ANDREW MCAFEE + ERICK BRYNJOLFSSON ~ MACHINE PLATFORM CROWD ~ 2017

~ TRIAECOM ~ The Rapidly Increasing And Expanding Capabilities Of Machines

~ TRAOLAIYC-TBLRTTEIITI-TUA-P ~ The Recent Appearance Of Large And Influential Young Companies – That Bear Little Resemblance To The Established Incumbents In Their Industries – These Upstarts Are – Platforms

~ TEOTC-TSLAO-HKEAE-DAOTW-ANA-O ~ The Emergence Of The Crowd – The Startlingly Large Amount Of – Human Knowledge, Expertise, And Enthusiasm – Distributed All Over The World – And Now Available – Online

~ R-TBB-M&M-P&P-A-TC&TC ~ Rethink – The Balance Between – Minds And Machines – Products And Platforms – And – The Core And The Crowd

~ AFSITP-AF-LRF-LTP-A-BB-AT-CST-IEAT ~ A Fundamental Shift Is Taking Place – Away From – Long-Range Forecast – Long-Term Plans – And – Big Bets – And Toward – Constant Short-Term – Iteration, Experimentation, And Testing

~ ML-TAASOBSSTCDPAFWSAFSME ~ Machine Learning – The Art And Science Of Building Software Systems That Can Detect Patterns And Formulate Winning Strategies After Being Shown Many Examples

~ HR ~ Hi, Robot

~ VIR-VIS ~ Virtualization Is Reality – Virtualization Is Spreading

~ SPWCTSSH-T-HI-BVIALTTTWGIOTAMGMC ~ Some People Will Continue To Self-Select Human-To-Human Interactions – But Virtualization Is A Long-Term Trend That Will Generally Increase Over Time As Machines Gain More Capabilities

~ TEOFPAI ~ The Economics Of Free, Perfect, And Instant

~ CCTC ~ Curation Counters The Corruptors

~ TAOPW:BD-A-BE ~ The Art Of Platform War: Be Different – And – Be Early

~ HOSP-ETTS-TAOTEOCG-MABROO-C-TDACAPETP ~ Habits Of Successful Platforms – Early To The Space – Take Advantage Of The Economics Of Complementary Goods – Maintain A Broad Rule Of Openness – Curate – To Deliver A Consistent And Positive Experience To Participants

~ DIMMSFYT-TTBYOP-OTPISE? ~ Does It Make More Sense For You To – Try To Build Your Own Platform – Or To Participate In Someone Else’s?

~ IMTOPAE-WSAPATY? ~ If More Than One Platform Already Exists – Why Should Anyone Pay Attention To Yours?

~ WVAYO-O-PAYS-FYIU? ~ What Value Are You Offering – Or – Problem Are You Solving – For Your Intended Users?

~ TPOPI ~ The Perils Of Perishing Inventory

~ TTL-LA ~ To Tread Lightly – Leverage Assets

~ GIAALTI ~ Giving It Away And Locking Them In

~ DD ~ Durable Differentiation

~ WANP ~ Writing A New Playbook

~ WTGRC-DLTTE-I-CITO ~ When Things Get Really Complex – Don’t Look To The Experts – Instead – Call In The Outsiders

~ DE-LAH-SFAROBTDTQOTW-TBS-SATWDBTOAC-BSATLTWO ~ Domain Experts – Like All Humans – Suffer From A Range Of Biases That Degrade The Quality Of Their Work – These Blind Spots – Such As The Well-Documented Biases Toward Overconfidence And Confirmation – Become Stronger And Thus Lead To Worse Outcomes

~ ICEBTM-‘E’-AAEAA-TTBKTATROUATAATQOTW ~ It Could Even Be That Many – “Experts” – Actually Aren’t Expert At All – That They’ve Been Kidding Themselves And The Rest Of Us About Their Abilities And The Quality Of Their Work

~ IT-CFCTSW-ICBQHTDWAKWTTA ~ In Today’s – Complex, Fast-Changing, Technologically Sophisticated World – It Can Be Quite Hard To Distinguish Who Actually Knows What They’re Talking About

~ TKOTC-CEBOOD-TCCBS-WTCRC ~ The Knowledge Of The Core – Can Easily Become Out Of Date – The Core Can Become Stale – While The Crowd Really Can’t

~ TCISV-ILP-BIMM-GIA/OS-FAOC ~ The Crowd Is So Valuable – In Large Part – Because It’s Massively Marginal – Geographically, Intellectually, And/Or Socially – From Any Organization’s Core

~ OAOA-TREOTCSTPBBUACIMOTC ~ Over And Over Again – The Recognized Experts Of The Core See Their Performance Beaten By Uncredentialed And Conventionally Inexperienced Members Of The Crowd

~ TCCNAALWENMOAC ~ The Crowd Can Now Accomplish A Lot Without Ever Needing Much Of A Core

~ DAO ~ Decentralized Autonomous Organization

CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN ~ THE INNOVATOR’S DILEMMA

~ CDOCAIFR-CWIPTDSTCAIDS ~ Companies Depend On Customers And Investors For Resources – Companies With Investment Patterns That Don’t Satisfy Their Customers And Investors Don’t Survive

