TERRY O’REILLY + MIKE TENNANT ~ THE AGE OF PERSUASION ~ 2016

~ DGAWE?-NOCS-TFDT-BACCLT ~ Does Great Advertising Win Elections? – No One Can Say – Though Few Doubt That – Bad Advertising Can Certainly Lose Them

~ A-GUC-A-G-S-IEF-A ~ A – Great Unwritten Contract – Advertisers – Give – Something – In Exchange For – Attention

~ A-OTSORAYMCFE ~ Advertising – Offered The Sort Of Remuneration Artistic Young Minds Couldn’t Find Elsewhere

~ MA-‘I’-IN-PP-PS-A-OAWLO-BL ~ Making An – “Impact” – Is Now – Part Product – Part Smarts – And – Often A Whole Lot Of – Blind Luck

~ YDAI ~ Your Daily Ad Intake

~ AY-‘E’-TA-A-IYSIWYEADCNI? ~ Are You – “Exposed” – To An – Ad – If You Scan It With Your Eyes And Don’t Consciously Notice It?

~ ‘T’-GWSTSTOAPOS ~ “Tribes” – Groups Who Share The Same Thinking On A Product Or Subject

~ NT:NKOC ~ New Technologies: New Kinds Of Clutter

~ AA-POTIS ~ Ambient Advertising – Part Of The Immediate Surroundings

~ A-DM-DOAF-S-O-A-OT-R ~ Ad-Driven Media – Media – Dependent On Advertising For – Some – Or – All – Of Their – Revenues

~ E-PTL ~ Ever-Present Transparent Logo

~ SB-TPO-L-S-T-EC-TOS-IOTUTOST-PAUS ~ Squeeze-Back – The Practice Of – Literally – Squeezing – The – End Credits – To One Side – In Order To Use The Other Side To – Promote An Upcoming Show

~ TV-B-HSPTA-MAMPH ~ TV – Broadcasters – Have Shrunk Programming To Accommodate – More Ad Messages Per Hour

~ BTC ~ Breaking The Contract

~ FA-B-O-IA-ST-S-D-S-T-SR-I-U/O ~ For Any – Brand – Overpromising – Is A – Short Term – Self-Destructive – Strategy – The – Smarter Route – Is – Underpromise / Overdeliver

~ TELI-EV ~ The Edge Lies In – Entertainment Value

~ AHOC-C-A-D-D-M-DAC ~ A – Handful Of Complaints – Can – And – Do – Derail – Multimillion-Dollar Ad Campaigns

~ R-CRAAPA-B-F-YHTATRQ ~ Research – Can Reveal Astounding And Powerful Answers – But – First – You Have To Ask The Right Questions

~ PP-TAOIABNOIIA-S/F/E/B ~ Product Placement – The Act Of Infusing A Brand Name Or Image Into A – Story / Film / Event / Broadcast

~ ‘Y’-TN-HGOM-T/T-A/YA ~ “Yoots” – The New – Holy Grail Of Marketing – Tweens / Teen-Agers / Young Adults

~ RIP-FOTPK-A-TGNEDO-T-BB-GUWTSWOCGSAT ~ Raised In Prosperity – Few Of Their Parents Knew – And – Their Grandparents Never Even Dreamed Of – The – Baby Boomers – Grew Up With The Strong Winds Of Consumerism Gathering Speed Around Them

~ OOTSCTCWTEOT-OW-WT-BTNGA-THICF ~ One Of The Sea Changes That Came With The Emergence Of The – Online World – Was That – Bad Things Never Go Away – They Hang In Cyberspace Forever

~ LTTTMTTA ~ Life Tends To Take More Time Than Art

~ TSO-VM:TADTW ~ The Secret Of – Viral Marketing: The Audience Does The Work

~ I-N-SOLOC-A-THNCITAOP ~ Ideas – Not – Slogans Or Logos Or Catchphrases – Are – The Hot New Currency In The Age Of Persuasion

~ GM:T-PS ~ Guerrilla Marketing: The – Publicity Stunt

~ POTTOOWIM ~ People Opposed To The Objectification Of Women In Marketing

~ AIB-GM-ATPNAFTLGATNATG ~ At Its Best – Guerrilla Marketing – Appeals To People’s Natural Affinity For The Little Guy And Their Natural Aversion To Giants

~ BI:H-HO-A-EOPC-TGIA ~ Borrowed Interest: Hitch-Hiking On – An – Element Of Popular Culture – To Get Immediate Attention

~ AMSI-F/A/M/L-ICTRBTAAA ~ As Marketing Seeps Into – Films / Arts / Music / Literature – It Changes The Relationship Between The Arts And Audiences

~ IEBQTEAOTC-SBTCOC ~ In Each Brand’s Quest To Elbow Ahead Of The Competition – Superlatives Became The Cheapest Of Commodities

~ T-‘AW-B-NOM’-M ~ The – “Advertising Works – But – Not On Me” – Myth

~ PATETB-TTODRI ~ People Attache Themselves Emotionally To Brands – Though They Often Don’t Realize It

~ S-T-RASI-BA ~ Story-Telling – Remains A Staple In – Broadcast Ads

ALICIA ELER ~ THE SELFIE GENERATION ~ 2017

~ TSG ~ The Selfie Generation

~ DTUF-SM-ISAINOIP-DP ~ Despite The Uses For – Social Media – It Seems As If No One Is Protecting – Digital Privacy

~ IV-A-ALOPB-GC-A-U-R-BTGIASY-EIYNPTSM-TTE-IF-ITBTS-AS-SAC-ATBTOWTS ~ Internet Visibility – And – A Lack Of Personal Boundaries – Get Conflated – And – Ultimately– Rationalized – Because The Government Is Already Surveilling You – Even If You Never Post To Social Media – To This Extent – It Feels – Impossible To Beat The System – And So – Submission And Complacency – Appear To Be The Only Way To Survive

~ RTS-T-PS-IT-AOS-S-IAW-S-IITAO-ROTSOWPPT ~ Responding To Surveillance – Through – Planned Sousveillance – In The – Age Of Surveillance – Sousveillance – Is Associated With – Selfie-Ing – It Is The Act Of – Recording Oneself Through Small Or Wearable Portable Personal Technologies

~ U-IDMHTWO-IMWHATTD-A-WTPTDWI ~ Ultimately – It Doesn’t Matter How The Watching Occurs – It Matters Who Has Access To The Data – And – What They Plan To Do With It

~ P-INA-IR ~ Privacy – Is Not An – Inalienable Right

~ BAWP?-IT-SS-SM-IV-ET-A-PA-KOU-BTO ~ But At What Price? – In The – Surveillance State – Social Media – Is Very – Easily Trackable – And – People Are – Knowingly Or Unknowingly – Branding Themselves Online

~ DB-ABT-CPIAC-A-STDO-WCP-TOBOB ~ Data Brokers – Are Businesses That – Collect Personal Information About Consumers – And – Sell That Data Off – Without Consumers’ Permission – To Other Brokers Or Businesses

~ SMU-MT-T-V-A-S ~ Social Media Users – Make Themselves – Trackable – Visible – And – Searchable

~ TAA-BSW-CTTCBUAAMO-VI-O-AWTBV ~ The Argument Against – Ballot Selfies – Claimed That They Could Be Used As A Means Of – Voter Intimidation – Or – A Way To Buy Votes

~ NEISE ~ Not Everyone Is Surveilled Equally

~ P-UTS-‘T’-L-T-JTSTTAD-ELAAT-TIA-A-IIH ~ Police – Use The Same – “Terrorism” – Language – To – Justify The Spying That They Are Doing – Effectively Labeling Activists As Terrorists – This Is Alarming – And – It Is Happening

~ CTTI ~ Consent To The Image

~ IOTASTFAITSE-O-PITTI ~ It Only Takes A Second To Forward An Image To Someone Else – Or – Post It To The Internet

~ AP-CEB-UAR-B-AE ~ Anything Posted – Can Easily Be – Used And Reused – By – Another Entity

~ B-PTTS-UGTALTUIIPAWTSF-A-FAPPTWL-YATTBSUFTS-TDNTPYOELYKITCIBUE ~ By – Posting To Their Site – You Grant Them A License To Use It In Practically Any Way They See Fit – And – For Any Promotional Purposes They Would Like – You Agree To This By Signing Up For The Service – They Don’t Need To Pay You Or Even Let You Know If The Content Is Being Used Elsewhere

~ TEFA-FS-OC-ITYPFIWYD-ATNTUIHTW ~ The Exchange For A – Free Service – Of Course – Is That You Pay For It With Your Data – Allowing The Network To Use It However They Want

~ TMST-AOU-CGIT-F-RAM ~ The Most Shocking Thing – Any Of Us – Could Get In Trouble – For – Retweeting A Meme

~ TA-CT-WEBMIBO-BU-LAP-FTPOGACITEMFT ~ There Are – Copyright Trolls – Whose Entire Business Model Is Based On – Buying Up – Licenses And Patents – For The Purpose Of Going After Copyright Infringers To Extort Money From Them

