MICHAEL SANDEL ~ THE TYRANNY OF MERIT ~ 2020

~ WBOTCG? ~ What’s Become Of The Common Good?

~ WNTAWTSTOFP-ITLMFB-TPOM-O-TSACGBTSATS ~ We Need To Ask Whether The Solution To Our Fractious Politics – Is To Live More Faithfully By – The Principle Of Merit – Or – To Seek A Common Good Beyond The Sorting And The Striving

~ B-TRORNRH-ITE-IINETR-MWNERTTMC ~ But – The Rhetoric Of Rising Now Rings Hollow – In Today’s Economy – It Is Not Easy To Rise – Most Will Not Even Rise To The Middle Class

~ T-TCWT-HM-TTBTWT-GE-TATR-IS-DLO-TSOP-TOAT=E=HC-A-OR-TEPTSITWOW ~ Today – The Countries With The – Highest Mobility – Tend To Be Those With The – Greatest Equality – The Ability To Rise – It Seems – Depends Less On – The Spur Of Poverty – Than On Access To – Education – Health Care – And – Other Resources – That Equip People To Succeed In The World Of Work

~ ASRTTGBRAPMRDWIOPAW-RT-RCWTPOHPSUALWRGFAFA ~ Any Serous Response To The Gap Between Rich And Poor Must Reckon Directly With Inequalities Of Power And Wealth – Rather Than – Rest Content With The Project Of Helping People Scramble Up A Ladder Whose Rungs Grow Father And Farther Apart

~ M-IIUWTTDTORTM-DSLOTS-TWCTMI-A-MITCOTPP-OTMQ-TAISMPP:TMAATMEP-ATWAAATL-ATW-IGH-ATL-HAR ~ Morally – It Is Unclear Why The Talented Deserve The Outsize Rewards That Market-Driven Societies Lavish On The Successful – Those Who Celebrate The Meritocratic Ideal – And – Make It The Center Of Their Political Project – Overlook This Moral Question – They Also Ignore Something More Politically Potent: The Morally Attractive Attitudes The Meritocratic Ethic Promotes – Among The Winners And Also Among The Losers – Among The Winners – It Generates Hubris – Among The Losers – Humiliation And Resentment

~ TPCIATTOM-A-TCIJ ~ The Populist Complaint Is About The Tyranny Of Merit – And – The Complaint Is Justified

~ TNT-TSR-TAHW-ETW-TCTSTOD-AMOTV-A-TLDUTLFTT-MH-RTTOWTITDOTS-TFT-CAGF-THTOTW-IIT-SC-OT-WLOT-TTDTF-A-T-TOTB-DTT ~ The Notion That – The System Rewards – Talent And Hard Work – Encourages The Winners – To Consider Their Success Their Own Doing – A Measure Of Their Virtue – And – To Look Down Upon Those Less Fortunate Than Themselves – Meritocratic Hubris – Reflects The Tendency Of Winners To Inhale Too Deeply Of Their Success – To Forget The – Luck And Good Fortune – That Helped Them On Their Way – It Is The – Smug Conviction – Of Those – Who Land On Top – That They Deserve Their Fate – And – That – Those On The Bottom – Deserve Theirs Too

~ T- T-CG-IUMI-ET-IILACSODTBOC-TA-SCP-AMBT-GDP-TMFA-IPD ~ Today – The – Common Good – Is Understood Mainly In – Economic Terms – It Is Less About Cultivating Solidarity Or Deepening The Bonds Of Citizenship – Than About – Satisfying Consumer Preferences – As Measured By The – Gross Domestic Product – This Makes For An – Impoverished Public Discourse

~ WPF-PA-TD-CEO-NMTT-WINO-OE-SM-IWPTPOAWRL-C-ATPS-FT-EPD-FAD-TRSTTAO-RPD-DNMTNPABD-ISMTABDE-OOPV-B-AA(OCBTITR)-B-CBABM-B-CL-W-CC-BIWPO ~ What Passes For – Political Argument – These Days – Consists Either Of – Narrow Managerial Technocratic Talk – Which Inspires No One – Or Else – Shouting Matches – In Which Partisans Talk Past One Another Without Really Listening – Citizens – Across The Political Spectrum – Find This – Empty Public Discourse – Frustrating And Disempowering – They Rightly Sense That The Absence Of – Robust Public Debate – Does Not Mean That No Policies Are Being Decided – It Simply Means They Are Being Decided Elsewhere – Out Of Public View – By – Administrative Agencies (Often Captured By The Industries They Regulate) – By – Central Banks And Bond Markets – By – Corporate Lobbyists – Whose – Campaign Contributions – Buy Influence With Public Officials

~ FD-O-M-DG-H-HOPD-DOC-A-PAPB ~ Four Decades – Of – Market-Driven Globalization – Have – Hollowed Out Public Discourse – Disempowered Ordinary Citizens – And – Prompted A Populist Backlash

~ B-IIOTTHPRFAM;IISETATWA-EOU-WRFOLIL ~ But – It Is One Thing To Hold People Responsible For Acting Morally; It Is Something Else To Assume That We Are – Each Of Us – Wholly Responsible For Our Lot In Life

~ TNTOFROM-RDIT-MI-O-WC-IRTBTTMUIAIAWTAPWMASWW-T-MWOT-GRTHATTWSM-TMATS-TGTSTTVHBIOH[H]~ The Notion That Our Fate Reflects Our Merit – Runs Deep In The – Moral Intuitions – Of – Western Culture – It Reflects The Belief That The Moral Universe Is Arranged In A Way That Aligns Prosperity With Merit And Suffering With Wrongdoing – This – Meritocratic Way Of Thinking – Gives Rise To Harsh Attitudes Toward Those Who Suffer Misfortune – The More Acute The Suffering – The Greater The Suspicion That The Victim Has Brought It On Himself[/Herself]

~ MOTF-TS-WFL-AAFAMPOV ~ Many Of The Factors – That Separate – Winners From Losers – Are Arbitrary From A Moral Point Of View

~ TMWVOAS-MAS-S-TLLWATCFTFOTLFTO-IMSIMOD-TFMBTF-TLMMCOC-TSANOPRFOFMIHTIOIOPS ~ The More We View Ourselves As Self-Made And Self-Sufficient – The Less Likely We Are To Care For The Fate Of Those Less Fortunate Than Ourselves – If My Success Is My Own Doing – Their Failure Must Be Their Fault – This Logic Makes Meritocracy Corrosive Of Commonality – Too Strenuous A Notion Of Personal Responsibility For Our Fate Makes It Hard To Imagine Ourselves In Other People’s Shoes

~ TROR ~ The Rhetoric Of Responsibility

~ FD-ME-ITMT-TW-WHAPBTR-CRAFATTWTT-TDNNTFT-SATBOSTSA-T-ROR-WLAPTAT ~ For Decades – Meritocratic Elites – Intoned The Mantra That – Those Who – Work Hard And Play By The Rules – Can Rise As Far As Their Talents Will Take Them – They Did Not Notice That For Those – Stuck At The Bottom Or Struggling To Stay Afloat – The – Rhetoric Of Rising – Was Less A Promise Than A Taunt

~ C:TLAP ~ Credentialism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice

~ ‘SVD’- BTD-EOI-C-L-‘JVU’-O-‘RVW’ ~ “Smart Versus Dumb” – Began To Displace – Ethical Or Ideological – Contrasts – Like – “Just Versus Unjust” – Or – “Right Versus Wrong”

~ T-‘STTD’-A-PTA-POS-IR-TDNDO-MC ~ The – “Smart Thing To Do” – Always – Pointed To A – Prudential Or Self-Interested Reason – That Did Not Depend On – Moral Considerations

~ TNT-‘TBATB’-ABAG-TT-L-C-FC-I-AMBOMH ~ The Notion That – “The Best And The Brightest” – Are – Better At Governing – Than Their – Less-Credentialed – Fellow Citizens – Is – A Myth Born Of Meritocratic Hubris

~ P-TO-RW-I-RME ~ Parties – That Once – Represented Workers – Increasingly – Represented Meritocratic Elites

