ALAN WHITEHORN ~ BASED ON WORK BY GREGORY STANTON ~ THE STEPS AND STAGES OF GENOCIDE

~ C-USDSTIVAOWEC ~ Classification ~ Using Simplistic, Dualistic Stereotypes That Ignore Variations And Overlaps Within Each Category

~ S-CSFDTJ ~ Symbolization ~ Classification Slips From Describing To Judging

~ D-TVGIPAFOTMCAPANB-TSFSA-A-EDABLTFH ~ Dehumanization ~ The Victim Group Is Portrayed As Falling Outside The Main Community And Perceived As Not Belonging – Then Scapegoated For Society’s Ills – And – Eventually Described As Being Less Than Fully Human

~ O-MBOMOVG-ASCBAOTVDPFA ~ Organization ~ Mobilization Begins Of Militia Or Vigilante Groups And State Censorship Blocks Accounts Of The Victims’ Desperate Pleas For Assistance

~ PAIE-TASFAMLI-STVGOICR-SOOPPTMRTVGAD ~ Polarization And Increased Inequality ~ The Authoritarian State Formalizes And Magnifies Legal Inequalities – Stripping The Victim Group Of Its Citizenship Rights – Social Organizations Or Political Parties That Might Represent The Vulnerable Group Are Disbanded

~ P-TIVNTBI-OFTWIS-L-SFTP-A-D-DLADUWNOPRLATT ~ Preparation ~ The Intended Victims Need To Be Identified – Often Forced To Wear Identifying Symbols – Located – Separated From The Public – And – Disarmed – Death Lists Are Drawn Up With Names Of Potential Resistance Leaders At The Top

~ E-TKMBDBFNFADCORHFSMGOWTABGWTV-BMO-TKIBFVGMOPSEU-FBTPATA ~ Extermination ~ The Killing May Be Done By Former Neighbours From A Different Clan Or Religion Hoping For Some Material Gain Or Wishing To Avoid Being Grouped With The Victims – But More Often – The Killing Is By Fanatical Vigilante Groups, Militias Or Paramilitary Special Extermination Units – Facilitated By The Police And The Army

~ D-TCDAMIOTEOSPAEASOSAC-TVTABFCTTTOTWBT ~ Denial ~ The Conspirators Deny Any Malevolent Intent Or The Existence Of Secret Plans And Employ A Screen Of Secrecy And Censorship – The Victims Themselves Are Blamed For Causing The Terrible Times Or Triggering What Befell Them

BRUCE SCHNEIER ~ RULES FOR SUCCESSFULLY MANAGING COMMONS ~ BASED ON WORK BY ELINOR OSTROM ~ LIARS AND OUTLIERS ~ 2012

~ EMUTGIAKWTGNI ~ Everyone Must Understand The Group Interest And Know What The Group Norm Is

~ TGMBATMTN ~ The Group Norm Must Be Something That The Group Actually Wants

~ The Group Must Be Able To Modify The Norm

~ AIDWETGNMBATTG-SIESR ~ Any Institution Delegated With Enforcing The Group Norm Must Be Accountable To The Group – So It’s Effectively Self-Regulated

~ TPFDMBCWTSOTD ~ The Penalties For Defecting Must Be Commensurate With The Seriousness Of The Defection

~ TSFAPMB-CFEARC ~ The System For Assessing Penalties Must Be – Consistent, Fair, Efficient, And Relatively Cheap

~ TGMBATDIOIPANHIIFOTG ~ The Group Must Be Able To Develop Its Own Institutional Pressure And Not Have It Imposed From Outside The Group

~ ITALGALGI-TTGNTBSPANIML-EOATSL ~ If There Are Larger Groups And Larger Group Interests – Then The Groups Need To Be Scaled Properly And Nested In Multiple Layers – Each Operating Along These Same Lines

BRUCE SCHNEIER ~ LIARS AND OUTLIERS ~ 2012

~ SOUAMCMHMAAF-ASOUALS-TIODSS-WHTFTSBDS ~ Some Of Us Are More Cooperative, More Honest, More Altruistic, And Fairer – And Some Of Us Are Less So – There Isn’t One Dominant Survival Strategy – We Have The Flexibility To Switch Between Different Strategies

~ TWABAGOPWWTTTWGB-TBWCHFITDWOBD-AWENED-KTPDTATL ~ There Will Always Be A Group Of People Who Will Try To Take Without Giving Back – The Best We Can Hope For Is To Do What Our Bodies Do – And What Every Natural Ecosystem Does – Keep Those Parasites Down To A Tolerable Level

~ WDKTAIATDBOIAM-KPAMLTR ~ We Do Know That Agreeableness Is A Trait Desired By Others In A Mate – Kind People Are More Likely To Reproduce

