ANDREW NIKIFORUK ~ PANDEMONIUM ~ 2006

~ W-OBP-OTMEY-WSBSTMTHAPU ~ With – One Billion People – On The Move Every Year – We Shouldn’t Be Surprised That Microbial Traffic Has Also Picked Up

~ ED-G-T-FOB-DEANOGIITWWL ~ Every Day – Globe-Trotting – Fungi Or Bacteria – Determinedly Expose A Number Of Glaring Insecurities In The Way We Live

~ T-TPO-600-LD-PIQTWOTT-LR-A-T-B-I-B-FIA ~ The Troubling Proliferation Of – 600 – Livestock Diseases – Puts Into Question The Wisdom Of The – “Livestock Revolution” – And – The – Bigger-Is-Better – Fad In Agriculture

~ WHBGTIP ~ We Have Become Grand Traders In Pandemonium

~ F-MI ~ Factory-Made Infections

~ BF-INPTSTHLA-VT ~ Bird Flu – Is Now Poised To Sweep Through Humans Like A – Viral Tsunami

~ VAALFOTETD ~ Viruses Are Always Looking For Opportunities To Expand Their Domain

~ WAVOBGIAFATFSOWG-T-‘U’-A-RRUARO ~ Whenever A Virus Or Bacterium Gets Into A Factory And Threatens Feed Schedules Or Weight Gain – The – “Units” – Are – Routinely Rounded Up And Rubbed Out

~ YC-C-P-P-A-P-T-WBABMFVC ~ You Can’t – Crowd – People – Pigs – And – Poultry – Together – Without Building A Better Market For Viral Commerce

~ OLFS ~ Officials Looking For Scapegoats

~ N-OC-WTTA-C-M-IGAGC

~ Nobody – Of Course – Wants To Talk About – Crowding – More – In Greater And Greater Concentrations

~ VANBOOTNRIWAUR-TTP-HE ~ Viruses Are Now Breaking Out Of Their Natural Reservoirs In Wildlife At Unprecedented Rates – Thanks To Persistent – Human Encroachment

~ T-SGE ~ The – Sixth Great Extinction

~ HH-RMAMLASO-BE-TGEMLAGATPASOOTI ~ Human History – Reads More And More Like A String Of – Biological Explosions – That Grow Ever More Loud And Grotesque As The Pace And Scale Of Our Trading Increases

~ CC/SC/BW-TAT-NHTPTCPBAEGO ~ Cargo Containers / Shipping Crates / Ballast Water – Trade And Transport – Now Have The Power To Collapse Political Borders And Erase Geographical Ones

~ BI-OER-RLEWDOAIO-I/A/WH ~ Biological Invaders – Outrageous Economic Robberies – Ruining Local Economies With Deliberate Or Accidental Invasions Of – Influenza / Ants / Water Hyacinth

~ FS-IAE-DH-BD ~ For Starters – Importers And Exporters – Don’t Hold – Biology Degrees

~ B-TRPACDT-A-TCOI-ABB-C/T ~ But – The Real Problem Always Comes Down To – Accountability – The Costs Of Invasions – Are Borne By – Consumers / Taxpayers

~ TUE:HE ~ The Ultimate Invader: Homo Economicus

~ ML-LDR-PIFOGC-SBO-NRTVABIHBS-GD-HAHBC ~ Modern Livestock – Little Disease Resistance – Packed In Feedlots Or Gestation Crates – Stressed By Overcrowding – Natural Resistance To Viral And Bacterial Infections Has Been Shattered – Growing Densities – Hidden And Huge Biological Costs

~ TM-TP-ATEO-AH-W-TL-HCTACGO-P-AH-S ~ To Maximize – Trade Profit – At The Expense Of – Animal Health – With – Trade Liberalization – Has Come A Corresponding Gutting Of – Public – Animal Health – Services

~ H-OATLBTEDOIT19C-AG-A-OTR-MT-40%-AE ~ Half – Of All The Livestock Breeds That Europe Depended On In The 19th Century – Are Gone – And – Of Those Remaining – More Than – 40 Percent – Are Endangered

~ GD-MTBIA-F/D/E ~ Genetic Diversity – Makes The Best Insurance Against – Famine / Drought / Epidemics

~ ‘GCP’ ~ “Great Cattle Plague”

~ MCD-BSE-TSE-‘SGA’-IOTWR-4,500-M-S-BTI-EEWTHO-BC-A-IF ~ Mad Cow Disease – Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy – Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy – “Spectacular Geographic Amplification” – Invasion Of The World’s Remaining – 4,500 – Mammal – Species – By These Illnesses – Expands Exponentially With The Help Of – Barnyard Cannibalism – And – Industrial Farming

~ R-‘SFOA’-ICFR-DGE-BATCID-SI-A-ATOKOR-B-TEO-RDR-CW-CSDTTWW-K-MAB-MBM-P-OTLM-MFA-IF-DC-FIDTTM-CCAE-MHNPICOTSB ~ Rendering – “Scientific Feeding Of Animals – Industrial Cannibalism For Ruminants – Devoted Grass Eaters – Balked At The Change In Diet – Suffered Indigestion – And – Ate Their Own Kind Only Reluctantly – But – The Efficiency Of – Recycling Dead Ruminants – Combined With – Cereal Shortages During The Two World Wars – Kept – Meat And Bonemeal – MBM – Powder – On The Livestock Menu – Material From An – Infected Few – Diligently Concentrated – For Industrial Delivery To The Many – Could Cause An Epidemic – Mammals Had Never Partaken In Cannibalism On That Scale Before

~ SW ~ Slaughterhouse Waste

~ ISP ~ Inadequate Surveillance Program

~ ATCOAF-IB-DAE ~ Analyzing The Content Of Animal Feeds – Is Both – Difficult And Expensive

~ F-MT-1M-S-TMOTWMDCDAFIO-SCOOC-OAWA-OHOAWTBD-ASFCCAHOAR ~ Fungi – More Than – 1 Million – Species – The Majority Of The World’s Most Devastating Crop Diseases Are Fungal In Origin – Specialized Cultivation Of One Crop – Over A Wide Area – One Hell Of A Way To Brew Disease – A Simple Fungus Can Create A Hell Of A Rumpus

~ AECOANOESINUSOHHABWD-TGEOAP-I-RAG ~ Almost Every Crop Of Any Nutritional Or Economic Significance Is Now Under Siege Or Has Had A Brush With Death – The Global Exchange Of Agricultural Pathogens – Is – Real And Growing

~ ‘GCA’ ~ “Global Change Agents”

~ FAP-HDAETS ~ Famine And Pestilence – Have Dogged Agriculture’s Every Tortured Step

~ M-TPOOCVOAWA ~ Monoculture – The Planting Of One Crop Variety Over A Wide Area

~ W-WOB-30,000-V-NCIO-TOF-SV-TMBETW-135K-O-PPPA ~ Wheat – Which Once Boasted – 30,000 – Varieties – Now Comes In Only – Three Of Four – Specialized Varieties – That Must Be Engineered To Withstand – 135 Kilograms – Of – Pesticide Poison Per Acre