~ WMFAMITEHAECTCTLOS;IHNTSAHFATROTLSB-T-MI-INA-ROI-IIA-JOI ~ What Matters For A Meritocracy Is That Everyone Has An Equal Chance To Climb The Ladder Of Success; It Has Nothing To Say About How Far Apart The Rungs On The Ladder Should Be – The – Meritocratic Ideal – Is Not A – Remedy Of Inequality – It Is A – Justification Of Inequality

~ AT-AOG-BRWTT-W-C-IDNFMOW-PI-B-WRASASSOWTP-W-EASCALS ~ Although The – Age Of Globalization – Brought Rich Rewards To – The Well-Credentialed – It Did Not Nothing For Most Ordinary Workers – Productivity Increased – But – Workers Reaped A Smaller And Smaller Share Of What They Produced – While – Executives And Shareholders Captured A Larger Share

~ OTLSD-TIT-TMWMRTVOOSC-HBDE ~ Over The Last Several Decades – The Idea That – The Money We Make Reflects The Value Of Our Social Contribution – Has Become Deeply Embedded

~ M-FA-HRTP-EG-TDPATEI-SP-MTDOTWEAL-P-U-GAS-IT-RE ~Much – Financial Activity – Hinders Rather Than Promotes – Economic Growth – The Disproportionate Prestige Accorded Those Engaged In – Speculative Pursuits – Mocks The Dignity Of Those Who Earn A Living – Producing – Useful – Goods And Services – In The – Real Economy

~ A-PA-TRT-DOW-WUT-TS-TRTEOEB-DS-A-HPL ~ A – Political Agenda – That Recognizes The – Dignity Of Work – Would Use The – Tax System – To Reconfigure The Economy Of Esteem By – Discouraging Speculation – And – Honoring Productive Labor

MARCEL DANESI ~ THE ART OF THE LIE ~ 2020

~ SLAD-THTATTWIWTCDPAEO ~ Skilful Liars Are Dangerous – They Have The Ability To Twist Words Into Weapons That Can Divide People Against Each Other

~ DPEAIAOTAOAAC? ~ Do Political Expediency And Ideological Agendas Override Truth And Objectivity At Any Cost?

~ TSOLLFUTTD-LIATFITFOAP ~ The Stories Of Legendary Liars Fascinate Us To This Day – Lying Is A Theme Found In The Folklore Of All Peoples

~ TH-DBTALHBACOOPAT ~ Throughout History – Distinguishing Between Truth And Lies Has Been A Central Objective Of Philosophy And Theology

~ P-ANOTIHH-H-M-FSAFG-F-SPAH-AITCWO-SM ~ Perhaps – At Not Other Time In Human History – Has – Mendacity – Found Such A Fertile Ground – For – Stoking Prejudice And Hatred – As In The Contemporary World Of – Social Media

~ TINRWANFI ~ There Is No Reality Without A Name For It

~ TD-ATUO-L-TAMOI-TASTBRTNTT-IT-L ~ Truthful Discourse – And The Use Of – Logic – To Argue Matters Of Importance – These Are Still The Best Remedies To Neutralize The Tactics – In The – Lie

~ SA-UAV-DWFTNM-TSTFL ~ Semantic Ambiguity – Uncertainty And Vagueness – Disconnecting Words From Their Normal Meanings – To Snatch Truth From Language

~ FE ~ False Equivalency

~ WAH-DIB-TCAF-TIWG-F-SI ~ We All Harbor – Deeply Ingrained Beliefs – That Color And Filter – The Information We Glean – From – Social Interactions

~ CN-APTO-MC-STADTS-DEB ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Are Powerful Tools Of – Mind Control – Since They Are Designed To Stoke – Deeply Engrained Beliefs

~ CN-ROTBPO-M-NHBA-NIAIS-EIC ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Rely On Three Basic Principles Of – Mythos – Nothing Happens By Accident – Nothing Is As It Seems – Everything Is Connected

~ CN-WP-BTABO-ASUOM ~ Conspiracy Narratives – Work Psychologically – Because They Are Based On – A Strategic Use Of Metaphor

~ LC-A-I-TAPATWOT-‘E’-ATED ~ Logical Counterarguments – Are – Ineffectual – Because They Are Perceived As The Words Of The – “Enemy” – And Thus Easily Dismissed

~ TIN-MC-W-VC ~ There Is No – Mind Control – Without – Vocabulary Control

~ CS ~ Confabulated Stories

~ OOT-PT-O-PR:TAO-‘O’ ~ One Of The – Primary Tactics – Of – Political Repression: The Attack On – “Otherness”

~ “Enemies From Within”

WAL-STBD-I-TSII-TLIPAI-A-ITUSWSMBHFU ~ We Are All – Susceptible To Being Deceived – If – The Story Is Interesting – The Language Is Persuasive And Immediate – And – It Tells Us Something We Suspect May Be Hidden From Us

~ IAIR ~ Innuendo And Indirect Reference

~ PAMT-ED-B-WAG ~ People Are Much Too – Easily Deceived – By – Words And Gifts

~ S-B-TM-A-ATH-DAKO-A-RM ~ Saying – B – To Mean – A – And Then – Denying Any Knowledge Of – A’s – Real Meaning

~ TGP ~ The Great Pretender

~ B-TDIT-WLTA ~ But – The Danger Is That – Words Lead To Actions

~ CW-CHWP-T ~ Changing Words – Changes How We Perceive – Things

~ AN ~ AttackoNyms

~ HCALCSEAL-P-A/D-DA-TM-ML-IA-MP ~ How Can A Liar Call Someone Else A Liar – Projection – Attack / Defensive – Deflect Attention – The Master – Machiavellian Liar – Is A – Master Projector

~ D/D/D ~ Denial / Deflection / Distraction

~ ‘W’-AODC-B-CT-OO-OTSTOWTAAY-WRTIAODIIAW ~ “Whataboutism” – Attack Or Discredit Critics – By – Charging Them – Or Others – Of The Same Thing Of Which They Are Accusing You – Without Refuting The Initial Attack Or Disproving It In Any Way

~ LCTWWSTIOM ~ Language Conditions The Way We See Things In Our Mind

~ TFO-BD-IS-DE-TIIET-DTF-OE-ETA-IS-S-I-W-TTAT ~ The Feeling Of – Being Duped – Is So – Destructive Emotionally – That It Is Easier To – Deny The Facts – Or Else – Explain Them Away – In Some – Self-Illusory – Way – Than To Accept Them

JEFF FAUX ~ THE SERVANT ECONOMY ~ 2012

~ FASTCPO-WASATDODF ~ For A Society That Constantly Promotes Optimism – We Are Surprisingly Addicted To Depictions Of Dystopian Futures

~ M-DE-T-CNHBF-A-RTWCA ~ Major – Dislocating Events – That – Could Not Have Been Foretold – Are – Rarer Than We Commonly Acknowledge

~ HACS-DNATT-TW-‘E’ ~ History And Common Sense – Did Not Apply To Them – They Were – “Exceptional”

~ B-TWDTEOTC-DNEUSOPB ~ But – Those Who Drove The Economy Off The Cliff – Did Not End Up Sleeping On Park Benches

~ TCFPASSFTFHCFTGTTWGTNF ~ The Call For Patience And Shared Sacrifice For The Future Has Costs For The Governed That Those Who Govern Typically Never Face

~ WTFW-A-U-W-TBOA-FB-O-A-ED-O-COO-HBGAFT-TATT-T-GC-PNTDOI-PM-R-IUUTMOTA-BT ~ Whether The Folly Was – An – Unnecessary – War – The Bursting Of A – Financial Bubble – Or – An – Environmental Disaster – Our – Culture Of Optimism – Has Been Generous And Forgiving To – Those At The Top – The – Governing Class – Prefers Not To Dwell On Its – Past Mistakes – Rather – It Urges Us To Move On To A – Better Tomorrow

~ YDBAMOT-GC-B-CTSQ ~ You Don’t Become A Member Of The – Governing Class – By – Challenging The Status Quo

