BARBARA EHRENREICH ~ BRIGHT-SIDED ~ 2009

~ P-INSMOCOOMAIIPOOI-TWWETWATWOTFWI ~ Positivity – Is Not So Much Our Condition Or Our Mood As It Is Part Of Our Ideology – The Way We Explain The World And Think We Ought To Function Within It

~ H-IAE-AY-TEOWINEWOC-O-IA-CS-ACE-WPACDTP ~ Hope – Is An Emotion – A Yearning – The Experience Of Which Is Not Entirely Within Our Control – Optimism – Is A – Cognitive Stance – A Conscious Expectation – Which Presumably Anyone Can Develop Through Practice

~ ITRETMPWOT-O-I-H-PE-C-A-R-MIEFUTAOG-AFLRTARR-TITOTCISMW-DATPW-NT-SP-NO-W-PT-RTITFO-H-P-A-S-FBRAMR-T-TEO-PT-ISTBWWOTAA ~ In The Rational Explanation That Many Psychologists Would Offer Today – Optimism – Improves – Health – Personal Efficacy – Confidence – And – Resilience – Making It Easier For Us To Accomplish Our Goals – A Far Less Rational Theory Also Runs Rampant – The Idea That Our Thoughts Can In Some Mysterious Way – Directly Affect The Physical World – Negative Thoughts – Somehow Produce – Negative Outcomes – While – Positive Thoughts – Realize Themselves In The Form Of – Health – Prosperity – And – Success – For Both Rational And Mystical Reasons – Then – The Effort Of – Positive Thinking – Is Said To Be Well Worth Our Time And Attention

~ ITG-‘PT’-IC-A-TARGB-ITAOTUTTHAA-TWBWTMEOPT?-O-B-WDFBTTWGBOTO ~ If The Generic – “Positive Thought” – Is Correct – And – Things Are Really Getting Better – If The Arc Of The Universe Tends Toward Happiness And Abundance – Then Why Bother With The Mental Effort Of Positive Thinking? – Obviously – Because – We Don’t Fully Believe That Things Will Get Better On Their Own

~ WWTPIAOBSATAOR-A-WBWADLODAETPD-WAGTCTTWAOETET? ~ What Was The Point In Agonizing Over Balance Sheets And Tedious Analyses Of Risks – And – Why Bother Worrying About Dizzying Levels Of Debt And Exposure To Potential Defaults – When All Good Things Come To Those Who Are Optimistic Enough To Expect Them?

~ TD-H-DNSFR ~ The Dogma – However – Did Not Survive Further Research

~ TFT-TP-CWOACPLASD ~ The Failure To – Think Positively – Can Weigh On A Cancer Patient Like A Second Disease

~ IYA-‘N’-PWBMITLY-TIYAC-G/C/OOS ~ If You Are – “Nice” – People Will Be More Inclined To Like You – Than If You Are Chronically – Grumpy / Critical / Out Of Sorts

~ B-ITWO-PT-OP-ANT-TBN-O-TPURC-TAT-OT-N/P/A ~ But – In The World Of – Positive Thinking – Other People – Are Not There – To Be Nurtured – Or – To Provide Unwelcome Reality Checks – They Are There – Only To – Nourish / Praise / Affirm

~ WTGA-D-‘N’-P-TAAIAW:SABA-GWTF-O-PTBO-OC-I-T-POM-WT-‘I’-OWNHTENPFOLE-OC-FE-S-CTITBIAPW ~ When The Gurus Advise – Dropping – “Negative” – People – They Are Also Issuing A Warning: Smile And Be Agreeable – Go With The Flow – Or – Prepare To Be Ostracized – Of Course – If – The – Powers Of Mind – Were Truly – “Infinite” – One Would Not Have To Eliminate Negative People From One’s Life Either – One Could – For Example – Simply – Choose To Interpret Their Behavior In A Positive Way

~ TFTVSTL-EAP-CALB-WAP-DNMTTAFTDA-O-OC-T-W-C-MIWAP-N-DT-UP-MT-‘TMISTVTTIBP’-OT-TALTWWCEFOA-A-Q-LP ~ The Fact That Very Small Things Like – Electrons And Photons – Can Act Like Both – Waves And Particles – Does Not Mean That They Are Free To Do Anything – Or – Of Course – That – We – Can – Morph Into Waves And Particles – Nor – Does The – Uncertainty Principle – Mean That – “The Mind Is Shaping The Very Thing That Is Being Perceived” – Only That There Are Limits To What We Can Ever Find Out About – A – Quantum-Level Particle

~ ‘YMIDWFY’ ~ “You Mean It Doesn’t Work For You”

~ TSDSAS;IREO-O-TCBSWARBO-B-IAWW-‘E-YDIT-IT’-WKOCBPCTB? ~ There’s Something Deeply Sociable About Science; It Rests Entirely On – Observations – That Can Be Shared With And Repeated By Others – But – In A World Where – “Everything – You Decide Is True – Is True” – What Kind Of Connection Between People Can There Be?

~ TT-PT-ERS-A-OILMBSTRM ~ To The – Positive Thinker – Emotions Remain Suspect – And – One’s Inner Life Must Be Subjected To Relentless Monitoring

~ WSSMTWOO-W-TISMRWTBD? ~ Why Spend So Much Time Working On Oneself – When – There Is So Much Real Work To Be Done?

