ANDREAS WEIGEND ~ DATA FOR THE PEOPLE ~ 2017

~ TARL-TRTSPI-B-DCBUAU ~ There Are Real Life-Threatening Risks To Sharing Personal Information – Because – Data Can Be Used Against Us

~ TRIA-HTETTDCAATTUAWATT-A-TWHSSIHODAU ~ The Real Issues Are – How To Ensure That The Data Companies Are As Transparent To Us As We Are To Them – And – That We Have Some Say In How Our Data Are Used

~ TSDR ~ The Social Data Revolution

~ HCWETDAFTP? ~ How Can We Ensure That Data Are For The People?

~ SD-I-IAY-SA-Y-M-B-A-I-AWAIA-YRW-OP-P-P-E-I ~ Social Data – Is – Information About You – Such As – Your – Movements – Behavior – And – Interests – As Well As Information About – Your Relationships With – Other People – Places – Products – Even – Ideologies

~ OLSNB-D-B-D-TSB-E-B-D ~ Our Lives Should Not Be – Driven – By – Data – They Should Be – Empowered – By – Data

~ PFTP-PA ~ Principles For The Post-Privacy Age

~ B-T-IE-YAN-A ~ But – Transparency – Isn’t Enough – You Also Need – Agency

~ A-E-TROITAUTD-OAFL-A-I-GPTATCDTAUTT ~ Agency – Encompasses – The Right Of Individuals To Act Upon Their Data – On A Fundamental Level – Agency – Involves – Giving People The Ability To Create Data That Are Useful To Them

~ T-AWDCALADIE-ST-I-YATHSCODPAS-O-HCYPJ-WYGAWYG? ~ Transparency – About What Data Companies Are Learning And Doing Is Essential – So Too – Is – Your Ability To Have Some Control Over Data Products And Services – Otherwise – How Could You Possibly Judge – What You Give Against What You Get?

~ IIATCOP ~ Information Is At The Center Of Power

~ TWHMITOAASTB ~ Those Who Have More Information Than Others Almost Always Stand To Benefit

~ BDL ~ Becoming Data Literate

~ TBFPIT-SDR-WMSTOMO-P-‘C’-WTIWIPBU-A-EA-NM-TO-AC-COSD ~ To Be Full Participants In The – Social Data Revolution – We Must Shed The Old Mindset Of – Passive – “Consumers” – Who Take In Whatever Is Placed Before Us – And – Embrace A – New Mindset – That Of – Active Co-Creators Of Social Data

~ WCT-SDR-A-M-‘BB’-O-WCBDLADMWTITRSTTVWGFTIWWWGTT

~ We Can Treat – Social Data Refineries – As – Mysterious – “Black Boxes” – Or – We Can Become Data Literate And Demand Meaningful Ways To Influence The Refineries So That The Value We Get From Them Is Worth What We Give To Them

~ WYDW? ~ What’s Your Data Worth?

~ ASDACIMAOOL-WWIDODRTHUMSOTBDIL ~ As Social Data Are Created In More Areas Of Our Lives – We Will Increasingly Depend On Data Refineries To Help Us Make Some Of The Biggest Decisions In Life

~ IMC-TTMOTDWCEOWWCODTTDCBO ~ In Many Cases – The True Meaning Of The Data We Create Emerges Only When We’re Comparing Our Data To The Data Created By Others

~ OOTBSOBDLILWDA-P-I-O-I ~ One Of The Basic Skills Of Being Data Literate Is Learning What Data Are – Plausible – Implausible – Or – Impossible

~ ADAPTE ~ All Data Are Prone To Error

~ WAASWHTCWSDEWWTHR-A-WRWCT ~ We As A Society Will Have To Consider Which Social Data Experiments We Want To Have Run – And – Which Results We Can Trust

~ A-IN-TDSOD-TPDTWFTP-WN-TAA ~ Anonymity – Is Not – The Default Setting Of Democracy – To Put Data To Work For The People – We Need – Transparency And Agency

~ TEIAOSDCPUO-IWCDTHTAIOTABTTM?-WNTDMSTFETT-O ~ The Exponentially Increasing Amount Of Social Data Clearly Presents Unprecedented Opportunities – In Which Cases Does The Harm To An Individual Outweigh The Aggregate Benefit To The Masses? – We Need To Develop More Sophisticated Tools For Evaluating These Trade-Offs

~ TNSC ~ The New Social Capital

~ TMOSDE ~ The Ministry Of Social Data Engineering

~ AAFS-DR-OTGUASSTT-P-OAO ~ As A First Step – Data Refineries – Ought To Give Users A Simple Switch To Turn – Personalization – On And Off

~ MSOTSOS-WDIMTLIAWWEIR? ~ Making Sense Of The Sensorization Of Society – What Does It Mean To Live In A World Where Everything Is Recorded?

~ PH-TMF-A-LWUS–F-TIT-FOII-O-BR-IAW-TWATOOTI-S-TIT-FOD-O-OSD-WP-T-TITFOP-O-ORDASTD-AUAHTDMBAOUITF ~ People Have – Three Main Fears – About – Living With Ubiquitous Sensors – First – There Is The – Fear Of Information Imbalance – Of – Being Retrievable – In A Way – That Will Alter The Outcome Of The Interaction – Second – There Is The – Fear Of Dissemination – Of – Others Sharing Data – Without Permission – Third – There Is The Fear Of Permanence – Of – Others Recording Data And Saving The Data – An Uncertainty About How The Data Might Be Analyzed Or Used In The Future

~ CAD-TVOAE-I-WADO-SD-TGUR ~ Companies Are Discovering – The Value Of Analyzing Everything – Increasingly – We’ll All Depend On – Sensor Data – To Give Us Recommendations

~ C-ATO-S-TCPU-TUCOA-P/P/T ~ Cameras – Aren’t The Only – Sensor – That Can Pick Up – The Unique Characteristics Of A – Person / Place / Thing

~ RTASD-WINTBTBTTMOUATPHTPWMNEBATTMABI ~ Refineries That Analyze Sensor Data – Will Increasingly Need To Balance The Benefits To The Majority Of Users Against The Potential Harm To People Who May Not Even Be Aware That Their Movements Are Being Inferred

~ IRS-WIAFSITBB-PAS-AWAB-PAFS ~ Image Recognition Software – Will Involve A Fundamental Shift In The Balance Between – Privacy And Security – As Well As Between – Privacy And Free Speech

