ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ THE ENERGY OF SLAVES ~ 2012

~ B-ITAO-WAT-EERBAMO-DRTS ~ But – In The Absence Of – Wisdom And Temperance – Every Energy Relationship Becomes A Matter Of – Dominion Rather Than Stewardship

~ ODOTEOS-WANSTPAIM ~ Once Dependent On The Energy Of Slaves – We Are Now Slaves To Petroleum And Its Masters

~ SHM-B/P/E-EFMTM-W-H-ETWFLC-TTYA-HD-DTAPWHOSES ~ Shackled Human Muscle – Built / Powered / Emboldened – Empires From Mesopotamia To Mexico – When – Hammurabi – Established The World’s First Legal Codes – Two Thousand Years Ago – He Decreed – Death To Any Person Who Helped Or Sheltered Escaping Slaves

~ OC-ACC-PAPRISTER-MCSTISTPTD ~ Orphaned Children – And – Convicted Criminals – Played A Prominent Role In Swelling The Energy Ranks – Many Citizens Sold Themselves Into Slavery To Pay Their Debts

~ ES-RLPALI-A-APAGMTTP ~ Escaped Slaves – Represented Lost Property And Lost Income – And – Also Posed A General Menace To The Public

~ WMT-WRTAEOHS-W-ANS-PBFF ~ Without Much Thought – We Replaced The Ancient Energy Of Human Slaves – With – A New Servitude – Powered By Fossil Fuels

~ G-RHCTFP-ATWPOKD-A-DIIR ~ Gasoline – Refiners Had Considered The Flammable Product – A Troublesome Waste Product Of Kerosene Distillation – And – Dumped It Into Rivers

~ TN-H-Y-GSFTTNMWAMSN-GR-DO-O-B-F/P-A-D-RIS ~ The New – High-Yielders – Grew So Fast That They Needed More Water And More Soil Nutrients – Green Revolution – Depended On – Oil-Based – Fertilizers / Pesticides – And – Diesel-Run Irrigation Systems

~ E-LC-AV-BS-AIWT-240KOO-NTMIT ~ Every – Laptop Computer – A Veritable – Brain Slave – Arrives Impregnated With The – 240 Kilograms Of Oil – Needed To Make It

~ EGOG-BIAV-RTPOEO-98T-O-PBPM ~ Every Gallon Of Gasoline – Burned In A Vehicle – Required The Pumping Or Excavation Of – 98 Tons – Of – Prehistoric Buried Plant Material

~ E-ES-CIO-SD-A-UD ~ Every – Energy System – Creates Its Own – Starling Dependencies – And – Unpredictable Dynamics

~ OOTRCOSAACOPITI ~ One Of The Remarkable Characteristics Of Slaveholders As A Class Of People Is Their Indebtedness

~ ATW-OAIS-HR-TNOG/TSOS/TWOP/TMOC-A-TPOE ~ Around The World – Oil And Its Servants – Have Reengineered – The Nature Of Government / The Scale Of Science / The Weight Of Populations / The Metabolism Of Cities – And – The Purpose Of Economics

~ A-F-OA-RE-MIAGMOGB-F/P/M-IBITSDTAMIMPOTWW-L-EO ~ As – Farming – Once A – Renewable Enterprise – Morphed Into A Giant Mining Operation Governed By – Fertilizers / Pesticides / Machines – It Became Impossible To Sit Down To A Meal In Many Parts Of The World Without – Literally – Eating Oil

~ M-VAC-NCF-P/M/V-TTDOHYA-RSTTSOPGHDTUOGN ~ Most – Vegetables And Cereals – Now Contain Fewer – Proteins / Minerals / Vitamins – Than They Did One Hundred Years Ago – Researchers Suspect That The Speed Of Plants Growth Has Diluted Their Uptake Of Good Nutrients

~ C-TUO-30%-OT-AF-TRWA ~ Crops – Take Up Only – 30 Percent – Of The – Applied Fertilizer – The Rest Washes Away

~ ETUEF ~ Enslavement To Unsustainable Energy Flows

~ OSAO-F-FF-HB-I-RC ~ One Striking Aspect Of – Fossil-Fueled Farming – Has Been – It’s – Relentless Concentration

~ R/B/I-O-CF-HOTWACY-GE-B-70,000-D-PAPD-DAAEO-$35B-O-P ~ Rusts / Blights / Insects – One-Crop Farms – Half Of The World’s Annual Crop Yield – Gets Eaten – By – 70,000 – Different – Pests And Plant Diseases – Despite An Annual Expenditure Of – $35 Billion – On – Pesticides

~ LD-HSSEDTPPFH-ABT-RD/ED/SC-ABRW-DD-H-Y-F-‘U’-SB-PI-CO-V-A-A-FAHFF ~ Livestock Diversity – Has Suffered Similar Erosion Due To Petroleum’s Preference For Homogenization – Animals Bred To – Resist Disease / Endure Drought / Survive Cold – Are Being Replaced With – Dumbed Down – High-Yield – Factory – “Units” – Shaped By – Petroleum Inputs – Consisting Of – Vaccines – Antibiotics – And – Formulated And Highly Fertilized Feeds

~ A-H-E-U-C-TRAADGFEIANW-UTET-NOLT ~ All – High-Energy-Use – Countries – Treat Rural Areas As Dumping Grounds For Exploitative Industries And Nuclear Waste – Using The Excuse That – No One Lives There

~ T-F-F-M-HNWO-LT-LF-A-LCD-ATG-WTBLTFTCCTQOMN ~ The – Factory-Farm – Model – Has Nearly Wiped Out – Local Traditions – Local Farmers – And – Local Crop Diversity – Around The Globe – With The Bold Lie That Factory Techniques Can Conquer The Quirks Of Mother Nature

~ T-FFS-DTFPANWOS-HA-SP-IHFTPMOA-F-FDAMMA ~ The – Factory Food System – Designed To Fatten Plants And Animals With Oil Subsidies – Has Also – Supersized People – It Has Fattened The Poor Most Of All – Fast-Food Diets Are Much More Affordable

~ AOPI-MPASF-AATS-C-GR-F-O-FH ~ As Oil Prices Increase – Many Peasants And Small Farmers – Are Abandoning The So-Called – Green Revolution – For – Old-Fashioned Husbandry

~ AMPBTFPMBITFTHM-HPGOFAAFOFA ~ Although Many People Believe That Food Production Must Be Increased To Feed The Hungry Masses – Human Population Grows Or Falls As A Function Of Food Availability

~ IINHTTTDB-C-BBH-A-T-CBM-TFSP;TLSEAIIC ~ It Is Not Hard To Tell The Difference Between – Cities – Built By Hand – And – Those – Constructed By Machines – The Former Served People ; The Latter Serve Energy And Its Inanimate Clients

~ A-S-R-STD-SS-A-W-LF ~ As – Skyscrapers – Rose – So Too Did – Sprawling Slums – And – Window-Less Factories

~ R-SAT-W-CAA-‘YHI’ ~ Replacing – Soil And Trees – With – Concrete And Asphalt – “Urban Heat Islands”

~ RSL-W-FS-PFA-A-FGM ~ Rising Sea Levels – Will – Flood Slums – Poison Freshwater Aquifers – And – Force Great Migrations

~ E-BAJF-CC ~ Economics – Became A Justification For – Conspicuous Consumption

~ T-TPOE-L-S-I-HPP-TIAUMEHBTMLG ~ Today – The Pseudoscience Of Economics – Like – Science – Itself – Has Probably Peaked – The Ideological Assumptions Undermining Modern Economics Have Begun To Melt Like Glaciers

~ PS ~ Peak Science

~ 26.5-POO-F-EPOC ~ 26.5 – Ponds Of Oil – For – Every Pound Of Computer

~ EN-EOT-STCM-TLTD-A-T-EPC-OTDLVAEFER ~ Each New – Extreme Oil Technique – Seems To Cost More – Takes Longer To Develop – And – Typically – Exceeds Predicted Costs – Only To Deliver Less Volume And Even Fewer Energy Returns

~ M-CO2C-WRMEAPF-FTOY-C-BS-AESTREME ~ Monitoring – CO2 Cemeteries – Would Require More Energy And Public Funds – For Thousands Of Years – Classic – Big Science – An Energy Solution That Requires Even More Energy

~ WMEWYCSRT? ~ Why Manage Emissions When You Can Simply Reduce Them?