~ T-O-S-CEO-HRFWTROTC-MEAOTBBATTT;T-NO-WLTHBHFH-CSITBW-EIIWDFTULOB ~ The – Old-Style – CEO – Had Risen From Within The Ranks Of The Company – Mastering Every Aspect Of The Business Before Ascending To The Top; The – New One – Was Likely To Have Been Hired For His – Celebrity Status In The Business World – Even If It Was Derived From Totally Unrelated Lines Of Businesses

~ YCJA-SM-WTCAASNOTBAMHCP-B-TEMTAL-FN-YCOCY-POR-F-NAB-T-PAA-TWTCWGGTIL-OEATOS-PT ~ You Could Join A – Social Movement – Working To Create An Adequate Safety Net Or To Bring About More Humane Corporate Polices – But – Those Efforts Might Take A Lifetime – For Now – You Can Only Change Your – Perception Of Reality – From – Negative And Bitter – To – Positive And Accepting – This Was The Corporate World’s Great Gift To Its Laid-Off Employees And The Overworked Survivors – Positive Thinking

~ B-TMPTFMT-SOD-W-‘TB’-AESMTIHSA-‘T-BI’-OTMI-JALWMAMOTTC-EWUTFCAASOCPATMOT-‘T’- ~ But – The Most Popular Technique For Motivating The – Survivors Of Downsizing – Was – “Team Building” – An Effort So Massive That It Has Spawned A – “Team-Building Industry” – Overlapping The Motivation Industry – Just As Layoffs Were Making A Mockery Of The Team Concept – Employees Were Urged To Find Camaraderie And A Sense Of Collective Purpose At The Microlevel Of The – “Team”

~ PT-P-A-SOC-IAWW-T-‘C’-WAM-TMHH-LALPTCTOF-B-THBGA-W-A-BS-AA-R-TCTWIF-IP-IOTC-MTOM ~ Positive Thinking – Promised – A – Sense Of Control – In A World Where – The – “Cheese” – Was Always Moving – They May Have Had – Less And Less Power To Chart Their Own Futures – But – They Had Been Given A – Worldview – A – Belief System – Almost A – Religion – That Claimed They Were In Fact – Infinitely Powerful – If Only They Could – Master Their Own Minds

~ FM-ITM-SM-ETMOIMB-A-YWBLM ~ Follow Me – Is The Message – Send Money – Employ The Methods Outlined In My Books – And – You Will Become Like Me

~ E-TSM-YCHATSITM-I-O-YBTYC-B-A-IAHU-TIT-DM-TIYDHATYW-IYF:S/D/D-YHOYTB ~ Everywhere – The Same Message – You Can Have All That Stuff In The Mall – If – Only – You Believe That You Can – But – Always – In A Hissed Undertone – There Is The – Darker Message – That If You Don’t Have All That You Want – If You Feel: Sick / Discouraged / Defeated – You Have Only Yourself To Blame

~ TA-‘IAE’-HOCBUAAEPR ~ This Argument – “Impractical And Expensive” – Has Of Course Been Used Against Almost Every Progressive Reform

~ HS-ITFO-MT-DO-OATLIG-B-TIOM-GC-CSO-RACS-MUHTCTCOBTBOBN ~ Human Survival – In The Face Of – Multiple Threats – Depended On – Our Ability To Live In Groups – But – The Imperative Of Maintaining – Group Cohesion – Can Sometimes Override – Realism And Common Sense – Making Us Hesitate To Challenge The Consensus Or Be The Bearer Of Bad News

~ PT-DNATNF-CV-IOTTVI ~ Positive Thinking – Did Not Abolish The Need For – Constant Vigilance – It Only Turned That Vigilance Inward

~ S-WNTHOFANT-A-AAT-WNTBATTWOO-EWTI-ABN-A-ETVO-‘N’P ~ Sometimes – We Need To Heed Our Fears And Negative Thoughts – And – At All Times – We Need To Be Alert To The World Outside Ourselves – Even When That Includes – Absorbing Bad News – And – Entertaining The Views Of – “Negative” People

~ A-VR-DNFTPOH-IF-IMIP-HCWET-IOS-WA-TACWFOI? ~ A – Vigilant Realism – Does Not Foreclose The Pursuit Of Happiness – In Fact – It Makes It Possible – How Can We Expect To – Improve Our Situation – Without Addressing – The Actual Circumstances We Find Ourselves In?

MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI ~ CREATIVITY ~ 1996

~ IIET-ECBCCITE-TB-TTMPTMC-A-AGCAIANTROASI-ALFOITD-B-CAYOHW ~ It Is Easier To – Enhance Creativity By Changing Conditions In The Environment – Than By – Trying To Make People Think More Creatively – And – A Genuinely Creative Accomplishment Is Almost Never The Result Of A Sudden Insight – A Lightbulb Flashing On In The Dark – But – Comes After Years Of Hard Work

~ MOTTTA-I-I-A-H-ATROC ~ Most Of The Things That Are – Interesting – Important – And – Human – Are The Results Of Creativity

~ C-WWAIII-WFTWALMFTDTROL ~ Creativity – When We Are Involved In It – We Feel That We Are Living More Fully Than During The Rest Of Life

~ AIALR-TIJSMIWCPAAGT-TACIAED-TMBSAA ~ Attention Is A Limited Resource – There Is Just So Much Information We Can Process At Any Given Time – To Achieve Creativity In An Existing Domain – There Must Be Surplus Attention Available

~ CGICTBOD ~ Creativity Generally Involves Crossing The Boundaries Of Domains

~ ITFOFCAA-ITMOAPITWORAE-TMTEICBIEE ~ If Too Few Opportunities For Curiosity Are Available – If Too Many Obstacles Are Placed In The Way Of Risk And Exploration – The Motivation To Engage In Creative Behavior Is Easily Extinguished

~ ITNGITFTFWZAS-C-WMETTB-O-AWA-C ~ If The Next Generation Is To Face The Future With Zest And Self-Confidence – We Must Educate Them To Be – Original – As Well As – Competent

~ TMIMWCLFCP:HTFPAEITCOE ~ The Most Important Message We Can Learn From Creative People: How To Find Purpose And Enjoyment In The Chaos Of Existence

~ CDNHIPH-B-ITIBAPTAASCC-IIA-S-RTA-I-P ~ Creativity Does Not Happen Inside People’s Heads – But – In The Interaction Between A Person’s Thoughts And A SocioCultural Context – It Is A – Systemic – Rather Than An – Individual – Phenomenon