~ SMDSTGNOLC ~ Small Markets Don’t Solve The Growth Needs Of Large Companies

~ MTDECBA ~ Markets That Don’t Exist Can’t Be Analyzed

~ AOCDID ~ An Organization’s Capabilities Define Its Disabilities

~ FIAISTS ~ Failure Is An Intrinsic Step Toward Success

~ TVOAOTCBWDAPAM-AKMOGM-IF-IWSCACVHPTO ~ The Values Of An Organization Are The Criteria By Which Decisions About Priorities Are Made – A Key Metric Of Good Management – In Fact – Is Whether Such Clear And Consistent Values Have Permeated The Organization

~ HSCAVRDIMI ~ Huge Size Constitutes A Very Real Disability In Managing Innovation

~ ATPBWWHGDITOAFTNP? ~ Are The Processes By Which Work Habitually Gets Done In The Organization Appropriate For This New Problem?

~ TWODTATS-IIOTVATRDTUIMMTCTVINM ~ The Weaknesses Of Disruptive Technologies Are Their Strengths – It Is Often The Very Attribute That Render Disruptive Technologies Useless In Mainstream Markets That Constitute Their Value In New Markets

~ TFTWMSICADT-FAMWPCOADTFTDA ~ The Firms That Were Most Successful In Commercializing A Disruptive Technology – Find A Market Where Product Competition Occurred Along Dimensions That Favored The Disruptive Attributes

ROBERT FRANK ~ SUCCESS AND LUCK ~ 2016

~ GF&TMOM ~ Good Fortune And The Myth Of Meritocracy

~ SSHDTCEPAMLRIILOTMPOI ~ Social Scientists Have Discovered That Chance Events Play A Much Larger Role In Important Life Outcomes Than Most People Once Imagined

~ TROMHCEN ~ The Rhetoric Of Meritocracy Has Caused Enormous Harm

~ M-CI-1958-AAP-QCOA-AAOP ~ Meritocracy – Coined In – 1958 – As A Pejorative – Quickly Co-Opted As – An Adjective Of Praise

~ STTEMHEABOL-AVOTTTTDRBOT-TTAWTTTA ~ Saying That Top Earners May Have Enjoyed A Bit Of Luck – Apparently Verges On Telling Them That They Don’t Really Belong On Top – That They Aren’t Who They Think They Are

~ TROMATHCTETWSAFOHDOECBAIC ~ The Rhetoric Of Meritocracy Appears To Have Camouflaged The Extent To Which Success And Failure Often Hinge Decisively On Events Completely Beyond Any Individual’s Control

~ SMCEFMMPILTTMPR ~ Seemingly Minor Chance Events Figure Much More Prominently In Life Trajectories Than Most People Realize

~ BWATMTAHPWNAMMS? ~ But What About The Many Talented And Hardworking People Who Never Achieve Much Material Success?

~ IOTTSTSWW1%HTOII1%MTD1PMI-B-TIOCLMLWSSPDTI-TFDIE ~ It’s One Thing To Say That Someone Who Works 1 Percent Harder Than Others Or Is 1 Percent More Talented Deserves 1 Percent More Income – But – The Importance Of Chance Looms Much Larger When Such Small Performance Differences Translate Into – Thousands-Fold Differences In Earnings

~ WTAM-TPRTATAHOWITM-AENOC-ATMCTA-TMLM ~ Winner-Take-All Markets – The Prodigious Rewards That Accrue To A Handful Of Winners In These Markets – Attracts Enormous Numbers Of Contestants – And The More Contestants There Are – The More Luck Matters

~ PWBTSDOOTAA-AHAESOHTTA-MFIETMTKOENFS ~ People Who Believe That Success Depends Only On Talent And Effort – And Have An Exaggerated Sense Of How Talented They Are – May Find It Easier To Muster The Kinds Of Effort Necessary For Success

~ B-UTIOEF-MAEC-IM-FEEPTCIAIWTHNRPOS-IAATMSPMRTUTINTSETSMS ~ But Underestimating The Importance Of External Forces – May Also Entail Significant Costs – It May – For Example Encourage People To Compete In Arenas In Which They Have No Realistic Prospect Of Succeeding – It Also Appears To Make Successful People More Reluctant To Underwrite The Investments Necessary To Sustain Environments That Support Material Success

~ TFRTNSCPWEMFICTAC ~ The Fact Remains That No Society Can Prosper Without Effective Means For Its Citizens To Act Collectively

~ SGIU-ISWTAWTMIB-SSHDMEGTO ~ Since Government Is Unavoidable – It’s Surely Worth Thinking About Ways To Make It Better – Some Societies Have Demonstrably More Effective Governments Than Others

~ ‘HB’-WYTYAKWH-IETIRFWIHTH ~ “Hindsight Bias” – When You Think You Already Know What Happened – It’s Easy To Invent Reasons For Why It Had To Happen

~ HBOWPFWPOUSO ~ Hindsight Bias Operates With Particular Force When People Observe Unusually Successful Outcomes