~ TEB-AM-FF-D-W-UMW ~ The Epidemic Began – As Most – Fungal Fiestas – Do – With – Unusually Moist Weather

~ TF ~ Toxic Fungicides

~ M-I-D-A-GT-GTIPUL-AMFGCD-HABOE-DP-M ~ Monocultures – Invite – Disease – And – Global Trade – Gives The Invading Pathogens Unlimited Mileage – Abandoning Monoculture For Greater Crop Diversity – Has Always Been On Every – Disaster Prevention – Menu

~ WHEATPO-E-PAP-RA-L4(TS)L-DOAL ~ We Have Even Added The Possibility Of – Engineered – Pests And Plants – Running Amok – Level 4 (Top Security) Labs – Deliberate Or Accidental Leaks

~ TWABM-WR-TID-WR ~ The World Already Boasts More – Water Refugees – Than It Does – War Refugees

~ RT ~ Red Tides

~ CS-‘FBI’ ~ Cargo Ships – “Floating Biological Islands”

~ LO-UAM-P-LOT-D ~ Loads Of – Untreated Animal Manure – Produce – Loads Of Trouble – Downstream

~ CW:OOTPMEDFAPK ~ Cold Winters: One Of The Planet’s Most Effective Disease Filters And Pest Killers

~ ITL-10Y-JAE-E-BD-HZEIT ~ In The Last – 10 Years – Just About Every – Insect-Borne Disease – Has Zealously Expanded Its Territory

~ A-SP-WST-GE-WTSFAA-MED ~ A – Severe Pandemic – Will Shock The – Global Economy – With The Same Force As A – Major Economic Depression

~ MWWLT-WC-LT-W-LBIUW ~ Maybe We Will Learn That – We Can’t – Liberalize Trade – Without – Liberating Biology In Unpredictable Ways

~ IIM-EAC-T-IABHACDIP-TIIT-SARP ~ It Is Much – Easier And Cheaper – To – Identify A Biological Hitchhiker And Close Down Its Pathways – Than It Is To – Stop A Runaway Pandemic

~ B-WFGTDTRT-CBAHE-AA-TOP ~ But – Waiting For Government To Do The Right Thing – Can Be A – Hazardous Enterprise – And A – Test Of Patience

~ ATWTPTR ~ Ask Them Where They Plan To Retire

~ BL-A-LM ~ Buy Less – And – Live More

DIERDRE MCCLOSKEY ~ BOURGEOIS EQUALITY ~ 2016

~ ORDNCF-PBOB-O-BDOBD-O-BBOBB-B-FP-IOI ~ Our Riches Did Not Come From – Piling Brick On Brick – Or – Bachelor’s Degree On Bachelor’s Degree – Or – Bank Balance On Bank Balance – But – From Piling – Idea On Idea

~ TMW-WCB-EL ~ The – Modern World – Was Caused By – Egalitarian Liberalism

~ TWIPR-B-OWP ~ The World Is Pretty Rich – But – Once Was Poor

~ T-RE-WTEIO-LAD-TITP-SOB-BAF-T-CP ~ The – Real Engine – Was The Expanding Ideology Of – Liberty And Dignity – That Inspired The Proliferating – Schemes Of Betterment – By And For – The – Common People

~ A-IC-TSIGUT-A(TROTBBD)-A-T(TROP)-AE-P(TROTPR)-WA-N ~ An – Ideological Change – The Strange Idea Grew Up That – Aristocracy (The Rule Of The Best By Descent) – And – Theocracy (The Rule Of Priests) – And Even – Plutocracy (The Rule Of The Present Rich) – Were All – Nasty

~ T-GE-A-1800-CF-HC-UB-LAD-F-OP-T-T-TB-ROAN-EITEOO-A-SBT-OOMIC ~ The – Great Enrichment – After – 1800 – Came From – Human Creativity – Unleashed By – Liberty And Dignity – For – Ordinary People – Through – Trade-Tested Betterment – Resting On A New – Equality In The Eyes Of Others – And – Spread By The – Overturning Of Monopoly In Competition

~ WIIC-SAS-TW-FC-EJ-MFA-CTD-T-ROTG-RDUBTEIFOTOR ~ Whatever It Is Called – Such A Society – Thronging With – Free Conversations – Easily Joined – Made For A – Creativity That Disturbed – The – Rules Of The Game – Rules Designed Unsurprisingly By The Elite In Favor Of The Old Rich

~ A-POCM-TBS-MBBFTPTB-BAF-OD-OS-C-IP-FTMPIHB ~ A – Patent Or Copyright Monopoly – To Be Sure – Must Be Broken For The Poor To Benefit – But Aside From – Overlawyered Definitions – Of So-Called – Intellectual Property – For The Most Part It Has Been

~ TMTRUTPINATDOEFRP-BTRSASPOTITTM-CATP-ISTRT-AALALSOTNTIGTTT-CDID ~ The Mechanism That Raised Up The Poor Is Not A Trickle Down Of Expenditures From Rich People – Because The Rich Spend A Smaller Proportion Of Their Incomes Than The Middle-Class And The Poor – It Stands To Reason That – As A Larger And Larger Share Of The Nations’ Total Income Goes To The Top – Consumer Demand Is Dampened

~ TIN-FL-SFA-TDOATU-WGBBGSO-NB-MTUOD ~ There Is No – Free Lunch – Springing From A – Trickle Down Or A Trickle Up – We Get Better By Getting Smarter Only – Not By – Miraculous Trickles Up Or Down

~ TGI-ET-TB-SA-MTPPR-WHH-O-RIIE-WHAH ~ The Goal Is – Ethical Trade-Tested Betterment – Such As – Making The Poor People Rich – Which Has Happened – Or – Reducing Inequality In Essentials – Which Has Also Happened

~ TP-MAD-NTPWCP-IPAH-TT-I-TOWA ~ The Persistent – Macho And Deadly – Notion That Power Will Cause Plenty – Is Popular Among Historians – The Truth – Is – The Other Way Around

~ T-AH-O-EIIA-SEII-T-EE-OIO-OE-HBSRTB-NON ~ The – Appalling History – Of – European Imperialism In Africa – Sufficiently Establishes Its Indefensibility – The – Economic Effect – Of Imperialism On – Ordinary Europeans – Has Been Shown Repeatedly To Be – Nil Or Negative

~ E-CBAWTAF-PF-B-NT-NW ~ Empire – Can Be A Way To A Few – Private Fortunes – But – Not To – National Wealth

~ IWPTBP-NTOWA ~ It Was Plenty That Bred Power – Not The Other Way Around

~ AC-B-U-N-P-OII-E-B-I ~ Accumulated Capital – Becomes – Unusually – Nonroutinely – Profitable – Only If It – Embodies – Betterment – Innovism