~ M-L-T-A-E ~ Many – Low-Tech – Alternatives – Exist

~ OAG-BRAD-LTAEOBSOTP-AAC-MOTTCABIA-‘I’-IAB ~ Oil And Gas – Basic Research And Development – Less Than Almost Every Other Business Sector On The Planet – As A Consequence – Most Of The Technology Currently Advertised By Industry As – “Innovative” – Is Anything But

~ FE-ASP ~ Fugitive Emissions – Are So Prevalent

~ TM-OOH-DE-TMHANEB ~ The More – Oil Or Hydrocarbons – Dominate Exports – The More Hollow A National Economy Becomes

~ EROEI ~ Energy Return On Energy Invested

~ MCOE-SBCW-QOL ~ Massive Consumption Of Energy – Shouldn’t Be Confused With – Quality Of Life

BRIAN FAGAN ~ THE ATTACKING OCEAN ~ 2013

~ AP-ESLR-AAAROA-TM-AY-ICOAAOTPC-OTPFY-H-TARIA-TM-AY-A-ADART-GW ~ At Present – Eustatic Sea Level Rise – Advances At A Rate Of About – Two Millimeters – A Year – If Calculated On An Average Of The Past Century – Over The Past Fifteen Years – However – The Averaged Rate Is Around – Three Millimeters – A Year – Apparently – A Direct Accelerated Response To – Global Warming

~ T-AAG-IS-HCOATPTASLR-UR-ATSATTRIA-PD ~ The – Antarctic And Greenland – Ice Sheets – Have Contributed Only A Tiny Proportion To Annual Sea Level Rise – Until Recently – All The Signs Are That The Rate Is Accelerating – Perhaps Dramatically

~ T-GIS-C-4,550MSK-ITWTMC-GSL-WRB-SM ~ The – Greenland Ice Sheet – Covers – 4,550 Million Square Kilometers – If This Were To Melt Completely – Global Sea Levels – Would Rise By – Seven Meters

~ UA-2000-TAOAIWSI-B-RSMSTTISANLM ~ Until About – 2000 – The Amount Of Antarctic Ice Was Slowly Increasing – But – Recent Satellite Measurements Show That The Ice Sheets Are Now Losing Mass

~ T-EAIS-LASLAIRS-IIWTM-TR-SLR-WBITOO-FM ~ The – East Antarctic Ice Sheet – Lies Above Sea Level And Is Relatively Stable – If It Were To Melt – The Resulting – Sea Level Rise – Would Be In The Order Of – Fifty Meters

~ MOT-WAIS-IAOTS-WCOTATSOIF-STE-WAIS-M-WSLWRA-FM ~ Much Of The – West Antarctic Ice Sheet – Is Aground On The Seabed – Where Changing Ocean Temperatures Affect The Stability Of Its Foundations – Should The Entire – West Antarctic Ice Sheet – Melt – World Sea Levels Would Rise About – Five Meters

~ MEBT-AT-MRB2100-SBTBFFP ~ Many Experts Believe That – A Two-Meter Rise By 2100 – Should Be The Basis For Future Planning

~ NTSHCS ~ Now The Situation Has Changed Significantly

~ T-W-CITM-A-BOCDLASLOCTI-TL-TCOASLRAAMTFIAMMVW ~ Today – With – Cities In The Millions – And – Billions Of Coastal Dwellers Living At Sea Level Or Close To It – The Long-Term Challenges Of Accelerated Sea Level Rise Are Already Making Themselves Felt In A Much More Vulnerable World

~ A-STYA-TWOHRMOLML ~ Around – Six Thousand Years Ago – The World’s Oceans Had Reached More Or Less Modern Levels

~ LBSLAFTL-AFIACIP-RSS-WNVG-TL-TEORSI-DLIB-DOFAL-SODW-DIFFP-A-STTL-TFS ~ Long Before Seal Levels Actually Flood The Landscape – Another Factor Is Already Coming Into Play – Rising Soil Salinity – Where No Vegetation Grows – The Long-Term Effects Of Rising Salinity Include – Drastic Losses In Biodiversity – Degradation Of Fertile Agricultural Land – Scarcities Of Drinkable Water – Decreases In Freshwater Fish Populations – And – Serious Threat To Long-Term Food Security

~ SLR-IAS-L-TP-WIWMPDTT ~ Sea Level Rise – Is A Seemingly – Long-Term Problem – Which Is Why Many People Discount The Threat

~ GWHRSLA20CS1880ATRORIA-MSEARO20TO203CTC-DOTROGGAOPITA ~ Global Warming Has Raised Sea Levels About 20 Centimeters Since 1880 And The Rate Of Rise Is Accelerating – Many Scientists Expect A Rise Of 20 To 203 Centimeters This Century – Depending On The Release Of Greenhouse Gases And Other Pollutants Into The Atmosphere

~ ICRO-GGE-C-GTWRTAAO-13DC-WTT-B-2100-TWLUIAL-4T6M-O-SLR-ISC ~ If Current Rates Of – Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Continue – Global Temperatures Will Rise To An Average Of – Thirteen Degrees Celsius – Warmer Than Today – By – 2100 – This Would Lock Us Into At Least – 4 To 6 Meters – Of – Sea Level Rise – In Subsequent Centuries

~ AFSLRFUA-TITAIOVT-S-C-H-YS ~ Apart From Seal Level Rises Flooding Urban Acreage – There Is The Additional Issue Of Vulnerability To – So-Called – Hundred-Year Storms

~ WNAAPWWCNLBLOWOHITS ~ We’re Now At A Point Where We Can No Longer Behave Like Ostriches With Our Heads In The Sand

~ TOALAAIDE ~ The Options Are Limited And Almost Invariably Dauntingly Expensive

~ WWDIGTBE ~ Whatever We Do Is Going To Be Expensive

~ WAAAT-PW-HAC-W-CCASLR-WFMOPTMTHG-TB-CR ~ We Are Approaching A Time – Perhaps Within – Half A Century – When – Climate Change And Sea Level Rise – Will Force Millions Of People To Move To Higher Ground – To Become – Climatic Refugees

~ TATMOUOE ~ There Are Too Many Of Us On Earth

~ WFA-F-L-T-C-TWCAODROIAO ~ We Face A – Frightening – Long-Term – Crisis – That Will Challenge All Our Deep Reservoirs Of Ingenuity And Opportunism

MARY GRAY + SIDDHARTH SURI ~ GHOST WORK ~ 2019

~ TSWT-PCCMGFTTAGWAM-RPAUI-CMPFT-TCAPL ~ The Same Way That – Poker Chips Can Make Gamblers Forget That The Are Gambling With Actual Money – Representing People As Unique Indentifiers – Can Make Programmers Forget That – Their Code Affects People’s Lives

~ HIANFTE-TD-GW-WMTMM-SHMTD-A-STPUPOJP ~ Hypervigilance Is A Necessity For Top Earners – Those Doing – Ghost Work – Who Make The Most Money – Spend Hours Monitoring Their Dashboards – And – Scrolling Through Pages Upon Pages Of Job Postings

~ APD-GW-MW-FIS ~ All People Doing – Ghost Work – Must Weather – Fluctuating Income Streams

~ WE ~ Weaponized Ignorance

~ HITL-AI-IT-D-HZ-FCTSGWHAIWMUTWR-SOTECBCUTL-TCITBTSIF-B-EIA-PF-RTA-EB-OT-GWE ~ Humans In The Loop – Appear Interchangeable – In This De-Humanized Zone – Few Companies That Sell Ghost Work Have Any Idea Who Makes Up Their Workforce Ranks – Some Of This Erasure Can Be Chalked Up To Logistics – The Crowd Is Too Big To See Individual Faces – But – Erasure Is A – Purposeful Feature – Rather Than An – Errant Bug – Of The – Ghost Work Economy

~ TA-LR-WA-O-DP-MNWT-K-O-CTM-AIW ~ There Are – Legal Reasons – Why An – On-Demand Platform – Might Not Want To – Know – Or – Care Too Much – About Its Workers

~ IIHTIHNHHBITGSO-AI ~ It Is Hard To Ignore How Necessary Humans Have Become In The Growing Shadow Of – AI

~ SFAFELR ~ Shielded From A Formal Employers Legal Responsibilities

~ WYWHNC ~ When Your Work Has No Category

~ MWOEC ~ Murky Waters Of Employment Classification

~ TA-HADO-ETLP ~ Technological Advancement – Has Always Depended On – Expendable Temporary Labor Pools

~ CL-TITFOABPL-HFS-A-ITFCOV ~ Contingent Labor – Tucked In The Folds Of A Busy Production Loop – Hidden From Sight – And – Impossible To Fully Credit Or Value

~ SB-T-WWCL-O-TS-SELR ~ Some Believed – That – Workers Were Costly Liabilities – Outsourcing – Temporary Staffing – Soon Everyone Looked Replaceable

~ TGEWNLDBBS ~ The Global Economy Was No Longer Driven By Building Stuff

~ AC-A-T-HC-O-GW ~ Algorithmic Cruelty – And – The – Hidden Costs – Of – Ghost Work