~ O-AHRDSB-NIIAPWPTHITBO-S-AISOLMHMT ~ Oxytocin – A Hormone Released During Social Bonding – Naturally Increases In A Person Who Perceives That He/Her Is Trusted By Others – Similarly – Artificially Increasing Someone’s Oxytocin Level Makes Her/Him More Trusting

~ MARCOPTOSP-TAIAOABCASLIOB-DTPO-WVAGD-THH-ATEAODWBD-TAMARSHWAW ~ Morals And Reputation Comprise Our Prehistoric Toolbox Of Societal Pressures – They Are Informal And Operate At Both Conscious And Subconscious Levels In Our Brains – Despite The Prevalence Of – War, Violence And General Deceptiveness – Throughout Human History – And The Enormous Amount Of Damage Wrought By Defectors – These Ancient Moral And Reputational Systems Have Worked Amazingly Well

~ MPWBISG ~ Moral Pressure Works Best In Small Groups

~ RPWWISAMSG ~ Reputational Pressure Works Well In Small- And Medium-Sized Groups

~ IPWBILSG ~ Institutional Pressure Works Best In Larger-Sized Groups

~ ‘DUOWYWHTDUY’-DGHTOUS-IBADTCWO-IRITCTTAUMPOSH ~ “Do Unto Others What You Would Have Them Do Unto You” – Different Groups Have Their Own Unique Spin – It’s Basically An Admonition To Cooperate With Others – It Really Is The Closest Thing To A Universal Moral Principle Our Species Has

~ WDNOAOMCADORAWFTG:TGATCACADAWIMTAIATM ~ We Not Only Absorb Our Moral Codes And Definitions Of Right And Wrong From The Group: The Group Also Transmits Cues About Cooperation And Defection And What It Means To Act In A Trustworthy Manner

~ PAMLTSTSIIFOTGI-ITFTOADSAW-ATLLTDSITFTOATAOT-OISOF ~ People Are More Likely To Suppress Their Self-Interest In Favor Of The Group Interest – If They Feel That Others Are Doing So As Well – And They’re Less Likely To Do So If They Feel That Others Are Taking Advantage Of Them – Our Innate Sense Of Fairness

~ WGDMSFTG-ALAWASF ~ We Generally Don’t Mind Sacrificing For The Group – As Long As We’re All Sacrificing Fairly

~ MSB-TFASBLATMTTBTMW ~ Morals Scale Badly – They Fail As Societies Become Larger And The Moral Ties That Bind Their Members Weaken

~ TALORODD-HSNTBVGAI-TAEAPCLTBBAI-BIG-WCTLFTT ~ There’s A Lot Of Research On Detecting Deception – Humans Seem Not To Be Very Good At It – There Are Exceptions And People Can Learn To Be Better At It – But In General – We Can’t Tell Liars From Truth-Tellers

~ WRNIAPMV-WMD-AFALTPI-ISTKWWDIMITKWTT ~ We Remember Negative Information About People More Vividly – With More Detail – And For A Longer Time – Than Positive Information – It Seems That Knowing Who Will Defect Is More Important Than Knowing Whom To Trust

~ NODWGORAB-WATPTAOGR ~ Not Only Do We Guard Our Reputation Against Blemishes – We Also Take Pains To Advertise Our Good Reputation

~ TMOH-CWALP-RMIW-ARWL ~ Throughout Most Of History – Commerce Was A Local Phenomenon – Reputation Made It Work – And Reputation Was Local

~ OOTWTSRITGBOGM ~ One Of The Ways To Scale Reputation Is To Generalize Based On Group Membership

~ NEITWAMLTTPWLLU-AWNCOPOSABLTMTAU-UTTFITG ~ Numerous Experiments Indicate That We Are More Likely To Trust People Who Look Like Us – And We Naturally Change Our Patterns Of Speech And Body Language To Mimic Those Around Us – Unconsciously Trying To Fit Into The Group

~ TAASORWSIABSFJIP-AFTRSHSTGBOMBI ~ There Are All Sorts Of Reasons Why Stereotyping Is A Bad System For Judging Individual People – And For Those Reasons We Should Strive To Get Beyond Our More Base Instincts

~ RIAESPSUIHC-RCAPD ~ Reputation Isn’t An Effective Societal Pressure System Unless It Has Consequences – Reward Cooperators And Punish Defectors

~ HAASS-WR-BAOTPITG-WAPD-EITCP ~ Humans Are A Social Species – We Reward – By Allowing Others To Participate In The Group – We Also Punish Defectors – Exclusion Is The Corresponding Punishment