~ B-K-UMTOE-HACOAOC ~ But – Knowledge – Unlike Most Treasures On Earth – Has A Chance Of Accumulating Over Centuries

~ TAB-T-FW-TBI-B-A-FP-TE-T-P-TTEOOV-TTAATC-‘N’-‘GIG’-TOB-EB-SE-AB-AIT-B-T/H/K-DNGPTAFHL-F/H/L-D ~ Trade And Betterment – Threatened – From Within – The Bourgeoisie Itself – By – A – Foolish Pride – That Elevates – Trading – Prudence – To The Exclusion Of Other Virtues – The Threat Appears As The Crudely – “Neoliberal” – “Greed-Is-Good” – Theory Of Behavior – Encouraged By – Some Economists – And By – All Inside Traders – But – Taking / Having / Keeping – Do Not Give Purpose To A Full Human Life – Faith / Hope / Love – Do

~ M-E-N-M-L-HST ~ Mainly – Ethics – Not – Mainly – Laws – Held Societies Together

~ T-GE-DNAFG-PR-WEAOAA-IAF-R-T-TB ~ The – Great Enrichment – Did Not Arise From Good – Property Rights – Which Existed All Over And Anciently – It Arose From – Revolutionary – Trade-Tested Betterment

~ Ethics – What Is Honored Or Dishonored By Society – Is What Changed Quickly – Not – The Institutional Environment – The Institutions – Such As – Criminal / Contract / Property / Corporate – Law – Changed – After The Ethical Change – Not Before – Ideas And Ethics Changed – The Institutions Did Not

~ GCBSFALT-A-COTAOQLPG ~ Governments Can Be Stupid For A Long Time – And – Can Obstruct The Achievement Of Quite Large Potential Gains

~ B-T-RAP-RTG-T-PAOP-HBRHB-GR ~ Because – The – Rich And Powerful – Run The Government – The – Poor And Other Powerless – Have Been Regularly Hurt By – Governmental Regulation

~ NM-BD-CBM-W-IAI ~ Not Many – Business Decisions – Could Be Made – Without – Identity And Impulse

~ B-TEGLFTHTNOIMB-S-L-RAVTV-IPTVO-P-WI-TSITT-I-TWOS-MU ~ But – The Economists’ Great Love For The Hypothesis That No One Is Motivated By – Say – Love – Reduces All Virtues To Vice – In Particular The Vice Of – Pride – Which Is – To Speak In Theological Terms – Idolatry – The Worship Of Self – Max U

~ TVOTP-C/L/J/T/F/H-AV-A-NMAWOGPP ~ The Virtues Other Than Prudence – Courage / Love / Justice / Temperance / Faith / Hope – Are Virtues – And – Not Merely Another Way Of Getting Prudent Pleasure

~ NTHMIIAC-WTWWMWWC ~ Numbers Tell How Much Is In A Classification – Words Tell What We Mean When We Count

~ T-NE-WO-B/N/R-T/C/D/E/L/D ~ The – New Ethic – Was Of – Betterment / Novelty / Risk-Taking / Creativity / Democracy / Equality / Liberty / Dignity

~ IIAWU ~ Irrationality Is Always With Us

~ WCWWWDU ~ What Changed Was What Was Deemed Useful

~ PL-AN-B-TANLSF-TSB-S-GE-OTP150Y ~ Property Laws – Are Necessary – But – They Are Nothing Like Sufficient For – The Startling Betterment – Startling – Great Enrichment – Of The Past 150 Years

~ IIACOSO-R-T-TPR-WTCII-N-WIGW ~ It Is A Cliche Of Studies Of – Revolution – That – The Poor Revolt – When Their Condition Is Improved – Not – When It Gets Worse

~ FC-TSO-RD-KBPBIH ~ For Centuries – The Specter Of – Radical Democracy – Kept Being Pushed Back Into Hell

~ TIO-EAL-A-DFAH-C-AT-P-AS-M-AT-S-P ~ The Idea Of – Equality Of Liberty – And – Dignity For All Humans – Caused – And Then – Protected – A Starling – Material – And Then – Spiritual – Progress

~ I-N-I-MT-MW ~ Ideas – Not – Institutions – Made The – Modern World

~ NR-D-M-AAL-V-RT-G-GLOSP-AFI-SD-AALL-IF ~ Negotiated Rights – Deal-Making – And At Length – Voting – Replaced The – God-Given Laws Of Social Position – At First In – Stirring Declarations – And At Long Last – In Fact

~ BCBCBC-MC ~ Behavior Can Be Changed By Compulsion – Minds Cannot

~ TFITPBMTOOAIIASLIIAME-WEMHTSITF ~ The Fact Is That Persuasion Beyond Mere Transmittal Of Offers And Information Is A Startlingly Large Item In A Modern Economy – We Economist Might Have To Stop Ignoring The Fact

~ STR ~ Sweet Talk Rules

~ TWITT ~ The Word’s The Thing

~ BBU ~ Betterocracy Became Usual

~ TTC-C-A-C-ITRM-ITTF-REE ~ Trade Test Cooperation – Competition – And – Conservation – In The Right Mix – Is The Ticket For – Rapid Economic Evolution

~ LSUAMAWSL ~ Language Speaks Us As Much As We Speak Language

~ I-F-GOI-M ~ Ideas – For – Good Or Ill – Matter

~ PWTBTBIT ~ People Want To Believe That Beauty Is Truth

~ DITP-WITS-PBHU ~ Dogma Is The Problem – Which Is To Say – Passionate Beliefs Held Uncritically

~ WGAS-TNTBAS-A-HIUANWODI~ When Goods Are Scarce – They Need To Be Allocated Somehow – And – Hierarchy Is Usually A Nasty Way Of Doing It

~ RMU-B-CRUU ~ Rhetoric Made Us – But – Can Readily Unmake Us

~ WE-IA-CTF ~ Widespread Evil – Is A – Comfort To Fools

BARBARA EHRENREICH ~ BAIT AND SWITCH ~ 2005

~ SWTEDO-2001-THBARIUAHCAEP ~ Starting With The Economic Downturn Of – 2001 – There Has Been A Rise In Unemployment Among Highly Credentialed And Experienced People

~ TEMBLU-TCMBRIC-A-STLC-LAPFONS-WOTTASAWATM-TPWPHBUVE:D/R-S/S-S/R/D-L ~ The Economy May Be Looking Up – The Company May Be Raking In Cash – And – Still The Layoffs Continue – Like A Perverse Form Of Natural Selection – Weeding Out The Talented And Successful As Well As The Mediocre – This Perpetual Winnowing Process Has Been Institutionalized Under Various Euphemisms: Downsizing / Right-Sizing / Smart-Sizing / Restructuring / De-Layering

~ H-L-EAP-T-OFTSPDOTTAL-PWEWMWTJIOTMEM ~ High-Level – Executives And Professionals – Today – Often Face The Same Punishing Demands On Their Time As Lower-Paid Wage Earners Who Must Work Two Jobs In Order To Make Ends Meet