~ ID-A-I-UC ~ Indifferent Design – And – Its – Unintended Consequences

~ TBOAAWTWFAR-WIADDTMPM-HTUCOEA ~ The Benefit Of Allowing Any Worker To Work For Any Requester – Which Is A Design Decision That Most Platforms Make – Has The Unintended Consequence Of Eroding Accountability

~ T-BOTC-UTFOC-B-N-IFSOTPDGW-MWHZRISHTTAATAPFTW

~ The – Burden Of Transaction Costs – Used To Fall On Companies – But – Now – It Fall Squarely On The People Doing Ghost Work – Most Workers Have Zero Recourse If Something Happens To Their Account And They Aren’t Paid For Their Work

~ H-SA-F ~ Hypervigilance – Spun As – Flexibility

~ IR-FAAM-WCFAF-WTBOCDAN ~ In Reality – Flexibility Is A Myth – Work Comes Faster And Faster – Workers To Be On Call Day And Night

~ IALOG-SA-A ~ Isolation And Lack Of Guidance – Spun As – Autonomy

~ IMC-PDGWALTTODTNTIAOOAJ-I-AAQMRIADTCAWTJ ~ In Most Cases – People Doing Ghost Work Are Left To Their Own Devices To Navigate The Ins And Outs Of A Job – Indeed – Asking A Question May Result In A Delay That Costs A Worker Their Job

~ TDGWBTCOLHTNNOTTBATWC-A-THNCTAQOGFFR ~ Those Doing Ghost Work Bear The Costs Of Learning How To Navigate Not Only The Task But Also The Work Culture – And – They Have No Chance To Ask Questions Or Get Feedback From Requesters

~ NGPWTFOH-SA-M ~ Not Getting Paid When Technical Failure Or Hustle – Spun As – Malfeasance

~ PWDO-DJSAWHFBCARPS ~ People Who Design On-Demand Job Sites Assume Workers Have Fast Broadband Connections And Reliable Power Sources

~ OWSCTBUAWCOGP ~ One Wrong Step Can Totally Blow Up A Worker’s Chance Of Getting Paid

~ GP-CBTHPOTJ ~ Getting Paid – Can Be The Hardest Part Of The Job

~ NBIP-NIC ~ No Boss Is Perfect – Neither Is Code

~ O-DW-HLAT-PAWFE ~ On-Demand Workers – Have Little Access To – Protections Associated With Formal Employment

~ SS-OWETOI-ACPAHORS ~ Statistics Show – Once Women Earn Their Own Income – A Country’s Prosperity And Health Outcomes Rise Steadily

~ O-DW-C-AWARIC-OOTP ~ On-Demand Work – Cuts – Anyone Without A Reliable Internet Connection – Out Of The Picture

~ OOTMCWPMTENOWM-I-TSCAC ~ One Of The Most Common Ways People Make The Economic Necessity Of Work Meaningful – Is – Through Social Connections And Camaraderie

~ TBTR ~ Talking Back To Robots

~ TKOSATPOC ~ The Kindness Of Strangers And The Power Of Collaboration

~ MJ-POAFC-B-YHTIYDE-TPWAU ~ Most Jobs – Pay Only A Few Cents – But – You Hope That If You Do Enough – The Pennies Will Add Up

~ WCTOSATPSFTPTWO-S-TC-TRTTCIOTBTP-TGTWD-A-PSSTOA ~ Workers Collaborate To Overcome Social And Technical Problems Stemming From The Platforms They Work On – Specifically – They Collaborate – To Reduce The Transaction Costs Imposed On Them By The Platforms – To Get The Work Done – And – Provide Social Support To One Another

~ RCA ~ Reimagining Collective Action

~ W2.0 ~ Watercooler 2.0

~ TKACOWHOA-A-A-TDEMVI-Y-M-GWP-SDTDI ~ The Kindness And Collaborations Of Workers Helping One Another – Are – Arguably – The Digital Economy’s Most Valuable Ingredient – Yet – Most – Ghost Work Platforms – Seem Determined To Delete It

~ NSCEWNF-C/V/R/F-WDBTWAWTP ~ No System Can Erase Workers’ Need For – Connection / Validation / Recognition / Feedback – Without Damaging Both The Worker And What They Produce

~ RTR-WC-PD-MWTCT-‘S’-TFTW ~ Rather Than Resist – Worker Collaboration – Platform Designers – Might Want To Consider Taking – “Scafolding” – Tips From The Workers

~ TDBL-PW-TWLGF-IN-AGONEO-O-DS ~ The Double Bottom Line – Prioritize Workers – Treating Workers Like Ghostly Figures – Is Not – A Given Or Necessary Element Of – On-Demand Services

~ SAABS ~ Scaffolding As A Business Strategy

~ CASOA ~ Creating A Seal Of Approval

~ WWANITCOAO-DSD-TPSAEWNAWAJ-LB-TT-TP-A-TP-DTW ~ When Workers Are Not Intentionally The Center Of An On-Demand Service’s Design – The Platform Strips Away Everything We Now Associate With A Job – Leaving Behind – The Task – The Pay – And – The Person – Doing The Work

~ A-V-HL-IA-FD ~ Automation – Vs – Human Labor – Is A – False Dichotomy

~ GW-ARNFO-CP-TC-TSAPOS-W-HI ~ Ghost Work – A Relatively New Form Of – Computing Power – That Combines – The Speed And Precision Of Software – With – Human Ingenuity

~ WFMRT-O-DPAJS-TA-B/D-OLM-TCO-H-OBSOTM ~ We First Must Recognize That – On-Demand Platforms Aren’t Just Software – They Are – Bustling / Dynamic – Online Labor Markets – That Consist Of – Humans – On Both Sides Of The Market

ANNE APPLEBAUM ~ TWILIGHT OF DEMOCRACY ~ 2020

~ ‘OA-IITAOT-IOOPH-IWBOOICCTNITMHOH’ ~ “Our Age – Is Indeed The Age Of The – Intellectual Organization Of Political Hatreds – It Will Be One Of Its Chief Claims To Notice In The Moral History Of Humanity” ~ Julien Benda ~ The Betrayal Of The Intellectuals ~ [La Trahson Des Clercs] ~ 1927

~ A-FT-IT-FPAWRO-CT ~ A – Full-Time – Internet Troll – Fanatically Promoting A Whole Range Of – Conspiracy Theories

~ TRIM-MIETE ~ They Repeat Its Mantras – Make Its Enemies Their Enemies

~ GTRCASCTAD-I-IHIATGB-AOOSEW ~ Given The Right Conditions Any Society Can Turn Against Democracy – Indeed – If History Is Anything To Go By – All Of Our Societies Eventually Will

~ APSBOLAR-AARFAOOTI ~ Any Political System Built On Logic And Rationality – Always At Risk From An Outburst Of The Irrational

~ IIH-T-FOLD-IOOT-WNLAIDIT1920SO1930S-B-IWSRA-NE-A-NGOC-TBIA ~ If It Happens – The – Fall Of Liberal Democracy – In Our Own Time – Will Not Look As It Did In The 1920s Or 1930s – But – It Will Still Require A – New Elite – A – New Generation Of Clercs – To Bring It About

~ TATRODSTTNLP ~ To Alter The Rules Of Democracy So That They Never Lose Power

~ HDW ~ How Demagogues Win

~ SD-DNRMVTSIP-IIRUA-COE-TR-TB-TSM-TC-A-ISP-SC ~ Soft Dictatorship – Does Not Require Mass Violence To Stay In Power – Instead – It Relies Upon A – Cadre Of Elites – To Run – The Bureaucracy – The State Media – The Courts – And – In Some Places – State Companies

~ T-M-DC-UTR-WIT-DTL-HDTS-HGTC-A-HDTIOOPAI-IC-TKTTWB-RAA ~ These – Modern-Day Clercs – Understand Their Role – Which Is To – Defend The Leaders – However Dishonest Their Statements – However Great Their Corruption – And – However Disastrous Their Impact On Ordinary People And Institutions – In Change – They Know That They Will Be – Rewarded And Advanced

~ ATW-TAMVOT-IO-PS ~ Around The World – There Are Many Versions Of The – Illiberal One-Party State

~ NATTCDOHMIAA ~ No Acknowledgement That The Constant Drumbeat Of Hatred Might Inspire Another Assassination

~ B-NE-CBF ~ But – New Enemies – Can Be Found

~ TEAOACTIIIS-I-EACP-AFCAA-OTBTSSOHSPATTT ~ The Emotional Appeal Of A Conspiracy Theory Is In Its Simplicity – It – Explains Away Complex Phenomena – Accounts For Chance And Accidents – Offers The Believer The Satisfying Sense Of Having Special Privileged Access To The Truth