~ TME ~ The Matthew Effect

~ WTAM-GDTCF-RDLOAPTORP-RTTBHCITHOAFTP ~ Winner-Take-All Markets – Generally Display Two Characteristic Features – Rewards Depend Less On Absolute Performance Than On Relative Performance – Rewards Tend To Be Highly Concentrated In The Hands Of A Few Top Performers

~ B-EP-ASMC-WWAWEBETAH-B-TWRB-TMTAH-ITCP ~ Because – Enormous Prizes – Attract So Many Contestants – Winners Will Almost Without Exception Be Enormously Talented And Hardworking – But – They Will Rarely Be – The Most Talented And Hardworking – In The Contestant Pool

~ E-HUTH-IAGM-TMMYST-TMLTB-AIYSTEM-ABI ~ Events – Highly Unlikely To Happen – In Any Given Moment – The More Moments You String Together – The More Likely They Become – And If You String Together Enough Moments – All But Inevitable

~ METAHPFTAASMOMS-MOTASLLTTW ~ Many Extremely Talented And Hardworking People Fail To Achieve Any Significant Measure Of Material Success – Many Of Them Are Simply Less Lucky Than The Winners

~ TITSASTMWWOBTAL-IHCA-MWNHEBRCHTNBB-EAAH ~ This Isn’t The Same As Saying That Most Winners Win Only Because They Are Lucky – In Highly Competitive Arenas – Most Would Not Have Even Been Realistic Contenders Had They Not Been Both – Extremely Able And Hardworking

~ TWAOPTATFTBLMBUTTKOFNTIFP ~ Those Who Are Overly Prone To Attribute Their Failures To Bad Luck May Be Unreceptive To The Kinds Of Feedback Needed To Improve Future Performance

~ TBOFB ~ The Burden Of False Beliefs

~ TIODOPLTTAO-THBBIAHDC-TLBOCOIIBTWCBU ~ There Is One Dimension Of Personal Luck That Transcends All Others – To Have Been Born In A Highly Developed Country – The Lucky Beneficiaries Of Centuries Of Intensive Investment By Those Who Came Before Us

~ IBBIAGEIOOTLTTCHTA-FTALIHMSPMRTPTTRTSTINTMAGE ~ If Being Born In A Good Environment Is One Of The Luckiest Things That Can Happen To Anyone – Failure To Appreciate Luck’s Importance Has Made Successful People More Reluctant To Pay The Taxes Required To Support The Investments Necessary To Maintain A Good Environment

~ TFTAADTBCEP-ORTARWP-STOCBBCARIFFO ~ The Fact That Americans Are Driving The Best Cars Ever Produced – On Roads That Are Riddled With Potholes – Suggests That Our Current Balance Between Cars And Roads Is Far From Optimal

~ PWFMHTAALTTWTAAGOTSA ~ People Will Fight Much Harder To Avoid A Loss Than They Would To Achieve A Gain Of The Same Amount

~ OCPOPAPSHBDC-NJFPAMIF-BAFTWT ~ Our Current Patterns Of Private And Public Spending Have Been Deeply Counterproductive – Not Just For Poor And Middle-Income Families – But Also For The Wealthy Themselves

~ EPIWAEPFTEPOTVSTP ~ Extensive Public Investment Was An Essential Precondition For The Economic Prosperity Of Those Very Same Tax Protesters

~ POSOCAAT ~ Public Opinion Shifts One Conversation At A Time

~ TRSBFTALPRISHMIHTSTPINTSTSOLATFG ~ Tax Resistance Spawned By Failure To Appreciate Luck’s Pivotal Role In Success Has Made It Harder To Sustain The Public Investment Needed To Support The Stock Of Luck Available To Future Generations

~ ATPIT-IFOAPCT-WPABOFAE ~ Abandoning The Progressive Income Tax – In Favor Of A Progressive Consumption Tax – Would Produce A Better Outcome For Almost Everyone

~ PWETAAAOTP-ANJHBOTF-TAMLTP-TIPBMOTBSSATE ~ People Who Enjoy The Admiration And Affection Of Their Peers – Are Not Just Happier Because Of That Fact – They’re Also More Likely To Prosper – That’s In Part Because Most Of The Biggest Economic Success Stories Are Team Efforts

~ IMBIYITALRIYS-IOBPWTBOYFHDS-ESTTWMYFH-TMFTOTBOYMAMYMLTPIPMT ~ It May Be In Your Interest To Acknowledge Luck’s Role In Your Success – If Only Because People Will Think Better Of You For Having Done So – Evidence Suggests That This Will Make You Feel Happier – The Mere Fact That Others Think Better Of You May Also Make You More Likely To Prosper In Purely Material Terms

~ TWHT-TASTSAEAFTBL-MBPAISC-BOB-IIOITEMRA ~ The Widespread Human Tendency – To Attribute Success To Skill And Effort And Failure To Bad Luck – May Be Psychologically Adaptive In Some Cases – But On Balance – It’s In Our Interest To Embrace More Realistic Attributions

~ CTPB-PWINOFMPTGW-BAFETC ~ Contrary To Popular Belief – Private Waste Is Not Only Far More Pervasive Than Government Waste – But Also Far Easier To Curtail