~ SIACRP-A-AAR-AISE ~ Shame Is A Common Reputational Punishment – And – As A Result – An Important Social Emotion

~ IPASCWCMTIWNPA ~ Informal Punishments Are So Common We Can Miss Them If We’re Not Paying Attention

~ CTSALOTMRS-TEASO-PFAOA-S-TCTVTTHAGRB-AA-BC-A-ET ~ Confidence Tricksters Spend A Lot Of Time Manipulating Reputation Signals – They Employ All Sorts Of – Props, Facades, And Other Actors – Shills – To Convince Their Victims That They Have A Good Reputation By – Appearing Authentic – Building Confidence – And – Encouraging Trust

~ SPSDCAR ~ Some People Simply Don’t Care About Reputation

~ SPEUWTWR ~ Some People End Up With The Wrong Reputation

~ TMIRRPSTFIT-GGTL ~ The Most Important Reason Reputational Pressure Starts To Fail Is That – Groups Get Too Large

~ WWKA-CCAPIFP-DAMR ~ What We Know About – Celebrities, Corporations And People In Faraway Places – Doesn’t Always Match Reality

~ LCBAI-ILA-OCAUA-TASAU ~ Laws Can Be Applied Inconsistently – If Laws Aren’t – Objective, Common, And Universally Applied – They Are Seen As Unfair

~ OLATRTSACBOBT ~ Our Learned Abilities To Read Trust Signals Are Continually Being Overtaken By Technology

~ UIDS-CMIFMP-BASSIDCBUIMMP-S-A-HTF-IDIER-BIITMMPTF ~ Universal ID Systems – Can Make Impersonation Fraud More Profitable – Because A Single Stolen ID Can Be Used In Many More Places – Sometimes – A – Harder-To-Forge ID Is Even Riskier – Because It Is That Much More Profitable To Forge

~ WMALOOIWOP-FESS-IDCSTS ~ We’re Moving A Lot Of Our Interactions With Other People – From Evolved Social Systems – Into Deliberately Created Socio-Technical Systems

~ WASTLWGACWWT-ATWACBMAM-PMUTGMAAFOR ~ We Are Starting To Learn Which Genes Are Correlated With Which Traits – And This Will Almost Certainly Be Misreported And Misunderstood – People May Use These Genetic Markers As A Form Of Reputation

~ CSDRTNSOA-RITRWSTATIASSDFEE-GIAOIC-ACIONDIA ~ Competing Societal Dilemmas Represent The Normal State Of Affairs – Rarely Is The Real World So Tidy As To Isolate A Single Societal Dilemma From Everything Else – Group Interests Are Often In Conflict – And Cooperating In One Necessitates Defecting In Another

DAVID HOROWITZ ~ THE ART OF POLITICAL WAR AND OTHER RADICAL PURSUITS

~ PIWCBOM ~ Politics Is War Conducted By Other Means

~ IPWYDNFJTPIAA-BTDTEFA ~ In Political Warfare You Do Not Fight Just To Prevail In An Argument – But To Destroy The Enemy’s Fighting Ability

~ YHOTSTMYP ~ You Have Only Thirty Seconds To Make Your Point

~ PIAWOP-YTITDYATFOALACAPCWYP-WDYOATEWYC-CTTTMTFAEFYAP ~ Politics Is A War Of Position – Your Task Is To Define Yourself As The Friend Of As Large A Constituency As Possible Compatible With Your Principles – While Defining Your Opponent As The Enemy Whenever You Can – Choose The Terrain That Makes The Fight As Easy For You As Possible

~ IPW-TAUP-AIABPIAWOP-WIDBITS ~ In Political Warfare – The Aggressor Usually Prevails – Aggression Is Advantageous Because Politics Is A War Of Position – Which Is Defined By Images That Stick

~ BSF-YCDTIAWAYA-DTOITDMIAPW ~ By Striking First – You Can Define The Issues As Well As Your Adversary – Defining The Opposition Is The Decisive Move In All Political War

~ TWPPWHBTF-TWIFBE-OTT-HITBC ~ Position Is Defined By Fear And Hope – Those Who Provide People With Hope Become Their Friends – Those Who Inspire Fear Become Enemies – Of The Two – Hope Is The Better Choice

~ TWOPASEFAH-TMISITC ~ The Weapons Of Politics Are Symbols Evoking Fear And Hope – The Most Important Symbol Is The Candidate

~ PWNCAWYHTS-UTBYCAT-TAOPIPP-WDNKY-AWWNKY ~ People Will Not Care About What You Have To Say – Unless They Believe You Care About Them

