YUVAL NOAH HARARI ~ 21 LESSONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY ~ 2018

~ H-TI-S-RT-I-F-N-O-E-A-TSTS-TB ~ Humans – Think – In – Stories – Rather Than – In – Facts – Numbers – Or – Equations – And – The Simpler The Story – The Better

~ H-WAFBA-IT-T-UTW ~ Humans – Were Always Far Better At – Inventing Tools – Than – Using Them Wisely

~ T-TR-MS-PBOHOOTJM-A-CAMN-‘UC’-LTSAPU ~ The – Technological Revolution – Might Soon – Push Billions Of Humans Out Of The Job Market – And – Create A Massive New – “Useless Class” – Leading To – Social And Political Upheavals

~ IIGAT-MLAR-WCAELOW-IIFFCT-TFEWNU-EAC ~ It Is Generally Agreed That – Machine Learning And Robotics – Will Change Almost Every Line Of Work – It Is Far From Certain That – The Future Economy Will Need Us – Even As Consumers

~ IIDWIIBT-PPW-UBI-TCP-O-UBS-TCP-BOHAAD-B-NMWPYC-TRPIIDW-‘U’-A-‘B’-AM ~ It Is Debatable Whether It Is Better To – Provided People With – Universal Basic Income – The Capitalist Paradise – Or – Universal Basic Services – The Communist Paradise – Both Options Have Advantages And Drawbacks – But – No Matter Which Paradise You Choose – The Real Problem Is In Defining What – “Universal” – And – “Basic” – Actually Mean

~ TQF-MAC-ME-TQFAJ ~ The Quest For – Meaning And Community – Might Eclipse – The Quest For A – Job

~ TBS-C-BPIEI ~ The Biometric Sensor – Converts – Biological Processes Into Electronic Information

~ PGM ~ Precision-Guided Manipulation

~ DD ~ Digital Dictators

~ TRPWR-INTOAI-B-RTNSACOTHM ~ The Real Problem With Robots – Is Not Their Own Artificial Intelligence – But – Rather – The Natural Stupidity And Cruelty Of Their Human Masters

~ VRATW ~ Veteran Robots Against The War

~ D-IIPF-CS-TMOBAI-EDWSRIIARNF-O-HWCTLI-‘DD’ ~ Democracy – In Its Present Form – Cannot Survive – The Merger Of Biotech And Infotech – Either Democracy Will Successfully Reinvent Itself In A Radically New Form – Or – Humans Will Come To Live In – “Digital Dictatorships”

~ HF-WGUTITTAAOAATUAISIHH ~ Human Figureheads – Will Give Us The Illusion That The Algorithms Are Only Advisers And That Ultimate Authority Is Still In Human Hands

~ AI&NS ~ Artificial Intelligence And Natural Stupidity

~ TINRTATAIWGC-B-IAC-AVDT-I-ITATSP-C-ITATF ~ There Is No Reason To Assume That Artificial Intelligence Will Gain Consciousness – Because – Intelligence And Consciousness – Are Very Different Things – Intelligence – Is The Ability To Solve Problems – Consciousness – Is The Ability To Feel

~ FTLFD-PAOTW-WTTHIOTPT-E-AT-G-A-NT-WHUGTS-IR-TT-FC-MC-TMUSIH ~ For The Last Few Decades – People All Over The World – Were Told That Humankind Is On The Path To – Equality – And That – Globalization – And – New Technologies – Will Help Us Get There Sooner – In Reality – The Twenty-First Century – Might Create – The Most Unequal Societies In History

~ B-2100-TR-1%-MONMMOTWW-BA-MOTW-B-C-H ~ By – 2100 – The Richest – 1 Percent – Might Own Not Merely Most Of The World’s Wealth – But Also – Most Of The World’s – Beauty – Creativity – Health

~ IWWTPTCOAWAPITHOASE-TKIT-RTOOD ~ If We Want To Prevent The Concentration Of All Wealth And Power In The Hands Of A Small Elite – The Key Is To – Regulate The Ownership Of Data

~ OACABTFU-TTAIWGB ~ Once Algorithms Choose And Buy Things For Us – The Traditional Advertising Industry Will Go Bust

~ APA-MLABM-A-MELMITST-B-ALAISD-ICBWB ~ A Popular App – May Lack A Business Model – And – May Even Lose Money In The Short Term – But – As Long As It Sucks Data – It Could Be Worth Billions

~ WOTD?-TMWBTMIPQOOE ~ Who Owns The Data? – This May Well Be The Most Important Political Question Of Our Era

~ HHB-IYTTPLMOATYPTWATNTOTOE-YCVYAA-BSS-EAYAPTTOG-B-OYRTHBHB-A-TTSN-R-H-A-SS-IBFMDTJTE-HCYETVOCWRTFSTMICS? ~ Human Have Bodies – If You Think That People Live Mainly Online And That You Provide Them With All The Necessary Tools Of Their Online Existence – You Can View Yourself As A – Beneficial Social Service – Even As You Avoid Paying Taxes To Offline Governments – But – Once You Remember That Human Beings Have Bodies – And – That They Still Need – Roads – Hospitals – And – Sewage Systems – It Becomes Far More Difficult To Justify Tax Evasion – How Can You Extol The Virtues Of Community While Refusing To Financially Support The Most Important Community Services?