~ A-L-C-A-POSRTOI ~ Accidents – Like – Creativity – Are – Properties Of Systems Rather Than Of Individuals

~ BITRPATRT-ICI-B-MPNRTTASIAPS-TC-A-EFKWTDWTRHT ~ Being In The Right Place At The Right Time – Is Clearly Important – But – Many People Never Realize That They Are Standing In A Propitious Space-Time Convergence – And – Even Fewer Know What To Do When The Realization Hits Them

~ WAGDO-C-W-A-I-I-WTALAIHTW-IIDTRAIP ~ Without A Good Dose Of – Curiosity – Wonder – And – Interest – In – What Things Are Like And In How They Work – It Is Difficult To Recognize An Interesting Problem

~ OTE-AFATCPEITE-IAGAF-RPN-ECPIMTAEWTT ~ Openness To Experience – A Fluid Attention That Constantly Processes Events In The Environment – Is A Great Advantage For – Recognizing Potential Novelty – Every Creative Person Is More Than Amply Endowed With These Traits

~ YCATMOCJBAACPS ~ You Cannot Assume The Mantle Of Creativity Just By Assuming A Certain Personality Style

~ CI-TTBS-YANATST ~ Creative Individuals – Tend To Be Smart – Yet Also Naive At The Same Time

~ APLAITOCI ~ A Playfully Light Attitude Is Typical Of Creative Individuals

~ CI-ABIAFAOE-A-ARSORATO ~ Creative Individuals – Alternate Between Imagination And Fantasy At One End – And – A Rooted Sense Of Reality At The Other

~ CI-AARHAPATST ~ Creative Individuals – Are Also Remarkably Humble And Proud At The Same Time

~ CI-TACE-E-RGRS ~ Creative Individuals – To A Certain Extent – Escape – Rigid Gender Role Stereotyping

~ G-CP-ATTB-RAI-YIIITBCWHFIADOC-A-APMBITIOSADIOTLIR;H-HOSMBTACEA-T-SIIDTSHAPCBCWBBTACAATST-RAI-BOTLTDU;CTCWRTWHBVITPRLTNTIAAAI ~ Generally – Creative People – Are Thought To Be – Rebellious And Independent – Yet Is Is Impossible To Be Creative Without Having First Internalized A Domain Of Culture – And – A Person Must Believe In The Importance Of Such A Domain In Order To Learn Its Rules; Hence – He Or She Must Be To A Certain Extent A – Traditionalist – So It Is Difficult To See How A Person Can Be Creative Without Being Both Traditional And Conservative And At The Same Time – Rebellious And Iconoclastic – Being Only Traditional Leaves The Domain Unchanged; Constantly Taking Chances Without Regard To What Has Been Valued In The Past Rarely Leads To Novelty That Is Accepted As An Improvement

~ M-CP-A-VPATW-Y-TCBEOAIAW ~ Most – Creative Persons – Are – Very Passionate About Their Work – Yet – They Can Be Extremely Objective About It As Well

~ B-U-I-TTCT-PM-TI-TTWHTLAHAAGSOPI ~ But – Usually – Insights – Tend To Come To – Prepared Minds – That Is – To Those Who Have Thought Long And Hard About A Given Set Of Problematic Issues

~ W-ABC-ALI-WAUTPLTMA-SNC-TKOIIROIIN-IIURIDF-IMETNSSOR ~ Without – A Burning Curiosity – A Lively Interest – We Are Unlikely To Persevere Long To Make A – Significant New Contribution – This Kind Of Interest Is Rarely Only Intellectual In Nature – It Is Usually Rooted In Deep Feelings – In Memorable Experiences That Need Some Sort Of Resolution

~ B-TAASIWNHATQY-NEKTTIAP ~ But – There Are Also Situations In Which Nobody Had Asked The Question Yet – Nobody Even Knows That There Is A Problem

~ WITKOTD-TCOTF-A-TBPOTWOMAO ~ We Internalize The Knowledge Of The Domain – The Concerns Of The Field – And – They Become Part Of The Way Our Minds Are Organized

~ WWSAIOSASTAIWW-WWMBSITNOTPWOMWAI ~ When We Sit Alone In Our Study And Say That An Idea Won’t Work – What We May Be Saying Is That None Of The People Whose Opinions Matter Will Accept It

~ CT-EITGFWT-HOTWIKAAWTTAS-I-DTTIBGOTOSOTC ~ Creative Thoughts – Evolve In This Gap Filled With Tension – Holding On To What Is Known And Accepted While Tending Toward A Still Ill-Defined Truth That Is Barely Glimpsed On The Other Side Of The Chasm

~ TCOG ~ The Clarity Of Goals

~ B-CAS-TMO-AAA ~ Balancing – Challenges And Skills – The Merging Of – Action And Awareness

~ CI-TTGTCOVA-WTWHTCOS ~ Creative Individuals – Tend To Gravitate Toward Centers Of Vital Activity – Where Their Work Has The Chance Of Succeeding

~ IE-U-TINE-A-PTNWB-TPTADSIC-Y-HAHTROICBHITCTOWAOOU ~ Inspiring Environments – Unfortunately – There Is No Evidence – And – Probably There Never Will Be – To Prove That A Delightful Setting Induces Creativity – Yet – Having A Home That Reinforces One’s Individuality Cannot But Help Increase The Chances That One Will Act Out One’s Uniqueness

~ WHT-PADI-A-HEC-IAETWHBTRO-WIIETFTOWACCOTTAH ~ What Helps To – Preserve And Develop Individuality – And – Hence Enhance Creativity – Is An Environment That We Have Built To Reflect Ourselves – Where It Is Easy To Forget The Outside World And Concentrate Completely On The Task At Hand