~ MP-F-DHTDE-N-FTSFJAAATWOAWARR ~ Many People – From – Displaced Homemakers To Downsized Executives – Now – Find Themselves Searching For Jobs At An Age That Was Once Associated With A Restful Retirement

~ ‘CC’-YCDYAC-WAC-NATARALOYS ~ “Career Coaches” – You Can Declare Yourself A Coach – Without Any Credentials – Nor Are There Any Regulatory Agencies Looking Over Your Shoulder – Which Means That

~ IATTOM-AA-‘B’-O-ALA-P ~ I Am To Think Of Myself – As A – “Brand” – Or – At Least A – Product

~ ‘ES’-AT-TF-F-SS-A ~ “Elevator Speech” – A Thirty- To Forty-Five-Second – Self-Advertisement

~ A-POU-IALT-DOCR ~ A – Period Of Unemployment – Is Also Likely To – Damage One’s Credit Rating

~ E-ETLO-NLBTRRAA-TSTWCPSFT-DK ~ Employers – Especially The Large Ones – No Longer Bother To Read Resumes At All – They Scan Them With Computer Programs Searching For The – Desired Keywords

~ TW-CWSTCOTG:TWCFWAA-A-TWAEIJWTWMMTTWT ~ The White-Collar Workforce Seems To Consist Of Two Groups: Those Who Can’t Find Work At All – And – Those Who Are Employed In Jobs Where They Work Much More Than They Want To

~ TIOT-‘WA’-APA-‘A’-O-‘F’-DOWAWSYGW-PR-W-LONAOYPR ~ The Importance Of The – “Winning Attitude” – A Positive Attitude – “Attracts” – Or – “Fulfills” – Depending On Which Author’s Weird Science You Go With – Positive Results – With – Little Or No Action On Your Part Required

~ DM-BCM-C-TLTDTOOTJ-B-‘V’-A-AL-RF? ~ Did My – Boot-Camp Mates – Cause – The Layoffs That Drove Them Out Of Their Jobs – By – “Vibrating” – At – A Layoff-Related Frequency?

~ IS-IC-TT-PWHRSKOPN-TTPI-EOTOM-B-FTPOVOTE-‘W’-TWOPAH-PJ-TVT-OFDEOO-MBRC-IETWSITMFT-WITCOTL-INTWTNC-ITM-IY-NNTT-BT-TWFASE-O-AMH-FCE-O-TBTAA-WAOOE ~ It Seems – Inexcusably Cruel – To Tell – People Who Have Reached Some Kind Of Personal Nadir – That Their Problem Is – Entirely Of Their Own Making – But – From The Point Of View Of The Economic – “Winners” – Those Who Occupy Powerful And High-Paying Jobs – The View That – One’s Fate Depends Entirely On Oneself – Must Be Remarkably Convenient – It Explains The Winners’ Success In The Most Flattering Terms – While Invalidating The Complaints Of The Losers – It’s Not The World That Needs Changing – Is The Message – It’s You – No Need Then To – Band Together – To Work For A Saner Economy – Or – A More Human-Friendly Corporate Environment – Or – To Band Together At All – We Are Our Own Enemies

~ ‘JC’-O-MA-JL-HBI-STIAL ~ “Job Change” – Or – More Accurately – Job Loss – Has Become Inevitable – Several Times In A Lifetime

~ TIITPA-A-HMOTU-MC ~ The Idea Is To Pass As – A – Hereditary Member Of The Upper-Middle Class

~ JS101:AES/APR/N-N-N ~ Job Search 101: An Elevator Speech / A Polished Resume / Network – Network – Network

~ TONW-“IWHATS’-O-S-“ISUATF’-B-ALOO-IRE-WHOTBLO-A-TRTPUAFDJO-RMSFOE ~ The Old Narrative Was – “I Worked Hard And Therefore Succeeded” – Or – Sometimes – “I Screwed Up And Therefore Failed” – But – A Life Of Only – Intermittently Rewarded Effort – Working Hard Only To Be Laid Off – And – Then Repeating The Process Until Aging Forecloses Decent Job Offers – Requires More Strenuous Forms Of Explanation

~ MTWPOA-CE-WIT-AUR-F-W-CE-ITITYTSSAKYEO ~ Maybe The Whole Point Of A – College Education – Which Is The – Almost Universal Requirement – For – White-Collar Employment – Is That It Trains You To Sit Still And Keep Your Eyes Open

~ WADF-R/W/S/L-NF-SUDAD ~ We Are Designed For – Running / Walking / Squatting / Lounging – Not For – Sitting Upright Day After Day

~ A-G-OAK-FAP-CR/CFAEP/RFAI-EC-IU-IYHSEMOYLMMFSE-YCFAGAJ ~ A – Gap – Of Any Kind – For Any Purpose – Child Raising / Caring For An Elderly Parent / Recovering From An Illness / Even Consulting – Is Unforgivable – If You Haven’t Spent Every Moment Of Your Life Making Money For Somebody Else – You Can Forget About Getting A Job

~ TFIOOCI-Y-POTD-Y-YAS-B-TDRSSIYF ~ The Feeling Is One Of Complete Invisibility – You – Pound On The Door – You – Yell And Scream – But – The Door Remains Sealed Shut In Your Face

~ IIM-R-T-CMTD-O-SAM-PA? ~ Is It My – Resume – That – Consigns Me To Darkness – Or – Something About My – Physical Appearance?

~ S-OYFIT-L-W-S-J-T-TAGCTYWRT-AUTFAMSAPW ~ So – Once You Fall Into The – Low-Wage – Survival-Job – Trap – There’s A Good Chance That You Will Remain There – An Unwilling Transplant From A More Spacious And Promising World

~ IASW-WIMEBIAP-DM-CASO-F/R/S ~ In A Society Where – Worth Is Measured Entirely By Income And Position – Downward Mobility – Carries A Sense Of – Failure / Rejection / Shame

~ HW-WB-RW-MCAS-THNBTOTWC-MOWTAAWIWTER-A-N-IIIUOT-EM-C-TSTCB ~ Hard Work – Will Be – Rewarded With – Material Comfort And Security – This Has Never Been True Of The Working Class – Most Of Which Toils Away At Wages Incommensurate With The Effort Required – And – Now – It Is Increasingly Untrue Of The – Educated Middle-Class – That Stocks Our Corporate Bureaucracies

~ SHHTCDITVSCTHUT ~ Something Has Happened That Cuts Deep Into The Very Social Contract That Holds Us Together