~ WMCTMTGODWOWSFO ~ We May Come To Miss The Good Old Days When Online Was Separated From Offline

~ WITOVAAPLF-AA-Y-TOTTAUTSTITOAALDACSFT ~ We Insist That Our Values Are A Precious Legacy From – Ancient Ancestors – Yet – The Only Thing That Allows Us To Say This Is That Our Ancestors Are Long Dead And Cannot Speak For Themselves

~ W-S-I-T-A-P-FMQTCD-W-AMPFMIIOA ~ War – Spreads – Ideas – Technologies – And – People – Far More Quickly Than Commerce Does – War – Also Makes People Far More Interested In One Another

~ ACEITBCFFACI-A-HNHALTSE-NW-CC-A-TD ~ A Common Enemy Is The Best Catalyst For Forging A Common Identity – And – Humankind Now Has At Least Three Such Enemies – Nuclear War – Climate Change – And – Technological Disruption

~ S-TGFCO-2008-TISIRD-WIBIV-A-MEAB ~ Since – The Global Financial Crisis Of – 2008 – The International Situation Is Rapidly Deteriorating – Warmongering Is Back In Vogue – And – Military Expenditures Are Ballooning

~ HS-I-OOTMIFIH-Y-WOTTDI ~ Human Stupidity – Is – One Of The Most Important Forces In History – Yet – We Often Tend To Discount It

~ OPRF-HS-IADO-H ~ One Potential Remedy For – Human Stupidity – Is A Dose Of – Humility

~ DT-TNOG-IV-PTDM-WSNU-TNOG-TJ-OPI-OEA-O-OPH ~ Don’t Take – The Name Of God – In Vain – Perhaps The Deeper Meaning – We Should Never Use – The Name Of God – To Justify – Our Political Interests – Our Economic Ambitions – Or – Our Personal Hatreds

~ TVSR-T-IHABISP-ILACIO ~ The Very Same Religions – That – Inspire Hate And Bigotry In Some People – Inspire Love And Compassion In Others

~ IOT-AM-YDNTBIAMOS-YJNT-D-ADAOS ~ In Order To – Act Morally – You Don’t Need To Believe In Any Myth Or Story – You Just Need To – Develop – A Deep Appreciation Of Suffering

~ QYCA-AUFBFY-T-AYCQ ~ Questions You Cannot Answer – Are Usually Far Better For You – Than – Answers You Cannot Question

~ TOP-R-E-IITSHIATOA-TIITT-HHANRTLOL-BITS-CTPO-AR-PMFH-A-SBFTWCOPAV ~ The Only Place – Rights – Exist – Is In The Stories Humans Invent And Tell One Another – Though It Isn’t True That – Humans Have A Natural Right To Life Or Liberty – Belief In This Story – Curbed The Power Of – Authoritarian Regimes – Protected Minorities From Harm – And – Safeguarded Billions From The Worst Consequences Of Poverty And Violence

~ PRATI-B-TLTI-A-EC-O-L-MF-A-S-CNF-WTBACRASC ~ People Rarely Appreciate Their Ignorance – Because – They Lock Themselves Inside – An – Echo Chamber – Of – Like-Minded Friends – And – Self-Confirming News Feeds – Where Their Beliefs Are Constantly Reinforced And Seldom Challenged

~ MOO-V-ASB-CG-RT-IR-A-WHOTTV-DT-GL ~ Most Of Our – Views – Are Shaped By – Communal Groupthink – Rather Than – Individual Rationality – And – We Hold On To These Views – Due To – Group Loyalty

~ T-GCIMH-RNJF-HAG-BEMS-F-IAI ~ The – Greatest Crimes In Modern History – Resulted Not Just From – Hatred And Greed – But Even More So – From – Ignorance And Indifference

~ IYWT-GGL-RPT-BAA-IAFBTTATT-BTT ~ If You Want To – Gauge Group Loyalty – Requiring People To – Believe An Absurdity – Is A Far Better Test Than Asking Them To – Believe The Truth

~ OOTGFOAI-TDTCOTW-A-TIAT ~ One Of The Greatest Fictions Of All Is – To Deny The Complexity Of The World – And – Think In Absolute Terms

~ F-IYWRI-PGMFI ~ First – If You Want Reliable Information – Pay Good Money For It

~ S-SSTT-TFC:CT/C/C/C ~ Schools – Should Switch To Teaching – The Four C’s: Critical Thinking / Communication / Collaboration / Creativity

~ T-BQFH-I-‘WITMOL?’-B-R-“HDWSS?’-TRTITWIS ~ The – Big Question Facing Humans – Isn’t – “What Is The Meaning Of Life?” – But – Rather – “How Do We Stop Suffering?” – The Realest Thing In The World Is Suffering