~ M-CI-FOEWTBRAF-S/E/W-A-ABT-EWIITTDO-A-WMINWOKTASOTAFS;WCITBMOOOT ~ Most – Creative Individuals – Find Out Early What Their Best Rhythms Are For – Sleeping / Eating / Working – And – Abide By Them – Even When It Is Tempting To Do Otherwise – Again – What Matters Is Not Whether One Keeps To A Strict Or To A Flexible Schedule; What Counts Is To Be Master Of One’s Own Time

~ BAP-INARF-LC-AMTUK-CAOS-ATB ~ Being A Prodigy – Is Not A Requirement For – Later Creativity – A More Than Usually Keen – Curiosity About One’s Surroundings – Appears To Be

~ TDT-B-IAD-TISCOECP ~ The – Dialectical Tension – Between – Involvement And Detachment – That Is So Characteristic Of Every Creative Process

~ P-IIT-AR-WIT-LAFOA-TG-TEO-UF ~ Paradoxically – It Is The – Abstract Rules – We Invent To – Limit And Focus Our Attention – That Give Us – The Experience Of – Untrammelled Freedom

~ CP-A-CS-TDATTUWIHAT-A-TDATAEDE ~ Creative People – Are – Constantly Surprised – They Don’t Assume That They Understand What Is Happening Around Them – And – They Don’t Assume That Anybody Else Does Either

MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI ~ THE CREATIVE PROCESS ~ CREATIVITY ~ 1996

~ TCPHTBDATFS: ~ The Creative Process Has Traditionally Been Described As Taking Five Steps:

~ APOP:BI-IASOPITAIAAC ~ A Period Of Preparation: Becoming Immersed – In A Set Of Problematic Issues That Are Interesting And Arouse Curiosity

~ APOI:DWICABTTOC-IIDTTT-UC-ALTBM ~ A Period Of Incubation: During Which Ideas Churn Around Below The Threshold Of Consciousness – It Is During This Time That – Unusual Connections – Are Likely To Be Made

~ I(SCT’A!’M):WPOTPFT ~ Insight (Sometimes Called The “Aha!” Moment): When Pieces Of The Puzzle Fall Together

~ E:DWTIIVAWP-OTMETPOTP-WOFMUAI ~ Evaluation: Decide Whether The Insight Is Valuable And Worth Pursuing – Often The Most Emotionally Trying Part Of The Process – When One Feels Most Uncertain And Insecure

~ E:PTUTMT-A-ITHW ~ Elaboration: Probably Takes Up The Most Time – And – Involves The Hardest Work

SUN TZU ~ USING SPIES ~ THE ART OF WAR ~ 4??BCE ~ MICHEAL NYLAN [TRANSLATION]

~ L-TECIOE ~ Locals – The Enemy’s Compatriots In Our Employ

~ I-EOIOE ~ Insiders – Enemy Officials In Our Employ

~ DA-ESWRTOSAW ~ Double Agents – Enemy Spies Who Report To Our Side As Well

~ ‘D’S-PIOEWWID-STTRFITTE ~ “Dead” Spies – Pawns In Our Employ Whom We Intentionally Deceive – So That They Relay False Information To The Enemy

~ LA-BC-RBTU ~ Live Agents – By Contrast – Report Back To Us

SUN TZU ~ THE FIVE CONSIDERATIONS ~ THE ART OF WAR ~ 4??BCE ~ MICHAEL NYLAN [TRANSLATION]

THE FIVE CONSIDERATIONS

~ TW-WATPATSTBOOW-WTLOD-UBD ~ The Way – Whatever Allows The People And Their Superior To Be Of One Will – Willing To Live Or Die – Undeterred By Danger

~ TH-NAD/HAF ~ The Heavens – Night And Day / Heat And Frost

~ TE-RD/GAOOTT-ISFATMFLOD ~ The Earth – Relative Distance / Gradient And Openness Of The Terrain – In So Far As This Makes For Life Or Death

~ TFC-W/R/H/C/S ~ The Field Commander – Wisdom / Reliability / Humaneness / Courage / Strictness

~ TR-OAM/DOA/DOR ~ The Regulations – Organization And Management / Delegation Of Authority / Deployment Of Resources

GAUGE THE TWO SIDES AND INVESTIGATE THE TRUE CONDITIONS

~ WRHTW ~ Which Ruler Has The Way

~ WCITA ~ Which Commander Is The Abler

~ WSEAHF ~ Whose Side Earth And Heaven Favor

~ WRAOAO ~ Whose Rules And Orders Are Obeyed

~ WTATS ~ Whose Troops Are The Stronger

~ WS-BT ~ Whose Solider – Better Trained

~ WRASAMCO ~ Whose Rewards And Sanctions Are More Clearly Ordained

SUN TZU ~ THE ART OF WAR ~ 4??BCE ~ MICHAEL NYLAN [TRANSLATION]

~ CTA-TCA-FSD-WAFTCAHACC ~ Calculated The Advantages – Then Create A – Favorable Strategic Disposition – Wrestling Advantages From The Conditions At Hand And Controlling Contingencies

~ TWCSTFHAWTEP ~ The Wise Commander Strives To Feed His Army With The Enemy’s Provisions

~ AKTEIAAQOR-WAFTEISE-AQOOW ~ Although Killing The Enemy Is All A Question Of Rage – Wresting Advantage From The Enemy Is Something Else – A Question Only Of Wealth

~ WAHVIAHB-INTBPO-BIT-STETWEETOTB ~ Winning A Hundred Victories In A Hundred Battles – Is Not The Best Possible Outcome – Best Is To – Subdue The Enemy’s Troops Without Ever Engaging Them On The Battlefield

~ BIWITT-TS-T-TA-AT-TT ~ Best In War Is To Target – Their Strategies – Then – Their Alliances – And Then – Their Troops

~ TLDOITAA-FC-CSAOWNAE ~ The Least Desirable Option Is To Attack A – Fortified City – Contemplate Such Attacks Only When No Alternative Exist