~ T-‘TI’-WIM-NE-T-U-AT-PE-CGT-TECBSFA-W-RD-LPTSKOA-NSDOAO-APSCATEAICGIS-‘ALIKTIANA’-WACR-B-HLCWO!-TAQ-WWILGWIGTCSM?-I-COBICBA ~ The – “Transition Industry” – With Its Many – Networking Events – The – Unemployed – And The – Precariously Employed – Can Get Together – Those Events Could Become Settings For A – Wide-Ranging Discussion – Leading Perhaps To Some Kind Of Action – No Such Discussion Or Action Occurs – Any Potentially Subversive Conversation About The Economy And Its Corporate Governance Is Suppressed – “At Least I Know That I Am Not Alone” – Was A Common Remark – But – How Little Connection Was Offered! – The Aching Question – Why Was I Let Go When I Gave The Company So Much? – Is – Cut Of Before It Can Be Asked

~ B-WDECTPJ-ALTITRGFE-C-TC/PS/LOR-EOCTCFOS-WAAT-TINOWTGJ ~ But – We Do Expect Corporations To Provide Jobs – At Least That Is The Rational Given For Every – Corporate – Tax Cut / Public Subsidy / Loosening Of Regulations – Elected Officials Coddle The Corporations For Our Sake – We Are Always Told – There Is No Other Way To Generate Jobs

~ ASP-TSWNLBATATWOTWHBE-NMHHTT-A-MAMWILTO-E-I-S ~ At Some Point – The Survivors Will No Longer Be Able To Absorb The Work Of Those Who Have Been Eliminated – No Matter How Hard They Try – As – More And More Work Is Left To The – Exhausted – Insecure – Survivors

~ EBPT ~ Empirically Baseless Personality Tests

~ IE-A-B-L-N-F-Z-B-WIEW-ACRW-AUTTTUTFAL-B-ATUH-PBC-A-STWMT-T-TTANFTTHBCOTHBOICAC-PTSA-W-TCEO-‘P’-A-‘A’ ~ I Expected – A – Brisk – Logical – Nonsense-Free – Zone – But – What I Encountered Was – A Culture Riven With – Assumptions Unrelated To Those That Underlie The Fact- And Logic-Based – Addicted To Untested Habits – Paralyzed By Conformity – And – Shot Through With Magical Thinking – Then – There’s The Almost Numerological Faith That Things Have Been Clarified Once They Have Been Organized Into Categories And Counted – Perhaps The Strangest Aspect – Was – The Constant Emphasis On – “Personality” – And – “Attitude”

SHERRY TURKLE ~ ALONE TOGETHER ~ 2011

~ WE-MFT-A-LFEO ~ We Expect – More From Technology – And – Less From Each Other

~ PAL-TNIS-B-IWA-AO-WMDOTROS ~ People Are Lonely – The Network Is Seductive – But – If We Are – Always On – We May Deny Ourselves The Rewards Of Solitude

~ FG-IN-GR-OCFGFBR ~ Feeling Good – Is No – Golden Rule – One Can Feel Good For Bad Reasons

~ WA-PP-NOT-NWWL-BT-LWWN ~ We Are – Psychologically Programmed – Not Only To – Nurture What We Love – But To – Love What We Nurture

~ AWDO-WMAO ~ As We Distribute Ourselves – We May Abandon Ourselves

~ B-IYS-T-F-F-HAD-I-A-OG-O-VW-TGTBSYN-A-TSYNIOWYFAF ~ But – If You’re Spending – Three – Four – Five – Hours A Day – In – An – Online Game – Or – Virtual World – There’s Got To Be Someplace You’re Not – And – That Someplace You’re Not Is Often With Your Family And Friends

~ NS-PRFLDWT-MFTVTTRW ~ Not Surprisingly – People Report Feeling Let Down When They – Move From The Virtual To The Real World

~ T-TUU-AIPT-FUU-CT-OPTGUMT ~ Technology – Ties Us Up – As It Promises To – Free Us Up – Connectivity Technologies – Once Promised To Give Us More Time

~ ADTEO-WIOORTSTMWD ~ A Danger To Even Ourselves – We Insist On Our Right To Send Text Messages While Driving

~ OBTVAVOOL-WTTTTHUFT-B-TMUBTE-A-EMISOR ~ Overwhelmed By The Volume And Velocity Of Our Lives – We Turn To Technology To Help Us Find Time – But – Technology Makes Us Busier Than Ever – And – Ever More In Search Of Retreat

~ TRTLOOEL-B-IIOUTLWWTL? ~ Technology Reshapes The Landscape Of Our Emotional Lives – But – Is It Offering Us The Lives We Want To Lead?

~ RWRARU;RWPARD ~ Relationships With Robots Are Ramping Up; Relationships With People Are Ramping Down

~ S-OETWMA-DISOHP? ~ So – Of Every Technology We Must Ask – Does It Serve Our Human Purposes?

~ IARMYLI-IIA? ~ If A Robot Makes You Love It – Is It Alive?

~ S-IMSNT-WAR-‘S’-IYHI ~ Soon – It May Seem Natural To – Watch A Robot – “Suffer” – If You Hurt It

~ DOAR-PIA-RF-B-WOBAT-‘C’-WD-LWP-MSO ~ Dependence On A Robot – Presents Itself As – Risk Free – But – When One Becomes Accustomed To – “Companionship” – Without Demands – Life With People – May Seem Overwhelming

~ DOAPIR-IMUSTR-B-IAOUT-DKA ~ Dependence On A Person Is Risky – It Make Us Subject To Rejection – But – It Also Opens Us To – Deeply Knowing Another

~ RC-MSASW-B-ICUTA-CW-TLASAMTM ~ Robotic Companionship – May Seem A Sweet Deal – But – It Consigns Us To A – Closed World – The Lovable As Safe And Made To Measure

~ DWHPFTJ? ~ Don’t We Have People For These Jobs?

~ FIVB-AI-HWITSB-AMVOP-A-AP-ES-VOM ~ From Its Very Beginnings – Artificial Intelligence – Has Worked In This Space Between – A Mechanical View Of People – And – A Psychological – Even Spiritual – View Of Machines

~ WARHOG-HOE-MUTTTRIIIU-WTH-WFAPFDC-WWITH ~ When A Robot Holds Our Gaze – Hardwiring Of Evolution – Makes Us Think That The Robot Is Interested In Us – When That Happens – We Feel A Possibility For Deeper Connection – We Want It To Happen

~ CM ~ Caring Machines

~ ‘C’-MTMW-TCOU-NTTW-CAU ~ “Caring” – Meant That Machines Would – Take Care Of Us – Not That They Would – Care About Us

~ ITEATB-UW-WSTDTJBR-IINDTWTTIOA-RO-ICAMA-D-CF-TSLLMTSW-TIOA-RB-BLT ~ If The Elderly Are Tended By – Underpaid Workers – Who Seem To Do Their Jobs By Rote – It Is Not Difficult To Warm To The Idea Of A – Robot Orderly – If Children Are Minded At – Day-Care Facilities – That Seem Like Little More Than Safe Warehouses – The Idea Of A – Robot Babysitter – Becomes Less Troubling

~ AO ~ Always On

~ OWROFTF-O-P/M/U-L-A-B-R-A-NL-DT-WBLWT-GOTATAC ~ Once We Remove Ourselves From The Flow – Of – Physical / Messy / Untidy – Life – And – Both – Robotics – And – Networked Life – Do That – We Become Less Willing To – Get Out There And Take A Chance