~ WYDK-WHY-UID ~ What You Don’t Know – Won’t Hurt You – Until It Does

~ RP-I-RC ~ Revenge Porn – Is – Rape Culture

~ ALLSFH ~ A Limited Licensing Scenario From Hell

~ DTFTTPWTANSITCOOTI-TTOTI-IAAO-CS-ICEUA-SBA-SINC ~ Despite The Fact That The Person Who Takes A Nude Selfie Is The Copyright Owner Of The Image – The Transmission Of That Image – Is An Act Of – Consensual Sharing – It Could End Up Anywhere – Seen By Anyone – Sharing Is Not Caring

~ T24/7SNC ~ The 24/7 Selfie News Cycle

~ MMN-TSS-OFO-YWAHTL-TIUBYWASTTTS-WDOTA-BT-TARTA-‘V’-A-‘N’-ITSTMTTAPS ~ Mainstream Media Narratives – That Surround Selfies – Often Focus On – Young Women And How They Look – This Is Uncomfortable Because Young Women Are Simultaneously Told That Their Self-Worth Depends On Their Appearance – But Then – They Are Referred To As – “Vain” – And – “Narcissistic” – If They Spend Too Much Time Taking And Posting Selfies

~ TSHMC-IDNJEIA-VS-SFT-‘RW’ ~ The Selfie Has Material Consequences – It Does Not Just Exist In A – Virtual Space – Separate From The – “Real World

~ TSTRID:K ~ The Selfie That Results In Death: Killfie

~ SATWD ~ Selfie-Ing And Texting While Driving

~ TGUWTIABTS-A-AIATOR-TAPOSI ~ Teens Grow Up With The Internet Always By Their Side – And – Adolescence Is A Time Of Risk-Taking And Proving One’s Social Identity

~ TMETS-TMAAVIWG ~ The More Extreme The Selfie – The More Attention And Virality It Will Garner

~ FTES ~ Faking The Extreme Selfie

~ FITNR ~ Fake Is The New Real

~ M-SA ~ Meta-Selfie Advertising

~ ASIAA ~ A Selfie Is An Advertisement

~ TSTTLBVAP-COTSIB ~ The Selfie Tows The Line Between Vulnerability And Publicity – Capitalizing On The Space In Between

~ A-A-TPIY ~ And – Always – The Product Is You

~ IA-S-IOPA-‘C’-A-WAEO-‘F’-I-IAETCBEC ~ In Advertising – Selfie-Ing – Is Often Presented As – “Carefree” – And – With An Element Of – “Fun” – Involved – It’s An Experience That Can Be Easily Commodified

~ T-SML-I-S-P-EIIMI-AA-SM ~ The – Social Media Loop – Is – Self-Perpetuating – Even If Its Message Is – Anti-Social Media

~ SG ~ Selfie Gazing

~ SDWE ~ Selfies Don’t Win Elections

~ ‘SJ’ ~ “Selfie Journalism”

~ TAFUWIKWWTR ~ The Algorithms Feed Us What It Knows We Want To Read

~ IGSMTHAMT-YWCF ~ It Got Shared More Than Half A Million Times – Yet Was Completely False

~ PPFI-A-N-F-C-LTSR-‘P-T’-TITWALIACTHNGOWIH ~ People Posting False Information – And – Not – Fact-Checking – Leads To Something Resembling – “Post-Truth” – The Idea That We Are Living In A Culture That Has No Grasp On What Is Happening

~ TSIA-AI-NBHIB-E/C/F-TSWWWTB ~ The Selfie Is An – Aspirational Image – Never Before Has It Been – Easier / Cheaper / Faster – To Share What We Want To Be

~ WBAAS ~ Woman’s Bodies Are Always Sexualized

~ S-I-UCDT-AD-PEAN-TSO-NFSEE-B-JFO-TBS-IIAMFS-ATSNAI-AAAE ~ Self-Imaging – Ultimately Comes Down To – A Desire – Perhaps Even A Need – To See Oneself – Not For Someone Else’s Enjoyment – But – Just For Oneself – To Be Seen – It Is A Mechanism For Survival – A Truly Stark Negation Agaisnt Invisibility – An Action Agaisnt Erasure

~ GS-A ~ Get Selfie-Aware

ROBERT CIALDINI ~ INFLUENCE ~ 1984

~ TPOP ~ The Psychology Of Persuasion

~ PHUANOMSWEIMOEJ-JH-S-AFSTTWWMOTT-B-LUUT-OCM ~ Psychologists Have Uncovered A Number Of Mental Shortcuts We Employ In Making Our Everyday Judgments – Judgmental Heuristics – Shortcuts – Allowing For Simplified Thinking That Works Well Most Of The Time – But – Leaves Us Upon To – Occasional Costly Mistakes

~ TIAUTIOSTAUTSADOIWATBAOAT-TI-RTTAAEAABC(ON)-WFITAAAOTBCJBTESA-‘E’ ~ There Is An Unsettling Tendency In Our Society To Accept Unthinkingly The Statements And Directions Of Individuals Who Appear To Be Authorities On A Topic – That Is – Rather Than Thinking About An Expert’s Arguments And Being Convinced (Or Not) – We Frequently Ignore The Arguments And Allow Ourselves To Be Convinced Just By The Expert’s Status As – “Expert”

~ MOUKVLAO-ABP-PTISPBOT-M-U-M-IWTO ~ Most Of Us Know Very Little About Our – Automatic Behavior Patterns – Perhaps That Is So Precisely Because Of The – Mechanistic – Unthinking – Manner – In Which They Occur

~ SJAIIPTMTSBOWATBHOCDOTTOPPBOW-IIPTMTPOTSISHOLDOTPOAPPI ~ So Just As It Is Possible To Make The Same Bucket Of Water Appear To Be Hotter Or Colder Depending On The Temperature Of Previously Presented Buckets Of Water – It Is Possible To Make The Price Of The Same Item Seem Higher Or Lower Depending On The Price Of A Previously Presented Item

~ A-BP-TTBTBASFOTRIITS-T-SF-O-TF-COPVBAAITDOACCOAWHTACACEOTOPOIITS ~ Automatic-Behavior Patterns – Tend To Be Triggered By A Single Feature Of The Relevant Information In The Situation – This – Single Feature – Or – Trigger Feature – Can Often Prove Valuable By Allowing An Individual To Decide On A Correct Course Of Action Without Having To Analyze Carefully And Completely Each Of The Other Pieces Of Information In The Situation

~ R:TO-GAT ~ Reciprocation: The Old – Give And Take

~ OOTMPOTLOIAU-TROR ~ One Of The Most Potent Of The Levers Of Influence Around Us – The Rule Of Reciprocation

~ TPORCBBLAL ~ The Pull Of Reciprocity Can Be Both Lifesaving And Lifelong

~ LTANALNWTLTBROL-SA-R ~ Little Things Are Not Always Little – Not When They Link To Big Rules Of Life – Such As – Reciprocity

~ BTIAGDFTWTAMNETGIR-WWOGTGLTABCAF ~ Because There Is A General Distaste For Those Who Take And Make No Effort To Give In Return – We Will Often Go To Great Lengths To Avoid Being Considered A Freeloader

~ P-F-MNFAGTPA-P-F ~ Problem-Free – May Not Feel As Good To People As – Problem-Freed

~ SFF-OS-LRF ~ Small First Favors – Often Stimulate – Larger Return Favors

~ BRAASVIHSS-WHBCTFUWB ~ Because Reciprocal Arrangements Are So Vital In Human Social Systems – We Have Been Conditioned To Feel Uncomfortable When Beholden

~ T-R-T-R-O-D-I-T-F-T-RHOTPTRC-BSWAERSTBR-ARCTPRTASR9TODAA) ~ The – Rejection-Then-Retreat – Or – Door-In-The-Face – Technique – Relies Heavily On The Pressure To Reciprocate Concessions – By Starting With An Extreme Request Sure To Be Rejected – A Requester Can Then Profitably Retreat To A Smaller Request (The One Desired All Along)

~ APIAREOC-PFMRF-A-M-SWTO ~ After Participating In A Reciprocal Exchange Of Concessions – People Feel More Responsible For – And – More – Satisfied With The Outcome

~ OBDATUORPTGOCINSROTIOOO-R-WSAIFOCIGF-B-BRTRTATSTLBPAS-OTARITW-WSNLFANTRWAFOCOOO ~ Our Best Defense Agaisnt The Use Of Reciprocity Pressures To Gain Our Compliance Is Not Systematic Rejection Of The Initial Offers Of Others – Rather – We Should Accept Initial Favors Or Concessions In Good Faith – But – Be Ready To Redefine Them As Tricks Should They Later Be Proved As Such – Once They Are Redefined In This Way – We Should No Longer Feel A Need To Respond With A Favor Or Concession Of Our Own

~ L:TFT ~ Liking: The Friendly Thief

~ LFP ~ Liking For Profit

~ HE-WOPCOAPDTWHOSIVIMOR-PA-IOSAC ~ Halo Effect – When One Positive Characteristic Of A Person Dominates The Way He Or She Is Viewed In Most Other Respects – Physical Attractiveness – Is Often Such A Characteristic

~ WLPWALU ~ We Like People Who Are Like Us

~ WAMLTHTWWCATO ~ We Are More Likely To Help Those Who Wear Clothing Akin To Ours

~ W-BC-O-SS-A-LTWGTTU-WAPSFF ~ We – Believe Compliments – Of – Sundry Sorts – And – Like Those Who Give Them To Us – We Are Phenomenal Suckers For Flattery