~ FTWB-TO-PS-G-TROTCTABAR:P ~ For Those Who Become – The One-Party State’s – Gatekeepers – The Repetition Of These Conspiracy Theories Also Brings Another Reward: Power

~ TFON ~ The Future Of Nostalgia

~ WPHR-A-NLBTLIIAB-NLATTRCIEBG-TAAWGTR-WITE0INO ~ When People Have Rejected – Aristocracy – No Longer Believe That Leadership Is Inherited At Birth – No Longer Assume That The Ruling Class Is Endorsed By God – The Argument About Who Gets To Rule – Who Is The Elite – Is Never Over

~ DAFM-CPUO-EWBROWNTTROWPAETCFVDSP-TLOTCWA-SOL-GTCTVOTCI ~ Democracy And Free Markets – Can Produce Unsatisfying Outcomes – Especially When Badly Regulated Or When Nobody Trusts The Regulators Or When People Are Entering The Contest From Very Different Starting Points – The Losers Of These Competitions Were Always – Sooner Or Later – Going To Challenge The Value Of The Competition Itself

~ TDOST-BTASC-AUC-ASC-CHI-TOAMSDITW ~ The Desire Of Some To – Belong To A Special Community – A Unique Community – A Superior Community – Can Happen In – The Oldest And Most Secure Democracies In The World

~ TIB-NRTR-IWV-515,000-T ~ Though It Bore – No Relation To Reality – It Was Viewed – 515,000 – Times

~ OWBH-EEWSHTA ~ Oligarchs Would Be Happy – Everyone Else Would Simply Have To Adjust

~ COF ~ Cascades Of Falsehood

~ WALTARSITWPTARPI-ETSOCRTHHPPCITP ~ We Now Are Living Through A Rapid Shift In The Way People Transmit And Receive Politic Information – Exactly The Sort Of Communication Revolution That Has Had Profound Political Consequences In The Past

~ TRSIAMTICH-WAD-SDTAOBNABTCAPI ~ The Rapid Shift In Advertising Money To Internet Companies Has – Within A Decade – Severely Damaged The Ability Of Both Newspapers And Broadcasters To Collect And Present Information

~ PHA-HDO-N-THDF ~ People Have Always – Had Different Opinions – Now – They Have Different Facts

~ TSMATEFPOTW-PCOTNTWTH-TARTWUTT-BTHBDTKYO-TAAFE-E-AAF-A-BTSAA-TAPIWTDE-ABAH-DBN-PHMFTOWIR ~ The Social Media Algorithms Themselves Encourage False Perceptions Of The World – People Click On The News They Want To Hear – The Algorithms Radicalize Those Who Use Them Too – Because They Have Been Designed To Keep You Online – The Algorithms Also Favor Emotions – Especially – Anger And Fear – And – Because The Sites Are Addictive – They Affect People In Ways They Don’t Expect – Anger Becomes A Habit – Divisiveness Become Normal – Polarization Has Moved From The Online World Into Reality

~ W-PTB-LNS ~ Websites – Purporting To Be – Local News Sites

~ HIAND?-WGTDI?-AAW?-FALT-WHITSQWS-B-WSTEB? ~ How Is A Nation Defined? – Who Gets To Define It? – Who Are We? – For A Long Time – We Have Imagined That Such Questions Were Settled – But – Why Should They Ever Be?

~ M-NIT-WCT-UC-DPF-A-IP ~ Maybe – New Information Technology – Will Continue To – Undermine Consensus – Divide People Further – And – Increase Polarization

~ B-A-A-D/P/SP-I-WC-TFATR-NC-TWCFBALAL ~ Because – All – Authoritarianisms – Divide / Polarize / Separate People – Into – Warring Camps – The Fight Against Them Requires – New Coalitions – Together We Can Fight Back Against Lies And Liars

ROBERT SHILLER ~ THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN SETTING THE STAGE FOR MARKET MOVES ~ IRRATIONAL EXUBERANCE ~ 2000

~ THOSBBRWTAON ~ The History Of Speculate Bubbles Begins Roughly With The Advent Of Newspapers

~ ATNM-N/M/BM/TI-PTADOOME-TATAIPOTE-SME-GOOITISTALGOP-A-TNMAEVFTSOI ~ Although The News Media – Newspapers / Magazines / Broadcast Media / The Internet – Present Themselves As Detached Observers Of Market Events – They Are Themselves An Integral Part Of These Events – Significant Market Events – Generally Occur Only If There Is Similar Thinking Among Large Groups Of People – And – The News Media Are Essential Vehicles For The Spread Of Ideas

~ NS-RHA-S/P-EOTM ~ News Stories – Rarely Have A – Simple / Predictable – Effect On The Market

~ TNMAICCTCTPATNTS-SFTR-FADIN-FAONTH-W-O-M-P-TBTA-A-WP-DAOSTETATRSC ~ The News Media Are In Constant Competition To Capture The Public Attention They Need To Survive – Survival For Them Requires – Finding And Defining Interesting News – Focusing Attention On News That Has – Word-Of-Mouth – Potential – To Broaden Their Audience – And – Whenever Possible – Defining An Ongoing Story That Encourages Their Audience To Remain Steady Customers

~ TNMANATFM-B-ATVLTMP-CN-ITFO-DPC-NBTSMFSFOPINI ~ The News Media Are Naturally Attracted To Financial Markets – Because – At The Very Least The Markets Provide – Constant News – In The Form Of – Daily Price Changes – Nothing Beats The Stock Market For Sheer Frequency Of Potentially Interesting News Items

~ TSMAHSQ-TBCIT-BC-TMFMP-A-BTOAGDISAABOTSOTN-AITTMCFABF ~ The Stock Market Also Has Star Quality – The Pubic Considers It The – Big Casino – The Market For Major Players – And – Believes That On Any Given Day It Serves As A Barometer Of The Status Of The Nation – All Impressions That The Media Can Foster And Benefit From

~ FN-MHGHIPTTETIDWTMOBOF-TOORGONOACSI-SE-FNASN-TAFRHOTECOMNT ~ Financial News – May Have Great Human Interest Potential To The Extent That It Deals With The Making Or Breaking Of Fortunes – The Only Other Regular Generator Of News On A Comparable Scale Is – Sporting Events – Financial News And Sports News – Together Account For Roughly Half Of The Editorial Content Of Many Newspapers Today

~ TMOSTTOS-IRLATDIEDW-TWOFSTISTSAROAGD-TITNASRACBS-OATTCPHATE-IA-WIDO-DI-EAAOIAOQD-APFSTDIFUBCS ~ The Media Often Seem To Thrive On Superlatives – If Reporters Look At The Data In Enough Different Ways – They Will Often Find Something That Is Close To Setting A Record On Any Given Day – The Impression That New And Significant Records Are Constantly Being Set – Only Adds To The Confusion People Have About The Economy – It Also – With Its Deluge Of – Different Indicators – Encourages An Avoidance Of Individual Assessment Of Quantitative Data – A Preference For Seeing The Data Interpreted For Us By Celebrity Sources

RUTGER BREGMAN ~ HUMANKIND ~ 2019

~ C-BO-N-T-W-B-T-B-IP ~ Crisis – Brought Out – Not – The – Worst – But – The – Best – In People

~ IANMI-WAWWB-WFWWGLF-A-WWP-CTP ~ Ideas Are Never Merely Ideas – We Are What We Believe – We Find What We Go Looking For – And – What We Predict – Comes To Pass

~ OGVOHIAA-N-IWBMPCBT-THWTEO-TED ~ Our Grim View Of Humanity Is Also A – Nocebo – If We Believe Most People Can’t Be Trusted – That’s How We’ll Treat Each Other – To Everyone’s Detriment

~ STATWYBITON ~ Some Things Are True Whether You Believe In Them Or Not

~ FIHAMPTSTWAOVOOP-IWWTTTGCOOT-TPWNTSIOVOHN ~ Few Ideas Have As Much Power To Shape The World As Our View Of Other People – If We Want To Tackle The Greatest Challenges Of Our Times – The Place We Need To Start Is Our View Of Human Nature

~ CIATOE-TCIAR ~ Cynicism Is A Theory Of Everything – The Cynic Is Always Right

~ WAWHSSTT-DAGOTN?-TR-F-NB:WMATTBTTG-BIOHAGD-TMFWKY;TLSW-S-WABWA-AB-IWCEREOAGT-WATTIRC ~ Why Are We Humans So Susceptible To The – Doom And Gloom Of The News? – Two Reasons – First – Negativity Bias: We’re More Attuned To The Bad Than The Good – Back In Our Hunting And Gathering Days – Too Much Fear Wouldn’t Kill You; Too Little Surely Would – Second – We’re Also Burdened With An – Availability Bias – If We Can Easily Recall Examples Of A Given Thing – We Assume That Thing Is Relatively Common