~ A-C-GVTTWCSFT ~ Algorithms – Can – Give Voice To Those Who Cannot Speak For Themselves

~ B-WCDA-SOR-WRTO-SD-TETFPO-TAA

~ But – We Can Demand A – Set Of Rights – With Respect To Our – Social Data – That Ensures The Fullest Potential Of – Transparency And Agency

~ STC-TFTP ~ Seeing The Controls – Transparency For The People

~ WHTDOTRTHUIAUTIOOD-TRTAYDSITATSYDIC-TOTMPCA-YP-A-YP ~ We Have To Depend On The Refineries To Help Us Interpret And Understand The Implications Of Our Data – The Right To Access Your Data Should Include The Ability To See Your Data In Context – Two Of The Most Powerful Contexts Are – Your Past – And – Your Peers

~ AT-RD-A-WATF-AC-A-I-I-M ~ Access To – Raw Data – Alone – Without Any Tools For – Analysis Comparison – And – Interpretation – Is – Meaningless

~ TRTIDR ~ The Right To Inspect Data Refineries

~ I-CO-AP-C-W-SRS ~ Increasingly – Cyber Operations – Are Providing – Criminals – With – Significant Revenue Streams

~ HCYDWARI-‘SE’-TSYDW? ~ How Can You Determine Whether A Refinery Is – “Secure Enough” – To Share Your Data With?

~ MSBS-NWA-SW-B-WA-HW-IAC-AE-WI-D-D-IT-O-STBTDATJ ~ Many Security Breaches Start – Not With A – Software Weakness – But – With A – Human Weakness – Inside A Company – An Employee – Who Is – Disgruntled – Disaffected – Inadequately Trained – Or – Simply Too Busy To Do A Thorough Job

~ AW-LAR-WMMAT-GP;TDWEAWLHBTURDAEOTR ~ As With – Laws And Regulations – What Matters Most Are The – Guiding Principles; The Details Will Evolve As We Learn How Best To Use Refined Data And Exercise Our Transparency Rights

~ TTC-AFTP ~ Taking The Control(S) – Agency For The People

~ IRCEWU-WSBATEWT ~ If Refineries Can Experiment With Us – We Should Be Able To Experiment With Them

~ ITM ~ Influencing The Machines

~ IAWAGT-TAR-B-TMITEHNEOODL ~ It’s All Well And Good To – Talk About Rights – But – They’re Meaningless If Their Existence Has No Effect On Our Daily Lives

~ WFBQATPAAUOD ~ We Face Big Questions About The Possible And Acceptable Uses Of Data

~ T-HIP-B-SD-ALOT ~ Transparency – Has Its Price – But – So Does – A Lack Of Transparency

~ SD-CGU-F-MT-W-T-MWWW-MCTP-A-OTW-ALAWCETDR ~ Social Data – Can Give Us – Fairer – More Transparent – Ways – To – Match Work With Workers – Match Compensation To Performance – And – Optimize The Workforce – As Long As Workers Can Exercise Their Data Rights

~ AWGTAT-REUTS-EO-TAAR-AWDS-DOTPABTP-WB-DFTP ~ As We Gain The Ability To – Refine Everything Under The Sun – Exercising Our – Transparency And Agency Rights – As We Do So – Data Of The People And By The People – Will Become – Data For The People

CLAY SHIRKY ~ TOO MUCH MAGIC ~ 2010

~ BG-TABWAM ~ Before Gutenberg – The Average Book Was A Masterpiece

~ TSOI ~ The Shock Of Inclusion

~ TPFKATA ~ The People Formerly Known As The Audience

~ CS ~ Collaborative Spirals

~ BFO ~ Behavior Follows Opportunity

~ WMMNIOI ~ What Matters Most Now Is Our Imaginations

~ CAGIACA ~ Creativity And Generosity In A Connected Age

~ WCNTFTA-AGSATCBHF-L-CC-P-RT-AASOIMTBWAOPAAT ~ We Can Now Treat Free Time As – A General Social Asset That Can Be Harnessed For – Large – Communally Created – Projects – Rather Than – As A Set Of Individual Minutes To Be Whiled Away One Person At A Time

~ PWTDSTMTWABP-TWHWTAIT ~ People Want To Do Something To Make The World A Better Place – They Will Help When They Are Invited To

~ OYFOHTTTSIAWTPCA-OCRYT-OAO-ATW ~ Once You’ve Figured Out How To Tap The Surplus In A Way That People Care About – Others Can Replicate Your Technique – Over And Over – Around The World

~ PTRFTATTCT ~ Projects That Range From The Amusing To The Culturally Transformative

~ DSBIIYMIADKOATDIBYARAER ~ Doing Something Because It Interests You Makes It A Different Kind Of Activity Than Doing It Because You Are Reaping An External Reward

~ IEMCADIO ~ Increasing Extrinsic Motivations Can Actually Decrease Intrinsic Ones

~ PIMASETTGTETRT-IYGPAWTAOTDFAACOGAS-TMTYUOI ~ People’s Intrinsic Motivations Are Strong Enough That They Gravitate Toward Experiences That Reward Them – If You Give People A Way To Act On Their Desire For Autonomy And Competence Or Generosity And Sharing – They Might Take You Up On It

~ MOTUUOCTASBOOBAHNWSL ~ Many Of The Unexpected Uses Of Communications Tools Are Surprising Because Our Old Beliefs About Human Nature Were So Lousy

~ ‘C-BPP’-WTIJOOABIP-A-CBPOAP-WAMH ~ “Commons-Based Peer Production” – Work That Is Jointly Owned Or Accessed By Its Participants – And – Created By People Operating As Peers – Without A Managerial Hierarchy

~ TIIOATCTT-TPOFTAPTISU-IOOTGNOOTA-OTCTBOPWTAOI ~ This Increase In Our Ability To Create Things Together – To Pool Our Free Time And Particular Talents Into Something Useful – Is One Of The Great New Opportunities Of The Age – One That Changes The Behaviors Of People Who Take Advantage Of It

~ SPINAP-IIJAA ~ Social Production Is Not A Panacea – It Is Just An Alternative

~ OWTHAGOPITATFTITCAMOSC ~ One Way To Help A Group Of Participants Improve Their Ability To Function Together Is The Creation And Maintenance Of Shared Culture

