF-MG-TTEO-TEPNIF-S-P-A-S ~ “The Market” – Is An Artificially Constructed System Based On Man-Made Laws – Designed By And For The Propertied Classes To The Exclusion Of Others – Which – Glorifies The Natural Instinct For – Material Gain – To The Exclusion Of – The Equally Powerful Natural Instinct For – Self-Protection – And – Security

JARON LANIER ~ TEN ARGUMENTS FOR DELETING YOUR SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS RIGHT NOW ~ HENRY HOLT ~ 2018

~ YAL-Y-FW ~ You Are Losing – Your – Free Will

~ Q-SM-ITMFTWTRTIOOT ~ Quitting – Social Media – Is The Most Finely Targeted Way To Resist The Insanity Of Our Times

~ SM-I-MYI-AA ~ Social Media – Is – Making You Into – An Asshole

~ SM-I-UT ~ Social Media – Is – Undermining Truth

~ SM-I-MWYS-M ~ Social Media – Is – Making What You Say – Meaningless

~ SM-I-D-Y-CFM ~ Social Media – Is – Destroying – Your – Capacity For Empathy

~ SM-I-MY-U ~ Social Media – Is – Making You – Unhappy

~ SM-DWYTH-ED ~ Social Media – Doesn’t Want You To Have – Economic Dignity

~ SM-I-M-P-I ~ Social Media – Is – Making – Politics – Impossible

~ SM-H-Y-S ~ Social Media – Hates – Your – Soul

PAUL HAWKEN ~ THE ECOLOGY OF COMMERCE ~ A DECLARATION OF SUSTAINABILITY ~ 1993

~ C-B-TATDIOTP-MSA-TSAEPTAH ~ Corporations – Because – They Are The Dominant Institutions On The Planet – Must Squarely Address – The Social And Environmental Problems That Afflict Humankind

~ C-CP-AGBTPTWC-STWWA-LTWWH-TTTOO-A-DB-UBRCT-CTE-O-N ~ Current – Commercial Practices – Are Guided By The Promise That We Can – Stay The Way We Are – Live The Way We Have – Think The Thoughts Of Old – And – Do Business – Unburdened By Real Connections To – Cycles – Climate – Earth – Or – Nature

~ WD-TSMDAO-TPES-ITTEODTEILABTPSITM ~ Without Doubt – The Single Most Damaging Aspect Of – The Present Economic System – Is That The Expense Of Destroying The Earth Is Largely Absent From The Prices Set In The Marketplace

~ WRLIO-HTICIBDBCATW-BOAS-I-HB ~ We Remain Largely Ignorant Of – How The Infinitely Complex Interconnections Between Different Biotic Communities Affect The Well-Being Of All Species – Including – Human Beings

~ BD-ITE-ITSOAW-A-WADAPKON-ICBEMS ~ Biological Diversity – In The End – Is The Source Of All Wealth – And – With A Developed And Practiced Knowledge Of Nature – It Could Be Even More So

~ TLOASITLOABL ~ The Loss Of A Species Is The Loss Of A Biological Library

~ WCTOBO-TWOL-TSU-A-LIA-BVEBT ~ We Can’t Turn Our Backs On – The Web Of Life – That Sustains Us – And – Live In A – Biological Vacuum Engineered By Technology

~ E-EA-INATBO-S-O-H-O-N ~ Ever-Expanding Abundance – Is Not A Theory Based On – Science – Or – History – Or – Nature

~ WPTFGW-MTPBO-IOS-MTRR ~ We Pretend That Further Growth Will – Make The Poorer Better Off – Instead Of Simply – Making The Rich Richer

~ HM-M-MT-C-THB-T-B-M-D-B-A-GAA? ~ How Much – Man-Made Toxin – Can – The Human Body – Tolerate – Before – Mortality – Disease – Behavior – And – Genetics Are Affected?