~ PC-JAMLFTF-W-U-AW-T ~ Positive Comments – Just As Much Liking For The Flatterer – When – Untrue – As When – True

~ FAG-GC-YWTRTLUT ~ Find And Give – Genuine Compliments – You Want The Recipient To Live Up To

~ C-NJ-OTB-B-OTT-YPSMOI ~ Compliment – Not Just – On The Behavior – But – On The Trait – You’ll Probably See More Of It

~ WLTFTU ~ We Like Things Familiar To Us

~ E-F-FC-B-MBWR ~ Even – Far-Fetched Claims – Become – More Believable With Repetition

~ CETAPOO-UUC-LTLL ~ Continued Exposure To A Person Or Object – Under Unpleasant Conditions – Leads To Less Liking

~ GC/BC-BT-GC-HIROTSB-T-RR-PFARF-TMRTTIE-T-ITIGTSTITTISOH[/H]S ~ Good Cop / Bad Cop – Because The – Good Cop – Has Intervened Repeatedly On The Suspect’s Behalf – The – Reciprocity Rule – Pressures For A Return Favor – The Main Reason The Technique Is Effective – Though – Is That It Gives The Suspect The Idea That There Is Someone On His[/Her] Side

~ TIANHTTDAPWBUUI-EWTPDNCTBN-HE ~ There Is A Natural Human Tendency To Dislike A Person Who Brings Us Unpleasant Information – Even When That Person Did Not Cause The Bad News – Horns Effect

~ AIA-WEBTOGT-WIHPFAU ~ An Innocent Association – With Either Bad Things Or Good Things – Will Influence How People Feel About Us

~ O-SSTTECA-CSBI ~ Odors – So Slight That They Escape Conscious Awareness – Can Still Be Influential

~ SP:TAU ~ Social Proof: Truths Are Us

~ TDBMPBOTP ~ The Dishes Became More Popular Because Of Their Popularity

~ SP-WDWICBFOWOPTIC-WBWTPIPB-MOP ~ Social Proof – We Determine What Is Correct By Finding Out What Other People Think Is Correct – Works Best When The Proof Is Provided By – Many Other People

~ OAE-INOAE ~ Often An Emergency – Is Not Obviously An Emergency

~ ETDOMLISTDNDT ~ Explaining The Dangers Of Modern Life In Scientific Terms Does Not Dispel Them

~ WTACOTRFI-IACE-PAER ~ When They Are Confident Of Their Responsibilities For Intervening – In A Clear Emergency – People Are Exceedingly Responsive

~ BAPAPAYNFA ~ Be As Precise As Possible About Your Need For Aid

~ TUO-FM-LATLMFAL-AWATRHMF ~ The Use Of – Fabricated Merriment – Leads Audiences To Laugh More Frequently And Longer – As Well As To Rate Humorous Material Funnier

~ UF-RC-B-A ~ Unbounded Fears – Rendered Contagious – By – Algorithms

~ TWAWC-PB-DP-WALBA-CF ~ The World Abounds With Cults – Populated By – Dependent People – Who Are Led By A – Charismatic Figure

~ A:DD ~ Authority: Directed Deference

~ T-OS-O-PAA-MBC-WTFOM ~ The – Outward Signs – Of – Power And Authority – May Be Counterfeited – With The Flimsiest Of Materials

~ ITATAE?-TCPOI:TACATROTCTTTAH ~ Is This Authority Truly An Expert? – Two Crucial Pieces Of Information: The Authority’s Credentials And The Relevance Of Those Credentials To The Topic At Hand

– And – How Truthful Can We Expect This Expert To Be?

~ S:TROTF ~ Scarcity: The Rule Of The Few

~ UCORAU-TTOPL-PAEPRIHD-M ~ Under Conditions Of Risk And Uncertainty – The Threat Of Potential Loss – Plays An Especially Powerful Role In Human Decision-Making

~ CAC:HOTM ~ Commitment And Consistency: Hobgoblins Of The Mind

~ TMETGIAC-TGIATITAAAOTPWMI ~ The More Effort That Goes Into A Commitment – The Greater Its Ability To Influence The Attitudes And Actions Of The Person Who Made It

~ WBNSTUCWHCOT ~ We Build New Struts To Undergird Choices We Have Committed Ourselves To

~ U:T-‘W’-ITS-M ~ Unity: The – “We” – Is The Shared – Me

~ AFA-IGA ~ Asking For Advice – Is Good Advice

LINDA MCQUAIG ~ THE SPORT & PREY OF CAPITALISTS ~ 2019

~ ATCAPHF-RC-IDOCPTOACKAO-OE-OC-A-OL-TSODCAAN-TSCHBUTITWBOIWLOEAOLITHOTPM-AIBFNHBTWCNLATWMTADA-ETWAAVRCT-IR-WHMTCBOTISOTMODTFN-R-WMTBOTPEBPFIWHBKTTOLPOOPDSTCOTAMTFP ~ All This Cutting And Privatizing Has Far-Reaching Consequences – It Diminishes Our Collective Power To Own And Control Key Aspects Of – Our Economy – Our Country – And – Our Lives – Thereby Shrinking Our Democratic Capacity As A Nation – These Sweeping Changes Have Been Made Under The Illusion That We’re Better Off If We Leave Our Economy And Our Lives In The Hands Of The Private Marketplace – Another Influential But False Notion Has Been That We Can No Longer Afford Things We Managed To Afford Decades Ago – Even Though We Are A Vastly Richer Country Today – In Reality – We Haven’t Made These Changes Because Of The Inherent Superiority Of The Marketplace Or Due To Financial Necessity – Rather – We’ve Made Them Because Of The Pressure Exerted By Powerful Financial Interests Who Have Been Keen To Take Over Lucrative Parts Of Our Public Domain So They Can Own Them And Milk Them For Profits

~ TCWHSUWIATEOPEWDGAIAI ~ The Corporate World Has Saturated Us With Ideas About The Effectiveness Of Private Enterprise While Depicting Government As Inefficient And Intrusive

~ TMDAOONITWASA ~ The Most Dominant Aspect Of Our Nature Is That We Are Social Animals

~ TAOMPHB-FTMPTH-CALIMODASTTDOOT-SA-L/H/D/B/S/DOD ~ The Attainment Of Material Possessions Has Been – For The Most Part Throughout History – Considered A Less Important Mark Of Distinction And Status Than The Demonstration Of Other Traits – Such As – Loyalty / Honour / Devotion / Bravery / Service / Dedication Of Duty

~ IWAA-AA-SA-TSWNTSOSBAOCABOCTDTADF-ICGAR-OFSCBOBA-S-MF-A-MISO-RTOUASIA ~ If We Are Actually – Above All – Social Animals – Then Surely We Need To Strengthen Our Social Bonds And Our Communities And Bolster Our Capacity To Defend Them Agaisnt Disrupting Forces – Including Corporate Greed And Rapaciousness – Our Focus Should Clearly Be On Building A – Stronger – More Functional – And – More Inclusive Social Order – Rather Than On Unleashing And Stimulating Individual Acquisitiveness

~ FWSA-PO-HSRV-CAIDWBAASITC ~ For We Social Animals – Public Ownership – Has Some Real Virtues – Coming As It Does With Benefits And A Stake In The Community

~ TOIAIS-ASPURT-GETWUOC ~ The Oil Industry And Its Supporters – Are Still Putting Up Resistance To – Global Efforts To Wean Us Off Carbon

~ PO-IAPPTVFND ~ Public Ownership – Is A Potentially Powerful Transformative Vehicle For National Development

~ TNTTWSBATBPTTTILATHO-PCT ~ The Notion That The Wealthy Should Be Able To Block Policies That Threaten Their Interests Lies At The Heart Of – Public Choice Theory

~ MOEHTFOI-‘MF’-TDHGICCSP ~ Much Of Economics Has Traditionally Focused On Identifying – “Market Failure” – To Determine How Government Intervention Could Correct Such Problems

~ MO-PCT-DJWOOOHN-B-APCTSIW-IPUBC-TPTPSDFAPAA-MOTN-PSTLTD-TCECIOS ~ Much Of – Public Choice Theory – Doesn’t Jibe With Our Observation Of Human Nature – But – Although Public Choice Theory Seems Intellectually Weak – Its Political Usefulness Became Clear – The Push To Privatize Seems Disconnected From Any Practical Advantage Achieved – More Often Than Not – Privatization Seems To Lead To Disadvantage – To Considerable Extra Costs Imposed On Society

~ AOT-OWITWPP-EBWTSATSOTPSS-OITMBDT-SS-I-TIAGDO-MTBM-IPFTWEU-OOO-CPI-AWAFTIIDUTC-P-PP-D-O-PR-F/L/A-A ~ Among Other Things – One Wonders If Those Who Promote Privatization – Even Believe What They Say About The Superiority Of The Private Sector – Or If Their Motivation Boils Down To – Simple Self-Interest – There Is A Great Deal Of – Money To Be Made – In Privatization For Those Who End Up – Owning Or Operating – Crucial Public Infrastructure – As Well As For Those Involved In Drawing Up The Complex – Public-Private Partnership – Deals – Or – Providing Related – Financial / Legal / Accounting – Advice