~ CAPCWWBFSIHTSAP ~ Creating A Participatory Culture With Wider Benefits For Society Is Harder Than Sharing Amusing Photos

~ TESOVRNICLFMSTFBE-BNOHACG-OEAVGO-AWTNGIWLL ~ The Essential Source Of Value Right Now Is Coming Less From Master Strategy Than From Broad Experimentation – Because No One Has A Complete Grasp – Or Even A Very Good One – About What The Next Great Idea Will Look Like

~ SS ~ Start Small

~ PTWWOITGLGWGL ~ Projects That Will Work Only If They Grow Large Generally Won’t Grow Large

~ WMMNIOI ~ What Matters Most Now Is Our Imaginations

DANIEL LEVITIN ~ A FIELD GUIDE TO LIES ~ 2016

~ U-MPHTTCANBTIBT ~ Unfortunately – Many People Have Trouble Thinking Clearly About Numbers Because They’re Intimidated By Them

~ TCROA-PC-IT-TPHTAUT100 ~ The Cardinal Rule Of A – Pie Chart – Is That – The Percentages Have To Add Up To 100

~ TMFWTLWASGITNLTA ~ The Most Fundamental Way To Lie With A Statistical Graph Is To Not Label The Axes

~ I-AOUB-LW-T-SPO-A-TROTFTMPWSWTDTC ~ Infographics – Are Often Used By – Lying Weasels – To – Shape Public Opinion – And – They Rely On The Fact That Most People Won’t Study What They’ve Done Too Carefully

~ STSBRITRO ~ Sometimes The Statistic Being Reported Isn’t The Relevant One

~ CATO-OWTLWSITCT-D/P/TOP-TADFOA-A-PTTN ~ Comparing Apples To Oranges – One Way To Lie With Statistics Is To Compare Things – Datasets / Populations / Types Of Products – That Are Different From One Another – And – Pretend That They’re Not

~ JBTANOI-DMTTNWAAP-R-P-GS-P-CWTC-HTGAC-TAAHOEABTCEITCP-A-CL-T-TWC ~ Just Because There’s A Number On It – Doesn’t Mean That The Number Was Arrived At Properly – Remember – People – Gather Statistics – People – Choose What To Count – How To Go About Counting – There Are A Host Of Errors And Biases That Can Enter Into The Collection Process – And – Can Lead – To – The Wrong Conclusions

~ TBAG-AS-HTBR ~ To Be Any Good – A Sample – Has To Be Representative

~ R-HTATTT-CVTAETIOCDO-STTTMANOOADTM ~ Researchers – Have To Avoid The Tendency To – Capture Variables That Are Easy To Identify Or Collect Data On – Sometimes The Things That Matter Are Not Obvious Or Are Difficult To Measure

~ PSLWATO ~ People Sometimes Lie When Asked Their Opinions

~ MMBS-TMB-C-R-A-P-P-F-CD-STEPWCIDIITSW-EPWICHTCITSW ~ Measurements Must Be Standardized – There Must Be – Clear – Replacable – And – Precise – Procedures – For – Collecting Data –So That Each Person Who Collects It Does It In The Same Way – Each Person Who Is Counting Has To Count In The Same Way

~ ME-OIEM ~ Measurement Error – Occurs In Every Measurement

~ HSIDOCCMABDITSYEUW ~ How Something Is Defined Or Categorized Can Make A Big Difference In The Statistic You End Up With

~ ADCBWATTAAIP-OPBAAQUS ~ A Definition Can Be Wrangled And Twisted To Anyone’s Advantage In Public-Opinion Polling By Asking A Question Just-So

~ IASICO-ASOPDM-G-M-O-M-O-FE-TRCWBF ~ If A Statistic Is Composed Of – A Series Of Poorly Defined Measures – Guesses – Misunderstandings – Oversimplifications – Mismeasurement – Or – Flawed Estimates – The Resulting Conclusion Will Be Flawed

~ W-HATTACTOTTWDW ~ We – Have A Tendency To Apply Critical Thinking Only To Things We Disagree With

~ WAAST-S-A-ASS-ESBTOOO ~ We Are A Story-Telling Species – And – A Social Species – Easily Swayed By The Opinions Of Others

~ THBOMUIMBO-EC-AT-STJT-A-TBIAVOS-JM ~ The Human Brain Often Makes Up Its Mind Based On – Emotional Considerations – And Then – Seeks To Justify Them – And – The Brain Is A Very Powerful Self-Justifying Machine

~ ETSOUCBF ~ Even The Smartest Of Us Can Be Fooled

~ MAIAE-BCAWIT ~ Make An Informed And Evidence-Based Choice About What Is True

~ WUDWTSEO-HDWIT? ~ We Usually Do Well To Seek Expert Opinions – How Do We Identify Them?

~ IE ~ Identifying Expertise

! SH-S-INTEANW-IJT-S-TMLTBR ~ Stuff Happens – So – It’s Not That Experts Are Never Wrong – It’s Just That – Statically – They’re More Likely To Be Right

~ EITN ~ Expertise Is Typically Narrow

~ B-IAE-TTB-DS-CTTPBTIIA-S-UQ ~ But – Intelligence And Experience – Tend To Be – Domain-Specific – Contrary To The Popular Belief That Intelligence Is A – Single – Unified Quantity

~ WIBI? ~ Who Is Behind It?

~ CTWBOUANMTDY? ~ Could The Website Be Operating Under A Name Meant To Deceive You?

~ WLTTWP? ~ Who Links To The Web Page?

~ P-RJ ~ Peer-Reviewed Journals

~ RA ~ Regulated Authority

~ SI ~ Supporting Information

~ B-IYLOF-SE-Y-NDPR-BY-ITCE-TMB-AL-OT-O-AL-B-YDK-B-YHL-‘C-P’-TDTSYH ~ But – If You’re Looking Only For – Supporting Evidence – You’re – Not Doing Proper Research – Because Your – Ignoring The Contradictory Evidence – There Might Be – A Little – Of This – Or – A Lot – But – You Don’t Know – Because – You Haven’t Looked – “Cherry-Picking” – The Data That Suit Your Hypothesis

~ SS-AUNR-LS-MARTSOTW-S-CT-TLOLN ~ Small Samples – Are Usually Not Representative – Larger Samples – More Accurately Reflect The State Of The World – Statisticians – Call This – The Law Of Large Numbers

~ B-WIEAYIAWSTI-W-W-TENCTEIW-P? ~ But – What If Everyone Around You Is Agreeing With Something That Is – Well – Wrong – The Exquisite New Clothes The Emperor Is Wearing – Perhaps?