~ IINMTE-TIBOBT-IIOCTUAST ~ It Is Not Merely The Environment – That Is Being Overwhelmed By Toxins – It Is Our Capacity To Understand And Study Them

~ ATASCB-PTHRTFL-IIAFOW-ABD-IIU-AEATEDNCW ~ Any Time A System Creates By-Products That Harm Rather Than Further Life – It Is A Form Of Waste – And By Definition – It Is Uneconomical – An Enduring And True Economy Does Not Create Waste

~ I-EG-IFO-AE-EROC-T-P-A-EB-P-TWWCOTGTISTSU ~ If – Economic Growth – Is Founded On – An Ever-Increasing Reliance On Chemicals – Toxins – Poisons – And – Energy By-Products – Then We Will Choke On The Growth That Is Supposed To Save Us

~ R-INABT-BT-NI-D ~ Restoration – Is Not A Business Term – But Then – Neither Is – Degradation

~ PHTBTWBAFIORLF ~ People Have To Believe There Will Be A Future In Order To Look Forward

~ TMTA-RE-TICOTWMCTMTWN-NTOWA ~ To Move To A – Restorative Economy – The Industrial Corporations Of The World Must Change To Meet The World’s Needs – Not The Other Way Around

~ D-ULMPUOO ~ Dematerialization – Using Less Material Per Unit Of Output

~ R-BTTM-NMTU-ACN-WTV ~ Responsibility – Belongs To The Maker – Not Merely The User – And Certainly Not – With The Victim

~ BP-B-TR-A-TCOM-WTOOTP-VACIACFC-T-R-ER-TBAP ~ By Placing Both – The Responsibility – And – The Cost Of Mitigation – With The Originator Of The Problem – Vast And Compelling Incentives Are Created For Companies – To – Redesign – Even Reimagine – Their Business And Processes

~ MASASP-BIORC ~ Markets Are Superb At Setting Prices – But Incapable Of Recognizing Costs

~ D-TEAA-TSAWOTFM-MOBTH-OWTRRC ~ Despite – The Endless Arguments About – The Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Free Market – Markets Operate Beneficially To Humankind – Only When They Reflect Real Costs

~ WR-P-E-A-B-C-E-TJIIECITMS ~ We Require – Political – Environmental – And – Business – Communities – Everyone – To Join In Incorporating External Costs Into The Market System

~ TPO-ICIP-INTP-ATRFP-B-APTI-TITLCITSOTPOIAB-BITC-TPMEMTLT-INETCOS-BIBD ~ The Purpose Of – Integrating Cost Into Pricing – Is Not To Provide – A Toll Road For Polluters – But – A Pathway To Innovation – The Incentive To Lower Costs Is The Same One That Presently Operates In All Businesses – But In This Case – The Producer’s Most Efficient Means To Lower Them – Is Not Externalizing These Costs Onto Society – But Implementing Better Design

~ PE-IHA-O-I-A-B-Y-CB-OS-A-FF-PTM-NROR ~ Planet Earth – Is Having A – Once-In-A-Billion-Years – Carbon Blow-Out Sale – All – Fossil Fuels – Priced To Move – No Reasonable Offer Refused

~ TWNR-F-SB-F-C-EO-O-U ~ There Were No Representatives From – Small Businesses – Farms – Churches – Environmental Organizations – Or – Unions

~ WSFTUPWWD? ~ Who Speaks For The Unknown People Who Will Die?

~ WAF-TR-O-TVOSSTCTF? ~ Which Arose First – The Regulations – Or – The Violation Of Societal Standards That Called Them Forth?

~ CANAT-DLEWAOC-ACNWC-BACTDS-OTLITSDFILWNBP ~ Citizens Are Not Allowed To – Deduct Legal Expenses When Accused Of Crimes – And Certainly Not When Convicted – By Allowing Corporations To Do So – Our Tax Laws Imply That Such Deductions Fall In Line With Normal Business Practice

~ HMPDACHTHBWQIIOTE? ~ How Many People Does A Company Have To Harm – Before We Question If It Ought To Exist?

~ AEOTTEMBEITIWAM ~ An Economy Oblivious To The Environment May Be Equally Insensitive To Its Workers And Managers

~ S-I-AES-WTDPUTEBPACCBMWRTCOTETPFFG ~ Sustainability – Is – An Economic State – Where The Demands Placed Upon The Environment By People And Commerce Can Be Met Without Reducing The Capacity Of The Environment To Provide For Future Generations

~ SB-TR-FTETHOTNW ~ Sustainable Businesses – Take Responsibility – For The Effect They Have On The Natural World

~ It Is An Insult To Our Intelligence When Companies Shrug At Environmental Problems By Saying – “the Consumer Made Me Do It”