~ FA-WCITR-SMKYW-TW-TTDNGDATAERK-TITWTPAA ~ For Always – When Contending In The Realm – Success Means Keeping Yourself Whole – That Way – The Troops Do Not Grow Dull And The Army’s Edge Remains Keen – This Is The Way To Plan An Attack

~ ASFSISTAP-MIEPFTLF ~ A Smaller Force’s Stubbornness In Sticking To A Plan – Makes It Easy Prey For The Larger Force

~ TRV-GBFP:BFOWIIPTFON;BRHMTANFTT;BUTAAAOTH-AL-R;BBPFTU;BTRRTMWHAC ~ To Realize Victory – Go By Five Paths: By Figuring Out Whether It Is Possible To Fight Or Not; By Recognizing How Many Troops Are Needed For The Task; By Unifying The Aims And Ambitions Of The High- And Low-Ranking; By Being Prepared For The Unexpected; By The Ruler’s Refusal To Meddle With His Able Commanders

~ GOTDWOECBO;GOTOAAVE;DWYTSIL;AWYHSS ~ Go On The Defensive When Our Enemy Cannot Be Overcome; Go On The Offensive Against A Vulnerable Enemy; Defend When Your Troop Strength Is Lacking; Attack When You Have Surplus Strength

~ TEADMHOAITDROTE;TEAOMSFTHROTH ~ To Excel At Defense Means Hiding Oneself Away In The Deepest Recesses Of The Earth; To Excel At Offense Means Striking From The Highest Reaches Of The Heavens

~ LTTOAAHDMYS;STSAMDMYGKE;HATDMYEWW ~ Lifting The Tip Of An Autumn Hair Doesn’t Mean You’re Strong; Seeing The Sun And Moon Doesn’t Mean You’ve Got Keen Eyes; Hearing A Thunderclap Doesn’t Mean Your Ears Work Well

~ TAOWCO:M/E/C/W/V-TTLTM;TMLTE;TELTC;TCLTWTO;TWLTV ~ The Art Of War Consists Of: Measurement / Estimates / Calculations / Weighing / Victory – The Terrain Leads To Measurements; The Measurements Lead To Estimates; The Estimates Lead To Calculations; The Calculations Lead To Weighing The Options; The Weighing Leads To Victory

~ IG-OTM-IJL-OTF-ITIRA-DIU-BTM-IJL-BAF-ITIRA-DODAT ~ In General – Ordering The Multitudes – Is Just Like – Ordering The Few – In That It Requires A – Division Into Units – Battling The Multitudes – Is Just Like – Battling A Few – In That It Requires A – Distribution Of Duties And Titles

IG-CM-ETE-W-S-SV-T-BD-TBGAUSI-TBAVATCI ~ In General – Conventional Methods – Engage The Enemy – While – Surprise – Secures Victory – Thus – By Definition – To Be Good At Unleashing Surprises Is – To Be As Various As The Cosmos Itself

~ BD-TWEIBCTEATDNLOCT ~ By Definition – Those Who Excel In Battle Compel The Enemy And They Do Not Let Others Compel Them

~ OIUTCYMATLWGW ~ Only In Unoccupied Territory Can You March A Thousand Leagues Without Growing Weary

~ IOAIUATED-TIUAFOTTAO;WAMTHF ~ If Our Army Is United And The Enemy’s Divided – That Is Using A Force Of Ten To Attack One; We Are Many To His Few

~ TPWHCTGBMBKS-ITECAU-HWHTPTDMP-A-TTEUDBWUWBF-TBPEITBSN ~ The Place We Have Chosen To Give Battle Must Be Kept Secret – If The Enemy Cannot Anticipate Us – He Will Have To Prepare To Defend Many Positions – And – Then The Enemy Units Doing Battle With Us Will Be Fewer – To Be Prepared Everywhere Is To Be Strong Nowhere

~ TUSIDFLIANST ~ The Ultimate Skill In Determining Formations Lies In Assuming No Set Formation

~ AMATFIRTICC ~ Armies Must Assume Their Forms In Response To Infinitely Changing Circumstances

~ OTMAOOHAM-TBWNBATAOTOINTCR-TITBWTMTMOM-TINBMEUOTAD-WIBDTD-MEUOFAP-TATTTCAP ~ Once The Men Are Of One Heart And Mind – The Brave Will Not Be Able To Advance On Their Own Initiatives Nor The Cowardly Retreat – This Is The Best Way To Manage The Masses Of Men – Thus In Night Battles Make Extensive Use Of Torches And Drums – Whereas In Battles During The Day – Make Extensive Use Of Flags And Pennants – These Are The Tools That Can Alter Perceptions

~ ITESLOTW-TAH-ITSFWTTFDT-TAT-ITIAATBHYTDNATSI-TAW ~ If The Enemy Soldiers Lean On Their Weapons – They Are Hungry – If Those Sent For Water Take The First Drink Themselves – They Are Thirsty – If There Is An Advantage To Be Had Yet They Do Not Advance To Seize It – They Are Weary

~ KTEAOO-AVIIS-KTTAT-AVWBT ~ Know The Enemy And Our Own – And Victory Is In Sight – Know The Terrain And Timing – And Victories Will Be Total

~ TOWTMTTCOMTER-STTAAO ~ The Only Way To Mange The Troops Consists Of Making Them Equally Resolute – So That They Act As One

~ TDYPIET-TMS-MYTWB-TLDYP-TMEYTWD ~ The Deeper You Penetrate Into Enemy Territory – The More Single-Minded Your Troops Will Be – The Less Deeply You Penetrate – The More Easily Your Troops Will Desert

~ WNTG-MN;OTOLW-FN;SIDN-WN ~ When Nought’s To Gain – Move Not; Over Things Of Little Worth – Fight Not; Save In Direst Need – War Not

DEIRDE MCCLOSKEY ~ BOURGEOIS DIGNITY ~ 2010

~ ECETMW ~ Economics Can’t Explain The Modern World

~ E(AU)TRTW ~ Ethical (And Unethical) Talk Runs The World

~ BR ~ Bourgeois Revaluation

~ LEH ~ Liberty Encourages Hope

~ DWYMT-EEDNETIC ~ Despite What You May Think – European Empires Did Not Enrich The Imperial Countries