~ C-MPTLLF-A-T-SCMOPHBTB ~ Counterknowledge – Misinformation Packaged To Look Like Fact – And – That – Some Critical Mass Of People Have Begun To Believe

~ IITAT-ICE-NEIE-B-NEWOOR ~ It’s Important To Accept That – In Complex Events – Not Everything Is Explainable – Because – Not Everything Was Observed Or Reported

~ AHOUADNDOUAW-ETTIBOTOPOE-Y-TAATATHOACT ~ A Handful Of Unexplained Anomalies Does Not Discredit Or Undermine A Well-Established Theory That Is Based On Thousands Of Pieces Of Evidence – Yet – These Anomalies Are Typically At The Heart Of All Conspiratorial Thinking

~ TPO-A-IN-D;TI-ABOSOCODNMS ~ The Plural Of – Anecdote – Is Not – Data; That Is – A Bunch Of Stories Or Casual Observations Do Not Make Science

~ MORCLUTIODEWCUTPO ~ Misunderstandings Of Risk Can Lead Us To Ignore Or Discount Evidence We Could Use To Protect Ourselves

~ PBA ~ Persuasion By Association

~ OIHB-TOETMRT-CFT ~ Our Imperfect Human Brains – Those Of Even The Most Rigorous Thinkers – Can Fool Themselves

~ IC-TBIAGPD-A-ISTEOASFWOATBRC ~ Illusory Correlation – The Brain Is A Giant Pattern Detector – And – It Seeks To Extract Order And Structure From What Often Appear To Be Random Configurations

~ FOP ~ Framing Of Probabilities

~ FR ~ Framing Risk

~ SWAPC ~ Start With A Plausibility Check

~ AOFOHCIT-OWFABOAAC-IVHFUTLG-EITFOO-WEASPTTC ~ An Odd Feature Of Human Cognition Is That – Once We Form A Belief Or Accept A Claim – It’s Very Hard For Us To Let Go – Even In The Face Of Over-Whelming Evidence And Scientific Proof To The Contrary

~ PH-EPH-‘B-THAT-TMHCT’ ~ Post Hoc – Ergo Propter Hoc – “Because – This Happened After That – That Must Have Caused This”

~ KWYDK ~ Knowing What You Don’t Know

~ WWRHY-A-CUAODAI-ATTYTYKBD ~ What Will Really Hurt You – And – Cause Untold Amounts Of Damage And Inconvenience – Are The Things You Think You Know But Don’t

~ ECLAT ~ Every Contact Leaves A Trace

~ AECOCTIKWWDK ~ An Essential Component Of Critical Thinking Is Knowing What We Don’t Know

~ A-A-SB-HEPDATW ~ An – Anti-Science Bias – Has Entered Public Discourse And The Web

~ W-NCA-CWTROMARWAOMFO-TRFVCFOEOU ~ With – No Central Authority – Charged With The Responsibility Of Monitoring And Regulating Websites And Other Material Found Online – The Responsibility For Verifying Claims Falls On Each Of Us

~ CT-INSYDOWAIATDI-IAAAOP ~ Critical Thinking – Is Not Something You Do Once With An Issue And Then Drop It – It’s An Active And Ongoing Process

~ WFBOKAMNOTWCTALNOTTMNBS ~ We’re Far Better Off Knowing A Moderate Number Of Things With Certainty Than A Large Number Of Things That Might Not Be So

~ TKSOL-HUTMCTIOHAST ~ True Knowledge Simplifies Our Lives – Helping Us To Make Choices That Increase Our Happiness And Save Time

TOM PHILLIPS ~ TRUTH ~ 2020

~ AT-BAOTVOU-TJPO-BW ~ And Then – Beyond All Of These Varieties Of Untruth – There’s Just Plain Old – Being Wrong

~ TH-WWBFWTCBWTAWAGS-WTTGFTGS ~ Throughout History – When We’ve Been Faced With The Choice Between What’s True And What’s A Good Story – We Tend To Go For The Good Story

~ IWAJ-THJ-GABOOH ~ It Was A Joke – That Had Just – Got A Bit Out Of Hand

~ ITOTHKHTDW-IPFNGR ~ If There’s One Thing Humans Know How To Do Well – Its Panic For No Good Reason

~ SF-A-AJSGTWCATTNBT ~ Some Facts – Apparently – Are Just So Good That We Can’t Allow Them To Not Be True

~ HILWPWCTHUVOTTTND ~ History Is Littered With People Who Claimed To Have Undertaken Voyages Or Treks That They Never Did

~ TDDTBTFAHSP ~ This Desperate Desire To Believe The Fantasy Also Had Staying Power

~ APBFL ~ A Perfect Bullshit Feedback Loop

~ IYLWYICOAC-IRFM ~ If You Lie When You’re In Charge Of A Country – It Really Fucking Matters

~ A-WOLL-S-R-R-R-LNOPD ~ Also – When Our Leaders Lie – Sometimes – Really – Really – Really – Large Numbers Of People Die

~ ITATWTDOOLTCIIO-IWSWTGTW ~ If There’s A Time When The Dishonesty Of Our Leaders Truly Comes Into Its Own – It’s When Somebody Wants To Go To War

~ FG ~ Full Gatsby

~ OOOMCMAHIHMWOTROE-A-OBT-‘ME’-E-‘MRE-W’-I-TPIM-NNTC ~ One Of Our Most Consistent Mistakes As Humans Is How Much We Overrate The Reliability Of Eyewitnesses – And – Our Belief That – “More Eyewitnesses” – Equals – “More Reliable Eye-Witnesses” – Is – To Put It Mildly – Not Necessarily The Case

~ I-ME-TFOWSP(AOPTIT)WC ~ In – Medieval Europe – The Fear Of Witches Stealing Penises (And Occasionally Putting Them In Trees) Was Common