~ SB-EIPPASTA-H-W-D-A-IS ~ Sustainable Businesses – Engage In Production Processes And Services That Are – Human – Worthy – Dignified – And – Intrinsically Satisfying

~ SB-COODAL-TUWUUODWNBHTFG ~ Sustainable Businesses – Create Objects Of Durability And Long-Term Utility Whose Ultimate Use Or Disposition Will Not Be Harmful To Future Generations

~ T-EOR-ROTPTP-IGHI-NOAP-B-AC-WMIAAD-TWIBTOL-ALAT ~ The Economics Of Restoration – Rests On The Premise That People – If Given Honest Information – Not Only About Price – But – About Cost – Will Make Intelligent And Appropriate Decisions – That Will Improve Both Their Own Lives – And Life Around Them

~ WNA-PACM-TRTT-FCODB-A-RTTTM-WTB ~ We Need A – Predictable And Consistent Market – That Recognizes The True – Full Costs Of Doing Business – And – Reassigns Them To The Marketplace – Where They Belong

~ WASBBTIOTES-TWFTSHCATA ~ We Are So Battered By The Insults Of The Existing System – That We Fail To See How Creative Are The Alternatives

~ CTO-TGYTMOITF ~ Choose The Option – That Gives You The Most Options In The Future

~ C-HHBEWCARBTCTWTB-NUCAIHTBWDAD ~ Commons – Have Historically Been Extremely Well Controlled And Regulated By The Communities To Which They Belonged – Not Until Colonization And Industrialization Have They Been Widely Degraded And Destroyed

~ T-POHAD-MAFALOS-NM-TT ~ The – Patterns Of Healing And Design – Must Arise From All Levels Of Society – Not Merely – The Top

JOSEPH STIGLITZ ~ THE PRICE OF INEQUALITY ~ HOW TODAY’S DIVIDED SOCIETY ENDANGERS OUR FUTURE ~ NORTON ~ 2012

~ SGVFCTC-TWSST-TWACUT-IMW-T-EAPS-HF-A-T-BWFU ~ Specific Grievances Varied From Country To Country – There Were Some Shared Themes – There Was A Common Understanding That – In Many Ways – The – Economic And Political System – Had Failed – And – That – Both Were Fundamentally Unfair

~ TGBWOEAPSASTD-WWWTTDD-AWTAC-BTLTBI ~ The Gap Between What Our Economic And Political Systems Are Supposed To Do – What We Were Told They Did Do – And What They Actually Do – Became Too Large To Be Ignored

~ TBHTB-T-WGA-WHBTATEED-ACLATSSTTWNAA-TBHITBTW ~ The Bankers Had Taken Bets – That – Without Government Assistance – Would Have Brought Them And The Entire Economy Down – A Closer Look At The System Showed That This Was Not An Accident – The Bankers Had Incentives To Behave This Way

~ TMOINE ~ The Market Obviously Is Not Efficient

~ U-TIOTMTGJFSMC-ITWFOTM-TGSOI-AAMCOI ~ Unemployment – The Inability Of The Market To Generate Jobs For So Many Citizens – Is The Worst Failure Of The Market – The Greatest Source Of Inefficiency – And A Major Cause Of Inequality

~ WHEHAHP ~ We Have Empty Homes And Homeless People

~ WAPAHPFO-I-AESTISSALE-WLG-A-ADTHBPIP ~ We Are Paying A High Price For Our – Inequality – An Economic System That Is Less Stable And Less Efficient – With Less Growth – And – A Democracy That Has Been Put Into Peril

~ TPOMIE-BTHNIMC ~ The Power Of Markets Is Enormous – But They Have No Inherent Moral Character

~ ATB-MHPACRITSIIPASOLITPTHY-BGHAPAMRITA-AFTF-MATFTA ~ At Their Best – Markets Have Played A Central Role In The Stunning Increases In Productivity And Standards Of Living In The Past Two Hundred Years – But Government Has Also Played A Major Role In These Advances – A Fact That Free-Market Advocates Typically Fail To Acknowledge

~ OTOH-MCACW-PECOTS-A-AWAC ~ On The Other Hand – Markets Can Also Concentrate Wealth – Pass Environmental Costs On To Society – And – Abuse Workers And Consumers