~ APBMRAOWRFCPOT-TCCFWSSOGABTFTF-A-TACSOOCAAT ~ Although Popular Beliefs May Remain At Odds With Reality For Considerable Periods Of Time –The Consensus Can Flip With Surprising Speed Once Good Arguments Begin To Find Their Footing – And – Those Arguments Can Spread Only One Conversation At At Time

EDWARD BERNAYS ~ PROPAGANDA ~ 1928

~ IWNU-1915-TGFSDTEROMMTRTPTFA-MEATPOAGB-TOWMTVM-ATSMOTWATPII ~ It Was Not Until 1915 That Governments First Systematically Deployed The Entire Range Of Modern Media To Rouse Their Populations To Fanatical Assent – Mass Enthusiasm At The Prospect Of A Global Brawl – That Otherwise Would Mystify Those Very Masses – And That Shattered Most Of Those Who Actually Took Part In It

~ N’PO’SOAAFTMBM-ANTCG-BBETTDTAIJ ~ Now “Public Opinion” Stood Out As A Force That Must Be Managed – And Not Through Clever Guesswork – But By Experts Trained To Do That All-Important Job

~ TGAC-SLSP-TBGOAAP-NLCHBP-STTTBB ~ The Great Allied Campaign – Suddenly Legitimized Such Propagandists – The Reborn Generation Of Admen And Publicists – No Longer Common Hucksters But Professionals – Sold Their Talents To Big Business

~ ‘TMOC’-ANTTPS ~ “The Manufacture Of Consent” – A Necessity Throughout The Public Sphere

~ WAG-AMM-OTF-OIS-TISAVACEFOTCOMITIOSPOCOI ~ We Are Governed – Our Minds Molded – Our Tastes Formed – Our Ideas Suggested – There Is Consequently A Vast And Continuous Effort Going On To Capture Our Minds In The Interest Of Some Policy Or Commodity Or Idea

~ YW-IAI-PIGOBDUTMOTCU-ATCOTIP ~ Yet Whether – In Any Instance – Propaganda Is Good Or Bad Depends Upon The Merit Of The Cause Urged – And The Correctness Of The Information Published

~ TETWPSTPOAAUMSEWIP ~ The Extent To Which Propaganda Shapes The Progress Of Affairs About Us May Surprise Even Well Informed Persons

~ MPIAYFFBAESATMOHMABNMAR ~ Mass Psychology Is As Yet Far From Being An Exact Science And The Mysteries Of Human Motivation Are By No Means All Revealed

~ IYCITL-EWOWTCC-YAITGWTW ~ If You Can Influence The Leaders – Either With Or Without Their Conscious Cooperation – You Automatically Influence The Group Which They Sway

~ GM-IFIIUTFTEOATL ~ Group Mind – Its First Impulse Is Usually To Follow The Example Of A Trusted Leader

~ BWTEOTLINAH-ATHMTFI-IDSBMO-C-PW-I-WSFAWGOIOE ~ But When The Example Of The Leader Is Not At Hand – And The Herd Must Think For Itself – It Does So By Means Of – Cliches – Pat Words – Images – Which Stand For A Whole Group Of Ideas Or Experiences

~ BPUAOC-OMANO-TPCSSAWMOGE ~ By Playing Upon A Old Cliche – Or Manipulating A New One – The Propagandist Can Sometimes Swing A Whole Mass Of Group Emotions

~ HDATSWMTSMW-OBUTCTPCTVLJMWIMS ~ Human Desires Are The Steam Which Makes The Social Machine Work – Only By Understanding Them Can The Propagandist Control That Vast, Loose-Jointed Mechanism Which Is Modern Society

~ TL-WLTATAPC-WDSOITCBMTTTOI ~ The Leaders – Who Lend Their Authority To Any Propaganda Campaign – Will Do So Only If It Can Be Made To Touch Their Own Interests

~ AMECBMTAEIBEITPMAAMOS ~ A Minor Element Can Be Made To Assume Economic Importance By Being Established In The Public Mind As A Matter Of Style

~ EAAMBCIOTPIIC ~ Events And Activities Must Be Created In Order To Put Ideas Into Circulation

~ EOWPPOWTTPCS-ETPIS-CBUIOWOA ~ Every Object Which Presents Pictures Or Words That The Public Can See – Everything That Presents Intelligible Sounds – Can Be Utilized In One Way Or Another

~ IWBO-OC-TWTTDIAIMBOTTP-IWN-TOPWWETTWIATWBMSAI-IPTIUOU ~ It Will Be Objected – Of Course – That Propaganda Will Tend To Defeat Itself As Its Mechanism Becomes Obvious To The Public – It Will Not – The Only Propaganda Which Will Ever Tend To Weaken Itself As The World Becomes More Sophisticated And Intelligent – Is Propaganda That Is Untrue Or Unsocial

~ KTGIATPATPIATG ~ Keep The Government Informed About The Public And The Public Informed About The Government

~ TAMPITGUCOPITWT-IIAGDFIAO ~ The American Motion Picture Is The Greatest Unconscious Carrier Of Propaganda In The World Today – It Is A Great Distributor For Ideas And Opinions