~ SIAW-B-IINATSAW-A-ALLIADT ~ Science Is A Wonder – But – It Is Not Always The Same As Wisdom – And – A Little Learning Is A Dangerous Thing

~ MEG-HB-A/U/U-TGSIEH ~ Modern Economic Growth – Has Been – Astounding / Unprecedented / Unexpected – The Greatest Surprise In Economic History

~ N-TE-HFTNO-P-UCATMOM-BIEC-AWTAE-A-B-IIETDSAM ~ Nonetheless – The Economists – Have Favored The Notion Of – Piled-Up Capital As The Maker Of Modernity – Because It Emphasizes Cost – About Which They Are Expert – And – Because – It Is Easy To Describe Statistically And Mathematically

~ LOB ~ Lottery Of Birth

~ PP ~ Profitable Peregrinations

~ ST-IOP-GA-SOL-IA-IINE-A-TDCBD ~ Superior Technologies – In One Place – Get Adopted – Sooner Or Later – In Another – It Is Not Easy – And – The Delay Can Be Decades

~ TIN-AIITS-TETMW-TS-INPTT-AOI-TOP-DNITCOM ~ There Is No – Aggregate Increase In Thrifty Savings – To Explain The Modern World – Thrifty Saving – Is Not Peculiar To The – Age Of Innovation – Thrift Or Prudence – Did Not Increase In The Childhood Of Modernity

~ CINTC-NITLR-TCTMAICBEFOGBOITS-ITIOCOCANC ~ Capital Is Not The Constraint – Not In The Long Run – The Capital To Make An Innovation Can Be Extracted From Or Given By Others In The Society – If The Institutions Of Coercion Or Credit Are Not Clogged

~ ND-MI-HAU-‘G’-AI ~ Nor Does – Modern Innovation – Have Anything Unusually – “Greedy” – About It

~ S-ORNO-PAS-BA-R ~ Success – Ordinarily Requires Not Only – Pugnacity And Shrewdness – But Also – Restraint

~ LIL ~ Legally Infinite Lives

~ MEG-DN-A-DN-A-C-DOTSTBGB-SFPP-IINAGBP-INHB ~ Modern Economic Growth – Did Not – And – Does Not – And – Cannot – Depend On The Scraps To Be Gained By – Stealing From Poor People – It Is Not A Good Business Plan – It Never Has Been

~ I-WNBIA-SOE ~ Innovation – Was Not Born In A – Sin Of Expropriation

~ CDNAP ~ Crime Does Not Always Pay

~ WCAFTRORCBRTEOPP ~ We Cannot Account For The Riches Of Rich Countries By Reference To Exploitation Of Poor People

~ VT-W-FRP-AA-EOEPP-TOTBTBP ~ Voluntary Trading – With – Free Rich People – As Against – Exploitation Of Enslaved Poor People – Turns Out To Be The Better Plan

~ TF-O-T-WN-HYON ~ The Fall – Of – Tyrants – With Nine-Hundred Year Old Names

~ AGDOLAPAE-TPIT-DOI-A-TAOM ~ A Good Deal Of Life And Politics And Exchange – Takes Place In The – Damning Of Incentives – And – The Assertion Of Meaning

~ Y-MMIB-AMA-LIAM-O-CIAA-O-JIACOL ~ Yet – Meaning Matters In Business – As Much As – Love In A Marriage – Or – Courage In An Army – Or – Justice In A Court Of Law

~ SPOP-I-N-B-IHLTDW-FI-O-PL-BIHBECB ~ Secure Possession Of Property – Is – Necessary – But – It Had Little To Do With – Financial Innovations – Or – Political Liberty – Because It Had Been Established Centuries Before

~ WETMW-IN-I-B-I ~ What Explains The Modern World – Is Not – Investment – But – Innovation

~ PC-T-TDNADF-TCG ~ People Cooperate – Too – They Do Not Always Defect From – The Common Good

~ PWCUBMI ~ Patents Were Considered Undignified By Many Inventors

~ NANIAGO ~ Not All New Ideas Are Good Ones

~ HOTHAMAL-MTE ~ Habits Of The Heart And Mind And Lip – Matter To Economies

~ I-VA-IAC-ANCWM-BR-CAC ~ Institutions – Viewed As – Incentives And Constraints – Are Not Chiefly What Mattered – But Rather – Community And Conversation

~ L-IAT-S-W-MA-R-O-EG-TA-C ~ Like – Imperialism And Trade – Science – Was – More A – Result – Of – Economic Growth – Than A – Cause

~ TANSTAAFL (TANSTAAFL) ~ There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch (TANSTAAFL)

~ ANRE-E-E ~ A New Rhetorical Environment – Encouraged – Entrepreneurs

~ IWW ~ It Was Words

~ S-TP-A-PCTHH-UF-T-EINEORE-TRTTAEHAAIP ~ Science – Though Proud – And – Persistently Claiming To Help Humankind – Usually Followed – Technology – Explaining In Neat Equations Or Rigorous Experiments – The Results That Tinkerers And Engineers Had Already Achieved In Practice

~ DAL-S-W ~ Dignity And Liberty – Still – Work

~ DAL-TGE ~ Dignity And Liberty – The Greatest Externalites

ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ CHARLES ELTON ~ THREE QUESTIONS ~ PANDEMONIUM ~ 2006

~ HWTCATAAPTLHN? ~ How Will This Change Affect The Animals And Plants That Live Here Now?

~ WBASMBL? ~ What Beauty And Security May Be Lost?

~ HWTCA-‘TAIOC’ ~ How Will This Change Affect – “The Accumulating Instability Of Communities?”