~ TROGIFM-NLWTRT-CTTOTMTSAB-NWITDTBBTP-IWT-IOATDHBD-DTRO-L-F-TGRITERC-B-TRHC-IPNW-TIATDHC-T-PUTP-PTBT-A-HTROTCPFTD ~ The Role Of Government In Financial Markets – No Longer Was That Role To – Control The Tendency Of The Markets Toward Speculative Asset Bubbles – Nor Was It To Diffuse The Bubbles Before They Popped – It Was To – Intervene Only After The Damage Had Been Done – Despite The Rhetoric Of – Laissez-Faire – The Government’s Role In The Economy Remained Critical – But – That Role Had Changed – Its Purpose Now Was – To Intervene After The Damage Had Occurred – To – Pick Up The Pieces – Put Them Back Together – And – Have The Rest Of The Country Pay For The Damage

~ T-HFDALTI-IA-EUM ~ That – High Federal Deficits Always Lead To Inflation – Is An – Economic Urban Myth

~ T-L-BAIF-A-TBTF-TGTM-A-TPTR ~ The – Largest – Banks And Investment Firms – Are – Too Big To Fail – Too Global To Monitor – And – Too Powerful To Regulate

~ PS-B-D-I-LA-STBPW-TW-WBEMOADCT-S-E ~ Personal Service – By – Definition – Is – Largely About – Satisfying The Boss’s Personal Whims – The Workplace – Will Become Even More Of A Daily Challenge To – Self-Esteem

~ WCET-M-B/T/H-W-FOB ~ We Can Expect That – More – Bridges / Tunnels / Highways – Will – Fall Or Breakdown

~ NOD-YBYJ-OT-YTTSTEWTTLOTWYD ~ Not Only Do – You Become Your Job – Over Time – You Tend To See The Economic World Through The Lens Of The Work You Do

~ N-EP-TI-DO-M-F-T-RR-A-T-GC-WATAOET ~ No – Established Party – That Is – Dependent On – Money – From – The – Reactionary Rich – And – The – Globalizing Corporations – Will Act To Alter Our Economic Trajectory

~ T-IOMIP-ETT-G-WIOBOCI-N-T-MC ~ The – Influence Of Money In Politics – Ensures That The – Government – Will Intervene On Behalf Of Corporate Interests – Not – The – Middle Class

ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ THE ENERGY OF SLAVES ~ 2012

~ B-ITAO-WAT-EERBAMO-DRTS ~ But – In The Absence Of – Wisdom And Temperance – Every Energy Relationship Becomes A Matter Of – Dominion Rather Than Stewardship

~ ODOTEOS-WANSTPAIM ~ Once Dependent On The Energy Of Slaves – We Are Now Slaves To Petroleum And Its Masters

~ SHM-B/P/E-EFMTM-W-H-ETWFLC-TTYA-HD-DTAPWHOSES ~ Shackled Human Muscle – Built / Powered / Emboldened – Empires From Mesopotamia To Mexico – When – Hammurabi – Established The World’s First Legal Codes – Two Thousand Years Ago – He Decreed – Death To Any Person Who Helped Or Sheltered Escaping Slaves

~ OC-ACC-PAPRISTER-MCSTISTPTD ~ Orphaned Children – And – Convicted Criminals – Played A Prominent Role In Swelling The Energy Ranks – Many Citizens Sold Themselves Into Slavery To Pay Their Debts

~ ES-RLPALI-A-APAGMTTP ~ Escaped Slaves – Represented Lost Property And Lost Income – And – Also Posed A General Menace To The Public

~ WMT-WRTAEOHS-W-ANS-PBFF ~ Without Much Thought – We Replaced The Ancient Energy Of Human Slaves – With – A New Servitude – Powered By Fossil Fuels

~ G-RHCTFP-ATWPOKD-A-DIIR ~ Gasoline – Refiners Had Considered The Flammable Product – A Troublesome Waste Product Of Kerosene Distillation – And – Dumped It Into Rivers

~ TN-H-Y-GSFTTNMWAMSN-GR-DO-O-B-F/P-A-D-RIS ~ The New – High-Yielders – Grew So Fast That They Needed More Water And More Soil Nutrients – Green Revolution – Depended On – Oil-Based – Fertilizers / Pesticides – And – Diesel-Run Irrigation Systems

~ E-LC-AV-BS-AIWT-240KOO-NTMIT ~ Every – Laptop Computer – A Veritable – Brain Slave – Arrives Impregnated With The – 240 Kilograms Of Oil – Needed To Make It

~ EGOG-BIAV-RTPOEO-98T-O-PBPM ~ Every Gallon Of Gasoline – Burned In A Vehicle – Required The Pumping Or Excavation Of – 98 Tons – Of – Prehistoric Buried Plant Material

~ E-ES-CIO-SD-A-UD ~ Every – Energy System – Creates Its Own – Starling Dependencies – And – Unpredictable Dynamics

~ OOTRCOSAACOPITI ~ One Of The Remarkable Characteristics Of Slaveholders As A Class Of People Is Their Indebtedness

~ ATW-OAIS-HR-TNOG/TSOS/TWOP/TMOC-A-TPOE ~ Around The World – Oil And Its Servants – Have Reengineered – The Nature Of Government / The Scale Of Science / The Weight Of Populations / The Metabolism Of Cities – And – The Purpose Of Economics

~ A-F-OA-RE-MIAGMOGB-F/P/M-IBITSDTAMIMPOTWW-L-EO ~ As – Farming – Once A – Renewable Enterprise – Morphed Into A Giant Mining Operation Governed By – Fertilizers / Pesticides / Machines – It Became Impossible To Sit Down To A Meal In Many Parts Of The World Without – Literally – Eating Oil

~ M-VAC-NCF-P/M/V-TTDOHYA-RSTTSOPGHDTUOGN ~ Most – Vegetables And Cereals – Now Contain Fewer – Proteins / Minerals / Vitamins – Than They Did One Hundred Years Ago – Researchers Suspect That The Speed Of Plants Growth Has Diluted Their Uptake Of Good Nutrients

~ C-TUO-30%-OT-AF-TRWA ~ Crops – Take Up Only – 30 Percent – Of The – Applied Fertilizer – The Rest Washes Away

~ ETUEF ~ Enslavement To Unsustainable Energy Flows

~ OSAO-F-FF-HB-I-RC ~ One Striking Aspect Of – Fossil-Fueled Farming – Has Been – It’s – Relentless Concentration

~ R/B/I-O-CF-HOTWACY-GE-B-70,000-D-PAPD-DAAEO-$35B-O-P ~ Rusts / Blights / Insects – One-Crop Farms – Half Of The World’s Annual Crop Yield – Gets Eaten – By – 70,000 – Different – Pests And Plant Diseases – Despite An Annual Expenditure Of – $35 Billion – On – Pesticides

~ LD-HSSEDTPPFH-ABT-RD/ED/SC-ABRW-DD-H-Y-F-‘U’-SB-PI-CO-V-A-A-FAHFF ~ Livestock Diversity – Has Suffered Similar Erosion Due To Petroleum’s Preference For Homogenization – Animals Bred To – Resist Disease / Endure Drought / Survive Cold – Are Being Replaced With – Dumbed Down – High-Yield – Factory – “Units” – Shaped By – Petroleum Inputs – Consisting Of – Vaccines – Antibiotics – And – Formulated And Highly Fertilized Feeds

~ A-H-E-U-C-TRAADGFEIANW-UTET-NOLT ~ All – High-Energy-Use – Countries – Treat Rural Areas As Dumping Grounds For Exploitative Industries And Nuclear Waste – Using The Excuse That – No One Lives There

~ T-F-F-M-HNWO-LT-LF-A-LCD-ATG-WTBLTFTCCTQOMN ~ The – Factory-Farm – Model – Has Nearly Wiped Out – Local Traditions – Local Farmers – And – Local Crop Diversity – Around The Globe – With The Bold Lie That Factory Techniques Can Conquer The Quirks Of Mother Nature