~ U-IMWCDTAFFPTHH:WPWTM-BCOTWAATFOLII-WQLTBAT-POFAAGOP=WANU-AS-‘TF’-A-IWDDIO-TNBSEWSTBFTUWTB ~ Ultimately – It Might Well Come Down To A Fairly Fundamental Problem That Humans Have: When Presented With The Mind-Bogging Complexity Of The World And All The Frustrations Of Living In It – We Quite Like To Be Able To – Point Our Fingers At A Group Of People – Who Are Not Us – And Say – “Their Fault!” – And – If We Don’t Do It Ourselves – There’ll Normally Be Somebody Else Who Stands To Benefit From Telling Us Who To Blame

~ WDLOMITP-TBWUESOTW ~ We Didn’t Leave Our Monsters In The Past – They’ve Been With Us Every Step Of The Way

~ TATF ~ Toward A Truthier Future

~ WANT-CO-AOU-NMHCWTWATTT-CEFI-TET-A-FOLTL-AYIIPTYPB-A-WYAIASAYM ~ We Also Need To – Check Ourselves – Any Of Us – No Matter How Committed We Think We Are To The Truth – Can Easily Fall Into – The Ego Trap – And – Find Ourselves Liking The Lie – Ask Yourself If It’s Playing To Your Personal Biases – And – Whether You’re Approaching It As Skeptically As You Might

~ EMM-A-WNTGBACTOUWAOTAT ~ Everybody Makes Mistakes – And – We Need To Get Better At Celebrating Those Of Us Who Are Open To Admitting Them

~ TGWATIO-‘FN’-IAT-PBFN-IT-TSBRN ~ The Greatest Worry About The Idea Of – “Fake News” – Isn’t Actually That – People Believe False News – It’s That – They Stop Believing Real News

TOM PHILLIPS ~ THE SEVEN MAIN WAYS THAT UNTRUTHS SPREAD AND TAKE HOLD ~ TRUTH ~ 2020

~ TEB-WRDOCTTOSOIAI ~ The Effort Barrier – When Relative Difficulty Of Checking The Truth Of Something Outweighs Its Apparent Importance

~ IV-WTIGIOS-CIWAFITFTV-A-ALOTT-IRTB-EWBIFSU ~ Information Vacuums ~ When There Isn’t Good Information On Something – Crappy Information Will Always Flood In To Fill The Void – And – A Lot Of The Time – It Refuses To Budge – Even When Better Information Finally Shows Up

~ TBSFL-TCGR-PSAWTSTATDF ~ The BullShit Feedback Loop – The Claim Gets Repeated – People Start Adjusting What They Say To Accommodate The Dodgy Facts

~ WITBT-TAAWHOTOBDTMUPBASOTDBTAN-T-WWWTBS-WOWONIATCPFDOBLOP ~ Wanting It To Be True – There Are A Whole Host Of Things Our Brains Do That Make Us Particularly Bad At Sniffing Out The Difference Between Truth And Not-Truth – When We Want To Believe Something – Working Out Whether Or Not It’s Actually True Comes Pretty Far Down Our Brain’s List Of Priorities

~ TET-WRDNLTATWW-OBDLDI-A-TAAWHOCGTPUAFEATWMHFU ~ The Ego Trap – We Really Do Not Like To Admit That We’re Wrong – Our Brains Don’t Like Doing It – And – There Are A Whole Host Of Cognitive Biases That Push Us Away From Even Acknowledging That We Might Have Fucked Up

~ JNC-WMTIJNIWSTOF(EIWLTL) ~ Just Not Caring – We Might Think It’s Just Not Important Whether Something’s True Or False (Especially If We Like The Lie)

~ LOI-OOTSATUHI-QS-WDUATMASWTICM ~ Lack Of Imagination – One Of The Strongest Advantages That Untruth Has Is – Quite Simply – We Don’t Understand All The Myriad And Surprising Ways That It Can Manifest

AMANDA LANG ~ THE POWER OF WHY ~ 2012

~ TPOW ~ The Power Of Why

~ IISTYT ~ Innovation Is Simpler Than You Think

~ O-I-SMMIITSTAE-A-FTABBAAAIOAOTFAFA-OPOD-S-EN ~ Often – Innovation – Simply Means Making Incremental Improvements To Something That Already Exists – And – Frequently That’s Accomplished By Borrowing And Adapting An Idea Or Approach Or Technology From Another Field Altogether – Old Plus Old Does – Sometimes – Equal New

~ SITF-UQ-O-TOAT-TIGTYTG-CR-JSATFPRIHALOUGSAFOUTSP ~ Sometimes It’s The Follow-Up Question – Or – The One After That – That Is Going To Yield The Game-Changing Revelation – Just Stopping At The First Plausible Response Is How A Lot Of Us Get Struck And Find Ourselves Unable To Solve Problems

~ TRTGTQOWALOAAIAWWCWUODARTWTI-TWLOW-TWR-TWL-E ~ The Rush To Get The Questions Over With And Land On An Answer Is Also Why We Can Wake Up One Day And Realize That We’re Trapped In – The Wrong Line Of Work – The Wrong Relationships – The Wrong Lives – Even

~ INTWCS-ITWFH ~ It’s Not That We Can’t – It’s That We’ve Forgotten How

~ CIDLTS-HYMI ~ Curiosity Is Directly Linked To Success – However You Measure It

~ O-IHNPE-TSHALOQ ~ Oftentimes – Innovators Have No Particular Expertise – They Simply Have A Lot Of Questions

~ WONSR-‘W?’-TWCD ~ Whether Or Not Schools Reward – “Why?” – The World Certainly Does

~ QTU ~ Question The Unquestionable

~ YHTATKOQAT-YOWA ~ You Have To Ask The Kinds Of Questions A Three-Year-Old Would Ask

~ C-I-IMW-IOR ~ Curiosity – Is – In Many Ways – Its Own Reward

~ SQB ~ Status Quo Bias

~ TKAO-M-FOQ-A-TAAWAM ~ The Keys Are Open-Mindedness – Focusing On Questions – And – Tolerating Ambiguity As Well As Mistakes

~ DCTTPAIFP-O-AYFPI-IITAP-IYD-A-YGIW-TSYP-MABW ~ Don’t Conclude That The Problem As It’s First Presented – Or – As You First Perceive It – Is Indeed The Actual Problem – If You Do – And – You’ve Got It Wrong – The Solution You Produce – May Also Be Wrong

~ ATRQIOTFTRP-A-TNE-B-‘WATTFS’-HIFTRP-‘IVPFP’ ~ Ask The Right Questions In Order To Find The Real Problems – And – That’s Not Easy – Because – “We Are Trained To Find Solutions” – Hunting Instead For The Right Problems – “Is Very Painful For People”