~ TTOTC-HCCMTUOSR-B-CR-A-HDSTH ~ The Triumph Of The Commons – Humans Can Collectively Manage Their Use Of Shared Resources – By– Creating Rules – And – Have Done So Throughout History

~ TSCAPOWBD-‘TN-LA’-ASOPBO-FP-T-TBDTTSNT-TPSIIHATPSIIB-TRHBAMTOSRFOPTASSOWIAC ~ These Substantial Changes Are Part Of What’s Been Dubbed – “The Neo-Liberal Agenda” – A Set Of Polices Based On – Flimsy Pseudo-Theories – That Boil Down To The Simplistic Notion That – The Private Sector Is Inherently Good And The Public Sector Is Inherently Bad – The Result Has Been A Massive Transfer Of Society’s Resources From Ordinary People To A Small Set Of Wealthy Individuals And Corporations

~ TR-P-B-M-ORY-HBUFPUAAIOI-WSFOTTBAWIRIOI-A-NBIIOCDFWTCF-TBC-WDPD ~ The Rigid – Pro-Business – Mindset – Of Recent Years – Has Blocked Us From Properly Understanding And Acting In Our Own Interests – We Should Free Ourselves To Think Boldly About What Is Really In Our Interest – And – Not Be Intimidated If Our Conclusions Don’t Fit With Those Coming From – The Business Commentators – Who Dominate Public Debate

JAMES SCOTT ~ TWO CHEERS FOR ANARCHISM ~ 2012

~ DI-H-TAGE-B-CT-OUFATTHB ~ Democratic Institutions – Have – To A Great Extent – Become – Commodities – Offered Up For Auction To The Highest Bidder

~ D-IACH-WRE ~ Democracy – Is A Cruel Hoax – Without Relative Equality

~ I-RE-I-ANCOMAF-HCIBGETTS?-B-TAP-TAOTSINAO ~ If – Relative Equality – Is – A Necessary Condition Of Mutuality And Freedom – How Can It Be Guaranteed Except Through The State? – Both – Theoretically And Practically – The Abolition Of The State Is Not An Option

~ TS-HH-TL-CO-LA-PD ~ The State – Has Historically – Thwarted Lower-Class Organization – Let Alone – Public Defiance

~ IP:F-D/P/P/D/S/D/A/S/F ~ InfraPolitics: Foot-Dragging / Poaching / Pilfering / Dissimulation / Sabotage / Desertion / Absenteeism / Squatting / Flight

~ AY-TAOTOEMOSPACHME ~ And Yet – The Accumulation Of Thousands Or Even Millions Of Such Petty Acts Can Have Massive Effect

~ SC-HHNHTLO-OPO-THNPTFW-M/C/C-A-M-A-PCFB ~ Subordinate Classes – Have Historically Not Had The Luxury Of – Open Political Organization – That Has Not Prevented Them From Working – Microscopically / Cooperatively / Complicitly – And – Massively – At – Political Change From Below

~ FO-I-C/C/A-TE-MWH-ATQEOMP ~ Forms Of – Informal – Cooperation / Coordination / Action – That Embody – Mutuality Without Hierarchy – Are The Quotidian Experience Of Most People

~ LMHGBTIOJ ~ Leviathan May Have Given Birth To Its Own Justification

~ YCST-HTG-O-PASC-HBT-SOOTA-WTDMAA-YCBPSTSHGTW ~ You Could Say That – Historically The Goal – Of – Peasants And Subaltern Classes – Has Been To – Stay Out Of The Archives – When They Do Make An Appearance – You Can Be Pretty Sure That Something Has Gone Terribly Wrong

~ MOT-GPR-O-TNATW-HBABEEO-CD/R/L/TDOPO-A-ATL-CW ~ Most Of The – Great Political Reforms – Of – The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries – Have Been Accompanied By Massive Episodes Of – Civil Disobedience / Riots / Lawbreaking / The Disruption Of Public Order – And – At The Limit – Civil War

~PTGFO-LD-ITHFTSPTVEASIOTLADTTI-TFTDPARAITDVOMEO-E-ID-IMICTTPODAT-IOPC-IWBW-A-IF-D-TCTS-L-SP-AOEGLTMSR-TMILTGR-TROCR-A-IEC-TOORD-N-IIUTMEOMRHNBIWMDATROETCANT ~ Perhaps The Greatest Failure Of – Liberal Democracies – Is Their Historical Failure To Successfully Protect The Vital Economic And Security Interests Of Their Less Advantaged Citizens Though Their Institutions – The Fact That Democratic Progress And Renewal Appear Instead To Depend Vitally On Major Episodes Of – Extra-Institutional Disorder – Is Massively In Contradiction To The Promise Of Democracy As The – Institutionalization Of Peaceful Change – It Would Be Wrong – And – In Fact – Dangerous – To Claim That Such – Large-Scale Provocations – Always Or Even Generally Lead To Major Structural Reform – They May Instead Lead To Growing Repression – The Restriction Of Civil Rights – And – In Extreme Cases – The Overthrow Of Representative Democracy – Nevertheless – It Is Undeniable That Most Episodes Of Major Reform Have Not Been Initiated Without Major Disorder And The Rush Of Elites To Contain And Normalize Them

~ OOTCOGP-I-NHTL-TATBOTHA-IG-BTTTATT ~ One Of The Characteristics Of Great Power Is – Not Having To Listen – Those At The Bottom Of The Heap Are – In General – Better Listeners Than Those At The Top

~ TM-H-P/R/F-ASOEOI-TMLIITB-POIP-TTFSDNRAWWICNCTE-FPTTFOCACAM ~ The More – Highly – Planned / Regulated / Formal – A Social Or Economic Order Is – The More Likely It Is To Be – Parasitic On Informal Processes – That The Formal Scheme Does Not Recognize And Without Which It Could Not Continue To Exist – Formal Processes That The Formal Order Cannot Alone Create And Maintain

~ TROT-M-AN-H-PM-OT-N-S-DATC=AHOVPF:SB/T/FC/LCOT/MC/E ~ The Rise Of The – Modern – And Now – Hegemonic – Political Module – Of The – Nation-State – Displaced And Then Crushed – A Host Of Vernacular Political Forms: Stateless Bands / Tribes / Free Cities / Loose Confederations Of Towns / Maroon Communities / Empires

~ OIP-TM-(N-)S-SA-HIP-AT-P-D/V-P-TEAGPOH-AHVOLAD-OMU-W-LTS-STA-SNL-OTDOTDR-TLTTDO-L/LL/M/L/WWOM-TDOSVNHBM-OWNWTSTTDOAVAAU-TRIAMDI-C/P/E-D-AMHI-L/C/PS/PF-AAA-MOSATLTST ~ Once In Place – The Modern – (Nation-) State – Set About – Homogenizing Its Population – And The – People’s – Deviant / Vernacular – Practices – This Entailed A Great Project Of Homogenization – A Huge Variety Of Languages And Dialects – Often Mutually Unintelligible – Were – Largely Through Schooling – Subordinated To A – Standardized National Language – Often The Dialect Of The Dominant Region – This Led To The Disappearance Of – Languages / Local Literatures / Music / Legends / Whole Worlds Of Meaning – The Disappearance Of Some Vernaculars Need Hardly Be Mourned – One Would Not Want To Spring To The Defense Of All Vernaculars Against All Universals – The Result Is A Massive Diminution In – Cultural / Political / Economic – Diversity – A Massive Homogenization In – Languages / Cultures / Property Systems / Political Forms – And Above All – Modes Of Sensibility And The Lifewords That Sustain Them

~ T-IAL-IF-TWPOT-T-A-MA-BTDOL-OTL-WTBDTWPITOMSTCEBL-IWDDTE-A-CK-A-TPTKCOW-TL-WPOA-D/S-W-IW-O-‘H’-CBESFA-ID-IOW-OWWMLC-T-‘S’-OTW ~ The – Industrial Assembly Line – In Fact – The Whole Point Of The – Time-And-Motion Analysis – Behind The Division Of Labor – On The Line – Was To Break Down The Work Process Into Thousands Of Minute Steps That Could Easily Be Learned – It Was Deliberately Designed To Eliminate – Artisanal-Craft Knowledge – And – The Power This Knowledge Conferred On Workers – The Line – Was Premised On A – Deskilled / Standardized – Workforce – In Which – One – “Hand” – Could Be Easily Substituted For Another – It Depended – In Other Words – On What We Might Legitimately Call – The – “Stupidification” – Of The Workforce

~ ST-IR-A-HU-AVISOTP-HB-P-A-DOLHOFTL ~ Since The – Industrial Revolution – And – Headlong Urbanization – A Vastly Increasing Share Of The Population – Has Become – Propertyless – And – Dependent On Large Hierarchical Organizations For Their Livelihood

~ AS-D-OC-SPIPW ~ Authoritarian Settings – Do – Of Course – Shape Personalities In Profound Ways

~ TDF-A-F-COTWD-A-TSOFAS-RSCP-IA-VUSA ~ The Desire For – Autonomy – For – Control Over The Working Day – And – The Sense Of Freedom And Self-Respect Such Control Provides – Is A – Vastly Underestimated Social Aspiration

~ AAFO-SP-IHT-M/T/P-I-RRAE-B-TV-C/V/M-OIA ~ Almost All Forms Of – Small Property – Is Hard To – Monitor / Tax / Police – It – Resists Regulation And Enforcement – By – The Very – Complexity / Variety / Mobility – Of Its Activities