~ B-WS-U/U/I-T-CTOTB-I-T ~ Because – What Seems – Unreasonable / Unrealistic / Impossible – Today – Can Turn Out To Be – Inevitable – Tomorrow

~ ITFANR-ITFANVOH ~ It’s Time For A New Realism – It’s Time For A New View Of Humankind

~ B-SIASOAS-S-CAB-N ~ But – Seldom Is A Story Only A Story – Stories – Can Also Be – Nocebos

~ AA-R-TNM-OT-B-D/G/G/G-‘GUP-O-AIL’ ~ An Argument – Repeated – Thousands Nay Millions – Of Times – By – Dictators / Governors / Generals – “Give Us Power – Or – All Is Lost”

~ FTOTOY-TNHHTMK-‘SOTF’-WDATW-WATN-A-JLMDLLWP-H-HP ~ For Tens Of Thousands Of Years – The Nicest Humans Had The Most Kids – “Survival Of The Friendliest” – What Dogs Are To Wolves – We Are To Neanderthals – And – Just Like Mature Dogs Look Like Wolf Puppies – Humans – Homo Puppy

~ SSTTTDO-HL-T-IAPOOS ~ Some Scientists Theorize That The Development Of – Human Language – Too – Is A Product Of Our Sociability

~ HB-C-TAI-OSYFC-JAOBHFF ~ Human Beings – Crave – Togetherness And Interaction – Our Spirits Yearn For Connection – Just As Our Bodies Hunger For Food

~ WHAHA-DS-PASA-B-WHAFF:WFMAFTWAMLU ~ We Humans Also Have A – Dark Side – People Are Social Animals – But – We Have A Fatal Flaw: We Feel More Affinity For Those Who Are Most Like Us

~ O-NOEAFF-ICAIATS ~ Oxytocin – Not Only Enhances Affection For Friends – It Can Also Intensify Aversion To Strangers

~ TERTTTTAPHHALCOF ~ There’s Every Reason To Think That The Average Prehistoric Human Had A Large Circle Of Friends

~ TOCP-NASDOW ~ Thousands Of Cave Paintings – Not A Single Depiction Of War

~ HMPITTWIOON?-TAIAN ~ How Much Proof Is There That War Is In Our Nature? – The Answer Is Almost None

~ FMOOH-WD-CT-B-F ~ For Most Of Our History – We Didn’t – Collect Things – But – Friendships

~ ICHBETCPT-LOA-O-E-HB-CNBTS-AA-FHSJAE ~ It Couldn’t Have Been Easy To Convince People That – Land Or Animals – Or – Even – Human Beings – Could Now Belong To Someone – After All – Foragers Had Shared Just About Everything

~ JAWSSDIOP-WBTFMF-WNHBTFO-SWL-SLMUMDOS ~ Just As We Started Settling Down In One Place – We Built The First Military Fortifications – We Now Had Belongings To Fight Over – Starting With Land – Settled Life Made Us More Distrustful Of Strangers

~ WOACHF-W-HHWP ~ What Our Ancestors Couldn’t Have Foreseen – Was – How Humankind Would Proliferate

~ TFS-W-WE-SS ~ The First States – Were – Without Exception – Slave States

~ TAOCAS-O-AAW-DBPTMP-B-S-OITLTC-HTGB-SWTWFHALUTB ~ The Advent Of Cities And States – Of – Agriculture And Writing – Didn’t Bring Prosperity To Most People – But – Suffering – Only In The Last Two Centuries – Have Things Got Better – So Quickly That We’ve Forgotten How Abysmal Life Used To Be

~ WCCTOOCASINWTBE ~ We Can Chose To Organize Our Cities And States In New Ways That Benefit Everyone

~ HSIOCL? ~ How Sustainable Is Our Civilized Lifestyle?

~ CCBAS-FP-A-N-TPUWD ~ Cynicism Can Become A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – A – Nocebo – That Paralyses Us With Despair

~ DAI-BAM-OTC-TIH-A-WWDC-TPOE-WFCTHB-LAC-TGU-ASOV ~ Deceived And Indoctrinated – Brainwashed And Manipulated – Only Then Could – The Inconceivable Happen – And – When We Do Choose – The Path Of Evil – We Feel Compelled To Hide Behind – Lies And Cliches – That Give Us – A Semblance Of Virtue

~ ARCIGS-IAS(OES)E-HBR ~ A Radical Cut In Government Spending – In A Stagnating (Or Even Shrinking) Economy – Holds Back Recovery

~ SOTTO-TCS-WSW-TPIT-TEOSEAANPITM-A-TNRIED-TINA-E ~ Some Of The Theories Of – The Classical School – Were Simply Wrong – The Problem Is That – The Effect Of Some Economic Activities Are Not Priced In The Market – And – Thus Not Reflected In Economic Decisions – This Is Known As – Externality

~ ISW-BWABFTIOB-ATNIFSTTIO ~ It Seems We’re – Born With A Button For Tribalism In Our Brains – All That’s Needed Is For Something To Turn It On

~ FAHFWTAOI ~ Few Armies Have Fought Without The Aid Of Intoxicants

~ PATWLAATMYITOP-PILAD-OWAWCOSE ~ Power Appears To Work Like An Anaesthetic That Makes You Insensate To Other People – Power Is Like A Drug – One With A Whole Catalogue Of Side Effects

~ K-PTRB-DR-OTTTW-G ~ Kings – Proclaimed They Ruled By – Divine Right – Or – That They Themselves Were – Gods

~ K-SDNATTBE ~ Kings – Simply Did Not Allow Themselves To Be Dethroned

~ U-TAAPWA-UTFS-WBTA-DOP-O-AATSMBWST ~ Unfortunately – There Are Always People Who Are – Unable To Feel Shame – Whether Because They Are – Drugged On Power – Or – Are Among The Small Minority Born With Sociopathological Traits

~ WAATITTITO-‘U’-A-‘T’ ~ We Are All Too Inclined To Think In Terms Of – “Us” – And – “Them”

~ HECBAPT ~ High Expectations Can Be A Powerful Tool

~ WHTMOA ~ We’re Hardwired To Mirror One Another

~ WP-APOTWKOM-O-AFOOSOSD ~ We Prefer – A Pound Of The Worst Kind Of Misery – Over – A Few Ounces Of Shame Or Social Discomfort

~ L-H-T-CABC ~ Like – Hatred – Trust – Can Also Be Contagious

~ TOBWSDTGATF ~ Trust Often Begins When Someone Dares To Go Against The Flow

~ B-PT-C-LTC ~ By – Playing Together – Children – Learn To Cooperate

~ AKO-RR-ICW-TOS ~ Any Kind Of – Radical Renewal – Inevitably Clashes With – The Old System

~ B-S-TBRBWYLET ~ But – Sometimes – The Biggest Revolutions Begin Where You Least Expect Them

~ W-CP-D-I-EICADD ~ What – Citizen Politicians – Do – Is – Engage In Calm And Deliberative Dialogue

~ GPAVIHTARATBMNAP-MS-ES ~ Give People A Voice In How Things Are Run And They Become More Nuanced About Politics – More Sympathetic – Even Smarter

~ NR-IALMET-V ~ Nonviolent Resistance – Is A Lot More Effective Than – Violence

~ W-A-BPAEO-B-HAD ~ We – Are – Being Pitted Against Each Other – By – Hatemongers And Demagogues

~ TB-PAHTBK-ISON-OTC-I-CAR-TBI-PAF ~ To Believe – People Are Hardwired To Be Kind – Isn’t Sentimental Or Naive – On The Contrary – It’s – Courageous And Realistic – To Believe In – Peace And Forgiveness

~ BR-ITFA-NR-ITFANVOH ~ Be Realistic – It’s Time For A – New Realism – It’s Time For A New View Of Humankind

HA-JOON CHANG ~ SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ C:TMKAPATC-SLIA ~ Classical: The Market Keeps All Producers Alert Through Competition – So Leave It Alone

~ N-C:IKWTAD~ Neo-Classical: Individuals Know What They Are Doing – So Leave Them Alone – Except When Markets Malfunction

~ M: CIAPVFEP-B-IWC-APPOBAOTFP ~ Marxist: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle For Economic Progress – But – It Will Collapse – As Private Property Ownership Becomes An Obstacle To Further Progress

~ DT:BECDITLTETTM ~ Developmentalist Tradition: Backward Economies Can’t Develop If They Leave Things Entirely To The Market