~ TAOPIPP-WWNKYETSASB-TYCAT ~ The Art Of Politics Is Persuading People – Who Will Never Know You Except Through Symbols And Sound Bites – That You Care About Them

~ VLOTSOTP-YMDYIWTPU-YMGPHIYV-AMTFTVOYO ~ Victory Lies On The Side Of The People – You Must Define Yourself In Ways That People Understand – You Must Give People Hope In Your Victory – And Make Them Fear The Victory Of Your Opponent

~ OOTPSOHMIATTEIAOUTTFGWWAGATFTAWWH ~ One Of The Principal Sources Of Human Misery Is A Tendency That Exists In All Of Us To Take For Granted What We Are Given And To Fail To Appreciate What We Have

~ ALGIHDITPFRTK ~ A Lie Grounded In Human Desire Is Too Powerful For Reason To Kill

JAMES KWAK ~ ECONOMISM

~ BEATROI ~ Bad Economics And The Rise Of Inequality

~ E-ROTPT-PCAM-BAT-TA-TDIOAE101T-ETTABTDVNHTITRW ~ Economism – Rests On The Premise That – People, Companies, And Markets – Behave According To – The Abstract – Two-Dimensional Illustrations Of An Economics 101 Textbook – Even Though The Assumptions Behind Those Diagrams Virtually Never Hold True In The Real World

~ EIAILTWPMSOR-BICTAO-‘E’-ECBAPRT ~ Economism Is An Interpretive Lens Through Which People Make Sense Of Reality – Because It Claims The Authority Of – “Economics” – Economism Can Be A Powerful Rhetorical Tool

~ WSEACSMP-ITWTMOJTESO-ATITIG-WETFOAATCI ~ While Superficial Economic Arguments Can Serve Multiple Purposes – In Today’s World They Most Often Justify The Existing Social Order – And The Inequality That It Generates – While Explaining The Futility Of Any Attempt To Change It

~ RARWQTSMAATITST-ITS-EILAI ~ Reducing All Real-World Questions To Simple Models And Answering Them In The Same Terms – In This Sense – Economism Is Like An Ideology

~ TCJFGDOW-INLTTSHWDBG-OTTSOTFIRFTPOTS-I-IIN-EC-BIITNOOAESTPTGGTTGN ~ The Common Justification For Great Disparities Of Wealth – Is No Longer That The Social Hierarchy Was Dictated By God – Or That The Survival Of The Fittest Is Required For The Progress Of The Species – Instead – Inequality Is Necessary – Even Celebrated – Because It Is The Natural Outcome Of An Economic System That Provides The Greatest Good To The Greatest Number

~ TAOETPAASRTRDIOSOIS ~ The Ability Of Economism To Pass As Abstract Science Rather Than Rhetorical Device Is One Source Of Its Strength

~ EIAIBOISEAEP-ACUPOTW-WCBCQAE-DWMAUF ~ Economism Is Also Influential Because Of Its Sedative Elegance And Explanatory Power – A Clean, Uncluttered Picture Of The World – Which Can Be Communicated Quickly And Easily – Dispensing With Messy And Uncooperative Facts

~ ASSOAC-BOAUA-HBSWICS ~ A Small Set Of Abstract Concepts – Based On Admittedly Unrealistic Assumptions – Has Become So Widespread In Contemporary Society

~ IALETMACITAWOSADC-TIIITRWOPAI ~ It’s A Lost Easier To Make A Case In The Abstract World Of Supply And Demand Curves – Than It Is In The Real World Of People And Institutions

~ IGPPWTBUTAISOS-WTSTIOTG-OPIWAFIOTW ~ Ideas Gain Power Precisely When They Become Useful To An Important Segment Of Society – When They Support The Interests Of That Group – Or Provide It With A Favorable Interpretation Of The World

~ EEBPAOSHTCUBEPTTA ~ Economism Exists Because People And Organizations Saw How They Could Use Basic Economic Principles To Their Advantage

~ AWFFBMEIP-MDCRTEI ~ As Wealthy Family Foundations Became More Engaged In Politics – Many Devoted Considerable Resources To Economic Ideas

~ BBTPO-PT-SI-AWP-TECTAJDUE-ASOTET-T-CCTBUWEFTPOPTO ~ Befuddled By The Popularity Of – Progressive Taxes – Social Insurance – And Welfare Programs – These Entrepreneurs Concluded That Americans Just Didn’t Understand Economics – And Set Out To Educate Them – Today – Commentators Continue To Blame Unfamiliarity With Economics For The Popularity Of Policies They Oppose

~ MICWDNSIEIARATVOE ~ Many Influential Commentators Who Do Not Specialize In Economic Issues Also Routinely Adopt The Vocabulary Of Economism