~ ITPIBIATPOIL-IWBSMTMRTRATIOI ~ If The Public Is Better Informed About The Processes Of Its Life – It Will Be So Much The More Receptive To Reasonable Appeals To Its Own Interests

~ ITPBMIIICD-CFWMTNS ~ If The Public Becomes More Intelligent In Its Commercial Demands – Commercial Firms Will Meet The New Standards

KEN ROBINSON + LOU ARONICA ~ THE ELEMENT ~ 2009

~ FYPCE ~ Finding Your Passion Changes Everything

~ E-TPWTTYLTDATTTYAGACT ~ Element – The Place Where The Things You Love To Do And The Things That You Are Good At Come Together

~ HWPOCAHWCATO-DLOWWEOO ~ How We Perceive Our Circumstances And How We Create And Take Opportunities – Depends Largely On What We Expect Of Ourselves

~ EIAAAYATAOTWIWYETW-ADWYOTSL-JDTTFG ~ Element Is All About Allowing Yourself Access To All Of The Ways In Which You Experience The World – And Discovering Where Your Own True Strengths Lie – Just Don’t Take Them For Granted

~ GCTAD-TACOVDSOPWDBCT ~ Great Creative Teams Are Diverse – They Are Composed Of Very Different Sorts Of People With Different But Complementary Talents

~ CTHADPACTGDSS ~ Creative Teams Have A Distinctive Personality And Come Together To Do Something Specific

~ G-SBTRIASWTFOOOTG-WMDODPTSCWOP ~ Groupthink – Since Breaking The Rules Is A Sure Way To Find Ourselves Out Of The Group – We May Deny Our Deepest Passions To Stay Connected With Our Peers

~ FTLOI ~ For The Love Of It

~ TBIYE-IINTDEEADIAD-ED-MPETLDOT-ATTCTASITLTDTTTL ~ To Be In Your Element – It Isn’t Necessary To Drop Everything Else And Do It All Day – Every Day – Many People Earn Their Living Doing One Thing – And Then Then Create Time And Space In Their Lives To Do The Thing They Love

YOCHAI BENKLER ~ THE PENGUIN AND THE LEVIATHAN

~ CTOSI ~ Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest

~ WNNB-RSTTGL-AGBTIHOTM-O-POTCHOF-TSTCW-IHOT-TSOL-ICTA-TP~ We Need Not Be – Robotic Slaves To The Government’s Leviathan – Automations Guided By The Invisible Hand Of The Market – Or – Parts Of The Collectivist Hive Of Fascism – To Serve The Common Weal – In Honor Of Tux – The Symbol Of Linux – I’ll Call This Alternative – The Penguin

~ INTCCSDBTLNTIHOTFMCEGS-WSWT? ~ If Neither The Command-Control Systems Dictated By The Leviathan Nor The Invisible Hand Of The Free Market Can Effectively Govern Society – Where Shall We Turn?

~ EWBNTUQOTSS-A-WBTTOHBITOAMPR-TPAE ~ Economics Was By Now The Unquestioned Queen Of The Social Sciences – And – We Began To Think Of Human Behavior In Terms Of Almost Mechanical, Predictable, Responses – To Punishments And Incentives

~ PAIFMC-TMEAOPA-TIJT-DOFSHICS-OMSAETEIBO ~ People Are In Fact More Cooperative – Than Most Economists And Others Previously Assumed – This Isn’t Just Theory – Dozens Of Field Studies Have Identified Cooperative Systems – Often More Stable And Effective Than Equivalent Incentive-Based Ones

~ UCOCASTMUIE ~ Using Control Of Carrots And Sticks To Motivate Us Isn’t Effective

~ ORTTMOUSPITIINWW-OMS ~ One Reason That The Myth Of Universal Selfishness Persists Is That It Is Not Wholly Wrong – Only Mostly So

~ Y-SBAS-BFASAOTT-ASOUDNAOOSI ~ Yes – Some People Are Selfish – But Few Are Selfish All Of The Time – And Some Of Us Do Not Act Out Of Self-Interest

~ HBTTSONSETHUMSOOCACW ~ Human Beings Tend To Seek Out Neat, Simple Explanations To Help Us Make Sense Of Our Confusing And Complex World

~ ATGHNBEASTTITOUS-OWGITHOTOOAOBIAGW-WTTIATEWEACSIFWOPAA-BDSB-AEO ~ Almost Two Generations Have Now Been Educated And Socialized To Think In Terms Of Universal Selfishness – Once We Get In The Habit Of Thinking Of Ourselves And Our Behavior In A Given Way – We Tend To Interpret All The Evidence We Encounter And Collect So It Fits With Our Preconceptions And Assumptions – By Discarding Some Bits – And Emphasizing Others

~ WASB-WPSAB-WAEBJAM-INM-TWARB ~ We Are Social Beings – We Perform Selfless Acts Because – We Are Emotional Beings Just As Much – If Not More – Than We Are Rational Beings