~ TNSOTS:TAMA ~ The New State Of The Self: Tethered And Marked Absent

~ WHMF-M-T-T-M-L ~ We Have Moved From – Multi-Tasking – To – Multi-Lifing

~ O-F-T-F-C-ARIB-ICATM ~ Our – Face-To-Face Conversations – Are Routinely Interrupted By – Incoming Calls And Text Messages

~ IT-NE-TAFTIFOYTAAMPORTAT-HBCTTN ~ In The – New Etiquette – Turning Away From Those In Front Of You To Answer A Mobile Phone Or Respond To A Text – Has Become Close To The Norm

~ RF-DTBB-W/F/P/R-DB-A-TAU-E-ATT-WAQTCT-CPOAT-TKNRFTAHLITS ~ Rituals For – Demarcating The Boundaries Between – Work / Family / Play / Relaxation – Demarcations Blur – As – Technology Accompanies Us – Everywhere – All The Time – We Are Too Quick To Celebrate The – Continual Presence Of A Technology – That Knows No Respect For Traditional And Helpful Lines In The Sand

~ TSTTAPAAT-I-VTSIAO ~ The Self That Treats A Person As A Thing – Is – Vulnerable To Seeing Itself As One

~ GUT ~ Growing Up Tethered

~ IWCB-CIT-NTBCIT-DNSAPOAPBAATWTA-IBTN ~ If We Can Be – Continually In Touch – Needing To Be Continually In Touch – Does Not Seem A Problem Or A Pathology But An Accommodation To What Technology Affords – It Becomes The Norm

~ B-OC-TANF-THB-‘F’-T-MATDITW ~ But – Of Course – They Are Not Friends – They Have Been – “Friended” – That – Makes All The Difference In The World

~ IS-WDRTW-B-HTSTTOOT-B-IYPIAWY-SSCLSLH ~ In Solitude – We Don’t Reject The World – But – Have The Space To Think Our Own Thoughts – But – If Your Phone Is Always With You – Seeking Solitude Can Look Suspiciously Like Hiding

~ I-SC-WB-C-A-ICBHTRTAL-LOS-MFB-BTN-T-SBB ~ In – Simulation Culture – We Become – Cyborg – And – It Can Be Hard To Return To Anything Less – Life On The Screen – Moves From Being – Better Than Nothing – To – Simply Being Better

~ O-IBMDTTWMCFP-BWHTOTSLT-ATE-A-TEIIS-WWSLP-WAPLSWH-PTAI ~ Online – It Becomes More Difficult To Tell Which Messages Come From Programs – Because We Have Taught Ourselves To Sound Like Them – At The Extreme – And – The Extreme Is In Sight – When We Sound Like Programs – We Are Perhaps Less Shocked When They – Propose Themselves As Interlocutors

~ W-PCA-TANT-B-EITAT ~ When – People Create Avatars – They Are Not Themselves – But – Express Important Truths About Themselves

~ TCOS ~ The Cruelty Of Strangers

~ A-DNPUF-EI ~ Anonymity – Does Not Protect Us From – Emotional Investment

~ O-TFST-DSD-I-DTCTNA-T-SSAR ~ Often – The First Step Toward – Doing Something Different – Is – Developing The Capacity To Not Act – To – Stay Still And Reflect

~ HAS ~ Hide And Stalk

~ WP-TWY-PM-TH-CAC-WP-HYSNA-Y-HETD ~ When People – Tamper With Your – Physical Mail – They Have – Committed A Crime – When People – Hack Your Social-Networking Account – You – Have Explaining To Do

~ ES-BTFSN-TTSSTD-U-AMOC ~ Electronic Shadow – Begins To Feel So Natural – That The Shadow Seems To Disappear – Until – A Moment Of Crisis

~ A-OC-WAIIC-ECBTIAI ~ And – Of Course – When All Information Is Collected – Everyone Can Be Turned Into An Informer

~ WMOT-AT-IT-MASU ~ We Make Our Technologies – And They – In Turn – Make And Shape Us

~ TGUMAMO-WWTWW ~ Technology Gives Us More And More Of – What We Think We Want

~ WHI-IAET-AY-WHATTDU-WDB-WWROTIIWWD-HTKTB-WSHB ~ We Have Invented – Inspiring And Enhancing Technologies – And Yet – We Have Allowed Them To Diminish Us – We Deserve Better – When We Remind Ourselves That It Is We Who Decide – How To Keep Technology Busy – We Shall Have Better

WILLIAM LOGAN ~ AIR ~ 2012

~ TACBO-ICBC-ICBC-IHNBOB-ICTFOCATDOP ~ The Air Cannot Be Owned – It Cannot Be Controlled – It Cannot Be Contained – It Has No Borders Or Boundaries – It Changes The Fate Of Creatures And The Destiny Of Peoples

~ TAIEMIASG-TINOPWTPTHTLOI-A-P-TINOPAAATHSA ~ The Air In Every Moment Is A Special Gift – There Is No Other Planet Within Twenty Parsecs That Has The Like Of It – And – Perhaps – There Is No Other Place Anywhere At All That Has Such Air

~ TORTTWINAI-TD-ITTFRTTTE-WBTSOFIANADED ~ The Only Reason That The World Is Not Awash In – The Dead – Is That The Fungi Return Them To The Earth – We Breathe The Spores Of Fungi In And Out All Day Every Day

~ T-BF-T-TF-A-TG-GAS-AABO-W-PP ~ The – Boreal Forests – The – Temperate Forests – And – The Great – Grasslands And Savannahs – Are All Based On – Wind-Pollinated Plants

~ ITIE-NBNF-HBTPSO-AC-TDTLAOO-R-P-SETLITUOLAAITLTMOHCD ~ In The Industrial Era – Neither Bacteria Nor Fungi – Have Been The Primary Source Of – Airborne Contaminants – That Damage The Lungs And Other Organs – Rather – Particles – Small Enough To Lodge In The Upper Or Lower Airway And In The Lungs Themselves More Often Have Caused Disease

~ TF-S-PI-A-NTWBAN-A-TS-CDWTTDOOPALAAT-1920~ Toxic Fogs – Smog-Producing Inversions – And – Noondays That Were Black As Night – Alerted – The So-Called Developed World To The Dangers Of Outdoor Pollution As Long Ago As The – 1920s

~ MM-O-GOG ~ Mystery Materials – Often – Give Off Gas

~ T-OBOBF-IRF-AHMATRP ~ The – Open Burning Of Biomass Fuels – Is Responsible For – A Huge Mortality Among The Rural Poor

~ TPTRLITAATTSO ~ The Particles That Remain Longest In The Air Are Typically The Smallest Ones