~ TFIPAEAR-ATREO-PHSTM-ASIIWT-ATT-ATEOTR ~ The Failures In Politics And Economics Are Related – And They Reinforce Each Other – Politics Have Shaped The Market – And Shaped It In Ways That – Advantage The Top – At The Expense Of The Rest

~ UMDNWW-AWHS ~ Unfettered Markets Do Not Work Well – As We Have Seen

~ TLOI-A-TAOO-INI-NIIRRSTPOIMF ~ The Level Of Inequality – And – The Absence Of Opportunity – Is Not Inevitable – Nor Is Its Recent Rise Simply The Product Of Inexorable Market Forces

~ IA-ATAM-ATTCTGMMTTTWBE-PBIWLTMG-TIAIC-T-DE-IHALP-AHLBD-HIHNLTMG ~ Inequality’s Apologists – And They Are Many – Argue To The Contrary That Giving More Money To The Top Will Benefit Everyone – Partly Because It Would Led To More Growth – This Is An Idea Called – Trickle-Down Economics – It Has A Long Pedigree – And Has Long Been Discredited – Higher Inequality Has Not Led To More Growth

~ SDIIFTBIP-TETERTTSAA-‘PT’ ~ So Difficult Is It For Those Born Into Poverty To Escape – That Economists Refer To The Situation As A – “Poverty Trap”

~ MOIIDFCCAOI ~ Measures Of Income Inequality Don’t Fully Capture Critical Aspects Of Inequality

~ MOTITETIARO-GP-BWTGDAWIDND-IITROPFAMAOEO ~ Much Of The Inequality That Exists Today Is A Result Of – Government Policy – Both What The Government Does And What It Does Not Do – Inequality Is The Result Of Political Forces As Much As Of Economic Ones

~ TMTMA-TMCTALTB-WGI-CMCEAD ~ The More Transparent Markets Are – The More Competitive They Are Likely To Be – Without Good Information – Capital Markets Can’t Exercise Any Discipline

~ T-WAS-CWI;IC-T-T-‘R’-O-L/NR-WMTD ~ Taxing – Work And Savings – Can Weaken Incentives; In Contrast – Taxing – The – “Rents” – On – Land / Natural Resources – Won’t Make Them Disappear

~ INHTBWITGSY-F-$500M-AM-TW-$1B~ It’s Not Hard To Become Wealthy If The Government Sells You – For – $500 Million – A Mine – That’s Worth – $1 Billion

~ TSWTASMIGTGTGYO ~ The Simplest Way To A Sustainable Monopoly Is Getting The Government To Give You One

~ IOTTWIAFG-IQATBATWTROTG-A-IEW-IYCCYOR ~ It’s One Thing To Win In A Fair Game – It’s Quite Another To Be Able To Write The Rules Of The Game – And – It’s Even Worse – If You Can Choose Your Own Referees

~ ‘RC’-TOTRC-CFARTTSTTASTR-STSW-GWRITP-GC ~ “Regulatory Capture” – Those On The Regulatory Commissions – Come From And Return To The Sector That They Are Supposed To Regulate – Serve The Sector Well – Get Well Rewarded In Their Post-Government Career

~ ITGGYTRT-E-R-F-F-IDTAGTMAF ~ If The Government Grants You The Right To – Extract – Resources – For – Free – It Doesn’t Take A Genius To Make A Fortune

~ OESRP-NMHTM-AIA-M-CE-INSTSMSPTTS ~ Our Economic System Rewards Profits – No Matter How They’re Made – And In A – Money-Centric Economy – It’s Not Surprising To See Moral Scruples Put To The Side

~ TMDOAIS-IC ~ The Major Determinant Of An Individual’s Success – Initial Conditions

~ LIR-LR-A-ADADFS-CTTROTE-FAM ~ Low Interest Rates – Lax Regulations – And – A Distorted And Dysfunctional Financial Sector – Came To The Rescue Of The Economy – For A Moment

~ R-ATROTG-TEC-TPA-TPTTCPT ~ Regulations – Are The Rules Of The Game – To Ensure Competition – To Prevent Abuses – To Protect Those That Cannot Protect Themselves

~ MOTIIOE:TROR-S ~ Much Of The Inequality In Our Economy: The Result Of Rent-Seeking

~ TFSIST-STROTE-NTOWA ~ The Financial Sector Is Supposed To – Serve The Rest Of The Economy – Not The Other Way Around