YUVAL NOAH HARARI ~ 21 LESSONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY ~ 2018

~ D-TEOHHBP ~ Disillusionment – The End Of History Has Been Postponed

~ W-WYGU-YMNHAJ ~ Work – When You Grow Up – You Might Not Have A Job

~ L-BDIWY ~ Liberty – Big Data Is Watching You

~ E-TW-OTD-OTF ~ Equality – Those Who – Own The Data – Own The Future

~ C-HHB ~ Community – Humans Have Bodies

~ C-TIJOCITW ~ Civilization – There Is Just One Civilization In The World

~ N-GPNGA ~ Nationalism – Global Problems Need Global Answers

~ I-SCMBBTO ~ Immigration – Some Cultures Might Be Better Than Others

~ T-DP ~ Terrorism – Don’t Panic

~ W-NUHS ~ War – Never Underestimate Human Stupidity

~ G-DTTNOGIV ~ God – Don’t Take The Name Of God In Vain

~ S-AYS ~ Secularism – Acknowledge Your Shadow

~ I-YKLTYT ~ Ignorance – You Know Less Than You Think

~ J-OSOJMBOOD ~ Justice – Our Sense Of Justice Might Be Out Of Date

~ P-T-SFNLF ~ Post-Truth – Some Fake News Lasts Forever

~ SF-TFINWYSITM ~ Science Fiction – The Future Is Not What You See In The Movies

~ E-CITOC ~ Education – Change Is The Only Constant

~ M-LINAS ~ Meaning – Life Is Not A Story

~ M-JO ~ Mediation – Just Observe

TIMOTHY SNYDER ~ ON TYRANNY ~ 2017

~T:TUOPBASIOG-O-TCOLBRFTOB ~ Tyranny: The Usurpation Of Power By A Single Individual Or Group – Or – The Circumvention Of Law By Rulers For Their Own Benefit

~ DNOIA-MOTPOAIFG ~ Do Not Obey In Advance – Most Of The Power Of Authoritarianism Is Freely Given

~ DI-IIITHUTPD-IDNPT ~ Defend Institutions – It Is Institutions That Help Us To Preserve Decency – Institutions Do Not Protect Themselves

~ TMITATRWCTPTICCODTVI-EWTIEWTHATTWD ~ The Mistake Is To Assume That Rulers Who Came To Power Through Institutions Cannot Change Or Destroy Those Very Institutions – Even When That Is Exactly What They Have Announced That They Will Do

~ BOTO-PS-STM-PSADTRODE-VILASEWYC-CRFO ~ Beware The One-Party State – Support The Multi-Party System And Defend The Rules Of Democratic Elections – Vote In Local And State Elections While You Can – Consider Running For Office

~PB-CBTWR-A-CABR ~ Paper Ballots – Cannot Be Tampered With Remotely – And – Can Always Be Recounted

~ TRFTFOTW-TSOTETROT ~ Take Responsibility For The Face Of The World – The Symbols Of Today Enable The Reality Of Tomorrow

~ RPE-WPLSANE-PCT-JP-BMI ~ Remember Professional Ethics – When Political Leaders Set A Negative Example – Professional Commitments To – Just Practice – Become More Important

~ ANOCS-A-CCDSBIICL ~ Authoritarians Need Obedient Civil Servants – And – Concentration Camp Directors Seek Businessmen Interested In Cheap Labor

~ PE-MGUPWWATT-TSIE-TTINSTA-‘JFO’~ Professional Ethics – Must Guide Us Precisely When We Are Told That – The Situation Is Exceptional – Then There Is No Such Thing As – “Just Following Orders”

~ BWOP ~ Be Wary Of Paramilitaries

~ I-OTGCLUF-ATUICBL-T-TFOPTWTFGBP ~ If – Only The Government Can Legitimately Use Force – And – This Use Is Constrained By Law – Then – The Forms Of Politics That We Take For Granted Become Possible

~ BRIYMBA ~ Be Reflective If You Must Be Armed

~ SO-SHT ~ Stand Out – Someone Has To

~BKTOL-APTPEED-TUYOWOS ~ Be Kind To Our Language – Avoid Pronouncing The Phrases Everyone Else Does – Think Up Your Own Way Of Speaking

~ MAETSYFTI ~ Make An Effort To Separate Yourself From The Internet

~ RB ~ Read Books

~ PIOTFTCTT-WETWWTDRT ~ Politicians In Our Times Feed Their Cliches To Television – Where Even Those Who Wish To Disagree Repeat Them

~ BIT-TAFITAF-INIT-TNOCCP-BTINBUWTDS-INIT-TAIS-TBWPFTBBL ~ Believe In Truth – To Abandon Facts Is To Abandon Freedom – If Nothing Is True – Then No One Can Criticize Power – Because There Is No Basis Upon Which To Do So – If Nothing Is True – Then All Is Spectacle – The Biggest Wallet Pays For The Most Blinding Lights