~ T-FFS-DTFPANWOS-HA-SP-IHFTPMOA-F-FDAMMA ~ The – Factory Food System – Designed To Fatten Plants And Animals With Oil Subsidies – Has Also – Supersized People – It Has Fattened The Poor Most Of All – Fast-Food Diets Are Much More Affordable

~ AOPI-MPASF-AATS-C-GR-F-O-FH ~ As Oil Prices Increase – Many Peasants And Small Farmers – Are Abandoning The So-Called – Green Revolution – For – Old-Fashioned Husbandry

~ AMPBTFPMBITFTHM-HPGOFAAFOFA ~ Although Many People Believe That Food Production Must Be Increased To Feed The Hungry Masses – Human Population Grows Or Falls As A Function Of Food Availability

~ IINHTTTDB-C-BBH-A-T-CBM-TFSP;TLSEAIIC ~ It Is Not Hard To Tell The Difference Between – Cities – Built By Hand – And – Those – Constructed By Machines – The Former Served People ; The Latter Serve Energy And Its Inanimate Clients

~ A-S-R-STD-SS-A-W-LF ~ As – Skyscrapers – Rose – So Too Did – Sprawling Slums – And – Window-Less Factories

~ R-SAT-W-CAA-‘YHI’ ~ Replacing – Soil And Trees – With – Concrete And Asphalt – “Urban Heat Islands”

~ RSL-W-FS-PFA-A-FGM ~ Rising Sea Levels – Will – Flood Slums – Poison Freshwater Aquifers – And – Force Great Migrations

~ E-BAJF-CC ~ Economics – Became A Justification For – Conspicuous Consumption

~ T-TPOE-L-S-I-HPP-TIAUMEHBTMLG ~ Today – The Pseudoscience Of Economics – Like – Science – Itself – Has Probably Peaked – The Ideological Assumptions Undermining Modern Economics Have Begun To Melt Like Glaciers

~ PS ~ Peak Science

~ 26.5-POO-F-EPOC ~ 26.5 – Ponds Of Oil – For – Every Pound Of Computer

~ EN-EOT-STCM-TLTD-A-T-EPC-OTDLVAEFER ~ Each New – Extreme Oil Technique – Seems To Cost More – Takes Longer To Develop – And – Typically – Exceeds Predicted Costs – Only To Deliver Less Volume And Even Fewer Energy Returns

~ M-CO2C-WRMEAPF-FTOY-C-BS-AESTREME ~ Monitoring – CO2 Cemeteries – Would Require More Energy And Public Funds – For Thousands Of Years – Classic – Big Science – An Energy Solution That Requires Even More Energy

~ WMEWYCSRT? ~ Why Manage Emissions When You Can Simply Reduce Them?

~ M-L-T-A-E ~ Many – Low-Tech – Alternatives – Exist

~ OAG-BRAD-LTAEOBSOTP-AAC-MOTTCABIA-‘I’-IAB ~ Oil And Gas – Basic Research And Development – Less Than Almost Every Other Business Sector On The Planet – As A Consequence – Most Of The Technology Currently Advertised By Industry As – “Innovative” – Is Anything But

~ FE-ASP ~ Fugitive Emissions – Are So Prevalent

~ TM-OOH-DE-TMHANEB ~ The More – Oil Or Hydrocarbons – Dominate Exports – The More Hollow A National Economy Becomes

~ EROEI ~ Energy Return On Energy Invested

~ MCOE-SBCW-QOL ~ Massive Consumption Of Energy – Shouldn’t Be Confused With – Quality Of Life

ANNE APPLEBAUM ~ TWILIGHT OF DEMOCRACY ~ 2020

~ ‘OA-IITAOT-IOOPH-IWBOOICCTNITMHOH’ ~ “Our Age – Is Indeed The Age Of The – Intellectual Organization Of Political Hatreds – It Will Be One Of Its Chief Claims To Notice In The Moral History Of Humanity” ~ Julien Benda ~ The Betrayal Of The Intellectuals ~ [La Trahson Des Clercs] ~ 1927

~ A-FT-IT-FPAWRO-CT ~ A – Full-Time – Internet Troll – Fanatically Promoting A Whole Range Of – Conspiracy Theories

~ TRIM-MIETE ~ They Repeat Its Mantras – Make Its Enemies Their Enemies

~ GTRCASCTAD-I-IHIATGB-AOOSEW ~ Given The Right Conditions Any Society Can Turn Against Democracy – Indeed – If History Is Anything To Go By – All Of Our Societies Eventually Will

~ APSBOLAR-AARFAOOTI ~ Any Political System Built On Logic And Rationality – Always At Risk From An Outburst Of The Irrational

~ IIH-T-FOLD-IOOT-WNLAIDIT1920SO1930S-B-IWSRA-NE-A-NGOC-TBIA ~ If It Happens – The – Fall Of Liberal Democracy – In Our Own Time – Will Not Look As It Did In The 1920s Or 1930s – But – It Will Still Require A – New Elite – A – New Generation Of Clercs – To Bring It About

~ TATRODSTTNLP ~ To Alter The Rules Of Democracy So That They Never Lose Power

~ HDW ~ How Demagogues Win

~ SD-DNRMVTSIP-IIRUA-COE-TR-TB-TSM-TC-A-ISP-SC ~ Soft Dictatorship – Does Not Require Mass Violence To Stay In Power – Instead – It Relies Upon A – Cadre Of Elites – To Run – The Bureaucracy – The State Media – The Courts – And – In Some Places – State Companies

~ T-M-DC-UTR-WIT-DTL-HDTS-HGTC-A-HDTIOOPAI-IC-TKTTWB-RAA ~ These – Modern-Day Clercs – Understand Their Role – Which Is To – Defend The Leaders – However Dishonest Their Statements – However Great Their Corruption – And – However Disastrous Their Impact On Ordinary People And Institutions – In Change – They Know That They Will Be – Rewarded And Advanced

~ ATW-TAMVOT-IO-PS ~ Around The World – There Are Many Versions Of The – Illiberal One-Party State

~ NATTCDOHMIAA ~ No Acknowledgement That The Constant Drumbeat Of Hatred Might Inspire Another Assassination

~ B-NE-CBF ~ But – New Enemies – Can Be Found

~ TEAOACTIIIS-I-EACP-AFCAA-OTBTSSOHSPATTT ~ The Emotional Appeal Of A Conspiracy Theory Is In Its Simplicity – It – Explains Away Complex Phenomena – Accounts For Chance And Accidents – Offers The Believer The Satisfying Sense Of Having Special Privileged Access To The Truth

~ FTWB-TO-PS-G-TROTCTABAR:P ~ For Those Who Become – The One-Party State’s – Gatekeepers – The Repetition Of These Conspiracy Theories Also Brings Another Reward: Power

~ TFON ~ The Future Of Nostalgia

~ WPHR-A-NLBTLIIAB-NLATTRCIEBG-TAAWGTR-WITE0INO ~ When People Have Rejected – Aristocracy – No Longer Believe That Leadership Is Inherited At Birth – No Longer Assume That The Ruling Class Is Endorsed By God – The Argument About Who Gets To Rule – Who Is The Elite – Is Never Over

~ DAFM-CPUO-EWBROWNTTROWPAETCFVDSP-TLOTCWA-SOL-GTCTVOTCI ~ Democracy And Free Markets – Can Produce Unsatisfying Outcomes – Especially When Badly Regulated Or When Nobody Trusts The Regulators Or When People Are Entering The Contest From Very Different Starting Points – The Losers Of These Competitions Were Always – Sooner Or Later – Going To Challenge The Value Of The Competition Itself

~ TDOST-BTASC-AUC-ASC-CHI-TOAMSDITW ~ The Desire Of Some To – Belong To A Special Community – A Unique Community – A Superior Community – Can Happen In – The Oldest And Most Secure Democracies In The World

~ TIB-NRTR-IWV-515,000-T ~ Though It Bore – No Relation To Reality – It Was Viewed – 515,000 – Times

~ OWBH-EEWSHTA ~ Oligarchs Would Be Happy – Everyone Else Would Simply Have To Adjust