~ MOT-‘FI’-WDT-CR-AALL-REP ~ Many Of These – “Financial Innovations” – Were Designed To – Circumvent Regulations – And Actually Lowered Long-Run Economic Performance

~ TCBDAWACC ~ There Can Be Destructive As Well As Constructive Competition

~ IF-ATPOF-IP ~ Increasing Fairness – And The Perception Of Fairness – Increases Productivity

~ TSTOEAPSIU-UT-WIEFTFOOS ~ The Sense That Our Economic And Political System Is Unfair – Undermines Trust – Which Is Essential For The Functioning Of Our Society

~ G-ITFITWWAT-C-TSTNP ~ Government – Is The Formal Institution Through Which We Act Together – Collectively – To Solve The Nation’s Problems

~ CATAIIESOS ~ Cooperation And Trust Are Important In Every Sphere Of Society

~ WOU-TROT-IMOEW-O-TIOTSC-TBUT ~ We Often Underestimate – The Role Of Trust – In Making Our Economy Work – Or – The Importance Of The Social Contract – That Binds Us Together

~ SC-ITGTHST ~ Social Capital – Is The Glue That Holds Societies Together

~ OCSH-D-NS-D-A-FAUG ~ One Cannot Simultaneously Have – Democracy – National Self-Determination – And – Full And Unfettered Globalization

~ N-ITHOTP-HSM-GSM-TSF-WWSR-WAAIR ~ Never – In The History Of The Planet – Had So Many – Given So Much – To So Few – Who Were So Rich – Without Asking Anything In Return

~ MH-BBHRAPLTERTBB ~ Moral Hazard – Bank Bailouts Had Repeatedly And Predictably Led To Excessive Risk Taking By Banks

~ RBBHIHCOT ~ Repeated Bank Bailouts Have Imposed High Costs On Taxpayers

~ ATW-TEO-FP-AL ~ Around The World – The Examples Of – Failed Privatizations – Are Legion

~ MOCWIHWTTC ~ Much Of Corporate Welfare Is Hidden Within The Tax Code

~ MCWITISD-ICGOTUOTR-WTBTL ~ Markets Can’t Work If There Isn’t Some Discipline – If Companies Get Only The Upside Of The Risks – With Taxpayer Bearing The Losses

~ WTWIO-DHTBTFCOTA-TWHII-NTIT-A-TTPTAROI ~ When Those Who Injure Others – Don’t Have To Bear The Full Consequences Of Their Actions – They Will Have Inadequate Incentives – Not To Injure Them – And – To Take Precautions To Avoid Risks Of Injury

~ IEPIACBTUD-PCWF ~ If Economic Power In A Country Becomes Too Unevenly Distributed – Political Consequences Will Follow

~ IAD-API-APAIM-ACBIAPI-MHSDOA-OTMSTTINM-ABDAEP ~ In Any Democracy – A Public Institution – And Pretend As It Might – A Central Bank Is A Public Institution – Must Have Some Degree Of Accountability – Oversight To Make Sure That There Is No Malfeasance – A Central Bank’s Decisions Are Essentially Political

~ AWIP ~ Another World Is Possible

~ N-TPOE-TPOEAF ~ Not – The Politics Of Envy – The Politics Of Efficiency And Fairness

DAVID GRAEBER ~ BULLSHIT JOBS ~ 2018

~ LAS-U-IFO-TCOPWAA-M/M/F/M-T ~ Layoffs And Speed-Ups – Invariably Fall On – That Class Of People Who Are Actually – Making / Moving / Fixing / Maintaining – Things

~ I-1%-OTP-CMOT-DW-WWC-‘TM’-RW-T-TIUOI-NAE ~ If – 1 Percent – Of The Population – Controls Most Of The – Disposable Wealth – What We Call – “the Market” – Reflects What – They – Think Is Useful Or Important – Not Anybody Else

~ HWNMTW ~ Humans Were Not Made To Work

~ WHBACBO-W-NE-‘PW’-B-WAEAMII ~ We Have Become A Civilization Based On – Work – Not Even – “Productive Work” – But – Work As An End And Meaning In Itself