~ PT-P-F ~ Post-Truth Is Pre-Fascism

~ I-RTSOWIOTIITTHY-TRFWYCWO ~ Investigate – Realize That Some Of What Is On The Internet Is There To Harm You – Take Responsibility For What You Communicate With Others

~ IIYATDFTMYAI-A-OCTICKTMUAS ~ It Is Your Ability To Discern Facts That Makes You An Individual – And – Our Collective Trust In Common Knowledge That Makes Us A Society

~ WTT-DW-NCHA-IBTLOD-TWDW-BTM ~ Within The Two-Dimensional Internet World – New Collectivities Have Arisen – Invisible By The Light Of Day – Tribes With Distinct Worldviews – Beholden To Manipulations

~ AY-TIACTYCFO-IITOTKYO-LFC ~ And Yes – There Is A Conspiracy That You Can Find Online – It Is The One To Keep You Online – Looking For Conspiracies

~ BYDT-‘MM’-NTIINL-TM-IIDTIMAE-A-AJTIEAD ~ Before You Deride The – “Mainstream Media” – Note That It Is No Longer – The Mainstream – It Is Derision That Is Mainstream And Easy – And – Actual Journalism That Is Edgy And Difficult

~ MECAST-AWTSITWOS-BDSB-A-UWYSASNT ~ Make Eye Contact And Small Talk – A Way To Stay In Touch With Our Surroundings – Break Down Social Barriers – And – Understand Whom You Should And Should Not Trust

~ ITMDOT-TWEAS-GKPWTCT ~ In The Most Dangerous Of Times – Those Who Escape And Survive – Generally Know People Whom They Can Trust

~ PCP-ITFNCFTAITT-DW-NWC ~ Practice Corporeal Politics – If Tyrants Feel No Consequences For Their Actions In The Three-Dimensional World – Nothing Will Change

~ EAPL-TS-TH-OWTHY-TNTHH ~ Establish A Private Life – Tyrants Seek – The Hook – On Which To Hang You – Try Not To Have Hooks

~ WWTAAIIMODRAMTACBTAS-WPITDOOOPO ~ When We Take An Active Interest In Matters Of Doubtful Relevance At Moments That Are Chosen By Tyrants And Spooks – We Participate In The Demolition Of Our Own Political Order

~ CTGC-TYWHMAFCTSCSAHOTDG ~ Contribute To Good Causes – Then You Will Have Made A Free Choice That Supports Civil Society And Helps Others To Do Good

~ LFPIOC ~ Learn From Peers In Other Countries

~ LFDW-BATTUOTW-E-A-T-BATFNO-EAE-BAA-TTUOPV ~ Listen For Dangerous Words – Be Alert To The Use Of The Words – Extremism – And – Terrorism – Be Alive To Fatal Notions Of – Emergency And Exception – Be Angry About – The Treacherous Use Of Patriotic Vocabulary

~ BCWTUA-TSTR-TEOCAB-TRTAFT-ASO-ITOT-DNFFI ~ Be Calm When The Unthinkable Arrives – The Sudden Disaster That Requires – The End Of Checks And Balances – The Right To A Fair Trial – And So On – Is The Oldest Trick – Do Not Fall For It

~ BAP-SAGE-FGTC-TWNI ~ Be A Patriot – Set A Good Example – For Generations To Come – They Will Need It

~ BACAYC-INOUIPT-DFF-T-AOUW-DUT ~ Be As Courageous As You Can – If None Of Us Is Prepared To – Die For Freedom – Then – All Of Us Will – Die Under Tyranny

~ T-POI-IA-S-IIC ~ The – Politics Of Inevitability – Is A – Self-Induced Intellectual Coma

TIMOTHY SNYDER ~ TWENTY LESSONS FROM THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ~ ON TYRANNY ~ 2017

~ DNOIA ~ Do Not Obey In Advance

~ DI ~ Defend Institutions

~ BTO-PS ~ Beware The One-Party State

~ TRFTFOTW ~ Take Responsibility For The Face Of The World

~ RPE ~ Remember Professional Ethics

~ BWOP ~ Be Wary Of Paramilitaries

~ BRIYMBA ~ Be Reflective If You Must Be Armed

~ SO ~ Stand Out

~ BKTOL ~ Be Kind To Our Language

~ BIT ~ Believe In Truth

~ I ~ Investigate

~ MECAST ~ Make Eye Contact And Small Talk

~ PCP ~ Practice Corporeal Politics

~ EAPL ~ Establish A Private Life

~ CTGC ~ Contribute To Good Causes

~ LFPIOC ~ Learn From Peers In Other Countries

~ LFDW ~ Listen For Dangerous Words

~ BCWTUA ~ Be Calm When The Unthinkable Arrives

~ BAP ~ Be A Patriot

~ BACAYC ~ Be As Courageous As You Can

LAWRENCE LESSIG ~ FREE CULTURE ~ 2004

~ ABBAAC ~ A Balance Between Anarchy And Control

~ FTFTIOT-TOWIWICASCFWTROTROTL-WHETDIICAVAOCACTINRB-TCITWALALA-FC-MAMA-PC ~ For The First Time In Our Tradition – The Ordinary Ways In Which Individuals Create And Share Culture Fall Within The Reach Of The Regulation Of The Law – Which Has Expanded To Draw Within Its Control A Vast Amount Of Culture And Creativity That It Never Reached Before – The Consequence Is That We Are Less And Less A – Free Culture – More And More A – Permission Culture