~ ONADAFMCAVTTSDTMPAG-UR-TFHBLIOOP ~ Our Needs And Desires Are Far More Complex And Varied Than The Simple Desire To Maximize Pleasure And Gain – Until Recently – These Findings Have Been Largely Ignored Outside Of Psychology

~ F-OCFWIRAF-ODTBSFBOPASBTASG-AFBTGTRD ~ Finally – Our Concern For What Is Right And Fair – Our Desire To Be Seen Favorably By Our Peers And So Belong To A Social Group – Are Finally Beginning To Get Their Rightful Due

~ TPOCINSSUD-IIGISOTBWAMRRIBS ~ The Promise Of Cooperation Is Not Some Silly Utopian Dream – It Is Grounded In Some Of The Best Work And Most Rigorous Research In Behavioural Science

~ SORAP-STIASRFSITGABBSATEOTWC ~ Systems Of Reciprocity Aren’t Perfect – So There Is Always Some Room For Some Individuals To Get Ahead By Being Selfish At The Expense Of Those Who Cooperate

~ AWMADTA-WHTFITSWI-EEHGAT-TFE-PWMDDDOHASIP ~ Anytime We Make A Decision To Act – We Have To First Interpret The Situation We’re In – Even Economists Have Grudgingly Admitted This – The Framing Effect – People Will Make Different Decision Depending On How A Situation Is Presented

~ SCRASC ~ Social Capital, Reputation, And Social Contagion

~ SRHTOC ~ Social Relations Have Their Own Currency

~ MESTOBIASIGIBTBWOIPAU-EIWCUOTI ~ Much Evidence Suggests That Our Behavior In Any Situation Is Greatly Influenced By The Behavior We’ve Observed In People Around Us – Even If We’re Completely Unaware Of That Influence

~ WSTBWTNO-FPAADAPASI ~ We Seem To Be Wired To Need Others – Few Punishments Are As Debilitating And Painful As Social Isolation

~ WASBNLTWAI-STLUBBWBTSTSUAJOOTO ~ We Are Social Beings No Less Than We Are Individuals – Systems That Let Us Be Both Work Better Than Systems That See Us As Just One Or The Other

~ E-NM-WWOOPDS-TNIOBFIATESPAWWADTSAO-OBMNOPOMM-BPEAW ~ Empathy – Neuron Mirroring – When We Observe Other People Doing Something – The Neurons In Our Brains Fire In Almost The Exact Same Patterns As When We Are Doing Those Same Acts Ourselves – Our Brains Mirror Not Only Pain Or Motor Movements – But Pure Emotions As Well

~ WVQAS-SPIG-‘LU’&‘NLU’~ We Very Quickly And Subconsciously Sort People Into Groups – “Like Us” and “Not Like Us”

~ IMC-TSATCACWO-IE-TGPTATFACG-WTGMB ~ In Many Cases – The Simple Ability To Communicate And Coordinate With Others – Is Enough – To Get People To Act Together For A Common Goal – Whatever That Goal Might Be

~ TIETSTWCEMATPTTAOOAS ~ There Is Evidence To Suggest That We Care Even More About The Process Than The Actual Outcome Of A Situation

~ ODFF-AIIUIACC-IACCOHMAB-IIIOSIEOS-WHABNODTBTF-ATBPISTTUF ~ Our Desire For Fairness – As It Is Understood In A Cultural Context – Is A Critical Component Of Human Motivation And Behavior – It Is Independent Of Self-Interest, Empathy Or Solidarity – We Have A Basic Need Or Desire To Be Treated Fairly – And To Be Participants In Systems That Treat Us Fairly

~ IWWTBASTMPTWW-OCE-INETOTSRAI-WANTTAHFTSI ~ If We Want To Build A System That Motivates People To Work Well – Or Cooperate Effectively – It’s Not Enough To Offer Them Simple Rewards And Incentives – We Also Need To Think About How Fair The System Is

~ FI-APIPOMSWW-A-FMPFWACWT ~ Fairness Is – A Practical, Integral Part Of Making Systems Work Well – And – Of Making People Function Well And Cooperatively Within Them

~ PAAQGASUEASRFA-TASOMAUAECN ~ People Are Actually Quite Good At Setting Up, Enforcing, And Self-Regulating Fair Arrangements – Through A Set Of Mutually Agreed Upon And Enforced Community Norms

~ NPOV ~ Neutral Point Of View

~ TIEETST-WICTC-PMP-TBBAECS-WITBLOCTS ~ There Is Enough Evidence To Suspect That – When It Comes To Cooperation – Practice Makes Perfect – That By Building And Engaging Cooperative Systems – We Increase The Baseline Level Of Cooperation Throughout Society

~ TSOFAOSSBENE ~ The Success Of Free And Open-Source Software Baffles Economist No End

~ COEOW-TOOMR-E-CWAPEAAI-O-IWAPSOAAC ~ Crowding-Out Effects Occur When – The Offer Of Material Rewards – Either – Clash With A Person’s Expectation About An Interaction – Or – Interferes With A Person’s Sense Of Autonomy And Control

~ AM-AROAP-CARTTPOOM-ASUOTPOC ~ Adding Money – As Reward Or As Punishment – Can Actually Redirect The Total Pull Of Our Motivations – And Steer Us Off The Path Of Cooperation