~ TMNEBMIASWOPADSAEI ~ The Media Normalize Economism By Making It A Standard Way Of Presenting And Discussing Social And Economic Issues

~ TFTCCWOUSBFE101-DTPVOE-IOTATSR ~ The Fact That Candidates Can Win Office Using Sound Bites From Economics 101 – Demonstrates The Political Viability Of Economism – Inspiring Others To Adopt The Same Rhetoric

~ EFBAAEDTAAAWODAFTRI ~ Economism Functions Both As An Effective Debating Tool And As A Way Of Distracting Attention From The Real Issues

~ ATPOE-TPRITBBAWEP-R-LIBASIAM-YMWYD-EPTPJFT-W-T-A-RS-ALFTWPOV-H-WHRMMSTP-TDHTPTPLADBNP-NPP ~ According To The Principles Of Economism – The People Raking In The Big Bucks Are Worth Every Penny – Remember – Labor Is Bought And Sold In A Market – You Make What You Deserve – Economism Provides The Perfect Justification For The – Winner-Take-All – Reward Scale – At Least From The Winner’s Point Of View – However – Wages Have Risen Much More Slowly Than Productivity – This Divergence Highlights The Possibility That Pay Levels Are Determined By Negotiating Power – Not Pure Productivity

~ ECRPFS-AGTINJTWBAOPWRFAIITSM ~ Excessive Compensation Reduces Profits For Shareholders – A Group That Includes Not Just The Wealthy But Also Ordinary People Whose Retirement Funds Are Invested In The Stock Market

~ ALTSTT-TCBMBI-CCETMDTMTBBHTCITLR ~ Awards Linked To Short-Term Targets – That Can Be Manipulated By Insiders – Can Cause Executives To Make Decisions That Maximize Their Bonuses But Harm The Company In The Long Run

~ FC-WSGWHBACPQ-ERTQFTPSTTAROT-IWTCLMPTPIS ~ For Centuries – Who Should Get What Has Been A Central Political Question – Economism Removes The Question From The Political Sphere To The Abstract Realm Of Theory – In Which The Competitive Labor Market Provides The Perfect, Indisputable Solution

~ OOTCPOEITTA-VVB-AU-YCMTAEUAS-A-DD-TITHTDPFWATMSWOIPTSMDETOE ~ One Of The Core Principles Of Economism Is That Taxes Are – Very, Very Bad – As Usual – You Can Make The Argument Easily Using A Supply-And-Demand Diagram – The Idea That Higher Taxes Discourage People From Working And Therefore Make Society Worse Off Is Probably The Single Most Deeply Entrenched Tenet Of Economism

~ TOIIHFPITUSOTPSY-WNOIIESOG-TEEMRIT1950A1960-APWTTROMIIW70%OH ~ Taxes On Investment Income Have Fallen Precipitously In The United States Over The Past Seventy Years – With No Obvious Increase In Either Savings Or Growth – The Economy Expanded Most Rapidly In The 1950s and 1960s – A Period When The Tax Rates On Most Investment Income Were 70 Percent Or Higher

~ TROCGHHLIEOSOOEG ~ Tax Rates On Capital Gains Have Had Little Impact Either On Savings Or On Economic Growth

~ MPABUOTTR-MHBFDABNOSCIROR-BOPR-SA-‘SWILOAE’ ~ Many People Are Blissfully Unaware Of Their Tax Rates – Most Human Beings’ Financial Decisions Are Based Not On Sophisticated Calculations Involving Rates Of Return – But On Primitive Rules – Such As – “Save Whatever Is Left Over After Expenses”

~ LTRITAOMTTGHTB-RTCATTPS ~ Lower Tax Revenues Increase The Amount Of Money That The Government Has To Borrow – Reducing The Capital Available To The Private Sector

~ TSMSTLITWISAGDHUTS-LPKMOTSDNAMTTWM ~ The Simple Model Saying That Lower Investment Taxes Will Increase Savings And Growth Doesn’t Hold Up To Scrutiny – Letting People Keep More Of Their Salaries Does Not Always Motivate Them To Work More

~ AGISAMBWWOCAOSTWDNTTPSTLAE-ASTQOWTAWDOWFWEFOGAHWIFT ~ A Government Is Simply A Mechanism By Which We Organize Certain Aspects Of Society That We Do Not Trust The Private Sector To Look After Effectively – And So The Question Of Whether Taxes Are Worthwhile Depends On What Functions We Expect From Our Government And How Well It Fulfills Them

~ TGPOAWITSTBOWPBIEP ~ The Greatest Power Of A Worldview Is To Set The Boundaries Of What People Believe Is Even Possible