~ CITCOABS ~ Curiosity Is The Cornerstone Of All Business Strategy

~ IYDKWYGA-IHTKHOWTBTTMYEV-O-HTTAONO ~ If You Don’t Know What You’re Good At – It’s Hard To Know How Or Where To Begin Trying To Make Yourself Even Better – Or – How To Take Advantage Of New Opportunities

~ YKYHITRD-I-YFCAEEWFDPAC ~ You Know You’re Headed In The Right Direction – If – You Feel Curious And Engage Even When Facing Difficult Problems And Challenges

~ FOF-IOOTBITONDTMTBATI ~ Fear Of Failing – Is One Of The Biggest Impediments To Our Natural Desire To Make Things Better And To Innovate

~ OWTCPHBIIAISP ~ Only When The Correct Problem Has Been Identified Is An Innovative Solution Possible

~YHTCOTSETFOHTDSN-B-FABAYLTWUISKOT ~ You Have To Copy Others To Some Extent To Figure Out How To Do Something New – But – Follow Along Blindly And You’re Likely To Wind Up In Some Kind Of Trouble

~ BPTCC-F ~ Be Prepared To Change Course – Frequently

~ ALOPJ-D-OP-W-DTHWOTDASP-U-TKSWL ~ A Lot Of People Just – Don’t – Or Perhaps – Won’t – Do The Hard Work Of Thinking Deeply About Solving Problems – Until – They Know Someone Will Listen

~ PSTTBRWMAMIP ~ Problem Solvers Tend To Be Rewarded With More And More Interesting Projects

~ TSTG-TMPIWB-EIIIPWQDAOE ~ The Smaller The Group – The More Productive It Will Be – Especially If It Includes People With Quite Different Areas Of Expertise

~ ATIE-IYRWBTW-YHTIEMS-NL ~ According To Innovation Experts – If You Really Want Brainstorming To Work – You Have To Introduce Even More Structure – Not Less

~ TTCUW-TWPA-TTFTOTTP ~ Try To Come Up With – The Worst Possible Answers – Try To Flip Them Over To The Positive

~ BSBDPAIIDETIM-E ~ Being Surrounded By Different Perspectives And Immersed In Different Experiences Truly Is Mind-Expanding

~ DAOTTWYO ~ Don’t Assume Others Think The Way You Do

~ IMMIRTOINTOWOT ~ Intellectual Maturity Might Involve Realizing That Ours Is Not The Only Way Of Thinking

~ ISH ~ Insert Stereotype Here

~ IILABTACC ~ Innovation Is Like A Bug That Anyone Can Catch – But – You Have To Want To Catch It

JEAN TWENGE + KEITH CAMPBELL ~ THE NARCISSISM EPIDEMIC ~ 2010

~ N-INS-ACA-O-AHFOS-W ~ Narcissism – Is Not Simply – A Confident Attitude – Or – A Healthy Feeling Of Self-Worth

~ U-TNE-II-B-IL-TCADTS ~ Understanding – The Narcissism Epidemic – Is Important – Because – Its Long-Term Consequences Are Destructive To Society

~ AT-F-MFG-B-U-RAW ~ All This – Fantasy – Might Feel Good – But – Unfortunately – Reality Always Wins

~ TMWOAY ~ The Many Wonders Of Admiring Yourself

~ OCHBTDB-S-E-A-N-IA-E-S-D-W-ITRTC-S-W-OCMHOTDTSDAMS ~ Our Culture Has Blurred The Distinction Between – Self-Esteem – And – Narcissism– In An – Extreme – Self-Destructive – Way – In The Rush To Create Self-Worth – Our Culture May Have Opened The Door To Something Darker And More Sinister

~ NOUTP ~ Narcissists’ Overconfidence Undermines Their Performance

~ NRTLIS-L ~ Narcissists’ Rise To Leadership Is Short-Lived

~ S-P-SB-JOTIYT-NADFO-P ~ Self-Promotion – Should Be – Just One Tool In Your Toolbox – Not A Defining Feature Of – Personality

~ DB-UH-S-TBAL-TC ~ Destructive Behaviors – Usually Have – Short-Term Benefits And Long-Term Costs

~ NIA-‘T-DT’-ITYWSGOUFATHITE ~ Narcissism Is A – “Time-Delay Trap” – It Tempts You With Some Good Outcomes Up Front And Then Hurts You In The End

~ VASCEDOPA ~ Vanity And Self-Centeredness Eventually Drive Other People Away

~ AFOIATLO-F-L-A-C-IARFN ~ A Focus On Individual Achievement That Leaves Out – Feelings – Love – And – Caring – Is A Recipe For Narcissism

~ PTTRBTAR ~ People Tend To Repeat Behaviors That Are Rewarded

~ IMMAIMSL ~ I’m Much More Attractive In My Second Life

~ DBIAVWACBITRW?-IST ~ Does Behavior In A Virtual World Actually Change Behavior In The Real World? – It Seems To

~ ECATROTRP ~ Easy Credit And The Repeal Of The Reality Principle

~ Many Times – The Goals We Imagine Become Those We Actually Achieve – Though Usually After A Lot Of Hard Work

~ NIADTCOTS ~ Narcissism Is A Disease That Cause Others To Suffer

~ SINLC ~ Saving Is No Longer Cool

~ PHTD-B-NTP ~ People Hide Their Debt – But – Not Their Possessions

~ TOSON:COTHYAATO ~ The Other Side Of Narcissism: Complete Obliviousness To How You Actually Appear To Others

~ OOTDSO-TCEOPA-I-TIIED ~ One Of The Dark Sides Of – The Cultural Emphasis On Physical Appearance – Is – The Increase In Eating Disorders

~ IAT-EC-INTGPTPATTN ~ It’s Assumed That – Eye Candy – Is Necessary To Get People To Pay Attention To The News

~ IINNJABDTLLAPS ~ It Is Now Not Just Acceptable But Desirable To Look Like A Porn Star

~ NIAABAUPTCSAI-NLTTATH-SS ~ Narcissism Is All About Buying And Using Products That Confer Status And Importance – Narcissists Love To Talk About Their High-Status Stuff

~ ASSPMEAAV ~ Advertising Slogans Shamelessly Promote Materialistic Entitlement As A Virtue