~ IAD-WAM-TK-TD-TFOT-TOPTBTCW-TAWABIIQ ~ In A Democracy – We Are Meant – To Know – To Debate – To Find Out Together – This Ought Particularity To Be The Case When – The Air We All Breathe Is In Question

~ W-ROS-F-IISJWTCD-R-IIASOWWA-TD-TL-TS-A-TMOTHRFTSOTE-AOTPACBTGN-‘A’-TI-TDIA ~ When – Rain Or Snow – Falls – It Is Seldom Just Water That Comes Down – Rather – It Is A Solution Of Water With All – The Dusts – The Liquids – The Smokes – And – The Microscopic Organisms That Have Risen From The Surface Of The Earth – All Of These Particles Are Called By The General Name – “Aerosols” – That Is – Things Dissolved In Air

~ DOF-EB-RC-A-FC ~ Droplets Of Fat – Emitted By – Restaurant Chimneys – And – Food Carts

~ GT ~ Ground Truth

~ TTOTAOBUWWDNE ~ The Theater Of The Air Often Brings Us What We Do Not Expect

~ B-CA-A-APCORD ~ Black-Carbon Aerosols – Are – A Principal Cause Of Respiratory Disease

~ APWNPGW-ASTFTAWAHBP-TARA-IAPP ~ Aerosol Pollution Will Never Prevent Greenhouse Warming – Although Schemes To Fill The Air With Aerosols Have Been Proposed – They Are Regarded As – Ineffective And Possibly Poisonous

~ WWTTAAAD-JAWHTTD-TITOGDNJGA ~ When We Treat The Air As A Dump – Just As We Have Treated The Dirt – The Invisible Tides Of Garbage Do Not Just Go Away

~ TWIAIP-SASTTCTEART-SCBEBO-SAIFBPTATP-ADOT-PM-O-COGOC-TTA-F-STR-T-EOS-IBFTMCFOCATL-ATKOL ~ The World Is Awash In Perfumes – Some Are Specific To The Creature That Emits And Receives Them – Some Can Be Eavesdropped By Others – Some Are Intentionally Faked By Predators To Attract Their Prey – All Depend On The – Physical Movement – Of – Chemicals Or Group Of Chemicals– Through The Air – From – Sender To Receiver – This – Exchange Of Signals – Is By Far The Most Common Form Of Communication Among The Living – All The Kingdoms Of Life

~ MCMTTTWFCBFSTTFCFIT ~ Many Creatures Mark The TraIl To Where Food Can Be Found So That Their Friends Can Find It Too

~ WEA-COASESA ~ When Enemies Appear – Creatures Of All Sizes Emit Scented Alarms

~ TTOTAOBUWWDNE ~ The Theater Of The Air Often Brings Us What We Do Not Expect

~ ASRTT:BAAL ~ A Song Requires Two Things: Breath And A Listener

~ NCBSWE ~ Nothing Can Be Said Without Exhaling

~ MST-ICIUTTA-B-ITUOOO ~ Music Stops Thought – It Comes Into Us Through The Air – But – It Takes Us Out Of Ourselves

~ BTAPIAH-IYCBT-YCLT ~ Breath Turns A Place Into A Habitat – If You Can Breathe There – You Can Live There

~ BRAE-IRA-IAO-A-IR-GAT-ABOACAAM-IWAI-EIE-W-O-FB-IAO-A-RTTOBTPOIE ~ Breath Requires An Exchange – It Requires An – Inside And Outside – And – It Requires – Give-And-Take – A Breath Of Air Comes Across A Membrane – Interacts With An Inside – Exchanges Its Elements – With – Others – From Both – Inside And Outside – And – Returns To The Outside Bearing The Products Of Its Exchange

~ FTM ~ Fogging The Mirror

~ TAITKOTB ~ The Air Is The Kingdom Of Breath

~ ABC-O-N-CD-AWVOOC-DM-G-B-DS-PH-A-S ~ A Breath Contains – Oxygen – Nitrogen – Carbon Dioxide – A Wide Variety Of Other Compounds – Dust Motes – Pollen Grains – Bacteria – Dead Skin – Plant Hairs – And – Spores

~ TSILBOTA-TTFO-G-D-S-V-SAWMTS ~ The Sky Is Light Because Of The Air – The Thin Film Of – Gases – Dusts – Spores – Vapor – Sun And Weather Make The Sky

DAVID ORRELL ~ APOLLO’S ARROW ~ 2007

~ FHAAFACM ~ Forecasting Has Always Attracted Fraudsters And Con Men

~ WABATTFNNRTRP-TCS-I-W/H/W-MBMITTKWHGUT ~ We Are Becoming Aware That The Future Need Not Resemble The Recent Past – The Coming Storms – In – Weather / Health / Wealth – May Be More Intense Than The Kind We Have Grown Used To

~ A-ST-IGCVOIICBUT-PTBOAS-ATTDP-MBABOEI-B-INMF-TAPOMA ~ A – Scientific Theory – Is Generally Considered Valid Only If It Can Be Used To – Predict The Behaviour Of A System – A Theory That Doesn’t Predict – May Be A Beautiful Or Elegant Idea – But – It’s No More Functional – Than A Piece Of Modern Art

~ LT-HPTEP ~ Living Things – Have Properties That Elude Prediction

~ FHALPC-TDT-ETW-ITO-S-C-A-E-R ~ Forecasting Has A Large Psychological Component – The Desire To – Explain The World – In Terms Of – Simple – Cause-And-Effect – Relationships

~ AP-A-OI ~ Accurate Predictions – Are – Often Ignored

~ IA-D-C-W-APCSSBTNAA ~ In A – Dangerous – Chaotic – World – Any Predictions Can Sometimes Seem Better Than None At All

~ TNTSF-OAP0STBAFCOHB ~ The Need To Search For – Order And Pattern – Seems To Be A Fundamental Characteristic Of Human Beings

~ POAR-LTHCOWGW-A-OOTBWTDTITUA-SL

~ Priest Of Any Religion – Like To Have Control Over What Gets Written – And – One Of The Best Ways To Do This Is To Use A – Specialized Language

~ TAMWTDACLTASO ~ There Are More Ways To Draw A Crooked Line Than A Straight One

~ TMRWTGFFASP-IS-TST-IHA-MA ~ The Most Reliable Way To Get Funding For A – Scientific Project – Is Still – To Show That – It Has A – Military Application

~ TPIT-TFNDQCTP ~ The Problem Is That – The Future Never Does Quite Copy The Past

~ IIIT-M-NBCW-FR-R ~ It Is Important That – Models – Not Be Confused With – Far Richer – Reality

~ MDABCDNNH-AMDOGDR-BTNOUPE ~ More Data And Bigger Computers Do Not Necessarily Help – Adding More Detail Often Gives Diminishing Returns – Because The Number Of Unknown Parameters Explodes

~ WCMT-TOAL-TWWCT-AOAPATS ~ We Cannot Model The – Trajectory Of A Life – The Way We Can The – Arc Of A Planet Across The Sky