~ OKTT-OP-OTLF-LPITPT-EOS-PR-IDS-TUSALAMIATF ~ One Key To The – Oligopoly Position – Of The Largest Firms – Lies Precisely In Their Power To – Eliminate Or Swallow – Potential Rivals – In Doing So – They Undoubtedly Stifle At Lest As Much Innovation As They Facilitate

~ A-S-DB-SAS-CCT-E-AT-POOTMOP-TAESYD ~ A – Society – Dominated By – Smallholders And Shopkeepers – Comes Closer To – Equality – And To – Popular Ownership Of The Means Of Production – Than Any Economic System Yet Devised

~ C-BA-ISDAOATN:O/N/PS-BTA-OC-C-BAIDP-IPABDITTOC:WTM-HTMI-CO-‘D’-‘A’-‘C’-HOATINV-A-HTNVAUIDM ~ Cost-Benefit Analysis – Its Success Depends Absolutely On Appearing Totally Nonpolitical: Objective / Nonpartisan / Palpably Scientific – Beneath This Appearance – Of Course – Cost-Benefit Analysis Is Deeply Political – It’s Politics Are Buried Deep In The Techniques Of Calculation: What To Measure – How To Measure It – Conventions Of – “Discounting” – And – “Commensuration” – How Observations Are Translated Into Numerical Values – And – How These Numerical Values Are Used In Decision Making

~ DAP-AMTDBTTAAB-CSWDCAPA-NSEFPV Discretion And Politics – Are Made To Disappear By Techniques That Are At Bottom – Completely Saturated With Discretionary Choices And Political Assumptions – Now Shielded Effectively From Public View

~ T-GEG-F-HF-HNBTRO-OIP-BO-D/U/S-A-COTSOFB ~ The – Great Emancipatory Gains – For – Human Freedom – Have Not Been The Result Of – Orderly Institutional Procedures – But Of – Disorderly / Unpredictable / Spontaneous – Action – Cracking Open The Social Order From Below

CHARLES SEIFE ~ PROOFINESS ~ 2010

~ NCBPW-I-SH-PD-BS-A-BM-CM-TMFD-TMOF-ST-TCBUT-BE-T-DC-AT-SD ~ Numbers Can Be Powerful Weapons – In – Skilful Hands – Phony Data – Bogus Statistics – And – Bad Mathematics – Can Make – The Most Fanciful Data – The Most Outrageous Falsehood – Seem True – They Can Be Used To – Bludgeon Enemies – To – Destroy Critics – And To – Squelch Debate

~ P:TAO-UBMATPS-T-YKIYHIT-EWIN ~ Proofiness: The Art Of – Using Bogus Mathematical Arguments To Prove Something – That – You Know In Your Heart Is True – Even When It’s Not

~ OS-IN-AIP-TINLTHAPCB ~ Our Society – Is Now – Awash In Proofiness – There Is No Limit To How Absurd Proofiness Can Be

~ OYKTMPUTTNIF-TAPAY-WYLTSPOOTW-SOTMCTBSAS ~ Once You Know The Methods People Use To Turn Numbers Into Falsehoods – They Are Powerless Against You – When You Learn To Shovel Proofiness Out Of The Way – Some Of The Most Controversial Topics Become Simple And Straightforward

~ IYWTGPTB-S-R-R-S-JSANOI-ETSASPTMTTEINT ~ If You Want To Get People To Believe – Something – Really – Really – Stupid – Just Stick A Number On It – Even The Silliest Absurdities Seem Plausible The Moment That They’re Expressed In Numerical Terms

~ NMH-I-HU-AII-NCGIC ~ No Matter How – Idiotic – How Unbelievable – An Idea Is – Numbers Can Give It Credibility

~ BTANATAN ~ But There Are Numbers And There Are Numbers

~ ORF-IW-AMATGSTI-D-FE-IHTM-POH-TINSTAA-POAH-TCGYADARRAWASIF-PAJ-A-SE

~ One Red Flag – Is When – A Measurement Attempts To Gauge Something That’s Ill-Defined – For Example – It’s Hard To Measure – Pain Or Happiness – There Is No Such Thing As A – Painometer Or A Happyscope – That Can Give You A Direct And Repeatable Reading About What A Subject Is Feeling – Pain And Joy – Are – Subjective Experiences

~ NMHRAI-PIINFMISR-EITIMITA ~ No Matter How Ridiculous An Idea – Putting It Into Numerical Form Makes It Sound Respectable – Even If The Implied Measurement Is Transparently Absurd

~ LADUILC ~ Like Actors Dressed Up In Lab Coats

~ PN-ATMEO-PV-TNFTLLRD-ALI-ETABOOANM-O-TNTTAGMAA-SFFFFAFH ~ Potemkin Numbers – Are The Mathematical Equivalent Of – Potemkin Villages – They’re Numerical Facades That Look Like Real Data – At Least Implicitly – Either They Are Born Out Of A Nonsensical Measurement – Or – They’re Not Tied To A Genuine Measurement At All – Springing Forth Fully Formed From A Fabricator’s Head

~ CP: TCSOD-CTTSTAYWTM-W-UOIDTUI ~ Cherry-Picking: The Careful Selection Of Data – Choosing Those That Support The Argument You Wish To Make – While – Underplaying Or Ignoring Data That Undermine It

~ CATO-WYCTNTSWOBTTO-IITETTUATS-OTCIM-A-OCCBRTTS-BUCBFC-SOTCTMOT ~ Comparing Apples To Oranges – When You Compare Two Numbers To See Which One’s Bigger Than The Other – It’s Important To Ensure That The Units Are The Same – Otherwise The Comparison Is Meaningless – Apple-Orange Comparisons Can Be Really Tough To Spot – Because Units Can Be Fluid Creatures – Some Of Them Change Their Meaning Over Time

~ A-P:TPTFTOD-MTSTAMFTTAA ~ Apple-Polishing: To Put The Finishing Touches On Data – Manipulating Them So They Appear More Favorable Than They Actually Are

~ WHA-IARP-TDTTSP-MA-IT-WGOSPEWTNT ~ We Humans Are – Incredible At Recognizing Patterns – The Downside To This Spectacular Pattern-Matching Ability – Is That – We Go Overboard Seeing Patterns Even When They’re Not There

~ ACIDCCLJLAE ~ A Change In Diagnostic Criteria Can Look Just Like An Epidemic

~ ATWSTTTACISW-OB-LTTCTOTMCTO-IONS-SWMCFEAVV-STHFNAR-JOO-SRC-ITOCTWHHAHTU-I-R ~ Any Time We See Two Things That Are Correlated In Some Way – Our Brains – Leap To The Conclusion That One Thing Must Cause The Other – It’s Often Not So – Sometimes We Mistake Cause For Effect And Vice Versa – Sometimes Things Happen For No Apparent Reason – Just Out Of – Sheer Random Chance – If There’s One Concept That We Humans Have A Hard Time Understanding – It’s – Randomness

~ R:ITTIOWTIOC-CAPWTIN ~ Randumbness: Insisting That There Is Order Where There Is Only Chaos – Creating A Pattern Where There Is None

~ IYT-ARCOD-A-SHE-YSAPOSS ~ If You Take – Any – Random Collection Of Data – And – Squint Hard Enough – You’ll See A Pattern Of Some Sort

~ RAT-WPBAET-WDHAIGOWBATDAWA ~ Risks Are Tricky – We’re Pretty Bad At Estimating Them – We Don’t Have An Internal Gauge Of What Behaviors Are Truly Dangerous And What Aren’t

~ MCIW-CE-MAHRSWT-O-AIRSD ~ Minor Changes In Wording – Can Easily – Make A Huge Risk Seem Worth Taking – Or – An Insignificant Risk Seem Dangerous

~ TSTS-TBTA ~ The Scarier The Story – The Bigger The Audience

~ ER-A-TFTRC-IAPT-STAITMTSBTTA ~ Exaggerating Risk – And – The Fear These Risks Cause – Is A Potent Tool – So There’s An Incentive To Make Threats Seem Bigger Than They Are

~ TGHTSITST-ATCOTOTD-YMOTBMWWUITPOTWCTCITFP-MH-WFGIDFTRIIMTG-VBTH ~ The Government Had To Step In To Save Them – At The Cost Of Trillions Of Taxpayer Dollars – Yet Much Of That Bailout Money Would Wind Up In The Pockets Of Those Who Caused The Crisis In The First Place – Moral Hazard – When Financial Gain Is Divorced From The Risks Involved In Making That Gain – Very Bad Things Happen

~ RW-IA-LON ~ Random Weirdness – Is A – Law Of Nature

~ APCBA-QD-B-TWOTQITS-TCOWIETMN-SP-SSSASTAIAPW ~ A Poll Can Be Affected – Quite Dramatically – By – The Wording Of The Questions In The Survey – The Choice Of Words In Even The Most Neutral-Sounding Phrase – Sometimes Subtly Steers A Subject To Answer In A Particular Way

~ AM-W-A-NO-PSTIKIF-O-AWRDFTT ~ Absolute Malice – When – A – News Organization – Publishes Something That It Knows Is False – Or – Acts With Reckless Disregard For The Truth