~ COF ~ Cascades Of Falsehood

~ WALTARSITWPTARPI-ETSOCRTHHPPCITP ~ We Now Are Living Through A Rapid Shift In The Way People Transmit And Receive Politic Information – Exactly The Sort Of Communication Revolution That Has Had Profound Political Consequences In The Past

~ TRSIAMTICH-WAD-SDTAOBNABTCAPI ~ The Rapid Shift In Advertising Money To Internet Companies Has – Within A Decade – Severely Damaged The Ability Of Both Newspapers And Broadcasters To Collect And Present Information

~ PHA-HDO-N-THDF ~ People Have Always – Had Different Opinions – Now – They Have Different Facts

~ TSMATEFPOTW-PCOTNTWTH-TARTWUTT-BTHBDTKYO-TAAFE-E-AAF-A-BTSAA-TAPIWTDE-ABAH-DBN-PHMFTOWIR ~ The Social Media Algorithms Themselves Encourage False Perceptions Of The World – People Click On The News They Want To Hear – The Algorithms Radicalize Those Who Use Them Too – Because They Have Been Designed To Keep You Online – The Algorithms Also Favor Emotions – Especially – Anger And Fear – And – Because The Sites Are Addictive – They Affect People In Ways They Don’t Expect – Anger Becomes A Habit – Divisiveness Become Normal – Polarization Has Moved From The Online World Into Reality

~ W-PTB-LNS ~ Websites – Purporting To Be – Local News Sites

~ HIAND?-WGTDI?-AAW?-FALT-WHITSQWS-B-WSTEB? ~ How Is A Nation Defined? – Who Gets To Define It? – Who Are We? – For A Long Time – We Have Imagined That Such Questions Were Settled – But – Why Should They Ever Be?

~ M-NIT-WCT-UC-DPF-A-IP ~ Maybe – New Information Technology – Will Continue To – Undermine Consensus – Divide People Further – And – Increase Polarization

~ B-A-A-D/P/SP-I-WC-TFATR-NC-TWCFBALAL ~ Because – All – Authoritarianisms – Divide / Polarize / Separate People – Into – Warring Camps – The Fight Against Them Requires – New Coalitions – Together We Can Fight Back Against Lies And Liars

ROBERT SHILLER ~ THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN SETTING THE STAGE FOR MARKET MOVES ~ IRRATIONAL EXUBERANCE ~ 2000

~ THOSBBRWTAON ~ The History Of Speculate Bubbles Begins Roughly With The Advent Of Newspapers

~ ATNM-N/M/BM/TI-PTADOOME-TATAIPOTE-SME-GOOITISTALGOP-A-TNMAEVFTSOI ~ Although The News Media – Newspapers / Magazines / Broadcast Media / The Internet – Present Themselves As Detached Observers Of Market Events – They Are Themselves An Integral Part Of These Events – Significant Market Events – Generally Occur Only If There Is Similar Thinking Among Large Groups Of People – And – The News Media Are Essential Vehicles For The Spread Of Ideas

~ NS-RHA-S/P-EOTM ~ News Stories – Rarely Have A – Simple / Predictable – Effect On The Market

~ TNMAICCTCTPATNTS-SFTR-FADIN-FAONTH-W-O-M-P-TBTA-A-WP-DAOSTETATRSC ~ The News Media Are In Constant Competition To Capture The Public Attention They Need To Survive – Survival For Them Requires – Finding And Defining Interesting News – Focusing Attention On News That Has – Word-Of-Mouth – Potential – To Broaden Their Audience – And – Whenever Possible – Defining An Ongoing Story That Encourages Their Audience To Remain Steady Customers

~ TNMANATFM-B-ATVLTMP-CN-ITFO-DPC-NBTSMFSFOPINI ~ The News Media Are Naturally Attracted To Financial Markets – Because – At The Very Least The Markets Provide – Constant News – In The Form Of – Daily Price Changes – Nothing Beats The Stock Market For Sheer Frequency Of Potentially Interesting News Items

~ TSMAHSQ-TBCIT-BC-TMFMP-A-BTOAGDISAABOTSOTN-AITTMCFABF ~ The Stock Market Also Has Star Quality – The Pubic Considers It The – Big Casino – The Market For Major Players – And – Believes That On Any Given Day It Serves As A Barometer Of The Status Of The Nation – All Impressions That The Media Can Foster And Benefit From

~ FN-MHGHIPTTETIDWTMOBOF-TOORGONOACSI-SE-FNASN-TAFRHOTECOMNT ~ Financial News – May Have Great Human Interest Potential To The Extent That It Deals With The Making Or Breaking Of Fortunes – The Only Other Regular Generator Of News On A Comparable Scale Is – Sporting Events – Financial News And Sports News – Together Account For Roughly Half Of The Editorial Content Of Many Newspapers Today

~ TMOSTTOS-IRLATDIEDW-TWOFSTISTSAROAGD-TITNASRACBS-OATTCPHATE-IA-WIDO-DI-EAAOIAOQD-APFSTDIFUBCS ~ The Media Often Seem To Thrive On Superlatives – If Reporters Look At The Data In Enough Different Ways – They Will Often Find Something That Is Close To Setting A Record On Any Given Day – The Impression That New And Significant Records Are Constantly Being Set – Only Adds To The Confusion People Have About The Economy – It Also – With Its Deluge Of – Different Indicators – Encourages An Avoidance Of Individual Assessment Of Quantitative Data – A Preference For Seeing The Data Interpreted For Us By Celebrity Sources

HA-JOON CHANG ~ SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ C:TMKAPATC-SLIA ~ Classical: The Market Keeps All Producers Alert Through Competition – So Leave It Alone

~ N-C:IKWTAD~ Neo-Classical: Individuals Know What They Are Doing – So Leave Them Alone – Except When Markets Malfunction

~ M: CIAPVFEP-B-IWC-APPOBAOTFP ~ Marxist: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle For Economic Progress – But – It Will Collapse – As Private Property Ownership Becomes An Obstacle To Further Progress

~ DT:BECDITLTETTM ~ Developmentalist Tradition: Backward Economies Can’t Develop If They Leave Things Entirely To The Market

~ A:NOKE-SLEA ~ Austrian: No One Knows Enough – So Leave Everyone Alone

~ (N)-S:CIAPVOEP-B-IWA-AFBLAMB ~ (Neo)-Schumpeterian: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle Of Economic Progress – But – It Will Atrophy – As Firms Become Larger And More Bureaucratic

~ K:WIGFIMNBGFTWE ~ Keynesian: What Is Good For Individuals May Not Be Good For The Whole Economy

~ I:OAN?:IAPOTS-ETTMCIR ~ Institutionalist – Old And New?: Individuals Are Products Of Their Society – Even Though They May Change Its Rules

~ B:WANSE-SWNTDCOOFOCT-R ~ Behaviouralist: We Are Not Smart Enough – So We Need To Deliberately Constrain Our Own Freedom Of Choice Through – Rules

HA-JOON CHANG ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ 95%-O-E-I-CS-MTLD-WTUOJAM ~ 95 Per Cent – Of – Economics – Is – Common Sense – Made To Look Difficult – With The Use Of Jargons And Mathematics

~ ECNBASITSTPOCI ~ Economics Can Never Be A Science In The Sense That Physics Or Chemistry Is

~ NEHYCTECETU ~ No Economist Has Yet Claimed That Economics Can Explain The Universe

~ HGAETMB-IISTITAS ~ However Great An Economic Theory May Be – It Is Specific To Its Time And Space

~ TMW:CWTBWAGI ~ The Middle Way: Capitalism Works The Best With Appropriate Government Interventions

~ TM-I-IA-C-RT-S-O-IIBO-DD-RAR-T-PCT-DO-A-ESO-TBOTMHBRDART-DPD-MOLOOME-S/CL/CN-HBWFTM-ATST-MFUTHBMDT-PD ~ The Market – Itself – Is A – Constructed – Rather Than – Spontaneous – Order – It Is Based On – Deliberately Designed – Rules And Regulations – That – Prohibit Certain Things – Discourage Others – And – Encourage Still Others – The Boundaries Of The Market Have Been Repeatedly Drawn And Redrawn Through – Deliberate Political Decisions – Many Once-Legal Objects Of Market Exchange – Slaves / Child Labour / Certain Narcotics – Have Been Withdrawn From The Market – At The Same Time – Many Formerly Unmarketable Things Have Become Marketable Due To – Political Decisions