~ ERMFTPHBIACWBIAWOE-IFC ~ Economism’s Rosy Model Failed To Predict How Both Individuals And Companies Would Behave In A World Of Ever-Increasing Financial Complexity

~ I2008-WRTLTACMDNMETCFTIMPU-I-P-SBLBPACTMTIGIWTDLDAWR-SOATMS ~ In 2008 – We Relearned The Lesson That A Competitive Market Does Not Magically Ensure That Capital Flows To Its Most Productive Uses – Instead – Profit-Seeking Behavior Leads Both People And Companies To Maximize Their Individual Gains In Ways That Distort Lending Decisions And Waste Resources – Sometimes On A Truly Monumental Scale

~ TMTNCALAMCTE-A-CRASTLTETTBWSTNCI ~ The Megabanks That Nearly Collapsed Are Larger And More Complex Than Ever – And – Capital Requirements Are Still Too Low To Ensure That Those Banks Will Survive The Next Crisis Intact

~ IARWLM-TADCCL ~ In A Real-World Labor Market – Trade Agreements Do Create Clear Losers

~ TGAOEHBT-RAPI-AAL-E-T-U-SN-FFSTW ~ The Great Achievement Of Economism Has Been To – Repackage A Political Ideology – As A Lightweight – Easy-To-Use – Seemingly Neutral – Framework For Seeing The World

~ BCTSOAT-EDTTIADAA-TWSITWII-IYDA-YMNUE101 ~ By Claiming The Status Of Absolute Truth – Economism Denies That There Is Any Debate At All – The World Simply Is The Way It Is – If You Don’t Agree – You Must Not Understand Economics 101

~ EPAIRIOCPI-PCTOAAA-WPOTTM ~ Economism Plays An Important Role In Our Contemporary Political Institutions – Prioritizing Certain Types Of Analyses And Arguments – While Pushing Others To The Margins

~ FASTBR-CMANE-TMAB-PDPI-TPEF-MP-SC-A-SAESOR ~ For A Society To Become Rich – Competitive Markets Are Not Enough – There Must Also Be – Pluralistic Democratic Political Institutions – That Prevent Elites From – Monopolizing Power – Suppressing Competitors – And – Seizing An Excessive Share Of Resources

~ U-IWTANWTDBWTO ~ Ultimately – It Will Take A New Worldview To Do Battle With The Old

ROBERT PAXTON ~ “MOBILIZING PASSIONS” ~ THE ANATOMY OF FASCISM

~ ASOOCBTROATS ~ A Sense Of Overwhelming Crisis Beyond The Reach Of Any Traditional Solutions

~ TPOTG-TWOHDSTER-WIOU-ATSOTITI ~ The Primacy Of The Group – Toward Which One Has Duties Superior To Every Right – Whether Individual Or Universal – And The Subordination Of The Individual To It

~ TBTOGIAV-ASTJAA-WLOML-AIE-BIAE ~ The Belief That One’s Group Is A Victim – A Sentiment That Justifies Any Action – Without Legal Or Moral Limits – Against Its Enemies – Both Internal And External

~ DOTGDUTCEO-IL-CC-AI ~ Dread Of The Group’s Decline Under The Corrosive Effects Of – Individualistic Liberalism – Class Conflict – Alien Influences

~ TNFCIOAPC-BCIP-O-BEVIN ~ The Need For Closer Integration Of A Purer Community – By Consent If Possible – Or – By Exclusionary Violence If Necessary

~ TNFABNC-AM-CIANCWICOITGHD ~ The Need For Authority By Natural Chiefs – Always Male – Culminating In A National Chieftain Who Alone Is Capable Of Incarnating The Group’s Historical Destiny

~ TSOTLIOAAUR ~ The Superiority Of The Leader’s Instincts Over Abstract And Universal Reason

~ TBOVATEOW-WTADTTGS ~ The Beauty Of Violence And The Efficacy Of Will – When They Are Devoted To The Group’s Success

~ TROTCPTDOWRFAKOHODL-RBDBTSCOTGPWADS ~ The Right Of The Chosen People To Dominate Others Without Restraint From Any Kind Of Human Or Divine Law – Right Being Decided By The Sole Criterion Of The Group’s Prowess Within A Darwinian Struggle

DAVID GRAEBER ~ DEBT – THE FIRST 5,000 YEARS ~ 2011 + 2012

~ IOTORCHTFSOFMEPDIWOZ-TTCHNAT-ANW ~ In Order To Obtain Refinancing Countries Have To Follow Some Orthodox Free-Market Economic Policy Designed In Washington Or Zurich – That Their Citizens Had Never Agreed To – And Never Would