~ A:NOKE-SLEA ~ Austrian: No One Knows Enough – So Leave Everyone Alone

~ (N)-S:CIAPVOEP-B-IWA-AFBLAMB ~ (Neo)-Schumpeterian: Capitalism Is A Powerful Vehicle Of Economic Progress – But – It Will Atrophy – As Firms Become Larger And More Bureaucratic

~ K:WIGFIMNBGFTWE ~ Keynesian: What Is Good For Individuals May Not Be Good For The Whole Economy

~ I:OAN?:IAPOTS-ETTMCIR ~ Institutionalist – Old And New?: Individuals Are Products Of Their Society – Even Though They May Change Its Rules

~ B:WANSE-SWNTDCOOFOCT-R ~ Behaviouralist: We Are Not Smart Enough – So We Need To Deliberately Constrain Our Own Freedom Of Choice Through – Rules

HA-JOON CHANG ~ ECONOMICS — THE USER’S GUIDE ~ 2014

~ 95%-O-E-I-CS-MTLD-WTUOJAM ~ 95 Per Cent – Of – Economics – Is – Common Sense – Made To Look Difficult – With The Use Of Jargons And Mathematics

~ ECNBASITSTPOCI ~ Economics Can Never Be A Science In The Sense That Physics Or Chemistry Is

~ NEHYCTECETU ~ No Economist Has Yet Claimed That Economics Can Explain The Universe

~ HGAETMB-IISTITAS ~ However Great An Economic Theory May Be – It Is Specific To Its Time And Space

~ TMW:CWTBWAGI ~ The Middle Way: Capitalism Works The Best With Appropriate Government Interventions

~ TM-I-IA-C-RT-S-O-IIBO-DD-RAR-T-PCT-DO-A-ESO-TBOTMHBRDART-DPD-MOLOOME-S/CL/CN-HBWFTM-ATST-MFUTHBMDT-PD ~ The Market – Itself – Is A – Constructed – Rather Than – Spontaneous – Order – It Is Based On – Deliberately Designed – Rules And Regulations – That – Prohibit Certain Things – Discourage Others – And – Encourage Still Others – The Boundaries Of The Market Have Been Repeatedly Drawn And Redrawn Through – Deliberate Political Decisions – Many Once-Legal Objects Of Market Exchange – Slaves / Child Labour / Certain Narcotics – Have Been Withdrawn From The Market – At The Same Time – Many Formerly Unmarketable Things Have Become Marketable Due To – Political Decisions

~ TIAHGITWMATSCACAWC-IT-‘SS’-E-WWHTKOD ~ There Is A Huge Gradation In The Ways Markets And The State Combine Across Countries And Within Countries – If The – “Slippery Slope” – Existed – We Wouldn’t Have These Kinds Of Diversity

~ ‘BR’-OTMCOOD-MINTLOIBOLCTPTIWH ~ “Bounded Rationality” – Often The Main Constraint On Our Decision-Making Is Not The Lack Of Information But Our Limited Capability To Process The Information We Have

~ HTMEB-PEDAEC-FOI ~ How To Make Economics Better – Preserving Intellectual Diversity And Encouraging Cross-Fertilization Of Ideas

~ TFI-WANTKSADATEIWANTBPVOSED-BEEPACATAOL-LSETTEHITA-O-MF-IPJOWTIPWTDA ~ The Fact Is – We All Need To Know Something About Diverse Approaches To Economics If We Are Not To Become Passive Victims Of Someone Else’s Decision – Behind Every Economic Policy And Corporate Action That Affects Our Lives – Lies Some Economic Theory That Either Has Inspired Those Actions – Or – More Frequently – Is Providing Justification Of What Those In Power Want To Do Anyway

~ OWWKTTADETWWBATTTPTTAWTTUT-‘TINA’-NWLT-DETSDTPBTBODEAPV-WWHTCTDEFWIRI-A-PA-ANA-‘S’-IWTICRAW ~ Only When We Know That There Are Different Economic Theories Will We Be Able To Tell Those In Power That They Are Wrong To Tell Us That – “There Is No Alternative” – Once We Learn That – Different Economic Theories Say Different Things Partly Because They’re Based On Different Ethical And Political Values – We Will Have The Confidence To Discuss Economics For What It Really Is – A – Political Argument – And Not A – “Science” – In Which There Is Clear Right And Wrong

~ MBIT-IV-WRSPFTDEFR-SAA-F-TWHPAM-IGSSBITTUSSAG-N-QTSQ

~ Many Believers In The – Individualist View – Would Rather Sacrifice Political Freedom To Defend Economic Freedom – Support And Approval – From – Those Who Have Power And Money – It Gets Such Support Because It Takes The Underling Social Structure – As Given – Not – Questioning The Status Quo

~ P-AP:A(PM)MPBPTPTOIRTTOTP(S) ~ Principle-Agent Problem: Agents (Professional Managers) May Pursue Business Practices That Promote Their Own Interests Rather Than Those Of Their Principals (Shareholders)

~ GOOSIPSCIMMWTPT ~ Government Ownership Of Shares In Private-Sector Companies Is Much More Widespread Than People Think

~ ISC-TU-AC-C-P-BTNCITAWO-IO-TASANPIAB ~ In Some Countries – Trade Unions – Are Considered – Counter-Productive – Blocking The Necessary Changes In Technologies And Work Organization – In Others – They Are Seen As Natural Partners In Any Business

~ OPPAPTTPITOF-TWHMALOMMDI-A-TTTCBRITTHE-LBEFTR-TP-OATOI-BTD-FRT-LWS-LROB-A-FWR ~ Once Poor People Are Persuaded That Their Poverty Is Their Own Fault – That Whoever Has Made A Lot Of Money Must Deserve It – And – That They Too Could Become Rich If They Tried Hard Enough – Life Becomes Easier For The Rich – The Poor – Often Against Their Own Interest – Begin To Demand – Fewer Redistribute Taxes – Less Welfare Spending – Less Regulation On Business – And – Fewer Worker Rights

~ Y-MPAS-SMOTT-B-TAAMB-P/CS/A/SOF(J)/H/CTAI/SOD/V/F/L/POB/IC-A-MEB

~ Yes – Most People Are Self-Seeking Much Of The Time – But – They Are Also Moved By – Patriotism / Class Solidarity / Altruism / Sense Of Fairness (Or Justice) / Honesty / Commitment To An Ideology / Sense Of Duty / Vicariousness / Friendship / Love / Pursuit Of Beauty / Idle Curiosity – And – Much Else Besides

~ WAGTROOTP-STS-IWDNFWTCTIOOEAOTE ~ We Are Going To Run Out Of The Planet – So To Speak – If We Do Not Find Ways To Control The Impacts Of Our Economic Activities On The Environment

~ TD-CB-S-AWA-C-O-EP ~ Technological Developments – Can Be – Solutions – As Well As – Causes – Of – Environmental Problems

~ TPTTNFIMBTCTBHSWBA ~ The Possibility That These New Financial Instruments Might Be Too Complicated To Be Handled Safely Was Brushed Away

~ IC-HMT-FS-M-IAU-II-HA-HTI-OT-FS ~ Increasing Complexity – Has Made The – Financial System – More – Inefficient And Unstable – Increasing Interconnectedness – Has Also – Heightened The Instability – Of The – Financial System

~ THBAVIITFOFC ~ There Has Been A Vast Increase In The Frequency Of Financial Crises

~ TROT-‘SVM’-M-ITEO-NF-H-DRTRAF-L-TI-I-N-FC ~ The Rise Of The – “Shareholder Value Maximization” – Model – In The Era Of – New Finance – Has – Dramatically Reduced The Resources Available For – Long-Term Investments – In – Non-Financial Corporations

~ N-FC-HBIDOTFAFTP ~ Non-Financial Companies – Have Become Increasingly Dependent On Their Financial Activities For Their Profits

~ F-NTBSREBIIS-P ~ Finance – Needs To Be Strictly Regulated Exactly Because It Is So – Powerful

~ CL-WCWIAJ-TMAPDAA-T-B-WFAYA-IMNFTPTTF ~ Child Labour – When Children Work In Adult Jobs – Their Mental And Physical Developments Are Arrested – Thus – By – Working From A Young Age – Individuals May Not Fulfill Their Potential To The Full

~ TWS-WITMDAOLFTMOP-EWTAOCA-‘NW’-DAT-IM-ED-PAMCA-C-RT-W-TRITWHAWAWI-ATDL-WSWWA ~ Taking Work Seriously – Work Is The Most Dominant Aspect Of Life For The Majority Of People – Even When They Are Officially Classified As – “Not Working” – Despite All This – In Most – Economic Discussions – People Are Mainly Conceptualized As – Consumers – Rather Than – Workers – The Reality Is That What Happens At Work Affects Workers Immeasurably – At The Deepest Level – Work Shapes Who We Are