~ TINA-PTPA-IIIA-PTPCFOB ~ This Is Not A – Protectionism To Protect Artists – It Is Instead A – Protectionism To Protect Certain Forms Of Business

~ MOUTFGTEPCTTOO-‘IP’-NA ~ Most Of Us Take For Granted The Extraordinarily Powerful Claims That The Owners Of – “Intellectual Property” – Now Assert

~ R-M-A-B-TIAKOC-IACTWS-RAC-TASWWSTTINCETK ~ Rip – Mix – And – Burn – This Is A Kind Of Creativity – It’s A Creativity That We Should – Remember And Celebrate – There Are Some Who Would Say That There Is No Creativity Except This Kind

~ ATEOACT-AWPIT-PD-NPITNTDUOUTW-NP-A-H-NL-T-PD-IA-‘L-FZ’ ~ At The End Of A Copyright Term – A Work Passes Into The – Public Domain – No Permission Is Then Needed To Draw Upon Or Use That Work – No Permission – And – Hence – No Lawyers – The – Public Domain – Is A – “Lawyer-free Zone”

~ A-L-D-S-CSWP;A-L-D-A-M-S-CFWIP-B-TIPOVOTT-‘P’-DC ~ A – Large – Diverse – Society – Cannot Survive Without Property; A – Large – Diverse – And – Modern – Society – Cannot Flourish Without Intellectual Property – But – There Is Plenty Of Value Out There That – “Property” – Doesn’t Capture

~ CHAEAAAAATBUTCTWBATSTN-TBIAAEALPDWPAWCTOC-ESHLACBOICFFTT-FSMFTU-P-B-ASTSD ~ Creators Here And Everywhere Are Always And At All Times Building Upon The Creativity That Went Before And That Surrounds Them Now – That Building Is Always And Everywhere At Least Partially Done Without Permission And Without Compensating The Original Creator – Every Society Has Left A Certain Bit Of Its Culture Free For The Taking – Free Societies More Fully Than Unfree – Perhaps – But – All Societies To Some Degree

~ ‘HFITC?’-‘HM-A-HB-ITCFFOTTABU?’ ~ “How Free Is This Culture?” – “How Much – And – How Broadly – Is The Culture Free For Others To Take And Build Upon?”

~ B-TAATMIFOUPDTWH ~ Blogs – They Are Arguably The Most Important Form Of Unchoreographed Public Discourse That We Have

~ WITMIALLT?-WITVIS? ~ Where Is The Morality In A Lawsuit Like This? – What Is The Virtue In Scapegoatism?

~ THOTCHIAHO-P-F-R-R-CTV-BOAKOPSD-TCSIHLGPJTGCC-UN-I-‘P’-MUVFSECPWPFTC ~ The History Of The Content Industry Is A History Of – Piracy – Film – Records – Radio – Cable TV – Born Of A Kind Of Piracy So Defined – The Consistent Story Is How Last Generation’s Pirates Join This Generation’s Country Club – Until Now – If – “Piracy” – Means Using Value From Someone Else’s Creative Property Without Permission From That Creator

~ TPOPOTIADFTPOPOTT ~ The Physics Of Piracy Of The Intangible Are Different From The Physics Of Piracy Of The Tangible

~ MKO-‘P’-AUAP-TPENCONWODB ~ Many Kinds Of – “Piracy” – Are Useful And Productive – To Produce Either New Content Or New Ways Of Doing Business

~ TQIOOB-ZHHNBOH-IHNPTCITWKT ~ The Question Is One Of Balance – Zero Tolerance Has Not Been Our History – It Has Not Produced The Content Industry That We Know Today

~ HMCINMJBTCOCTRASH? ~ How Much Creativity Is Never Made Just Because The Costs Of Clearing The Rights Are So High?