~ PMASEORAA ~ Perhaps Markets Aren’t So Efficient Or Rational After All

~ PINAGP-A-CSM-WT-CAOUE-O-AABC-A-U ~ Pollution Is Now A Global Problem – And – Chemically Synthesized Molecules – With Their – Complex And Often Unknown Effects – On – Atmospheric And Biological Chemistry – Are – Ubiquitous

~ WANST-TIC-OG-O-TEM ~ We Are Not Slaves To – The Initial Condition – Our Genes – Or – The Efficient Market

~ COEFASOU ~ Creativity Often Emerges From A State Of Uncertainty

MICHIKO KAKUTANI ~ THE DEATH OF TRUTH ~ 2018

~ DFF/DORBE/TCOL-A-DTVVOT ~ Disregard For Facts / Displacement Of Reason By Emotion / The Corrosion Of Language – Are – Diminishing The Very Value Of Truth

~ SIUA-ASI-EOES ~ Science Is Under Attack – And So Is – Expertise Of Every Sort

~ AW-E-R-IQ-TWS-OW ~ And When – Experts – Raised – Inconvenient Questions – They Were Sidelined – Or Worse

~ TC-OOL ~ The Co-Opting Of Language

~ AHMOU-A-SE-A-U-B-TMBJBTIBTSOOV ~ A Huge Majority Of Us – Assume – Search Engines – Are – Unbiased – But – That May Be Just Because They’re Increasingly Biased To Share Our Own Views

~ SM-GUITTCOVOTW-PLI-IN-C-S-A-CS-WGOT ~ Social Media – Gives Us Information That Tends To Confirm Our View Of The World – People Live In – Increasingly Narrow – Content – Silos – And – Correspondingly Smaller – Walled Gardens Of Thought

~ MAD-I-B-TG-TT-OPATW ~ Misinformation And Disinformation – Is – Becoming – The – Go-To Tactic – Of Propagandists Around The World

~ TSOTT ~ The Schadenfreude Of The Trolls

~ WT-T-B-T-F-B-PLPFTCO2008-MWPWSTTMULG ~ While The – Too-Big-To-Fail – Banks – Paid Little Price For The Crash Of 2008 – Many Working People Were Still Trying To Make Up Lost Ground

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ ANTI-CATASTROPHE PRINCIPLE – FOUR QUALIFICATIONS ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ ATTFROSR-IMNSTTSTACITVSWCCROTO ~ Attentive To The Full Range Of Social Risks – It Makes No Sense To Take Steps To Avert Catastrophe If Those Very Steps Would Create Catastrophic Risks Of Their Own

~ ATTIO-C-E-WRRTCTLCMOATE ~ Attentive To The Idea Of – Cost-Effectiveness – Which Requires Regulators To Choose The Least Costly Means Of Achieving Their Ends

~ DCM-AIAWTREBOTLATBT ~ Distribution Considerations Matter – Applied In A Way That Reduces Extreme Burdens On Those Least Able To Bear Them

~ CMAS-TEOPCRBDFTE ~ Costs Matter As Such – The Extent Of Precautions Cannot Reasonably Be Divorced From Their Expense

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LIBERTARIAN PATERNALISM ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ T-LA-OTSLITSIT-IG-PSBFTOOOSAITCTDS ~ The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Opt Out Of Specified Arrangements If Hey Choose To Do So

~ T-PA-CITCTIILFPAPITATIPB-EWT-PEAA-ITU-APTCA-‘P’-IIATITCOAPIAWTWMCBO-ISCIMIDITOTOW-DTTWCITH-CI-UCA-A-NLOS-C-H-LP-PTBRTBEAIF ~ The – Paternalistic Aspect – Consists In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Private And Public Institutions To Attempt To Influence People’s Behavior – Even When Third-Party Effects Are Absent – In This Understanding – A Policy Therefore Counts As – “Paternalistic” – If It Attempts To Influence The Choices Of Affected Parties In A Way That Will Make Choosers Better Off – In Some Cases Individuals Make Inferior Decisions In Terms Of Their Own Welfare – Decisions That They Would Change If They Had – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – No Lack Of Self-Control – Hence – Libertarian Paternalism – Promises To Be Responsive To Both Excessive And Insufficient Fear

~ LP-IAR-WAN-TOP-B-CANBOFO-IIMCF-LP-I-TC-OTWSTDFT-PPO ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak And Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked Or Fenced Off – In Its Most Cautious Forms – Libertarian Paternalism – Imposes – Trivial Costs – On Those Who Seek To Depart From The – Planner’s Preferred Option

~ WAOOT-PTFASBTD-AA-ESC-ITRWT-ITCROATC? ~ Would Any One Object To – Putting The Fruit And Salad Before The Desserts – At An – Elementary School Cafeteria – If The Result Were To – Increase The Consumption Ratio Of Apples To Candy?

~ TPTICSBR-IOBOTCT-PDAEJOMCO-AL-TTDAFBJTTPCPD-B-TILESFTC ~ The Presumption That Individual Choices Should Be Respected – Is Often Based On The Claim That – People Do An Excellent Job Of Making Choices – Or – At Least – That They Do A Far Better Job Than Third Parties Could Possibly Do – But – There Is Little Empirical Support For This Claim

~ DR-OSK-A-I-A-MOTTTRWA-PAC=POL-W-FP-A-SP-HICF-BAC ~ Default Rules – Of Some Kind – Are – Inevitable – And – Much Of The Time Those Rules Will Affect – Preferences And Choices – People Often Lack – Well-Formed Preferences – And – Starting Points – Have Important Consequences For – Behavior And Choice

~ I-FP ~ Ill-Formed Preferences

~ I-US-W-FP-AEUTE ~ In – Unfamiliar Situations – Well-Formed Preferences – Are Especially Unlikely To Exist

~ TIOP-TINWTAEOBAC-TTFTCLI-ITMOSE-T-P-FOC-T-PCEAT-PSO ~ The Inevitability Of Paternalism – There Is Not Way To Avoid Effects On Behavior And Choices – The Task For The Committed Libertarian Is – In The Midst Of Such Effects – To – Preserve – Freedom Of Choice – That – People Can Easily Avoid The – Paternalist’s Suggested Option

~ SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TDEBAAM ~ So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Dangers Emphasized By Antipaternalist Are Minimal

~ TWMT-SS-A-A-ATEOAS-CP-ALFP-B-IP-SF-S-CP-TIIHLTOPDT ~ Those Who Make The – Slippery Slope – Argument – Are – Acknowledging The Existence Of A Self-Control Problem – At Least For Planners – But – If Planners – Suffer From Self-Control Problems – Then It Is Highly Likely That Other People Do Too

~ TG-SBT-A-R-I-A-O-H-E-A-TPASTILT-PPW-SD ~ The Goal – Should Be To – Avoid – Random – Inadvertent – Arbitrary – Or – Harmful – Effects – And – To Produce A Situation That Is Likely To – Promote People’s Welfare – Suitably Defined