~ IP-A-W-Y-SPRMTN ~ Internet Polls – Are – Worthless – Yet – Such Polls Regularly Make The News

~ MAM-PSTBSONOTRTBWCT-WNLHTCITFUTROP-I-WCOLTTOWAAW-WCWIOM-UBTIOD ~ More And More – People Seem To Be Seeking Out News Outlets That Reinforce Their Beliefs Without Challenging Them – We No Longer Have To Confront Ideas That Force Us To Reevaluate Our Positions – Instead – We Can Only Listen To The Ones We Already Agree With – We Can Wallow In Our Myths – Undisturbed By The Inconvenience Of Doubt

~ P-I-T-TA-D-BNHAHOU-TAP-AM-B-WTNRT-IHFUTITANCBMTL ~ Proofiness – Is – Toxic – To A – Democracy – Because Numbers Have A Hold On Us – They Are Powerful – Almost Mystical – Because – We Think That Numbers Represent Truth – It’s Hard For Us To Imagine That A Number Can Be Made To Lie

~ MS-ITOAT-P-A-ODOKWDWWSTPOFAI-IMTMR;ODMWROFBTN ~ Mathematical Sophistication – Is The Only Antidote To – Proofiness – And – Our Degree Of Knowledge Will Determine Whether We Succumb To Proofiness Or Fight Against It – It’s More Than Mere Rhetoric; Our Democracy May Well Rise Or Fall By The Numbers

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ THE SLIPPERY SLOPE ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ S-MFT-OWA-MP-HII-WSF-T-O-M/C/B ~ Skeptics Might Fear That – Once We Accept – Modest Paternalism – Highly Intrusive Interventions – Will Surely Follow – To – Outright – Manipulation / Coercion / Bans

~ ROA-S-S-A-DTQOW-PHMIAOT-P-CTCTDRTTROOTFOAHSS-IOPAW-MPOT-A-DWITT-PSOTS ~ Reliance On A – Slippery-Slope – Argument – Ducks The Question Of Whether – Proposals Have Merit In And Of Themselves – Policies – Constructive To Criticize Them Directly Rather Than To Rely Only On The Fear Of A Hypothetical Slippery Slope – If Our Proposals Are Worthwhile – Make Progress On Those – And – Do Whatever It Takes To – Pour Sand On The Slope

~ LCOOR-RTSOTOSS-P-ED-T-RFOC-SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TRDBAAM ~ Low Cost Opt-Out Rights – Reduces The Steepness Of The Ostensibly Slippery Slope – Proposals – Emphatically Designed – To – Retain Freedom Of Choice – So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Risks Decried By Antipaternalists Are Modest

~ IMC-SKONII-A-CA-W-POP-MDS ~ In Many Cases – Some Kind Of Nudge Is Inevitable – And – Choice Architects – Whether – Private Or Public – Must Do Something

~ OLTUPTPDNA-B-PAP-I-NRTDHSSAH-WTRSI-IIBPFTOASSTTDNSTARAA-B-TRANT-A-STANSS ~ Often Life Turns Up Problems That People Did Not Anticipate – Both – Private And Public – Institutions – Need Rules To Determine How Such Situations Are Handled – When Those Rules Seem Invisible – It Is Because People Find Them Obvious And So Sensible That They Do Not See Them As Rules At All – But – The Rules Are Nonetheless There – And – Sometimes They Are Not So Sensible

~ TWMTA-SS-AI-TDTTSTB-CFNOFTS-TIAM ~ Those Who Make This Argument – Sometimes Speak – As If – The Default Terms That Set The Background – Come From Nature Or From The Sky – This Is A Mistake

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ CA-TRFOTCIWPMD ~ Choice Architect – The Responsibility For Organizing The Context In Which People Make Decisions

~ TINSTAA’N’-D ~ There Is Not Such Thing As A – “Neutral” – Design

~ SAD-HSI ~ Seemingly Arbitrary Decisions – Have Subtle Influences

~ SAAID-CH-MIOPB-A-‘EM’ ~ Small And Apparently Insignificant Details – Can Have – Major Impacts On People’s Behavior – Assume – “Everything Matters”

~ TIT-‘EM’-CBB-PAE ~ The Insight That – “Everything Matters” – Can Be Both – Paralyzing And Empowering

~ LP-TPWTTITTHBCBD-T-LA-LITSIT-IG-PSBFTDWTL-A-TOOOUAITWTDS-T-PA-LITCTIILFCATTTIPBIOTMTL-L/H/B-AJBT ~ Libertarian Paternalism – The Problem With The Terms Is That They Have Been Captured By Dogmatists – The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Do What They Like – And – To Opt Out Of Undesirable Arrangements If They Want To Do So – The – Paternalistic Aspect – Lies In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Choice Architects To Try To Influence People’s Behavior In Order To Make Their Lives – Longer / Healthier / Better – As Judged By Themselves

~ IMC-IMPBD-DTWNHM-IT-HPFA-A-P-CI-UCA-A-CS-C ~ In Many Cases – Individuals Make Pretty Bad Decisions – Decisions They Would Not Have Made – If They – Had Paid Full Attention – And – Possessed – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – Complete Self-Control

~ LP-IAR-W/S/N-TOP-B-CANB/FO/SB ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak / Soft / Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked / Fenced Off / Significantly Burdened

~ A-N-IAAOT-CA-TAPBIAPWWFAOOSCTEI-TCAAM-N-TIMBEACTA-NANM ~ A – Nudge – Is Any Aspect Of The – Choice Architecture – That Alters People’s Behavior In A Predictable Way Without Forbidding Any Options Or Significantly Changing Their Economic Incentives – To Count As A Mere – Nudge – The Intervention Must Be Easy And Cheap To Avoid – Nudges Are Not Mandates

~ PTFAEL-CAAN-BJF-DN ~ Putting The Fruit At Eye Level – Counts As A Nudge – Banning Junk Food – Does Not

~ TE-SOC-RHRSQATROMJADTPM-HOS-CTHFAFAB-HDMINSGE ~ The Emerging – Science Of Choice – Research Has Raised Serous Questions About The Rationality Of Many Judgments And Decisions That People Make – Hundreds Of Studies – Confirm That Human Forecasts Are Flawed And Biased – Human Decision Making Is Not So Great Either

~ ‘SQB’-AFNF-I-FAHOR-PHASTTGAWTSQODO-RSTWTDCA-MPSWT-EWTSAMH ~ “Status Quo Bias” – A Fancy Name For – Inertia – For A Host Of Reasons – People Have A Strong Tendency To Go Along With The Status Quo Or Default Option – Research Shows That Whatever The Default Choices Are – Many People Stick With Them – Even When The Stakes Are Much Higher

~ NUTPOI-TPCBH-SDO-A-OSST-M-CS-CHHEOO ~ Never Underestimate The Power Of Inertia – That Power Can Be Harnessed – Setting Default Options – And – Other Similar Seemingly Trivial – Menu-Changing Strategies – Can Have Huge Effects On Outcomes

~ BPDB-IAN-ACIOATIPLAHSMOSMP-A-WCDSWSTOEFTC ~ By Properly Deploying Both – Incentives And Nudges – We Can Improve Our Ability To Improve People’s Lives And Help Solve Many Of Society’s Major Problems – And – We Can Do So While Still Insisting On Everyone’s Freedom To Choose

~ T-FA-ITAAPAAOTTMCTAITBIOATVLABTTCTWBMBSE-TAIF-I-OF ~ The – False Assumption – Is That Almost All People Almost All Of The Time Make Choices That Are In Their Best Interest Or At The Very Least Are Better Than The Choices That Would Be Made By Someone Else – This Assumption Is False – Indeed – Obviously False

~ HWPCIAEQ-OWAILTVAD-ISRTSTPMGCICIW-TH-E/GI/PF-TDLWICIWTA-I/PI/FISOI ~ How Well People Choose Is An Empirical Question – One Whose Answer Is Likely To Vary Across Domains – It Seems Reasonable To Say That People Make Good Choices In Contexts In Which – They Have – Experience / Good Information / Prompt Feedback – They Do Less Well In Contexts In Which They Are – Inexperienced / Poorly Informed / Feedback Is Slow Or Infrequent

~ B-ITCRU-TROIOECDAR-FTC-ITBSABCA ~ By – Insisting That Choices Remain Unrestricted – The Risks Of Inept Or Even Corrupt Designs Are Reduced – Freedom To Choose – Is The Best Safeguard Against Bad Choice Architecture

~ CACMJITTLOOBDU-FE ~ Choice Architects Can Make Major Improvements To The Lives Of Others By Designing User-Friendly Environments

~ I-IAN-R-RAB-GWBBSAMM-N-BG-J-BG-IS-LP-I-NLNR ~ If – Incentives And Nudges – Replace – Requirements And Bans – Government Will Be Both Smaller And More Modest – Not – Bigger Government – Just – Better Governance – In Short – Libertarian Paternalism – Is – Neither Left Nor Right

~ W-S-CPAMC-AC-TRIASOBO ~ When – Self-Control Problems And Mindless Choosing – Are Combined – The Result Is A Series Of Bad Outcomes

~ S-MSC-I-MAP-A-SWA-SSN-H-AEIBTSADOO ~ Sometimes – Massive Social Changes – In – Markets And Politics – Alike – Start With A – Small Social Nudge – Humans – Are Easily Influenced By The Statements And Deeds Of Others