~ TIAHGITWMATSCACAWC-IT-‘SS’-E-WWHTKOD ~ There Is A Huge Gradation In The Ways Markets And The State Combine Across Countries And Within Countries – If The – “Slippery Slope” – Existed – We Wouldn’t Have These Kinds Of Diversity

~ ‘BR’-OTMCOOD-MINTLOIBOLCTPTIWH ~ “Bounded Rationality” – Often The Main Constraint On Our Decision-Making Is Not The Lack Of Information But Our Limited Capability To Process The Information We Have

~ HTMEB-PEDAEC-FOI ~ How To Make Economics Better – Preserving Intellectual Diversity And Encouraging Cross-Fertilization Of Ideas

~ TFI-WANTKSADATEIWANTBPVOSED-BEEPACATAOL-LSETTEHITA-O-MF-IPJOWTIPWTDA ~ The Fact Is – We All Need To Know Something About Diverse Approaches To Economics If We Are Not To Become Passive Victims Of Someone Else’s Decision – Behind Every Economic Policy And Corporate Action That Affects Our Lives – Lies Some Economic Theory That Either Has Inspired Those Actions – Or – More Frequently – Is Providing Justification Of What Those In Power Want To Do Anyway

~ OWWKTTADETWWBATTTPTTAWTTUT-‘TINA’-NWLT-DETSDTPBTBODEAPV-WWHTCTDEFWIRI-A-PA-ANA-‘S’-IWTICRAW ~ Only When We Know That There Are Different Economic Theories Will We Be Able To Tell Those In Power That They Are Wrong To Tell Us That – “There Is No Alternative” – Once We Learn That – Different Economic Theories Say Different Things Partly Because They’re Based On Different Ethical And Political Values – We Will Have The Confidence To Discuss Economics For What It Really Is – A – Political Argument – And Not A – “Science” – In Which There Is Clear Right And Wrong

~ MBIT-IV-WRSPFTDEFR-SAA-F-TWHPAM-IGSSBITTUSSAG-N-QTSQ

~ Many Believers In The – Individualist View – Would Rather Sacrifice Political Freedom To Defend Economic Freedom – Support And Approval – From – Those Who Have Power And Money – It Gets Such Support Because It Takes The Underling Social Structure – As Given – Not – Questioning The Status Quo

~ P-AP:A(PM)MPBPTPTOIRTTOTP(S) ~ Principle-Agent Problem: Agents (Professional Managers) May Pursue Business Practices That Promote Their Own Interests Rather Than Those Of Their Principals (Shareholders)

~ GOOSIPSCIMMWTPT ~ Government Ownership Of Shares In Private-Sector Companies Is Much More Widespread Than People Think

~ ISC-TU-AC-C-P-BTNCITAWO-IO-TASANPIAB ~ In Some Countries – Trade Unions – Are Considered – Counter-Productive – Blocking The Necessary Changes In Technologies And Work Organization – In Others – They Are Seen As Natural Partners In Any Business

~ OPPAPTTPITOF-TWHMALOMMDI-A-TTTCBRITTHE-LBEFTR-TP-OATOI-BTD-FRT-LWS-LROB-A-FWR ~ Once Poor People Are Persuaded That Their Poverty Is Their Own Fault – That Whoever Has Made A Lot Of Money Must Deserve It – And – That They Too Could Become Rich If They Tried Hard Enough – Life Becomes Easier For The Rich – The Poor – Often Against Their Own Interest – Begin To Demand – Fewer Redistribute Taxes – Less Welfare Spending – Less Regulation On Business – And – Fewer Worker Rights

~ Y-MPAS-SMOTT-B-TAAMB-P/CS/A/SOF(J)/H/CTAI/SOD/V/F/L/POB/IC-A-MEB

~ Yes – Most People Are Self-Seeking Much Of The Time – But – They Are Also Moved By – Patriotism / Class Solidarity / Altruism / Sense Of Fairness (Or Justice) / Honesty / Commitment To An Ideology / Sense Of Duty / Vicariousness / Friendship / Love / Pursuit Of Beauty / Idle Curiosity – And – Much Else Besides

~ WAGTROOTP-STS-IWDNFWTCTIOOEAOTE ~ We Are Going To Run Out Of The Planet – So To Speak – If We Do Not Find Ways To Control The Impacts Of Our Economic Activities On The Environment

~ TD-CB-S-AWA-C-O-EP ~ Technological Developments – Can Be – Solutions – As Well As – Causes – Of – Environmental Problems

~ TPTTNFIMBTCTBHSWBA ~ The Possibility That These New Financial Instruments Might Be Too Complicated To Be Handled Safely Was Brushed Away

~ IC-HMT-FS-M-IAU-II-HA-HTI-OT-FS ~ Increasing Complexity – Has Made The – Financial System – More – Inefficient And Unstable – Increasing Interconnectedness – Has Also – Heightened The Instability – Of The – Financial System

~ THBAVIITFOFC ~ There Has Been A Vast Increase In The Frequency Of Financial Crises

~ TROT-‘SVM’-M-ITEO-NF-H-DRTRAF-L-TI-I-N-FC ~ The Rise Of The – “Shareholder Value Maximization” – Model – In The Era Of – New Finance – Has – Dramatically Reduced The Resources Available For – Long-Term Investments – In – Non-Financial Corporations

~ N-FC-HBIDOTFAFTP ~ Non-Financial Companies – Have Become Increasingly Dependent On Their Financial Activities For Their Profits

~ F-NTBSREBIIS-P ~ Finance – Needs To Be Strictly Regulated Exactly Because It Is So – Powerful

~ CL-WCWIAJ-TMAPDAA-T-B-WFAYA-IMNFTPTTF ~ Child Labour – When Children Work In Adult Jobs – Their Mental And Physical Developments Are Arrested – Thus – By – Working From A Young Age – Individuals May Not Fulfill Their Potential To The Full

~ TWS-WITMDAOLFTMOP-EWTAOCA-‘NW’-DAT-IM-ED-PAMCA-C-RT-W-TRITWHAWAWI-ATDL-WSWWA ~ Taking Work Seriously – Work Is The Most Dominant Aspect Of Life For The Majority Of People – Even When They Are Officially Classified As – “Not Working” – Despite All This – In Most – Economic Discussions – People Are Mainly Conceptualized As – Consumers – Rather Than – Workers – The Reality Is That What Happens At Work Affects Workers Immeasurably – At The Deepest Level – Work Shapes Who We Are

~ F-E-OTMI-A-OA-PGITACC-ICTBSU-A-T-I-THCOU-EH/D/H/S-AHR ~ Full Employment – Once The Most Important – And – Often Achieved – Policy Goal In The Advanced Capitalist Countries – Is Considered To Be Something Unachievable – And – Thus – Irrelevant – The Human Costs Of Unemployment – Economic Hardship / Depression / Humiliation / Suicide – Are Hardly Recognized

~ W-TWMS-WCBAMBEAAMFS ~ Without – Taking Work More Seriously – We Cannot Build A More Balanced Economy And A More Fulfilled Society

~ PE:AM-‘H’-N ~ Political Economy: A More – “Honest” – Name

~ S-A-O-F-N-CTEOTTISDMBTTMOD-TONO-E-TSOPMOTE ~ Sometimes – An – Old – Forgotten – Name – Conveys The Essence Of The Thing It Is Describing Much Better Than The Modern One Does – The Old Name Of – Economics – The Study Of Political Management Of The Economy

~ TIAHSOOO-TAROTS-OWDF-EV-TPPOE-WTGSOSND-BM-BN ~ There Is A Huge Spectrum Of Opinion On – The Appropriate Role Of The State – Once We Depart From – Extreme Views – The Possible Permutations Of Exactly – What The Government Should Or Should Not Do – Become Mind-Bogglingly Numerous

~ TINS-‘S’-W-TDTBBMAP ~ There Isn’t A Single – “Scientific” – Way – To Draw The Boundary Between Market And Politics

~ EIAPA-YMATA-OQ-WB? ~ Economics Is A Political Argument – You Must Ask The Age-Old Question – Who Benefits?