DIERDRE MCCLOSKEY ~ BOURGEOIS EQUALITY ~ 2016

~ ORDNCF-PBOB-O-BDOBD-O-BBOBB-B-FP-IOI ~ Our Riches Did Not Come From – Piling Brick On Brick – Or – Bachelor’s Degree On Bachelor’s Degree – Or – Bank Balance On Bank Balance – But – From Piling – Idea On Idea

~ TMW-WCB-EL ~ The – Modern World – Was Caused By – Egalitarian Liberalism

~ TWIPR-B-OWP ~ The World Is Pretty Rich – But – Once Was Poor

~ T-RE-WTEIO-LAD-TITP-SOB-BAF-T-CP ~ The – Real Engine – Was The Expanding Ideology Of – Liberty And Dignity – That Inspired The Proliferating – Schemes Of Betterment – By And For – The – Common People

~ A-IC-TSIGUT-A(TROTBBD)-A-T(TROP)-AE-P(TROTPR)-WA-N ~ An – Ideological Change – The Strange Idea Grew Up That – Aristocracy (The Rule Of The Best By Descent) – And – Theocracy (The Rule Of Priests) – And Even – Plutocracy (The Rule Of The Present Rich) – Were All – Nasty

~ T-GE-A-1800-CF-HC-UB-LAD-F-OP-T-T-TB-ROAN-EITEOO-A-SBT-OOMIC ~ The – Great Enrichment – After – 1800 – Came From – Human Creativity – Unleashed By – Liberty And Dignity – For – Ordinary People – Through – Trade-Tested Betterment – Resting On A New – Equality In The Eyes Of Others – And – Spread By The – Overturning Of Monopoly In Competition

~ WIIC-SAS-TW-FC-EJ-MFA-CTD-T-ROTG-RDUBTEIFOTOR ~ Whatever It Is Called – Such A Society – Thronging With – Free Conversations – Easily Joined – Made For A – Creativity That Disturbed – The – Rules Of The Game – Rules Designed Unsurprisingly By The Elite In Favor Of The Old Rich

~ A-POCM-TBS-MBBFTPTB-BAF-OD-OS-C-IP-FTMPIHB ~ A – Patent Or Copyright Monopoly – To Be Sure – Must Be Broken For The Poor To Benefit – But Aside From – Overlawyered Definitions – Of So-Called – Intellectual Property – For The Most Part It Has Been

~ TMTRUTPINATDOEFRP-BTRSASPOTITTM-CATP-ISTRT-AALALSOTNTIGTTT-CDID ~ The Mechanism That Raised Up The Poor Is Not A Trickle Down Of Expenditures From Rich People – Because The Rich Spend A Smaller Proportion Of Their Incomes Than The Middle-Class And The Poor – It Stands To Reason That – As A Larger And Larger Share Of The Nations’ Total Income Goes To The Top – Consumer Demand Is Dampened

~ TIN-FL-SFA-TDOATU-WGBBGSO-NB-MTUOD ~ There Is No – Free Lunch – Springing From A – Trickle Down Or A Trickle Up – We Get Better By Getting Smarter Only – Not By – Miraculous Trickles Up Or Down

~ TGI-ET-TB-SA-MTPPR-WHH-O-RIIE-WHAH ~ The Goal Is – Ethical Trade-Tested Betterment – Such As – Making The Poor People Rich – Which Has Happened – Or – Reducing Inequality In Essentials – Which Has Also Happened

~ TP-MAD-NTPWCP-IPAH-TT-I-TOWA ~ The Persistent – Macho And Deadly – Notion That Power Will Cause Plenty – Is Popular Among Historians – The Truth – Is – The Other Way Around

~ T-AH-O-EIIA-SEII-T-EE-OIO-OE-HBSRTB-NON ~ The – Appalling History – Of – European Imperialism In Africa – Sufficiently Establishes Its Indefensibility – The – Economic Effect – Of Imperialism On – Ordinary Europeans – Has Been Shown Repeatedly To Be – Nil Or Negative

~ E-CBAWTAF-PF-B-NT-NW ~ Empire – Can Be A Way To A Few – Private Fortunes – But – Not To – National Wealth

~ IWPTBP-NTOWA ~ It Was Plenty That Bred Power – Not The Other Way Around

~ AC-B-U-N-P-OII-E-B-I ~ Accumulated Capital – Becomes – Unusually – Nonroutinely – Profitable – Only If It – Embodies – Betterment – Innovism

~ B-K-UMTOE-HACOAOC ~ But – Knowledge – Unlike Most Treasures On Earth – Has A Chance Of Accumulating Over Centuries

~ TAB-T-FW-TBI-B-A-FP-TE-T-P-TTEOOV-TTAATC-‘N’-‘GIG’-TOB-EB-SE-AB-AIT-B-T/H/K-DNGPTAFHL-F/H/L-D ~ Trade And Betterment – Threatened – From Within – The Bourgeoisie Itself – By – A – Foolish Pride – That Elevates – Trading – Prudence – To The Exclusion Of Other Virtues – The Threat Appears As The Crudely – “Neoliberal” – “Greed-Is-Good” – Theory Of Behavior – Encouraged By – Some Economists – And By – All Inside Traders – But – Taking / Having / Keeping – Do Not Give Purpose To A Full Human Life – Faith / Hope / Love – Do

~ M-E-N-M-L-HST ~ Mainly – Ethics – Not – Mainly – Laws – Held Societies Together

~ T-GE-DNAFG-PR-WEAOAA-IAF-R-T-TB ~ The – Great Enrichment – Did Not Arise From Good – Property Rights – Which Existed All Over And Anciently – It Arose From – Revolutionary – Trade-Tested Betterment

~ Ethics – What Is Honored Or Dishonored By Society – Is What Changed Quickly – Not – The Institutional Environment – The Institutions – Such As – Criminal / Contract / Property / Corporate – Law – Changed – After The Ethical Change – Not Before – Ideas And Ethics Changed – The Institutions Did Not