~ WTEOOAAT ~ Warming The Earth One Overconsumption At A Time

~ U-MHRC-OOTLCITIOTE ~ Unfortunately – Materialism Has Real Consequences – One Of The Largest Consequences Is The Impact On The Environment

~ AANME-TAPOASTTCVTI ~ Advertisements Are Not Mere Entertainment – They Are Part Of A System That Transmits Cultural Values To Individuals

~ DTYKTTAS-TTTYLT ~ Don’t Tell Your Kids That They Are Special – Tell Them That You Love Them

~ M-RWN-F-ABS-A-ADF ~ Many – Relationships With Narcissists – Feature – A Big Start – And – A Disastrous Finish

~ ACOTNCPAHR ~ Any Criticism Of The Narcissist Can Provoke A Hostile Reaction

~ OCNTFOTSRTTS ~ Our Culture Needs To Focus On The Substance Rather Than The Sizzle

~ E-TPBTOD-ST-S-A-MMT-EIOOTKCON ~ Entitlement – The Pervasive Belief That One Deserves – Special Treatment – Success – And – More Material Things – Entitlement Is One Of The Key Components Of Narcissism

~ EPOCWHWAPSG ~ Entitled People Often Confuse Working Hard With Actually Producing Something Good

~ GITOOE ~ Gratitude Is The Opposite Of Entitlement

~ OC-OOTBWTGYKTEGITEIY ~ Of Course – One Of The Best Ways To Get Your Kids To Express Gratitude Is To Express It Yourself

~ NALLTFO-TSOTATAADAWTR ~ Narcissists Are Less Likely To Forgive Others – They See Others’ Transgressions Against Them As A Debt And Want Them Repaid

~ NIACTSR ~ Narcissism Is Absolutely Corrosive To Social Relationships

~ PCTW ~ Personal Change Takes Work

~ FOTYCEAC-ABAGRMY ~ Focus On Teaching Your Children Empathy And Compassion – And – Be A Good Role Model Yourself

ALISON GOPNIK ~ THE PHILOSOPHICAL BABY ~ 2009

~ WUTTT-BAYCW-I-E-A-A-TTAEW-C-I-A-L ~ We Used To Think That – Babies And Young Children Were – Irrational – Egocentric – And – Amoral – Their Thinking And Experience Were – Concrete – Immediate – And – Limited

~ PAN-HDTB-NOLM-B-IM-CM-A-EMTWWEHTP-ISW-YCAA-S-MI-MC-AE-MCTAA ~ Psychologists And Neuroscientists – Have Discovered That Babies – Not Only Learn More – But – Imagine More – Care More – And – Experience More Than We Would Ever Have Thought Possible – In Some Ways – Young Children Are Actually – Smarter – More Imaginative – More Caring – And Even – More Conscious Than Adults Are

~ MTAOC-HBAATC-WG-TWAU-OP-A-O-CAC-HEHWC-A-TFTWCEWCATWTA-A-EWCEAA ~ More Than Any Other Creature – Human Beings Are Able To Change – We Change – The World Around Us – Other People – And – Ourselves – Children And Childhood – Help Explain How We Change – And – The Fact That We Change Explains Why Children Are The Way They Are – And – Even Why Childhood Exists At All

~ WCPS-A-OSCU-WAOPB-TBAO ~ We Change Our Surroundings – And – Our Surroundings Change Us – We Alter Other People’s Behavior – Their Behavior Alters Ours

~ WIC?-IADDPIWYHBAUDOA-CLCEWC ~ What Is Childhood? – It’s A Distinctive Developmental Period In Which Young Human Beings Are Uniquely Dependent On Adults – Childhood Literally Couldn’t Exist Without Caregivers

~ C-AT-R&DD-OT-HS-TB-SG-TB-A-APAM-TTU-AMNI-MU-A-WTTTOFGOAMTR ~ Children – Are The – R&D Department – Of The – Human Species – The Blue-Sky Guys – The Brainstormers – Adults – Are – Production And Marketing – They Think Up – A Million New Ideas – Mostly Useless – And – We Take The Three Or Four Good Ones And Make Them Real

~ IWFO-AA-L-TP-SAAE-RSR-TBAYCWILPP-B-IWFOO-DCFC-EIAL-TITAWLS-TCABDDTW ~ If We Focus On – Adult Abilities – Long-Term Planning – Swift And Automatic Execution – Rapid Skilful Reaction – Then Babies And Young Children Will Indeed Look Pretty Pathetic – But – If We Focus On Our – Distinctive Capacities For Change – Especially Imagination And Learning – Then It’s The Adults Who Look Slow – The Caterpillars And Butterflies Do Different Things Well

~ BBAAMHCTAB;MNPAATBTA-AWGOAEM-OB-‘PO’-TWLUPASTOTAUMO ~ Babies Brains Are Actually More Highly Connected Than Adult Brains; More Neural Pathways Are Available To Babies Than Adults – As We Grow Older And Experience More – Our Brains – “Prune Out” – The Weaker Less Used Pathways And Strengthen The Ones That Are Used More Often

~ OPIIPOBWCROTLOTPWTCOU-WCLFTDOEGBTSLCIITU ~ Our Protracted Immaturity Is Possible Only Because We Can Rely On The Love Of The People Who Take Care Of Us – We Can Learn From The Discoveries Of Earlier Generations Because Those Same Loving Caregivers Invest In Teaching Us

~ IHTCBDALC-A-A-BD-WCTOIOIAE ~ Imagining How They Could Be Different Actually Lets – Children – And – Adults – Become Different – We Can Turn Ourselves Into Our Imaginary Alter Egos

~ BAYCANTACWOT-ETYBHSCFEAA-A-ETKTRSBFBTTCBC ~ Babies And Young Children Are Not The Amoral Creatures We Once Thought – Even The Youngest Babies Have Striking Capacities For Empathy And Altruism – And – Even Toddlers Know That Rules Should Be Followed But That They Can Be Changed

~ TSSOB ~ The Spiritual Significance Of Babies

~ BATMOL ~ Babies And The Meaning Of Life

~ CRDPUITW-T-B-A-M ~ Children Really Do Put Us In Touch With – Truth – Beauty – And – Meaning

~ ETMMFOT-Y-OL-TEPP-TICTMTGIJAE-A-TISFO-TUWIMTBH ~ Even The Most Mundane Facts Of Three-Year-Old Life – The Extravagant Pretend Play – The Insatiable Curiosity That Makes Them Get Into Just About Everything – And – The Intuitive Sympathy For Others – Tell Us What It Means To Be Human

~ WDCP? ~ Who Do Children Pretend?