~ F-E-OTMI-A-OA-PGITACC-ICTBSU-A-T-I-THCOU-EH/D/H/S-AHR ~ Full Employment – Once The Most Important – And – Often Achieved – Policy Goal In The Advanced Capitalist Countries – Is Considered To Be Something Unachievable – And – Thus – Irrelevant – The Human Costs Of Unemployment – Economic Hardship / Depression / Humiliation / Suicide – Are Hardly Recognized

~ W-TWMS-WCBAMBEAAMFS ~ Without – Taking Work More Seriously – We Cannot Build A More Balanced Economy And A More Fulfilled Society

~ PE:AM-‘H’-N ~ Political Economy: A More – “Honest” – Name

~ S-A-O-F-N-CTEOTTISDMBTTMOD-TONO-E-TSOPMOTE ~ Sometimes – An – Old – Forgotten – Name – Conveys The Essence Of The Thing It Is Describing Much Better Than The Modern One Does – The Old Name Of – Economics – The Study Of Political Management Of The Economy

~ TIAHSOOO-TAROTS-OWDF-EV-TPPOE-WTGSOSND-BM-BN ~ There Is A Huge Spectrum Of Opinion On – The Appropriate Role Of The State – Once We Depart From – Extreme Views – The Possible Permutations Of Exactly – What The Government Should Or Should Not Do – Become Mind-Bogglingly Numerous

~ TINS-‘S’-W-TDTBBMAP ~ There Isn’t A Single – “Scientific” – Way – To Draw The Boundary Between Market And Politics

~ EIAPA-YMATA-OQ-WB? ~ Economics Is A Political Argument – You Must Ask The Age-Old Question – Who Benefits?

TONY JUDT ~ ILL FARES THE LAND ~ 2010

~ SIPWWTWWLT-WKWTCBHNIWTAW-WNLAOAJROALA:IIG?-IIF?-IIR?-WIHBAABSOABW?-TYTB-T-PQ-EITINEA-WMLOATPT-WCGOLLT-AYWSUTCOA-TTISN ~ Something Is Profoundly Wrong With The Way We Live Today – We Know What Things Cost But Have No Idea What They Are Worth – We No Longer Ask Of A Judicial Ruling Or A Legislative Act: Is It Good? – Is If Fair? – Is It Right? – Will It Help Bring About A Better Society Or A Better World? – Those Used To Be – The – Political Questions – Even If They Invited No Easy Answers – We Must Learn Once Again To Pose Them – We Cannot Go On Living Like This – And Yet We Seem Unable To Conceive Of Alternatives – This Too Is Something New

~ TRGIAWATWIITI-B-ATFTIAGSOF-‘BWCWBI?’-‘WSWD?’ ~ The Rising Generation Is Acutely Worried About The World It Is To Inherit – But – Accompanying These Fears There Is A General Sentiment Of Frustration – “But What Can We Believe In?” – “What Should We Do”

~ S-TS-IGTBWUFTFF-WWDWTTAWSOASWW ~ Since – The State – Is Going To Be With Us For The Foreseeable Future – We Would Do Well To Think About What Sort Of A State We Want

~ IBF-A-F-FOC-FOD-FOSAAUW ~ Insecurity Breed Fear – And – Fear – Fear Of Change / Fear Of Decline / Fear Of Strangers And An Unfamiliar World

~ TCAC-THBACIIM-TPSP ~ The Consequences Are Clear – There Has Been A Collapse In Intergenerational Mobility – The Poor Stay Poor

TWTSBTWFATIM-TWTSP-TFRAPCA ~ The Wider The Spread Between The Wealthy Few And The Impoverished Many – The Worse The Social Problems – True For Rich And Poor Countries Alike

~ TY-O-GI-H-C-TTIA-NCOL-AWWCDL ~ Thirty Years – Of – Growing Inequality – Have – Convinced – That This Is A – Natural Condition Of Life – About Which We Can Do Little

~ IIOTTDAIAIP;IIQATRIT ~ It Is One Thing To Dwell Amongst Inequality And Its Pathologies; It Is Quite Another To Revel In Them

~ R-PAS-R-T-SL-WACPITSRTM20CP-TWHOATOBOT ~ Restoring – Pride And Self-Respect – To – Society’s Losers – Was A Central Platform In The Social Reforms That Marked 20th Century Progress – Today We Have Once Again Turned Our Back On Them

~ AWDITLB-AD-‘FM’~ Are We Doomed Indefinitely To Lurch Between – A Dysfunctional – “Free Market” – And – The Much-Advertised Horrors Of – “Socialism”?

~ TD-WTPIBTETIPOO ~ These Days – We Take Pride In Being Tough Enough To Inflict Pain On Others

~ WCCTEOWATCWMIAMV ~ We Cannot Continue To Evaluate Our World And The Choices We Make In A Moral Vacuum

~ MDNAG-T-C-O-CAFTCG-SB-TR-A-TCAOSAEE-C-‘IH’-BFTFITIUCFTMSOIP ~ Markets Do Not Automatically Generate – Trust – Cooperation – Or – Collective Action For The Common Good – Sustained By – Traditional Restraints – And – The Continuing Authority Of Secular And Ecclesiastical Elites – Capitalism’s – “Invisible Hand” – Benefited From The Flattering Illusion That It Unerringly Corrected For The Moral Shortcomings Of Its Practitioners

~ HSWBTMAFRAGOWTPOMWAITSME?-PWMSBROAOCTIWAT-T-‘E’-AWHDNFTY-INITH ~ How Should We Begin To Make Amends For Raising A Generation Obsessed With The Pursuit Of Material Wealth And Indifferent To So Much Else? – Perhaps We Might Start By Reminding Ourselves And Our Children That It Wasn’t Always Thus – Thinking – “Economistically” – As We Have Done Now For Thirty Years – Is Not Intrinsic To Humans

~ NCNLWSVLWOA ~ Neither Capitalism Nor Liberalism Would Survive Very Long Without One Another

~ IWT-FAD-O-T-MC-WHGRTF ~ It Was The – Fear And Disaffection – Of – The – Middle Class – Which Had Given Rise To Fascism

~ ACURT ~ All Collective Undertakings Require Trust

~ TMETS-TGTT ~ The More Equal The Society – The Greater The Trust

~ N-OC-IEQAGAWR ~ Nothing – Of Course – Is Ever Quite As Good As We Remember

~ WWHBWITSSOPROTPSTNDCA-CTETAPM-PII ~ What We Have Been Watching Is The Steady Shift Of Public Responsibility Onto The Private Sector To No Discernible Collective Advantage – Contrary To Economic Theory And Popular Myth – Privatization Is Inefficient

~ ITSR-DCSTIOTC ~ In The Short Run – Democracies Can Survive The Indifference Of Their Citizens

~ PITWYAG-NOHACSORFTTGD-IAKORHAHAEAB ~ Participation In The Way You Are Governed – Not Only Heightens A Collective Sense Of Responsibility For The Things Government Does – It Also Keeps Our Rulers Honest And Holds Authoritarian Excess At Bay

~ IWFEFTMOOCA-WSNBTSUAT-ITC-WSNBSTDTNOILTUU ~ If We Feel Excluded From The Management Of Our Collective Affairs – We Shall Not Bother To Speak Up About Them – In That Case – We Should Not Be Surprised To Discover That No One Is Listening To Us

~ CT-TILTCD-TDL ~ Convinced That – There Is Little They Can Do – They Do Little

~ TOTWTTMGITL;IFS-PSALAMVAIAUAR ~ The Only Thing Worse Than Too Much Government Is Too Little; In Failed States – People Suffer At Least As Much Violence And Injustice As Under Authoritarian Rule

~ A-CCOOOI-IWDOOINA-O-AOWCASL-LICTREOITNC ~ A – Closed Circle Of Opinion Or Ideas – Into Which Discontent Or Opposition Is Never Allowed – Or – Allowed Only Within Circumscribed And Stylized Limits – Loses Its Capacity To Respond Energetically Or Imaginatively To New Challenges

~ WNTR-LHT-CTWGU ~ We Need To Re-Learn How To – Criticize Those Who Govern Us

~ DAD-AO-TWOTY ~ Dissent And Dissidence – Are Overwhelmingly – The Work Of The Young

~ DMRWTLASIGTPC ~ Dissent Must Remain Within The Law And Seek Its Goals Through Political Channels

~ CADAYP:WITBOTIWDNTSTIOGW? ~ Cynicism And Despair Among Young People: What Is To Become Of Them If We Do Not Take Seriously The Implications Of Global Warming?