~ GCBSFALT-A-COTAOQLPG ~ Governments Can Be Stupid For A Long Time – And – Can Obstruct The Achievement Of Quite Large Potential Gains

~ B-T-RAP-RTG-T-PAOP-HBRHB-GR ~ Because – The – Rich And Powerful – Run The Government – The – Poor And Other Powerless – Have Been Regularly Hurt By – Governmental Regulation

~ NM-BD-CBM-W-IAI ~ Not Many – Business Decisions – Could Be Made – Without – Identity And Impulse

~ B-TEGLFTHTNOIMB-S-L-RAVTV-IPTVO-P-WI-TSITT-I-TWOS-MU ~ But – The Economists’ Great Love For The Hypothesis That No One Is Motivated By – Say – Love – Reduces All Virtues To Vice – In Particular The Vice Of – Pride – Which Is – To Speak In Theological Terms – Idolatry – The Worship Of Self – Max U

~ TVOTP-C/L/J/T/F/H-AV-A-NMAWOGPP ~ The Virtues Other Than Prudence – Courage / Love / Justice / Temperance / Faith / Hope – Are Virtues – And – Not Merely Another Way Of Getting Prudent Pleasure

~ NTHMIIAC-WTWWMWWC ~ Numbers Tell How Much Is In A Classification – Words Tell What We Mean When We Count

~ T-NE-WO-B/N/R-T/C/D/E/L/D ~ The – New Ethic – Was Of – Betterment / Novelty / Risk-Taking / Creativity / Democracy / Equality / Liberty / Dignity

~ IIAWU ~ Irrationality Is Always With Us

~ WCWWWDU ~ What Changed Was What Was Deemed Useful

~ PL-AN-B-TANLSF-TSB-S-GE-OTP150Y ~ Property Laws – Are Necessary – But – They Are Nothing Like Sufficient For – The Startling Betterment – Startling – Great Enrichment – Of The Past 150 Years

~ IIACOSO-R-T-TPR-WTCII-N-WIGW ~ It Is A Cliche Of Studies Of – Revolution – That – The Poor Revolt – When Their Condition Is Improved – Not – When It Gets Worse

~ FC-TSO-RD-KBPBIH ~ For Centuries – The Specter Of – Radical Democracy – Kept Being Pushed Back Into Hell

~ TIO-EAL-A-DFAH-C-AT-P-AS-M-AT-S-P ~ The Idea Of – Equality Of Liberty – And – Dignity For All Humans – Caused – And Then – Protected – A Starling – Material – And Then – Spiritual – Progress

~ I-N-I-MT-MW ~ Ideas – Not – Institutions – Made The – Modern World

~ NR-D-M-AAL-V-RT-G-GLOSP-AFI-SD-AALL-IF ~ Negotiated Rights – Deal-Making – And At Length – Voting – Replaced The – God-Given Laws Of Social Position – At First In – Stirring Declarations – And At Long Last – In Fact

~ BCBCBC-MC ~ Behavior Can Be Changed By Compulsion – Minds Cannot

~ TFITPBMTOOAIIASLIIAME-WEMHTSITF ~ The Fact Is That Persuasion Beyond Mere Transmittal Of Offers And Information Is A Startlingly Large Item In A Modern Economy – We Economist Might Have To Stop Ignoring The Fact

~ STR ~ Sweet Talk Rules

~ TWITT ~ The Word’s The Thing

~ BBU ~ Betterocracy Became Usual

~ TTC-C-A-C-ITRM-ITTF-REE ~ Trade Test Cooperation – Competition – And – Conservation – In The Right Mix – Is The Ticket For – Rapid Economic Evolution

~ LSUAMAWSL ~ Language Speaks Us As Much As We Speak Language

~ I-F-GOI-M ~ Ideas – For – Good Or Ill – Matter

~ PWTBTBIT ~ People Want To Believe That Beauty Is Truth

~ DITP-WITS-PBHU ~ Dogma Is The Problem – Which Is To Say – Passionate Beliefs Held Uncritically

~ WGAS-TNTBAS-A-HIUANWODI~ When Goods Are Scarce – They Need To Be Allocated Somehow – And – Hierarchy Is Usually A Nasty Way Of Doing It

~ RMU-B-CRUU ~ Rhetoric Made Us – But – Can Readily Unmake Us

~ WE-IA-CTF ~ Widespread Evil – Is A – Comfort To Fools

MICHIKO KAKUTANI ~ THE DEATH OF TRUTH ~ 2018

~ DFF/DORBE/TCOL-A-DTVVOT ~ Disregard For Facts / Displacement Of Reason By Emotion / The Corrosion Of Language – Are – Diminishing The Very Value Of Truth

~ SIUA-ASI-EOES ~ Science Is Under Attack – And So Is – Expertise Of Every Sort

~ AW-E-R-IQ-TWS-OW ~ And When – Experts – Raised – Inconvenient Questions – They Were Sidelined – Or Worse

~ TC-OOL ~ The Co-Opting Of Language

~ AHMOU-A-SE-A-U-B-TMBJBTIBTSOOV ~ A Huge Majority Of Us – Assume – Search Engines – Are – Unbiased – But – That May Be Just Because They’re Increasingly Biased To Share Our Own Views

~ SM-GUITTCOVOTW-PLI-IN-C-S-A-CS-WGOT ~ Social Media – Gives Us Information That Tends To Confirm Our View Of The World – People Live In – Increasingly Narrow – Content – Silos – And – Correspondingly Smaller – Walled Gardens Of Thought

~ MAD-I-B-TG-TT-OPATW ~ Misinformation And Disinformation – Is – Becoming – The – Go-To Tactic – Of Propagandists Around The World

~ TSOTT ~ The Schadenfreude Of The Trolls

~ WT-T-B-T-F-B-PLPFTCO2008-MWPWSTTMULG ~ While The – Too-Big-To-Fail – Banks – Paid Little Price For The Crash Of 2008 – Many Working People Were Still Trying To Make Up Lost Ground