~ NIMIIACSTCATP-WPAATC-TA-ME-MT-A-CRSMRTWTCTTOA ~ Nothing Is More Important In A Cooperative System Than Communication Among The Participants – When People Are Able To Communicate – They Are – More Empathetic – More Trusting – And – Can Reach Solutions More Readily Than When They Cannot Talk To One Another

~ VANAA-FINSYATATPDAHTIEOIOPHBM-FIITEHC-FSAPS ~ Values Are Not An Afterthought – Fairness Is Not Something You Attend To After The Practical Decisions About How To Improve Efficiency Or Innovation Or Productivity Have Been Made – Fairness Is Integral To Effective Human Cooperation – Fair Systems Are Productive Systems

~ CHU-LTR-BDAI ~ Cooperation Hinges Upon – Long-Term Reciprocity – Both Direct And Indirect

~ STHODMANJMPBAMCWHE ~ Systems That Harness Our Diverse Motivations Are Not Just More Productive But Also More Consistent With Human Experience

SAUL ALINSKY ~ RULES FOR RADICALS

~ TATAPRCS-WTSBOAPR-ITAFTIIP ~ To Assume That A Political Revolution Can Survive – Without The Supporting Base Of A Popular Reformation – Is To Ask For The Impossible In Politics

~ GH-O-BP-AATNC-YBTD ~ Go Home – Organize – Build Power – And At The Next Convention – You Be The Delegates

~ YMKTPO ~ You Must Keep The Pressure On

~ GDAAGO ~ Great Dangers Always Accompany Great Opportunities

~ TPODITOPOTCGBAOTP ~ The Price Of Democracy Is The Ongoing Pursuit Of The Common Good By All Of The People

~ DITEOHF ~ Dogma Is The Enemy Of Human Freedom

~ DMBWFAAAETAT ~ Dogma Must Be Watched For And Apprehended At Every Turn And Twist

~ NISBMST-‘FTGW’ ~ No Ideology Should Be More Specific Than – “For The General Welfare”

~ TFSO-I-L-R-F-FFTSOD ~ The Free-Society Organizer – Is – Loose – Resilient – Fluid – Free From The Shackles Of Dogma

~ TBRFTUOTPOCITRTWAII-OMBFOTWOIOS-MOUVTWNAIIBAWWLITB ~ The Basic Requirement For The Understanding Of The Politics Of Change Is To Recognize The World As It Is – One Must Break Free Of The Web Of Illusions One Spins – Most Of Us View The World Not As It Is But As We Would Like It To Be

~ ITWAII-TSOEPICANO-TANPHOSE ~ In The World As It Is – The Solution Of Each Problem Inevitably Creates A New One – There Are No Permanent Happy Or Sad Endings

~ TDOAPA ‘P’O‘N’ITMOAPI ~ The Description Of Any Procedure As “Positive” Or “Negative” Is The Mark Of A Political Illiterate

~ CMM-MMF ~ Change Means Movement – Movement Means Friction

~ OCWTEOMAEVIODFTSOC ~ One’s Concern With The Ethics Of Means And Ends Varies Inversely With One’s Distance From The Scene Of Conflict

~ IOLTLOACAIPOOOM-TTEQWNA-ATLMBEWAMS ~ If One Lacks The Luxury Of A Choice And Is Possessed Of Only One Means – Then The Ethical Question Will Never Arise – Automatically The Lone Means Becomes Endowed With A Moral Spirit

~ TLITETBD-TMOCATEIEEOM ~ The Less Important The End To Be Desired – The More One Can Afford To Engage In Ethical Evaluations Of Means

~ AEMIAJBTOABU ~ Any Effective Means Is Automatically Judged By The Opposition As Being Unethical

~ IO-TMNITS-HTBCI-TLP ~ In Organizing – The Major Negative In The Situation – Has To Be Converted Into – The Leading Positive

~ TMOPOSSAFNLTAFW ~ The Masterpieces Of Philosophic Or Scientific Statement Are Frequently No Longer Than A Few Words

~ TTO-C-IAKABW-IIAPITPOO ~ To The Organizer – Compromise – Is A Key And Beautiful Word – It Is Always Present In The Pragmatics Of Operations

~ ASDOCIT ~ A Society Devoid Of Compromise Is Totalitarian

~ CITECOAFAOS ~ Conflict Is The Essential Core Of A Free And Open Society

~ TFOAOITRQ-TA-TBTTAP ~ The Function Of An Organizer Is To Raise Questions – That Agitate – That Break Through The Accepted Pattern

~ CAIGT ~ Curiosity And Irreverence Go Together

~ HIETAST-FTMPWKTMASAR ~ Humor Is Essential To A Successful Tactician – For The Most Potent Weapons Known To Mankind Are Satire And Ridicule

~ AOMA-WFOW-TTAAAA ~ An Organizer Must Accept – Without Fear Or Worry – That The Odds Are Always Against