~ IWABDTITCADC-ATAIT-WGE-THNCOTCPA ~ It Was A Bit Dishonest To Insist That Countries Adopt Democratic Constitutions – And Then Also Insists That – Whoever Gets Elected – They Have No Control Over Their Country Policies Anyway

~ FTOY-TSBRAPHLTTFOCBCAD-OAB-IP-DP-A-R-R-TSOS-TSOV-TSODCIS ~ For Thousands Of Years – The Struggle Between Rich And Poor Has Largely Taken The Form Of Conflicts Between Creditors And Debtors – Of Arguments About – Interest Payment – Debt Peonage – Amnesty – Repossession – Restitution – The Sequestering Of Sheep – The Seizing Of Vineyards – The Selling Of Debtors’ Children Into Slavery

~ FTLFTY-WRR-PIHB-WTRDOTDR-CTDARTL ~ For The Last Five Thousand Years – With Remarkable Regularity – Popular Insurrections Have Begun – With The Ritual Destruction Of The Debt Records – Cancel The Debts And Redistribute The Land

~ AAWROWTWHPACRISOBVORAW ~ Arguments About Who Really Owes What To Whom Have Played A Central Role In Shaping Our Basic Vocabulary Of Right And Wrong

~ TNNAVM-A-TWTOFOM ~ There’s Nothing New About Virtual Money – Actually – This Was The Original Form Of Money

~ ITCSV-TSATM-TAAEADOP-HRR-H-TWBTAHABI ~ In That Common Sense View – The State And The Market – Tower Above All Else As Diametrically Opposed Principles – Historical Reality Reveals – However – They Were Born Together And Have Always Been Intertwined

~ NOIIMTMDP-MADAOTSAETST ~ Not Only Is It Money That Makes Debt Possible – Money And Debt Appear On The Scene At Exactly The Same Time

~ SOTVFWDTHCDTUAMTRCAD ~ Some Of The Very First Written Documents That Have Come Down To Us Are Mesopotamian Tablets Recording Credits And Debits

~ TSOMFEABWAFWOB-TPIWTLTFITAS-WWNCVMCF ~ The Story Of Money For Economists Always Begins With A Fantasy World Of Barter – The Problem Is Where To Locate This Fantasy In Time And Space – What We Now Call Virtual Money Came First

~ B-ATBLAKOABOTUOCOPM-IHMBWPWAUTCTDWFOROATHNATC ~ Barter – Appears To Be Largely A Kind Of Accidental Byproduct Of The Use Of Coinage Or Paper Money – It Has Mainly Been What People Who Are Used To Cash Transactions Do When For One Reason Or Another They Have No Access To Currency

~ A-TFRWF-’F’-IAKHL-LM-’RTM’ ~ Amargi – The First Recorded Word For – “Freedom” – In Any Known Human Language – Literally Means – “Return To Mother”

~ SCM-MRS-NCCWTO-AL-IALTFWWRT ~ States Created Markets – Markets Require States – Neither Could Continue Without The Other – At Least – In Anything Like The Forms We Would Recognize Today

~ C-MWNITOTIOBBN-SNWHNRTEIBITFP ~ Clearly – Money Was Not Invented To Overcome The Inconveniences Of Barter Between Neighbors – Since Neighbors Would Have No Reason To Engage In Barter In The First Place

~ TSASA-CTTS-AT-DTEFITK-OTPOOTCB-NEF-IOTGTHOTC-MFSWT-PSWTTW-MABIEAASE ~ To Support A Standing Army – Coins To The Soldiers – And Then – Demands That Every Family In The Kingdom – Obliged To Pay One Of Those Coins Back – Now Every Family – In Order To Get Their Hands On The Coins – Must Find Some Way To – Provide Soldiers With Things They Want – Markets Are Brought Into Existence As A Side Effect

~ DTDLA-TTEOSAMASO-THRITETOITC-SSTATBWM ~ Despite The Dogged Liberal Assumption – That The Existence Of States And Markets Are Somehow Opposed – The Historical Record Implies That Exactly The Opposite Is The Case – Stateless Societies Tend Also To Be Without Markets

~ WIEO-OTLFTY-MHBE-ACOTS ~ Whatever Its Earliest Origins – Of The Last Four Thousand Years – Money Has Been Effectively – A Creature Of The State

~ MIC-ICBBIBBPCA-TSMETAADTLT ~ Money Is Credit – It Can Be Brought Into Being By Private Contractual Agreements – The State Merely Enforces The Agreement And Dictates The Legal Terms