~ HAENBOH-OR-WLTC ~ Humans Are Easily Nudged By Other Humans – One Reason – We Like To Conform

~ PBMLTCWTKTOPWSWTHTS-SPWGAWTGEWTT-O-K-TEEHB ~ People Become More Likely To Conform When They Know That Other People Will See What They Have To Say – Sometimes People Will Go Along With The Group Even When They Think – Or – Know – That Everyone Else Has Blundered

~ IMD-PATTT-ATF-TAOWEP-A-TTS-WI-BOTT-SI-AE-C-AAKS-CPLVITO ~ In Many Domains – People Are Tempted To Think – After The Fact – That An Outcome Was Entirely Predictable – And – That The Success – Was Inevitable – Beware Of That Temptation – Small Interventions – And Even – Coincidences – At A Key Stage – Can Produce Large Variations In The Outcome

~ T-SF-CHA-PE ~ The – Specific Framing – Can Have A – Powerful Effect

~ SI-CITEWWCICTM-S-TMHOAIOCWTAATCSA-T-‘P’-OISSATECBSP ~ Subtle Influences – Can Increase The Ease With Which Certain Information Comes To Mind – Sometimes – The Merest Hint Of An Idea Or Concept Will Trigger An Association That Can Stimulate Action – These – “Primes” – Occur In Social Situations And Their Effects Can Be Surprisingly Powerful

~ MPWTWOR-TLE-O-TPOLR-WONIIGFT ~ Many People Will Take Whatever Option Requires – The Least Effort – Or – The Path Of Least Resistance – Whether Or Not It Is Good For Them

~ HMM-A-W-DS-EIUTEAIAFAP ~ Humans Make Mistakes – A – Well-Designed System – Expects Its Users To Err And Is As Forgiving As Possible

~ GF-TBWTHHITPITPF-W-DS-TPWTADWAWTAMM ~ Give Feedback – The Best Way To Help Humans Improve Their Performance Is To Provide Feedback – Well-Designed Systems – Tell People When They Are Doing Well And When They Are Making Mistakes

~ AITOFIAWTTAGW-O-EMH-AATGW ~ An Important Type Of Feedback Is A Warning That Things Are Going Wrong – Or – Even More Helpful – Are About To Go Wrong

~ WS-HTATPO-OSMWTTAI ~ Warning Systems – Have To Avoid The Problem Of – Offering So Many Warnings That They Are Ignored

~ A-FQ-A-CA-WU?/WC?/WP?/WP? ~ Ask – Four Questions – About – Choice Architecture – Who Uses? / Who Chooses? / Who Pays? / Who Profits?

~ HA-LA-RS-T-HLATAMATLG ~ Humans Are – Loss Averse – Roughly Speaking – They – Hate Losses About Twice As Much As They Like Gains

~ ENABN-CAMHTOA-LUIWWC-A-E-MAT-WWC ~ Evil Nudgers And Bad Nudges – Choice Architects May Have Their Own Agendas – Line Up Incentives When We Can – And – Employ – Monitoring And Transparency – When We Can’t

~ PCA-PCA-WAB-V/MP-APGSBT-IT ~ Public Choice Architects – Private Choice Architects – Worry About Both – Voters / Maximizing Profits – A Primary Goal Should Be To – Increase Transparency

~ FPTC-INAW-A-RNINAP-DWTS-A-WTCANAS(MLAP)-I-T ~ Forcing People To Choose – Is Not Always Wise – And – Remaining Neutral Is Not Always Possible – Deciding Where To Stop – And – When To Call A Nudge A Shove (Much Less A Prison) – Is – Tricky

DONALD PROTHERO ~ REALITY CHECK ~ 2013

~ A-S-IS-WDNBTJBSPT-B-TTAE-ITEIS-T-TSMATTCIR ~ A – Skeptic – Is Someone – Who Does Not Believe Things Just Because Someone Proclaims Them – But – Tests Them Against Evidence – If The Evidence Is Solid – Then – The Skeptic Must Acknowledge That The Claim Is Real

~ A-D-I-IC-T-AAOV-A-NAOEWCTM ~ A – Denier – Is – Ideologically Committed – To – Attacking An Opposing Viewpoint – And – No Amount Of Evidence Will Change Their Minds

~ CI-H-NC ~ Crazy Ideas – Have – Negative Consequences

~ JB-TEOT-DNM-TAROCC ~ Just Because – Two Events Occurred Together – Does Not Mean – They Are Related Or Causally Connected

~ CB-HTTSWTETS-A-FWTDNME-WHETATSOEBS-A-IOTTDETSWMBW ~ Confirmation Bias – Humans Tend To See What They Expect To See – And – Forget When Things Do Not Match Expectations – We Hear Evidence That Appears To Support Our Existing Belief Systems – And – Ignore Or Try To Discount Evidence That Suggests We Might Be Wrong

~ OSCTSITQOAAINTOOC-A-UTMTOOWIAI ~ One Should Check To See If The Quotation Of An Authority Is Not Taken Out Of Context – And – Used To Mean The Opposite Of What Its Author Intended

~ YPY-OTSOY-DAA-NB-FYD ~ You Prove Yourself – On The Strength Of Your – Data And Arguments – Not By – Flaunting Your Degree

~ EITAT ~ Expertise In The Appropriate Topic

~ COI ~ Conflict Of Interest

~ BOP-WSCHBR-A-ALAOESAPEOAP-T-TBOP-FOTDWSTOTC-IINE-TPOOSPOCD-O-T-NOLI-TMSTTPOTESTV ~ Burden Of Proof – When Scientific Consensus Has Been Reached – And – A Large Amount Of Evidence Supports A Particular Explanation Of A Phenomenon – Then – The Burden Of Proof – Falls On The Dissenter Who Seeks To Overthrow The Consensus – It Is Not Enough – To Point Out One Small Piece Of Contrary Data – Or – To – Nitpick One Little Inconsistency – They Must Show That The Preponderance Of The Evidence Supports Their View

~ CINC-IIHNTTTLTETCITAATOCTO-BWSTTEAR-WNTEMCOTEOOAOA-WMPSTTDWTCBTTEIR-O-JDTRC ~ Correlation Is Not Causation – It Is Human Nature To Try To Link Two Events That Coincide In Time And Assume That One Causes The Other – Before We Say That Two Events Are Related – We Need To Examine Many Cases Of These Events Occurring Over And Over Again – We Must Perform Statistical Tests To Determine Whether The Connection Between The Two Events Is Real – Or – Just Due To Random Chance

~ ADNMS ~ Anecdotes Do Not Make Science

~ B-PAEATTCI-A-WNGTUNMWEGAT ~ But – Pseudoscientists Are Emotionally Attached To Their Cherished Ideas – And – Will Not Give Them Up No Matter What Evidence Goes Against Them

~ LATTROTE ~ Look At The Track Record Of The Expert

~ OFPPDTC? ~ Our Fellow Planetary Passengers Do They Count?

~ BAP-RTTPFCAT-SE-BTRO-E-O-SOTP-I-TOTHTOAAOTPOT-BFME-OTP-600MY-BNETIT-TC-A-B-20,000-AA-M-S-W-E-TIEFTARSITGP-B-WRDNKHMCBLBT-EPE-C ~ Biologists And Paleontologists – Refer To The Past Few Centuries As The – Sixth Extinction – Because The Rate Of – Extinction – Of – Species On This Planet – Is – Thousands Of Times Higher Than Occurred At Any Of The Previous Of The – Big Five Mass Extinctions – Of The Past – 600 Million Years – Biologists Now Estimate That In The – Twentieth Century – Alone – Between – 20,000 – And A – Million – Species – Went – Extinct – This Is Enormously Faster Than Any Rate Seen In The Geologic Past – But – We Really Do Not Know How Many Can Be Lost Before The – Entire Planetary Ecosystem – Collapses

~ TDOS-TUA ~ The – Denial Of Science – Threatens Us All

~ ME-CE:ACGNTCATBANEADPOVOAORTFTSTROTIOHOSNS ~ Media Echo-Chamber Effect: Anyone Can Get News That Confirms All Their Biases And Never Encounter A Different Point Of View Or An Outside Reality That Falsifies The Stuff They Read On The Internet Or Hear On Some News Sources

~ ‘SI’-PWA-AEIAA-WE-A-SBASM-B-WH-SBWTHL-STC-AAR-IIIITDTCABS ~ “Smart Idiots” – People Who Are – Actively Engaged In An Argument – Well Educated – And – Smart By Any Standard Measure – But – Who Have – Selectively Biased What They Have Learned – So They Can – Argue Against Reality – If It Is Important To Defending Their Community And Belief System

MICHAEL SANDEL ~ THE TYRANNY OF MERIT ~ 2020

~ WBOTCG? ~ What’s Become Of The Common Good?