~ TVO-‘FU’-YEPALTDYFUROPALTTDPSYDHTRUFUR-EW-TCPIAPOPY-AAP-OPAC-RFTF ~ The Vagueness Of – “Fair Use” – You Either Pay A Lawyer To Defend Your Fair Use Rights Or Pay A Lawyer To Track Down Permissions So You Don’t Have To Rely Upon Fair Use Rights – Either Way – The Creative Process Is A Process Of Paying Lawyers – Again A Privilege – Or Perhaps A Curse – Reserved For The Few

~ AWIWCWNIMFNOTMBATGIAWIWCWNIWNS-IIAWOSAICS ~ A World In Which Competitors With New Ideas Must Fight Not Only The Market But Also The Government Is A World In Which Competitors With New Ideas Will Not Succeed – It Is A World Of Stasis And Increasingly Concentrated Stagnation

~ WWBTSAWO-UA-NBTMINP-OBTSIC-B-BTVAOCTAILF ~ We Will Begin To See A World Of – Underground Art – Not Because The Message Is Necessarily Political – Or Because The Subject Is Controversial – But – Because The Very Act Of Creating The Art Is Legally Fraught

~ TIA-HR-M-M-I-CI

~ There Is A – Highly Regulated – Monopolized – Market – In – Cultural Icons

~ ORSC-ISI-IGDAVOTF ~ OverRegulation Stifles Creativity – It Smothers Innovation – It Gives Dinosaurs A Veto Over The Future

~ ORCCAWTROL-A-WOP-AWE-WOP-IITATBOAVLNOC-TROLDUPOTL-TMO-A-MR-WACEVTL-TLWRTL ~ OverRegulation Corrupts Citizens And Weakens The Rule Of Law – A – War Of Prohibition – As With Every – War Of Prohibition – It Is Targeted Against The Behavior Of A Very Large Number Of Citizens – The Rule Of Law Depends Upon People Obeying The Law – The More Often – And – More Repeatedly – We As Citizens Experience Violating The Law – The Less We Respect The Law

~ WASRTAJ-A-WANTTCAA-TIOAIUIR ~ With A Simple Request To A Judge – And – Without Any Notice To The Customer At All – The Identity Of An Internet User Is Revealed

~ RCWIIDNEBAATSOK ~ Remove Copyright Where It Is Doing Nothing Except Blocking Access And The Spread Of Knowledge

~ TLSAHWO-FIM-TINRCLCAW ~ The Law Should Always Have Ways Of – Forgiving Innocent Mistakes – There Is No Reason Copyright Law Couldn’t As Well

~ WNIAWTSS-ITM-N-‘ARR’-N-‘NRR’-B-‘SRR-AT-AWTRCBECTFCATSF ~ What’s Needed Is A Way To Say Something – In The Middle – Neither – “All Rights Reserved” – Nor – “No Rights Reserved” – But – “Some Rights Reserved” – And Thus – A Way To Respect Copyrights But Enable Creators To Free Content As They See Fit

~ WNAWTRASOFTWCJTFGB ~ We Need A Way To Restore A Set Of Freedoms That We Could Just Take For Granted Before

~ RFPP ~ Rebuilding Freedoms Previously Presumed

~ T-TINSWTK-WOW-O-WWOMD-IOTUOBUTCWOO-TANR-TINSTT-TINSWTKHTGP-WSRF:MCW-RC-A-RTCTC-TOOFITMTC-IWBSTIWCIPF-STIWCTRFAPKOC

~ Today – There Is No Simple Way To Know – Who Owns What – Or – With Whom One Must Deal – In Order To Use Or Build Upon The Creative Work Of Others – There Are No Records – There Is No System To Trace – There Is No Simple Way To Know How To Get Permission – We Should Require Formalities: Marking Copyrighted Work – Registering Copyrights – And – Renewing The Claim To Copyright – The Objective Of Formalities Is To Make Things Clear – It Would Be Simple To Identify What Content Is Presumptively Free – Simply To Identify Who Controls The Rights For A Particular Kind Of Content

~ NMWWDT-WWNI-TNOAWWI1923 ~ No Matter What We Do Today – We Will Not Increase – The Number Of Authors Who Wrote In 1923

~ STMEFYTFASF ~ Spend Ten Minutes Every Fifty Years To File A Single Form

~ NDT-E-WCTI-‘R’ ~ No Doubt The – Extremists – Will Call These Ideas – “Radical”

~ TQISB-HTATAGP-DTTB-T-CMFDB-A-T-FCT ~ The Question Instead Should Be – How To Assure That Artists Get Paid – During This Transition Between – Twentieth-Century Models For Doing Business – And – Twenty-First Century Technologies

~ WSA-‘W’-SMWYROCIN-SNHIDG-A-UYCSMB-KYLA ~ We Should Ask – “Why?” – Show Me Why Your Regulation Of Culture Is Needed – Show Me How It Does Good – And – Until You Can Show Me Both – Keep Your Lawyers Away

DAVID BOLLIER ~ THINK LIKE A COMMONER ~ 2014

~ C-PAG-B-ADGOPDTODSPABOKFMAR-ECIS-BEHEIRTAS-R-L-LH-A-SOT ~ Commons – Persist And Grow – Because – A Defined Group Of People Develop Their Own Distinctive Social Practices And Bodies Of Knowledge For Managing A Resource – Each Commons Is Special – Because Each Has Evolved In Relationship To A Specific – Resource – Landscape – Local History – And – Set Of Traditions

~ TIN-SF-O-B-FCAC-NITCSPOU ~ There Is No – Standard Formula – Or – Blueprint – For Creating A Commons – Nor Is The Commons Some Panacea Or Utopia