~ AOTISTGBTSSOO-’SC’-TESAO-TNORKEWOBW-OWWSBBBTDODAOTOM-WWDFPBBTDOODAOAE ~ All Of This Is Said To Go Back To Some Sort Of Original – “Social Contract” – That Everyone Somehow Agreed On – Though No One Really Knows Exactly When Or By Whom – Or Why We Should Be Bound By The Decisions Of Distant Ancestors On This One Matter – When We Don’t Feel Particularly Bound By The Decisions Of Our Distant Ancestors On Anything Else

~ TBBSAM-BGAM-INITTHC ~ The Battle Between State And Market – Between Governments And Merchants – Is Not Inherent To The Human Condition

~ ‘F’-CTRAATRFTEOD ~“Freedom” – Came To Refer Above All To Release From The Effects Of Debt

~ AHRABOSVOR-IS-TDRIATROAM-BDIWHWSBHNYBR ~ All Human Relations Are Based On Some Variation On Reciprocity – If So – Then Debt Really Is At The Root Of All Morality – Because Debt Is What Happens When Some Balance Has Not Yet Been Restored

~ WEA-C-WOCF ~ We Are All – Communists – With Our Closest Friends

~ NRMOWWWTLIAPWNDLAOA ~ No Reasonable Man Or Woman Would Want To Live In A Place Where Neighbors Don’t Look After One Another

~ GASCADFCABOSF:TCBS ~ Gold And Silver Coins Are Distinguished From Credit Arrangements By One Spectacular Feature: They Can Be Stolen

~ MCSC ~ Military-Coinage-Slavery Complex

~ MATHFE-ITNEAL-AASEOGAS ~ Markets Appear To Have First Emerge – In The Near East At Least – As A Side Effect Of Government Administrative Systems

~ WUTATCAMATST-B-IMWTCREWBCAO-WMAWOEGTTMOM-CIFAFTAOUMTGMM-TEWTDTIBESKOFODFRM ~ We’re Use To Assuming That Capitalism And Markets Are The Same Thing – But – In Many Ways They Could Equally Well Be Conceived As Opposites – While Markets Are Ways Of Exchanging Goods Through The Medium Of Money – Capitalism Is First And Foremost The Art Of Using Money To Get More Money – The Easiest Way To Do This Is By Establishing Some Kind Of Formal Or De Facto Monopoly

~ B-1520A1650-UTOGASFMAPWTATAAPISTS-VLOTGASLVLIE-MOTGEUITII-ATOMOTSBWUSOTC-EHNPMOATAWTB-SIWFTPISFSSSAOI ~ Between – 1520 and 1640 – Untold Tons Of Gold And Silver From Mexico And Peru Were Transported Across The Atlantic And Pacific In Spanish Treasure Ships – Very Little Of That Gold And Silver Lingered Very Long In Europe – Most Of The Gold Ended Up In Temples In India – And The Overwhelming Majority Of The Silver Bullion Was Ultimately Shipped Off To China – Europe Had Never Produced Much Of Anything That Asians Wanted To Buy – So It Was Forced To Pay In Specie For Silks, Spices, Steel, And Other Imports

~ TEYOEEWLATGAET-EL-O-TNSOGASWWTPFT ~ The Early Years Of European Expansion Were Largely Attempts To Gain Access Either To – Eastern Luxuries – Or – To New Sources Of Gold And Silver With Which To Pay For Them

~ THTBPIM-EB-IC-CTBTMAIHITMA-BMOVFOVCM-T-PN-O-STKTOWOWTW ~ Taxes Had To Be Paid In Metal – Everyday Business – In Contrast – Continued To Be Transacted Much As It Had In The Middle Ages – By Means Of Various Forms Of Virtual Credit Money – Tallies – Promissory Notes – Or – Simply The Keeping Track Of Who Owed What To Whom

~ CC-WELBS-O-WPRTAT-TLBPAOS-AA-GASWUBTGTPAAPS ~ Cold Cash – Was Employed Largely Between Strangers – Or – When Paying Rents, Tithes, And Taxes – To Landlords, Bailiffs, Priest, And Other Superiors – Above All – Gold And Silver Were Used By The Government To Purchase Arms And Pay Soldiers

~ TGCTMWENTP ~ The Great Conversation That Many Were Expecting Never Took Place

~ WCTWEBWCNLIAATWBEW ~ We Cling To What Exists Because We Can No Longer Imagine An Alternative That Wouldn’t Be Even Worse

~ ASTRTWTNCOBHIPBW ~ Any System That Reduces The World To Numbers Can Only Be Held In Place By Weapons

~ ITLSOT-JANOHTRTTUOTV-NOHTRTTUWWTO ~ In The Largest Scheme Of Things – Just As No One Has The Right To Tell Us Our True Value – No One Has The Right To Tell Us What We Truly Owe