TONY JUDT ~ ILL FARES THE LAND ~ 2010

~ SIPWWTWWLT-WKWTCBHNIWTAW-WNLAOAJROALA:IIG?-IIF?-IIR?-WIHBAABSOABW?-TYTB-T-PQ-EITINEA-WMLOATPT-WCGOLLT-AYWSUTCOA-TTISN ~ Something Is Profoundly Wrong With The Way We Live Today – We Know What Things Cost But Have No Idea What They Are Worth – We No Longer Ask Of A Judicial Ruling Or A Legislative Act: Is It Good? – Is If Fair? – Is It Right? – Will It Help Bring About A Better Society Or A Better World? – Those Used To Be – The – Political Questions – Even If They Invited No Easy Answers – We Must Learn Once Again To Pose Them – We Cannot Go On Living Like This – And Yet We Seem Unable To Conceive Of Alternatives – This Too Is Something New

~ TRGIAWATWIITI-B-ATFTIAGSOF-‘BWCWBI?’-‘WSWD?’ ~ The Rising Generation Is Acutely Worried About The World It Is To Inherit – But – Accompanying These Fears There Is A General Sentiment Of Frustration – “But What Can We Believe In?” – “What Should We Do”

~ S-TS-IGTBWUFTFF-WWDWTTAWSOASWW ~ Since – The State – Is Going To Be With Us For The Foreseeable Future – We Would Do Well To Think About What Sort Of A State We Want

~ IBF-A-F-FOC-FOD-FOSAAUW ~ Insecurity Breed Fear – And – Fear – Fear Of Change / Fear Of Decline / Fear Of Strangers And An Unfamiliar World

~ TCAC-THBACIIM-TPSP ~ The Consequences Are Clear – There Has Been A Collapse In Intergenerational Mobility – The Poor Stay Poor

TWTSBTWFATIM-TWTSP-TFRAPCA ~ The Wider The Spread Between The Wealthy Few And The Impoverished Many – The Worse The Social Problems – True For Rich And Poor Countries Alike

~ TY-O-GI-H-C-TTIA-NCOL-AWWCDL ~ Thirty Years – Of – Growing Inequality – Have – Convinced – That This Is A – Natural Condition Of Life – About Which We Can Do Little

~ IIOTTDAIAIP;IIQATRIT ~ It Is One Thing To Dwell Amongst Inequality And Its Pathologies; It Is Quite Another To Revel In Them

~ R-PAS-R-T-SL-WACPITSRTM20CP-TWHOATOBOT ~ Restoring – Pride And Self-Respect – To – Society’s Losers – Was A Central Platform In The Social Reforms That Marked 20th Century Progress – Today We Have Once Again Turned Our Back On Them

~ AWDITLB-AD-‘FM’~ Are We Doomed Indefinitely To Lurch Between – A Dysfunctional – “Free Market” – And – The Much-Advertised Horrors Of – “Socialism”?

~ TD-WTPIBTETIPOO ~ These Days – We Take Pride In Being Tough Enough To Inflict Pain On Others

~ WCCTEOWATCWMIAMV ~ We Cannot Continue To Evaluate Our World And The Choices We Make In A Moral Vacuum

~ MDNAG-T-C-O-CAFTCG-SB-TR-A-TCAOSAEE-C-‘IH’-BFTFITIUCFTMSOIP ~ Markets Do Not Automatically Generate – Trust – Cooperation – Or – Collective Action For The Common Good – Sustained By – Traditional Restraints – And – The Continuing Authority Of Secular And Ecclesiastical Elites – Capitalism’s – “Invisible Hand” – Benefited From The Flattering Illusion That It Unerringly Corrected For The Moral Shortcomings Of Its Practitioners

~ HSWBTMAFRAGOWTPOMWAITSME?-PWMSBROAOCTIWAT-T-‘E’-AWHDNFTY-INITH ~ How Should We Begin To Make Amends For Raising A Generation Obsessed With The Pursuit Of Material Wealth And Indifferent To So Much Else? – Perhaps We Might Start By Reminding Ourselves And Our Children That It Wasn’t Always Thus – Thinking – “Economistically” – As We Have Done Now For Thirty Years – Is Not Intrinsic To Humans

~ NCNLWSVLWOA ~ Neither Capitalism Nor Liberalism Would Survive Very Long Without One Another

~ IWT-FAD-O-T-MC-WHGRTF ~ It Was The – Fear And Disaffection – Of – The – Middle Class – Which Had Given Rise To Fascism

~ ACURT ~ All Collective Undertakings Require Trust

~ TMETS-TGTT ~ The More Equal The Society – The Greater The Trust

~ N-OC-IEQAGAWR ~ Nothing – Of Course – Is Ever Quite As Good As We Remember

~ WWHBWITSSOPROTPSTNDCA-CTETAPM-PII ~ What We Have Been Watching Is The Steady Shift Of Public Responsibility Onto The Private Sector To No Discernible Collective Advantage – Contrary To Economic Theory And Popular Myth – Privatization Is Inefficient

~ ITSR-DCSTIOTC ~ In The Short Run – Democracies Can Survive The Indifference Of Their Citizens

~ PITWYAG-NOHACSORFTTGD-IAKORHAHAEAB ~ Participation In The Way You Are Governed – Not Only Heightens A Collective Sense Of Responsibility For The Things Government Does – It Also Keeps Our Rulers Honest And Holds Authoritarian Excess At Bay

~ IWFEFTMOOCA-WSNBTSUAT-ITC-WSNBSTDTNOILTUU ~ If We Feel Excluded From The Management Of Our Collective Affairs – We Shall Not Bother To Speak Up About Them – In That Case – We Should Not Be Surprised To Discover That No One Is Listening To Us

~ CT-TILTCD-TDL ~ Convinced That – There Is Little They Can Do – They Do Little

~ TOTWTTMGITL;IFS-PSALAMVAIAUAR ~ The Only Thing Worse Than Too Much Government Is Too Little; In Failed States – People Suffer At Least As Much Violence And Injustice As Under Authoritarian Rule

~ A-CCOOOI-IWDOOINA-O-AOWCASL-LICTREOITNC ~ A – Closed Circle Of Opinion Or Ideas – Into Which Discontent Or Opposition Is Never Allowed – Or – Allowed Only Within Circumscribed And Stylized Limits – Loses Its Capacity To Respond Energetically Or Imaginatively To New Challenges

~ WNTR-LHT-CTWGU ~ We Need To Re-Learn How To – Criticize Those Who Govern Us

~ DAD-AO-TWOTY ~ Dissent And Dissidence – Are Overwhelmingly – The Work Of The Young

~ DMRWTLASIGTPC ~ Dissent Must Remain Within The Law And Seek Its Goals Through Political Channels

~ CADAYP:WITBOTIWDNTSTIOGW? ~ Cynicism And Despair Among Young People: What Is To Become Of Them If We Do Not Take Seriously The Implications Of Global Warming?