~ TOICCTNOOTO ~ The Organizer Is Constantly Creating The New Out Of The Old

~ OCLAOTQOAO-WOE-TAOC ~ One Can Lack Any Of The Qualities Of An Organizer – With One Exception – The Art Of Communication

~ IDNMWYKAAIYCCTYP-ITDU-TYANC ~ It Does Not Matter What You Know About Anything If You Cannot Communicate To Your People – If They Don’t Understand – Then You Are Not Communicating

~ POUTITOTE-WMTYMGWTE ~ People Only Understand Things In Terms Of Their Experience – Which Means That You Must Get Within Their Experience

~ CIATWP-IYTTGYIATOWPATWTHTSTY-YCFATWT ~ Communication Is A Two-Way Process – If You Try To Get Your Ideas Across To Others Without Paying Attention To What They Have To Say To You – You Can Forget About The Whole Thing

~ YDCWAPOTRFOEOAI ~ You Don’t Communicate With Anyone Purely On The Rational Facts Or Ethics Of An Issue

~ THATA-AT-TBOTVMALTADAP ~ The Haves Are The Authorities – And Thus – The Beneficiaries Of The Various Myths And Legends That Always Develop Around Power

~ IPFTDHTPTCABS-TDNTAI ~ If People Feel They Don’t Have The Power To Change A Bad Situation – They Do Not Think About It

~ IIJAIFPTFU-MLAT-ATNI ~ It Is Just About Impossible For People To Fully Understand – Much Less Adhere To – A Totally New Idea

~ TFOC-I-OOODF-ANIMBATLCITLOPI ~ The Fear Of Change – Is – One Of Our Deepest Fears – A New Idea Must Be At The Least Couched In The Language Of Past Ideas

~ SOCAI-RTAT-FUTIC-PANCETA ~ Search Out Controversy And Issues – Rather Than Avoid Them – For Unless There Is Controversy – People Are Not Concerned Enough To Act

~ NOCNWTPTCN-TATOOAGW-RTOAPB-WBTASTTWHNYE ~ No One Can Negotiate Without The Power To Compel Negotiation – To Attempt To Operate On A Good-Will – Rather Than On A Power Basis – Would Be To Attempt Something That The World Has Not Yet Experienced

~ TOIBOTIATIABOOTO-OMBBOMI-ONAAAINO ~ The Organization Is Born Of The Issues And The Issues Are Born Out Of The Organization – Organizations Must Be Based On Many Issues – Organizations Need Action As An Individual Needs Oxygen

~ AEOEIAMAEPFTOAIIFTP ~ An Effective Organizational Experience Is As Much An Educational Process For The Organizer As It Is For The People

~ WL-WERTDOTP-TTCBDTERTPFITSTTOP ~ We Learn – When We Respect The Dignity Of The People – That They Cannot Be Denied The Elementary Right To Participate Fully In The Solutions To Their Own Problems

~ DOTOFPITDOHDAD ~ Denial Of The Opportunity For Participation Is The Denial Of Human Dignity And Democracy

~ EINP-WTLP-TBOAOB-STSOOPGFA ~ Education Is Not Propaganda – Without The Learning Process – The Building Of An Organization Becomes – Simply The Substitution Of One Power Group For Another

~ TCBNPFPS-B-TSSRR-IITPTAOMC ~ There Can Be No Prescriptions For Particular Situations – Because – The Same Situation Rarely Recurs – It Is The Principles That An Organizer Must Carry

~ UTPOTLBMTEOIOR ~ Use The Power Of The Law By Making The Establishment Obey Its Own Rules

~ TTIUMPTTTI ~ The Threat Is Usually More Powerful Than The Tactic Itself

~ EOMHTOTSPWATBTE-IA‘T’LOCTTE ~ Every Organization Must Have Two Or Three Stool Pigeons Who Are Trusted By The Establishment – Invaluable As “Trustworthy” Lines Of Communication To The Establishment

~ MJ-UTPOOPOTPSAAP ~ Mass Jujitsu – Utilizing The Power Of One Part Of The Power Structure Against Another Part

~ THPAITAPBP-OWTFOLP-TEMIDBTIOKI ~ The Haves Possess And In Turn Are Possessed By Power – Obsessed With The Fear Of Losing Power – Their Every Move Is Dictated By The Idea Of Keeping It

~ TEWITTBA-IO-S ~ The Error Was In Trying To Boycott All – Instead Of – Some

~ CMO-TPOOPOTH-AIOP-ICTS ~ Calculated Maneuvering Of – The Power Of One Part Of The Haves – Against Its Other Parts – Is Central To Strategy

~ TITTWIITEIL-TDBSAF ~ Timing Is To Tactics What It Is To Everything In Life – The Difference Between Success And Failure

~ AMJOTOITIDTRFAWHTPBAOIA-PARGAAMAP ~ A Major Job Of The Organizer Is To Instantly Develop The Rationale For Actions Which Have Taken Place By Accident Or Impulsive Anger – Possessing A Rationale Gives Action A Meaning And Purpose

~ TTICOOTFFOAAR-AR-AEAOAD ~ The Tactic Itself Comes Out Of The Free Flow Of Action And Reaction – And Requires – An Easy Acceptance Of Apparent Disorganization