~ MLOPO ~ Multiple Layers Of Private Outsourcing

~ BS-J-TA-POEMUOT-TTPDTJCTB-P/U/OEP-JT-WTTD-WMNDW-AA-TAJTTHTFSNE-T-THTBSDO-PAF-IAW-TJ-MFOTP-TTI-IF-AGRWHJE ~ Bullshit Jobs – Jobs – That Are – Primarily Or Entirely Made Up Of Tasks – That The Person Doing That Job Considers To Be – Pointless / Unnecessary / Or Even Pernicious – Jobs That – Were They To Disappear – Would Make No Difference Whatsoever – Above All – These Are Jobs That The Holders Themselves Feel Should Not Exist – Typically – There Has To Be Some Degree Of – Pretense And Fraud – Involved As Well – The Jobholder – Must Feel Obliged To Pretend – That There Is – In Fact – A Good Reason Why Her[/His] Job Exists

~ MPWDAGDOHITW-APATKTTDS-O-TATTB-TEAOP-TIAAT-TCUWRWTARDG-N-TASRTA-TT ~ Most People Who Do A Great Deal Of Harm In The World – Are Protected Against The Knowledge That They Do So – Or – They Allow Themselves To Believe – The Endless Accretion Of Paid Flunkies – That Inevitably Assemble Around Them – To Come Up With Reasons Why They Are Really Doing Good – Nowadays – These Are Sometimes Referred To As – Think Tanks

~ ITPOTEIACO-PBTWIONSV-OSPATATAR ~ If The Preponderance Of Those Engaged In A Certain Occupation – Privately Believe Their Work Is Of No Social Value – One Should Proceed Along The Assumption They Are Right

~ AD-B-J-TA-P-AJTAM-B-‘SJ’-TTASOC-O-TMABCO ~ Another Distinction – Between – Jobs – That Are – Pointless – And Jobs That Are Merely – Bad – “Shit Jobs” – The Two Are So Often Confused – Odd – They Might Almost Be Considered Opposites

~ BS-OPQWATTOEWC-TJP-SJ-AUNAAB-TTIWTNTBDAICOBTS-IJTTWWDTAPATB ~ Bullshit Jobs – Often Pay Quite Well And Tend To Offer Excellent Working Conditions – They’re Just Pointless – Shit Jobs – Are Usually Not At All Bullshit – They Typically Involve Work That Needs To Be Done And Is Clearly Of Benefit To Society – It’s Just That The Workers Who Do Them Are Paid And Treated Badly

~ IIATPTHAJTIBSAB ~ It Is Also Theoretically Possible To Have A Job That Is Both Shit And Bullshit

~ N-UB-SJARI-TPS-AI-TPS-EM-PAPBHBSIETIOVDTTTA ~ Nowadays – Useless Bureaucrats – Seem Just As Rife In – The Private Sector – As In – The Public Sector – Even More – Public And Private Bureaucracies Have Become So Increasingly Entangled That It’s Often Very Difficult To Tell Them Apart

~ ‘MR’-AICBM-NL ~ “Market Reforms” Almost Invariably Create More Bureaucracy – Not Less

~ CA-BR-AFYB-BO-TY-IATFO-GR-B-IYRWTRACFR-MOTWWB-TB ~ Complain About – Bureaucratic Run-Around From Your Bank – Bank Officials – Tell You – It’s All The Fault Of – Government Regulations – But – If You Research Where Those Regulations Actually Come From – Most Of Them Were Written By – The Bank

~ IOCRIT-BG-AI-O-T-BW ~ If One Common Reaction Is To – Blame Government – Another Is – Oddly – To – Blame Women

~ TIAVTLB-EL-A-TC ~ There Is A Very Thin Line Between – Extreme Luxury – And – Total Crap

~ TI-IS-AWGOJ-TICTDD-BASWHHPFRUTATDTW ~ There Is – It Seems – A Whole Genre Of Jobs – That Involve Correcting The Damage Done – By A Superior Who Holds His Position For Reasons Unrelated To Ability To Do The Work

~ IIPTHABJANKI? ~ Is It Possible To Have A Bullshit Job And Not Know It?