~ TWBFW-HDOTTWAAW ~ Those Who Benefit From War – Have Different Objectives Than Those Who Are Against War

~ SACACCI-TDDOCOWOI-IJAWTPOSOIAA ~ Societies Are Complex And Contain Conflicting Interests – To Deny Distinctions Of Class Or Wealth Or Influence – Is Just A Way To Promote One Set Of Interests Above Another

~ TPDLTBROTP ~ The Privileged Don’t Like To Be Reminded Of Their Privileges

~ ICFCTEDPR ~ International Capital Flows Continue To Elude Domestic Political Regulation

~ TS-MNBTP-II’-SB-P-I-C-A-U-U-C-O-IA-A-TS-OALT-DS-RAULITEOIC-IAATTATTI ~ The State – May Now Be The Primary – “Intermediate Institution” – Standing Between – Powerless – Insecure – Citizens – And – Unresponsive – Unaccountable – Corporations – Or – International Agencies – And – The State – Or At Least The – Democratic State – Retains A Unique Legitimacy In The Eyes Of Its Citizens – It Alone Answers To Them And They To It

~ F-R-CIR-O-RTDWTSPAEOOOAG-WFOR ~ Freedom – Rather – Consists In Retaining – Our – Right To Disagree With The State’s Purposes And Express Our Own Objections And Goals – Without Fear Of Retribution

~ PG-ITATRP-NTBPAPE ~ Public Goods – If They Are To Remain Public – Need To Be Provided At Public Expense

~ TFT-TROO-TAOT20C-AWTLCOAHRTDT-WTFGT-I/L/S/R-TWHIFTGAO20CR-IITTROTAOTWUIARA-1929-WATFBOATWSAIWU-TIMTD ~ The First Task – To Remind Ourselves Of – The Achievements Of The 20th Century – Along With The Likely Consequences Of A Heedless Rush To Dismantle Them – We Take For Granted The – Institutions / Legislation / Services / Rights – That We Have Inherited From The Great Age Of 20th Century Reform – It Is Time To Remind Ourselves That All Of These Were Utterly Inconceivable As Recently As – 1929 – We Are The Fortunate Beneficiaries Of A Transformation Whose Scale And Impact Was Unprecedented – There Is Much To Defend

~ WAIFWIO-I/U/I/I-WHJFHTTAT ~ We Are Intuitively Familiar With Issues Of – Injustice / Unfairness / Inequality / Immorality – We Have Just Forgotten How To Talk About Them

CHARLES MACKAY ~ WITCH MANIA ~ EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS AND THE MADNESS OF CROWDS ~ 1841

~ E-FAPO-TCAAH-BUTI-NOT-PSWTETMITAOM-B-TMH-PTSESTTATWWUTF-AETSUTN-ECTB-ATAW-NVO-P-B-TWOSNH-W-WOI-CTITRTFAPAHAAW-TWWOET-TUTOUPFVTTCAAD ~ Europe – For A Period Of – Two Centuries And A Half – Brooded Upon The Idea – Not Only That – Parted Spirits Walked The Earth To Meddle In The Affairs Of Men – But – That Men Had – Power To Summon Evil Spirits To Their Aid To Work Woe Upon Their Fellows – An Epidemic Terror Seized Upon The Nations – Every Calamity That Befell – Attributed To A Witch – Not Visitations Of – Providence – But – The Works Of Some Neighbouring Hag – Whose – Wretchedness Or Insanity – Caused The Ignorant To Raise Their Finger And Point At Her As A Witch – The Word Was One Everybody’s Tongue – Thousands Upon Thousands Of Unhappy Persons Fell Victims To This Cruel And Absurd Delusion

~ PFW-IWACIWSME-A-RWSMD-T-TP-WTWT-RTW-A-CFNOIUT-HOTATOWTETD-TCWMTPFTMVP-BOIAOC-WROWP-POR ~ Prosecutions For Witchcraft – It Was A Crime Imputed With So Much Ease – And – Repelled With So Much Difficulty – That – The Powerful – Whenever They Wanted To – Ruin The Weak – And – Could Fix No Other Imputation Upon Them – Had Only To Accuse Them Of Witchcraft To Ensure Their Destruction – This Crime Was Made The Pretext For The Most Violent Persecution – Both Of Individuals And Of Communities – Whose Real Offences Were Purely – Political Or Religious

~ TTCOTFABOTFC-MWWB-IDPO-E ~ Towards The Close Of The Fourteenth And Beginning Of The Fifteenth Century – Many Witches Were Burned – In Different Parts Of – Europe

~ AANCOTSP-TCOTPTI-I-TWFTAATWTP-ITHTBPOABAMD-WTHTPITT-TTMBRUTP ~ As A Natural Consequence Of The Severe Persecution – The Crime Or The Pretenders To It – Increased – Those Who Found Themselves Accused And Threatened With The Penalties – If They Happened To Be Persons Of A Bad And Malicious Disposition – Wished They Had The Power Imputed To Them – That They Might Be Revenged Upon Their Persecutors

~ W-RAL-A-RTC-IINWT-TWIRATSII-EWTWOANT-FTEWT-TP-OWATWWS ~ When – Religion And Law – Alike – Recognized The Crime – It Is No Wonder That – The Weak In Reason And The Strong In Imagination – Especially When They Were Of A Nervous Temperament – Fancied Themselves Endued With The – Terrible Powers – Of Which All The World Was Speaking

~ TR-TCIF-MTA-CA ~ The Rack – That Convenient Instrument For – Making The Accused – Confess Anything

~ UT-C-JWP:T-POW-AUISC-W-HABITM-P;TM-WD-WATE-UPOLS ~ Upon These – Confessions – Judgment Was Pronounced: The – Poor Old Women – As Usual In Such Cases – Were – Hanged And Burned In The Market-Place; The More – Wealthy Delinquents – Were Allowed To Escape – Upon Payment Of Large Sums

~ TMTB-TMTFTB-UIBA-CP-W-WITHWOL-TTMNLTGO-IWSTB-A-P-A-I-T-TE-DATSOTS ~ The More They Burned – The More They Found To Burn – Until It Became A – Common Prayer – With – Women In The Humbler Walks Of Life – That They Might Never Live To Grow Old – It Was Sufficient To Be – Aged – Poor – And – Ill-Tempered – To Ensure – Death At The Stake Or The Scaffold

~ ‘CEC’ ~ “Convicta Et Combusta”

~ I-ACOM-SUIE-WMITSBOTL-T-DABW ~ Immediately – A Class Of Men – Sprang Up In Europe – Who Made It The Sole Business Of Their Lives – To – Discover And Burn The Witches

~ T-NF-TETARBTI ~ Torture – Never Failed – To Educe The Answer Require By The Inquisitor

~ TTI-T-PWD-FIWTNOCHCOTSOAWWWNAADITA:THWFATWHITS ~ The Truth Is – That – Pity Was Dangerous – For It Was Thought No One Could Have Compassion On The Sufferings Of A Witch Who Was Not A Dabbler In The Art: To Have Wept For A Witch Would Have Insured The Stake

~ ITMOTE-RWTGOM;FIAUR-OA-A-TP-WTCWW ~ In The Midst Of These Executions – Rare Were The Gleams Of Mercy; Few Instances Are Upon Record – Of Any – Acquittal – Taking Place – When The Charge Was Witchcraft

~ W-F-O-W-P-BAT-A-ASOMVRATCPW-LP-T-RITFOSC-SS-DOF-NUT-I-AP-WDNB-WPUI-WDTTD ~ Witch-Finding – Or – Witch-Pricking – Became A Trade – And – A Set Of Mercenary Vagabonds Roamed About The Country Provided With – Long Pins – To – Run Into The Flesh Of Supposed Criminals – Some Spot – Devoid Of Feeling – No Unusual Thing – In – Aged Persons – Who Did Not Bleed – When Pricked Upon It – Was Doomed To The Death

~ TPWWIGAOTC-W-P-I-MAW-WDNUTNOTA-A-WMTOSFFW ~ The Persons Who Were In General Accused Of This Crime – Were – Poor – Ignorant – Men And Women – Who Did Not Understand The Nature Of The Accusation – And – Who Mistook Their Own Superstitious Fears For Witchcraft

~ SDRASETACRT-S-IICTT-T-TDHPA-T-TRMHGPTAMF-AT-WMNCBUTVOAS-WIFA-NIVBTTAIVBM ~ So Deeply Rooted Are Some Errors That Ages Cannot Remove Them – Still – It Is Consoling To Think – That – The Delirium Has Passed Away – That – The Raging Madness Has Given Place To A Milder Folly – And That – We May Now Count By Units The Votaries Of A Superstition – Which In Former Ages – Numbered Its Victims By The Thousands And Its Votaries By Millions