~ WNTAWTSTOFP-ITLMFB-TPOM-O-TSACGBTSATS ~ We Need To Ask Whether The Solution To Our Fractious Politics – Is To Live More Faithfully By – The Principle Of Merit – Or – To Seek A Common Good Beyond The Sorting And The Striving

~ B-TRORNRH-ITE-IINETR-MWNERTTMC ~ But – The Rhetoric Of Rising Now Rings Hollow – In Today’s Economy – It Is Not Easy To Rise – Most Will Not Even Rise To The Middle Class

~ T-TCWT-HM-TTBTWT-GE-TATR-IS-DLO-TSOP-TOAT=E=HC-A-OR-TEPTSITWOW ~ Today – The Countries With The – Highest Mobility – Tend To Be Those With The – Greatest Equality – The Ability To Rise – It Seems – Depends Less On – The Spur Of Poverty – Than On Access To – Education – Health Care – And – Other Resources – That Equip People To Succeed In The World Of Work

~ ASRTTGBRAPMRDWIOPAW-RT-RCWTPOHPSUALWRGFAFA ~ Any Serous Response To The Gap Between Rich And Poor Must Reckon Directly With Inequalities Of Power And Wealth – Rather Than – Rest Content With The Project Of Helping People Scramble Up A Ladder Whose Rungs Grow Father And Farther Apart

~ M-IIUWTTDTORTM-DSLOTS-TWCTMI-A-MITCOTPP-OTMQ-TAISMPP:TMAATMEP-ATWAAATL-ATW-IGH-ATL-HAR ~ Morally – It Is Unclear Why The Talented Deserve The Outsize Rewards That Market-Driven Societies Lavish On The Successful – Those Who Celebrate The Meritocratic Ideal – And – Make It The Center Of Their Political Project – Overlook This Moral Question – They Also Ignore Something More Politically Potent: The Morally Attractive Attitudes The Meritocratic Ethic Promotes – Among The Winners And Also Among The Losers – Among The Winners – It Generates Hubris – Among The Losers – Humiliation And Resentment

~ TPCIATTOM-A-TCIJ ~ The Populist Complaint Is About The Tyranny Of Merit – And – The Complaint Is Justified

~ TNT-TSR-TAHW-ETW-TCTSTOD-AMOTV-A-TLDUTLFTT-MH-RTTOWTITDOTS-TFT-CAGF-THTOTW-IIT-SC-OT-WLOT-TTDTF-A-T-TOTB-DTT ~ The Notion That – The System Rewards – Talent And Hard Work – Encourages The Winners – To Consider Their Success Their Own Doing – A Measure Of Their Virtue – And – To Look Down Upon Those Less Fortunate Than Themselves – Meritocratic Hubris – Reflects The Tendency Of Winners To Inhale Too Deeply Of Their Success – To Forget The – Luck And Good Fortune – That Helped Them On Their Way – It Is The – Smug Conviction – Of Those – Who Land On Top – That They Deserve Their Fate – And – That – Those On The Bottom – Deserve Theirs Too

~ T- T-CG-IUMI-ET-IILACSODTBOC-TA-SCP-AMBT-GDP-TMFA-IPD ~ Today – The – Common Good – Is Understood Mainly In – Economic Terms – It Is Less About Cultivating Solidarity Or Deepening The Bonds Of Citizenship – Than About – Satisfying Consumer Preferences – As Measured By The – Gross Domestic Product – This Makes For An – Impoverished Public Discourse

~ WPF-PA-TD-CEO-NMTT-WINO-OE-SM-IWPTPOAWRL-C-ATPS-FT-EPD-FAD-TRSTTAO-RPD-DNMTNPABD-ISMTABDE-OOPV-B-AA(OCBTITR)-B-CBABM-B-CL-W-CC-BIWPO ~ What Passes For – Political Argument – These Days – Consists Either Of – Narrow Managerial Technocratic Talk – Which Inspires No One – Or Else – Shouting Matches – In Which Partisans Talk Past One Another Without Really Listening – Citizens – Across The Political Spectrum – Find This – Empty Public Discourse – Frustrating And Disempowering – They Rightly Sense That The Absence Of – Robust Public Debate – Does Not Mean That No Policies Are Being Decided – It Simply Means They Are Being Decided Elsewhere – Out Of Public View – By – Administrative Agencies (Often Captured By The Industries They Regulate) – By – Central Banks And Bond Markets – By – Corporate Lobbyists – Whose – Campaign Contributions – Buy Influence With Public Officials

~ FD-O-M-DG-H-HOPD-DOC-A-PAPB ~ Four Decades – Of – Market-Driven Globalization – Have – Hollowed Out Public Discourse – Disempowered Ordinary Citizens – And – Prompted A Populist Backlash

~ B-IIOTTHPRFAM;IISETATWA-EOU-WRFOLIL ~ But – It Is One Thing To Hold People Responsible For Acting Morally; It Is Something Else To Assume That We Are – Each Of Us – Wholly Responsible For Our Lot In Life

~ TNTOFROM-RDIT-MI-O-WC-IRTBTTMUIAIAWTAPWMASWW-T-MWOT-GRTHATTWSM-TMATS-TGTSTTVHBIOH[H]~ The Notion That Our Fate Reflects Our Merit – Runs Deep In The – Moral Intuitions – Of – Western Culture – It Reflects The Belief That The Moral Universe Is Arranged In A Way That Aligns Prosperity With Merit And Suffering With Wrongdoing – This – Meritocratic Way Of Thinking – Gives Rise To Harsh Attitudes Toward Those Who Suffer Misfortune – The More Acute The Suffering – The Greater The Suspicion That The Victim Has Brought It On Himself[/Herself]

~ MOTF-TS-WFL-AAFAMPOV ~ Many Of The Factors – That Separate – Winners From Losers – Are Arbitrary From A Moral Point Of View

~ TMWVOAS-MAS-S-TLLWATCFTFOTLFTO-IMSIMOD-TFMBTF-TLMMCOC-TSANOPRFOFMIHTIOIOPS ~ The More We View Ourselves As Self-Made And Self-Sufficient – The Less Likely We Are To Care For The Fate Of Those Less Fortunate Than Ourselves – If My Success Is My Own Doing – Their Failure Must Be Their Fault – This Logic Makes Meritocracy Corrosive Of Commonality – Too Strenuous A Notion Of Personal Responsibility For Our Fate Makes It Hard To Imagine Ourselves In Other People’s Shoes

~ TROR ~ The Rhetoric Of Responsibility

~ FD-ME-ITMT-TW-WHAPBTR-CRAFATTWTT-TDNNTFT-SATBOSTSA-T-ROR-WLAPTAT ~ For Decades – Meritocratic Elites – Intoned The Mantra That – Those Who – Work Hard And Play By The Rules – Can Rise As Far As Their Talents Will Take Them – They Did Not Notice That For Those – Stuck At The Bottom Or Struggling To Stay Afloat – The – Rhetoric Of Rising – Was Less A Promise Than A Taunt

~ C:TLAP ~ Credentialism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice

~ ‘SVD’- BTD-EOI-C-L-‘JVU’-O-‘RVW’ ~ “Smart Versus Dumb” – Began To Displace – Ethical Or Ideological – Contrasts – Like – “Just Versus Unjust” – Or – “Right Versus Wrong”

~ T-‘STTD’-A-PTA-POS-IR-TDNDO-MC ~ The – “Smart Thing To Do” – Always – Pointed To A – Prudential Or Self-Interested Reason – That Did Not Depend On – Moral Considerations

~ TNT-‘TBATB’-ABAG-TT-L-C-FC-I-AMBOMH ~ The Notion That – “The Best And The Brightest” – Are – Better At Governing – Than Their – Less-Credentialed – Fellow Citizens – Is – A Myth Born Of Meritocratic Hubris

~ P-TO-RW-I-RME ~ Parties – That Once – Represented Workers – Increasingly – Represented Meritocratic Elites

~ WMFAMITEHAECTCTLOS;IHNTSAHFATROTLSB-T-MI-INA-ROI-IIA-JOI ~ What Matters For A Meritocracy Is That Everyone Has An Equal Chance To Climb The Ladder Of Success; It Has Nothing To Say About How Far Apart The Rungs On The Ladder Should Be – The – Meritocratic Ideal – Is Not A – Remedy Of Inequality – It Is A – Justification Of Inequality

~ AT-AOG-BRWTT-W-C-IDNFMOW-PI-B-WRASASSOWTP-W-EASCALS ~ Although The – Age Of Globalization – Brought Rich Rewards To – The Well-Credentialed – It Did Not Nothing For Most Ordinary Workers – Productivity Increased – But – Workers Reaped A Smaller And Smaller Share Of What They Produced – While – Executives And Shareholders Captured A Larger Share

~ OTLSD-TIT-TMWMRTVOOSC-HBDE ~ Over The Last Several Decades – The Idea That – The Money We Make Reflects The Value Of Our Social Contribution – Has Become Deeply Embedded

~ M-FA-HRTP-EG-TDPATEI-SP-MTDOTWEAL-P-U-GAS-IT-RE ~Much – Financial Activity – Hinders Rather Than Promotes – Economic Growth – The Disproportionate Prestige Accorded Those Engaged In – Speculative Pursuits – Mocks The Dignity Of Those Who Earn A Living – Producing – Useful – Goods And Services – In The – Real Economy

~ A-PA-TRT-DOW-WUT-TS-TRTEOEB-DS-A-HPL ~ A – Political Agenda – That Recognizes The – Dignity Of Work – Would Use The – Tax System – To Reconfigure The Economy Of Esteem By – Discouraging Speculation – And – Honoring Productive Labor