~ TMAPEOBTIABS ~ The Moral And Psychological Effects Of Being Trapped Inside A Bullshit Job

~HB-A-SIS-TI-COFRWOH-TBTDP ~ Human Beings – Are – So Intrinsically Social – That If – Cut Off From Relations With Other Humans – They Begin To Decay Physically

~ AHBUTHAMIOTWCTE ~ A Human Being Unable To Have A Meaningful Impact On The World Ceases To Exist

~ TT-MS-MOF-PWFDTDF-TTTDOOAY-BJAFHADO-AOFD-NAA ~ The Typical – Medieval Serf – Male Or Female – Probably Worked From Dawn To Dusk For – Twenty To Thirty Days Out Of Any Year – But Just A Few Hours A Day Otherwise – And On Feast Days – Not At All

~ TITOPTCBTSEIAQP-MHSTHEEWNHCOSAT-HCYBT?-AAR-TOMOEOWLTWDEITAWAOPWAAS ~ The Idea That One Person’s Time Can Belong To Someone Else Is Actually Quite Peculiar – Most Human Societies That Have Ever Existed Would Never Have Conceived Of Such A Thing – How Could You Buy Time? – As A Result – The Overwhelming Majority Of Examples Of Wage Labor That We Do Encounter In The Ancient World Are Of People Who Are Already Slaves

~ TINAGAWWCBM-BTWITMI ~ Time Is Not A Grid Against Which Work Can Be Measured – Because The Work Is The Measure Itself

~ ‘S’-TLOCM-M-PM-BJ-I-S-TCOBA-NOIESWTASTSOHTASTFATS ~ “Scriptlessness” – The Lack Of Cultural Models – Many – Probably Most – Bullshit Jobs – Involve – Scriptlessness – The Codes Of Behavior Ambiguous – No One Is Even Sure What They Are Supposed To Say Or How They Are Supposed To Feel About Their Situation

~ S-RASAFCOBJ ~ Stress-Related Ailments Seem A Frequent Consequence Of Bullshit Jobs

~ YCS-‘O’-TYB ~ You Can’t Say – “Orange” – To Your Boss

~ TLOASOPEAAP ~ The Lack Of A Sense Of Purpose Eats Away At People

~ IHENBTSWAFTYASTH ~ It’s Hard Enough Nowadays Being Taken Seriously When Asking For Things You’re Already Supposed To Have

~ WWAWI-TROTFO-PC-T-OW-CPAC-D-T-S-F-SOT-THATDIW-WEWTNFTTO-TSCAIO ~ What We Are Witnessing Is – The Rise Of Those Forms Of – Popular Culture – That – Office Workers – Can Produce And Consume – During – The – Scattered – Furtive – Shards Of Time – They Have At Their Disposal In Workplaces – Where Even When There’s Nothing For Them To Do – They Still Can’t Admit It Openly

~ TMOLOM-WBJITSTTOA-HCTDAA-‘CI’ ~ The Multiplication Of Levels Of Managers – Whose Basic Job Is To Sell Things To One Another – Has Come To Dominate Almost All – “Creative Industries”

~ W-WNLFALTCTFNTT-HTBI-M/M/S ~ Workers – Who No Longer Felt Any Loyalty To Corporations That Felt None Toward Them – Had To Be Increasingly – Monitored / Managed / Surveilled

~ TSTBAIC-B-TFOTE-TBOII-A-TPOBS ~ There Seems To Be An Intrinsic Connection – Between – The Financialization Of The Economy – The Blossoming Of Information Industries – And – The Proliferation Of Bullshit Jobs

~ A-MROWH-IPTQAETTCBDTSTP ~ A – Mass Reduction Of Working Hours – Is Probably – The Quickest And Easiest Thing That Could Be Done To Save The Planet

~ TMYWHABO-A-TM-SV-YC-TLYALTBPFI ~ The More Your Work Helps And Benefits Others – And – The More – Social Value – You Create – The Less You Are Likely To Be Paid For It

~ ROTCC ~ Revolt Of The Caring Classes

~ W-A-A-E-I-I-M ~ Work-As-An-End-In-Itself-Morality

~ TMTEBAMOTM-DOL-TM-IAUCOC-AMS-STATFOOBSTSUAMOTLAP ~ The More The Economy Becomes A Matter Of The Mere – Distribution Of Loot – The More – Inefficiency And Unnecessary Chains Of Command – Actually Make Sense – Since These Are The Forms Of Organization Best Suited To Soaking Up As Much Of That Loot As Possible

~ TPOMW=MPSODAS-WICUIWFAL+MPHTJ ~ The Paradox Of Modern Work = Most People’s Sense Of Dignity And Self-Worth Is Caught Up In Working For A Living + Most People Hate Their Jobs