~ TWBFW-HDOTTWAAW ~ Those Who Benefit From War – Have Different Objectives Than Those Who Are Against War

~ SACACCI-TDDOCOWOI-IJAWTPOSOIAA ~ Societies Are Complex And Contain Conflicting Interests – To Deny Distinctions Of Class Or Wealth Or Influence – Is Just A Way To Promote One Set Of Interests Above Another

~ TPDLTBROTP ~ The Privileged Don’t Like To Be Reminded Of Their Privileges

~ ICFCTEDPR ~ International Capital Flows Continue To Elude Domestic Political Regulation

~ TS-MNBTP-II’-SB-P-I-C-A-U-U-C-O-IA-A-TS-OALT-DS-RAULITEOIC-IAATTATTI ~ The State – May Now Be The Primary – “Intermediate Institution” – Standing Between – Powerless – Insecure – Citizens – And – Unresponsive – Unaccountable – Corporations – Or – International Agencies – And – The State – Or At Least The – Democratic State – Retains A Unique Legitimacy In The Eyes Of Its Citizens – It Alone Answers To Them And They To It

~ F-R-CIR-O-RTDWTSPAEOOOAG-WFOR ~ Freedom – Rather – Consists In Retaining – Our – Right To Disagree With The State’s Purposes And Express Our Own Objections And Goals – Without Fear Of Retribution

~ PG-ITATRP-NTBPAPE ~ Public Goods – If They Are To Remain Public – Need To Be Provided At Public Expense

~ TFT-TROO-TAOT20C-AWTLCOAHRTDT-WTFGT-I/L/S/R-TWHIFTGAO20CR-IITTROTAOTWUIARA-1929-WATFBOATWSAIWU-TIMTD ~ The First Task – To Remind Ourselves Of – The Achievements Of The 20th Century – Along With The Likely Consequences Of A Heedless Rush To Dismantle Them – We Take For Granted The – Institutions / Legislation / Services / Rights – That We Have Inherited From The Great Age Of 20th Century Reform – It Is Time To Remind Ourselves That All Of These Were Utterly Inconceivable As Recently As – 1929 – We Are The Fortunate Beneficiaries Of A Transformation Whose Scale And Impact Was Unprecedented – There Is Much To Defend

~ WAIFWIO-I/U/I/I-WHJFHTTAT ~ We Are Intuitively Familiar With Issues Of – Injustice / Unfairness / Inequality / Immorality – We Have Just Forgotten How To Talk About Them

CHARLES MACKAY ~ WITCH MANIA ~ EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS AND THE MADNESS OF CROWDS ~ 1841

~ E-FAPO-TCAAH-BUTI-NOT-PSWTETMITAOM-B-TMH-PTSESTTATWWUTF-AETSUTN-ECTB-ATAW-NVO-P-B-TWOSNH-W-WOI-CTITRTFAPAHAAW-TWWOET-TUTOUPFVTTCAAD ~ Europe – For A Period Of – Two Centuries And A Half – Brooded Upon The Idea – Not Only That – Parted Spirits Walked The Earth To Meddle In The Affairs Of Men – But – That Men Had – Power To Summon Evil Spirits To Their Aid To Work Woe Upon Their Fellows – An Epidemic Terror Seized Upon The Nations – Every Calamity That Befell – Attributed To A Witch – Not Visitations Of – Providence – But – The Works Of Some Neighbouring Hag – Whose – Wretchedness Or Insanity – Caused The Ignorant To Raise Their Finger And Point At Her As A Witch – The Word Was One Everybody’s Tongue – Thousands Upon Thousands Of Unhappy Persons Fell Victims To This Cruel And Absurd Delusion

~ PFW-IWACIWSME-A-RWSMD-T-TP-WTWT-RTW-A-CFNOIUT-HOTATOWTETD-TCWMTPFTMVP-BOIAOC-WROWP-POR ~ Prosecutions For Witchcraft – It Was A Crime Imputed With So Much Ease – And – Repelled With So Much Difficulty – That – The Powerful – Whenever They Wanted To – Ruin The Weak – And – Could Fix No Other Imputation Upon Them – Had Only To Accuse Them Of Witchcraft To Ensure Their Destruction – This Crime Was Made The Pretext For The Most Violent Persecution – Both Of Individuals And Of Communities – Whose Real Offences Were Purely – Political Or Religious

~ TTCOTFABOTFC-MWWB-IDPO-E ~ Towards The Close Of The Fourteenth And Beginning Of The Fifteenth Century – Many Witches Were Burned – In Different Parts Of – Europe

~ AANCOTSP-TCOTPTI-I-TWFTAATWTP-ITHTBPOABAMD-WTHTPITT-TTMBRUTP ~ As A Natural Consequence Of The Severe Persecution – The Crime Or The Pretenders To It – Increased – Those Who Found Themselves Accused And Threatened With The Penalties – If They Happened To Be Persons Of A Bad And Malicious Disposition – Wished They Had The Power Imputed To Them – That They Might Be Revenged Upon Their Persecutors

~ W-RAL-A-RTC-IINWT-TWIRATSII-EWTWOANT-FTEWT-TP-OWATWWS ~ When – Religion And Law – Alike – Recognized The Crime – It Is No Wonder That – The Weak In Reason And The Strong In Imagination – Especially When They Were Of A Nervous Temperament – Fancied Themselves Endued With The – Terrible Powers – Of Which All The World Was Speaking

~ TR-TCIF-MTA-CA ~ The Rack – That Convenient Instrument For – Making The Accused – Confess Anything

~ UT-C-JWP:T-POW-AUISC-W-HABITM-P;TM-WD-WATE-UPOLS ~ Upon These – Confessions – Judgment Was Pronounced: The – Poor Old Women – As Usual In Such Cases – Were – Hanged And Burned In The Market-Place; The More – Wealthy Delinquents – Were Allowed To Escape – Upon Payment Of Large Sums

~ TMTB-TMTFTB-UIBA-CP-W-WITHWOL-TTMNLTGO-IWSTB-A-P-A-I-T-TE-DATSOTS ~ The More They Burned – The More They Found To Burn – Until It Became A – Common Prayer – With – Women In The Humbler Walks Of Life – That They Might Never Live To Grow Old – It Was Sufficient To Be – Aged – Poor – And – Ill-Tempered – To Ensure – Death At The Stake Or The Scaffold

~ ‘CEC’ ~ “Convicta Et Combusta”

~ I-ACOM-SUIE-WMITSBOTL-T-DABW ~ Immediately – A Class Of Men – Sprang Up In Europe – Who Made It The Sole Business Of Their Lives – To – Discover And Burn The Witches

~ T-NF-TETARBTI ~ Torture – Never Failed – To Educe The Answer Require By The Inquisitor

~ TTI-T-PWD-FIWTNOCHCOTSOAWWWNAADITA:THWFATWHITS ~ The Truth Is – That – Pity Was Dangerous – For It Was Thought No One Could Have Compassion On The Sufferings Of A Witch Who Was Not A Dabbler In The Art: To Have Wept For A Witch Would Have Insured The Stake

~ ITMOTE-RWTGOM;FIAUR-OA-A-TP-WTCWW ~ In The Midst Of These Executions – Rare Were The Gleams Of Mercy; Few Instances Are Upon Record – Of Any – Acquittal – Taking Place – When The Charge Was Witchcraft

~ W-F-O-W-P-BAT-A-ASOMVRATCPW-LP-T-RITFOSC-SS-DOF-NUT-I-AP-WDNB-WPUI-WDTTD ~ Witch-Finding – Or – Witch-Pricking – Became A Trade – And – A Set Of Mercenary Vagabonds Roamed About The Country Provided With – Long Pins – To – Run Into The Flesh Of Supposed Criminals – Some Spot – Devoid Of Feeling – No Unusual Thing – In – Aged Persons – Who Did Not Bleed – When Pricked Upon It – Was Doomed To The Death

~ TPWWIGAOTC-W-P-I-MAW-WDNUTNOTA-A-WMTOSFFW ~ The Persons Who Were In General Accused Of This Crime – Were – Poor – Ignorant – Men And Women – Who Did Not Understand The Nature Of The Accusation – And – Who Mistook Their Own Superstitious Fears For Witchcraft

~ SDRASETACRT-S-IICTT-T-TDHPA-T-TRMHGPTAMF-AT-WMNCBUTVOAS-WIFA-NIVBTTAIVBM ~ So Deeply Rooted Are Some Errors That Ages Cannot Remove Them – Still – It Is Consoling To Think – That – The Delirium Has Passed Away – That – The Raging Madness Has Given Place To A Milder Folly – And That – We May Now Count By Units The Votaries Of A Superstition – Which In Former Ages – Numbered Its Victims By The Thousands And Its Votaries By Millions