~ TC-IA-PP-F-S-G-RM-A-‘LW’ ~ The Commons – Is A – Practical Paradigm – For – Self-Governance – Resource Management – And – “Living Well”

~ ACCITTOSPT’D’FACAAUPSTWOBE-TCLTPPFACR-O-W-AC-F-F-A-TDTR-TIKAA-‘CAP’ ~ A Constant Challenge Is The Tendency Of Some People To “Defect” From A Common Agreement And Undermine Potential Schemes That Would Otherwise Benefit Everyone – This Can Lead To Private Profiteering From A Collective Resource – Or – Worse – A Chaotic – Free-For-All – That Destroys The Resource – This Is Known As A – “Collective Action Problem”

~ ACI:AR+AC+ASOSP ~ A Commons Is: A Resource + A Community + A Set Of Social Protocols

~ WCIIA?-A-WA-TF-ME-MFPI? ~ Whose Commons Is It Anyway? – And – What Are – The Fairest – Most Effective – Means For Protecting It?

~ T-‘DWU’-PTCEIWMTCPSVAP-A-SCTCEAP ~ The – “Diversity Within Unity” – Principle That Commons Embody Is What Makes The Commons Paradigm So Versatile And Powerful – And – So Confusing To Conventional Economists And Policymakers

~ TC-INOASR;IMATSPAVTWDTMT ~ The Commons – Is Not Only About Shared Resources; It’s Mostly About The Social Practices And Values That We Devise To Manage Them

~ WPCT-STSEAP-A-AABOPKAT-ASOPSCE ~ When People Come Together – Share The Same Experiences And Practices – And – Accumulate A Body Of Practical Knowledge And Traditions – A Set Of Productive Social Circuits Emerges

~ ACH-B-R-SN-A-SAF-R ~ A Commons Has – Boundaries – Rules – Social Norms – And – Sanctions Against Free Riders

~ ACRTTBACWTAAACSOAR ~ A Commons Requires That There Be A Community Willing To Act As A Conscientious Steward Of A Resource

~ ‘CPR’ ~ “Common Pool Resources”

~ WDA-CMHEAT-CRM ~ When Disputes Arise – Commoners Must Have Easy Access To – Conflict-Resolution Mechanisms

~ TGINTMMGAAM-B-TMSTOFHE-TC-PU-IATPAEOS ~ The Goal Is Not To Maximize Market Gains And Amass Money – But – To Make Sure That One’s Family Has Enough – The Commons – Properly Understood – Is About The Practice And Ethic Of Sufficiency

~ TFOMEACARIDADC;TDLTC ~ The Forces Of Market Enclosure Are Cruel And Relentless In Deconstructing And Destroying Commons; They Don’t Like The Competition

~ GGPTMRTSSSOC-TT-C-ATBA-TI-IAU-EITASOCRTP ~ Governments Generally Prefer To Manage Resources Through Strict Standardized Systems Of Control – To Them – Commoning – Appears To Be Altogether – Too Informal – Irregular And Unreliable – Even If The Actual Successes Of Commons Refute That Prejudice

~ ABUOTCMITAOTDAMOE ~ Any Basic Understanding Of The Commons Must Inevitably Take Account Of The Dynamics And Meaning Of Enclosure

~ E-ASFOTTALN-IPB-GOPAKRILT-BIAC-RT-B-TAOU-O-TDC-ABTI-C-OPAFWD ~ Enclosures – A Special Form Of Theft That Attracts Little Notice – In Part Because – Governments Often Play A Key Role In Legitimizing Them – But In All Cases – Resources That – Belong – To All Of Us – Or – To Distinct Communities – Are Being Transformed Into – Corporate-Owned Properties And Free Waste Dumps

~ NS-E-TTIWTAOPT-S-OACTOG-MTON-A-PTCAWOL ~ Not Surprisingly – Enclosures – Tend To Interfere With The Ability Of People To – Self-Organize And Control Their Own Governance – Meet Their Own Needs – And – Protect Their Culture And Way Of Life

~ VPO-A-A-LA-ACRFAFILG-CRHFPD-TSOEOCLIM-A-SITDOC-OTLAS-CCNL-GAHTOF-DW-O-HWG-EASTCAC ~ Vast Portions Of – Africa – Asia – And – Latin America – Are Currently Reeling From A Fierce International Land Grab – Commoners Rarely Have Formal Property Deeds – The Scale Of Enclosure Of Customary Lands Is Massive – And – So Is The Displacement Of Commoners – Once Their Lands Are Seized – Commoners Can No Longer – Grow And Harvest Their Own Food – Draw Water – Or – Hunt Wild Game – Enclosures Are Shattering Their Communities And Cultures

~ WCBMLTTPSOTPEAABP? ~ What Could Be More Lucrative Than The Private Sale Of The Public’s Equity Assets At Bargain Prices?

~ GBIAEFO-E’I’ ~ Genetic Biodiversity Is An Important Form Of – Ecological “Insurance”

~ P-P-S-AIIE-D ~ Public – Physical – Spaces – Are Important In Enacting – Democracy

~ ITIK-OAATA-CHGTTI-CAIITM-TI-MBTMSPOINE ~ Infrastructure That Is Kept – Open And Accessible To All – Can Help Guarantee That There Is – Competition And Innovation In The Marketplace – The Internet – May Be The Most Significant Piece Of Infrastructure Now Endangered

~ FTI-HBHFSTCWEO-CHABAI-E-A-T-ECW ~ From Time Immemorial – Human Beings Have Freely Shared Their Creativity With Each Other – Culture Has Always Been About Imitation – Extending – And – Transforming – Earlier Creative Works

~ A-HABA-C-I-AOB ~ Art – Has Always Been A – Communal – Intergenerational Act Of Borrowing

~ -CCTWACOSC ~ Culture Cannot Thrive Without A Commons Of Shared Creativity

~IAS-CGOOTM-V-DC-IB-ANKOCTM-BC ~ In A Sense – Creativity Generated Outside Of The Marketplace – Via – Digital Commons – Is Becoming – A Robust New Kind Of Competition To Market-Based Culture

~ IIEPF-MAC-T-‘PNT’ ~ It Is Entirely Possible For – Markets And Commons – To – “Play Nicely Together”

~ B-ITMSPIDTF-MTTSNBGAP-PATBRTEN-EHCR-EAD-CADOVR ~ But – If The Market System Presses Its Demands Too Far – Monetizing Things That Should Not Be Given A Price – Privatizing Access To Basic Resources That Everyone Needs – Enormous Harm Can Result – Ecosystems Are Damaged – Commoners Are Dispossessed Of Vital Resources

~ CTTBNWOSOPAIR-A-T-ANWI-TIOADCTBTLOTCATIOIHE-TIWMCTIT-IOP-I-‘PZ’-T-O-O-BPARFI ~ Commons Tend To Be Nested Within Other Systems Of Power And Institutional Relationships – And – Therefore – Are Not Wholly Independent – There Is Often A Deep Creative Tension Between The Logic Of The Commons And The Imperatives Of Its Host Environment – This Is Why Many Commons Thrive In The – Interstices Of Power – In – “Protect Zones” – Tolerated – Or – Overlooked – By Power Accidentally Remote From It

~ HRACGBM ~ Human Reciprocity And Cooperation Go Back Millennia

~ ETWLTC-‘I’-A-‘C’-A-O-ITCTTTBAIICW-TTANME-BR-DY-A-YC ~ Even Though We Like To Contrast – “Individualism” – And – “Collectivism” – As – Opposites – In The Commons They Tend To Blur And Intermingle In Complicated Ways – The Two Are Not Mutually Exclusive – But Rather – Dynamic Yin-And-Yang Complements

~ H-C-R-A-N-RB-AJASFA-‘CR’-A-‘UM’ ~ Human – Cooperation – Reciprocity – And – Non-Rational Behavior – Are Just As Significant Forces As – “Competitive Rationality” – And – “Utility Maximization”

~ IS-RSE-LATHO-H-I-C-A-C ~ In Short – Reciprocal Social Exchange – Lies At The Heart Of – Human – Identity – Community – And – Culture

~ L-INJ-FW-AI;I-IA-I-A-S ~ Law – Is Not Just – Formal – Written – And Institutional; It – Is Also – Informal – Oral – And – Social

~ CRVIAABATAOFLBIROOTFWTFLCBMATTP ~ Commoning Remains Vitally Important As A Bulwark Against The Abuses Of Formal Law Because It Represents One Of The Few Ways That Formal Law Can Be Made Accountable To The People

~ CAM-BSSWTC? ~ Can A Market-Based Society Survive Without The Commons?

~ TROTDC ~ The Rise Of The Digital Commons

~ TCS ~ The Commons Sector

~ TOAR ~ The Open Access Revolution

~ SC ~ Subsistence Commons

~ VACAHTDISMUTSOTM ~ Virtually All Commons Are Hybrids That Depend In Some Measure Upon The State Or The Market

~ STC ~ State Trustee Commons

~ TPOACCFTASPTAI ~ The Power Of A Commons Comes From The Actual Social Practices That Animate It

~ WSS-A-S-S-B-O-EF-AP-W-LEAE-RT-MBM-T-R-A-P? ~ Why Should Some – Abstract – Self-Serving – Bureaucratic – Or – Economic Framework – Automatically Prevail – When – Local Expertise And Experience-Rich Traditions – May Be More – Trustworthy – Responsive – And – Practical?

~ TS-SORT-S-OCCPCFME-T-T-S-O-M-A-WGP-L-F-A-P ~ The State – Should Openly Recognize That – Self-Organized Commons Can Perform Certain Functions More Effectively – Than – The – State – Or – Market – And – With Greater Perceived – Legitimacy – Fairness – And – Participation