~ PAMHWADOSTB-JOOR-O-TH-JBM ~ People Are Most Unhappy When A Desirable Outcome Seems To Be – Just Out Of Reach – Or – To Have – Just Been Missed

~ BATTAPHYTIT ~ Being Able To Talk About Possibilities Helps You To Imagine Them

~ C-D-CTOTW-FAVEA ~ Children – Develop – Causal Theories Of The World – From A Very Early Age

~ IC-AN-IF-AIOEGOM ~ Imaginary Companions – Are Not – In Fact – An Indication Of Either Genius Or Madness

~ VYC-ML-B-TNVGAI ~ Very Young Children – May Lie – But – They’re Not Very Good At It

~ FOWYWMYDMI-WTASEMYDLI ~ Focusing On What You Want Makes Your Desires More Irresistible – While Thinking About Something Else Makes Your Desires Less Intense

~ TO-T-A-CLM ~ Think Of – Toddlers – As – Causal Learning Machines

~ VYBCITAOO ~ Very Young Babies Can Imitate The Actions Of Others

~ C-DJLBIYS-TLB-AYM-A-UYL-T ~ Children – Don’t Just Learn By Imitating Your Successes – They Learn By – Avoiding Your Mistakes – And – Understanding Your Limitations – Too

~ A-TBBAGMATBTIWTTATBTD ~ And – The Babies Babbled And Gestured More At The Blob That Interacted With Them Than At The Blob That Didn’t

~ TACASCBCLAATUOTMOO-AA-AMWTWCTUWIGOIOPHIBHWTS ~ There Are Consistent And Strong Correlations Between Children’s Language Abilities And Their Understanding Of The Minds Of Others – After All – A Major Way That We Come To Understand What Is Going On In Other People’s Heads Is By Hearing What They Say

~ HC-TEAOAFPOGG-P-TBOTSATSOTD? ~ How Can – The Electrical Activity Of A Few Pounds Of Grey Goo – Produce – The Blue Of The Sky And The Song Of The Dove?

~ PA-LBSPOYBASDO ~ Paying Attention – Literally Boosts Some Parts Of Your Brain And Shuts Down Others

~ S-RTDWTLAITW-BSTLTWDWTLA-A-RTDWTFAAWTID-BSTBCOMMOTWAO ~ So – Rather Than Determining What To Look At In The World – Babies Seem To Let The World Determine What They Look At – And – Rather Than Deciding Where To Focus Attention And Where To Inhibit Distractions – Babies Seem To Be Conscious Of Much More Of The World At Once

~ SITAGTSTBO ~ Sometimes It Takes A Genius To See The Blindingly Obvious

~ GRAER-DJAU-OMTO ~ Genetics Risk And Environmental Risk – Don’t Just Add Up – One Multiplies The Other

~ GD-CBM-O-CDA ~ Genetic Differences – Can Be Magnified – Or – Can Disappear Altogether

~ ATTA-TP-GOB-IOC-IDITU-EWIWHNIEOTP ~ Acknowledging The Truth About – The Past – Good Or Bad – Individually Or Collectively – Is Deeply Important To Us – Even When It Will Have No Immediate Effect On The Present

~ JACABW-TATW-B-AWPCFCTT-TSTBBW-CFMI-B-AWPCTCTMJAA ~ Just As Children Are Born With – Theories About The World – But – Also With Powerful Capacities For Changing Those Theories – They Seem To Be Born With – Certain Fundamental Moral Ideas – But – Also With Powerful Capacities To Change Their Moral Judgments And Actions

~ THCTCAFTGOTLGIOOOGEA-TADOTDHTTMAFR ~ The Human Ability To Coordinate Actions For The Good Of The Larger Group Is One Of Our Greatest Evolutionary Advantages – This Ability Depends On The Distinctively Human Tendency To Make And Follow Rules

~ CCATU-MTAE-A-TSITWMCL-OLFOC-A-OCLFU-HASQ ~ Children Can Also Tell Us – More Than Anything Else – About – The Spiritual Intuitions That We Might Call Love – Our Love For Our Children – And – Our Children’s Love For Us – Has A Special Quality

~ C-IAU-TBATSTTTCFT ~ Caregivers – Implicitly And Unconsciously – Teach Babies At The Same Time That They Care For Them

~ THCFCMTWCFOWIITBHJBLATWWAN ~ The Human Capacity For Change Means That We Can’t Figure Out What It Is To Be Human Just By Looking At The Way We Are Now

BRYAN CAPLAN ~ THE MYTH OF THE RATIONAL VOTER ~ 2007

~ TS-‘TSFTPODIMD’-SH-AYDTIO-RI ~ The Slogan – “The Solution For The Problems Of Democracy Is More Democracy” – Sounds Hollow – After You Digest The Idea Of – Rational Ignorance

~ VI-IAPO-NHS-N-ATCA ~ Voter Ignorance – Is A Product Of – Natural Human Selfishness – Not – A Transient Cultural Aberration

~ NA-METOP-BAT-TTCUEAVA ~ Nearly All – Modern Economic Theories Of Politics – Begin By Assuming That – The Typical Citizen Understands Economics And Votes Accordingly

~ MVNTASCIE ~ Most Voters Never Take A Single Course In Economics

~ PWR-FC-T-TL ~ People Would Rather – Feel Compassionately – Than – Think Logically

~ S-SB-HBGT-SCB ~ Self-Serving Bias – Human Beings Gravitate Toward – Selfishly Convenient Beliefs

~ TTWTWITTSACATIAFOD ~ The Trouble With The World Is That The Stupid Are Cocksure And The Intelligent Are Full Of Doubt

~ D-ITWS-ALA-TEIPAC ~ Demagoguery – Is The Winning Strategy – As Long As – The Electorate Is Prejudiced And Credulous

~ L-P-TM-SVWTWTSATTWTWTH ~ Like – Politicians – The Media – Show Viewers What They Want To See And Tell Them What They Want To Hear

~ BBAE-MDWAWIDM-UTBITI-NJFE-B-FEWSP ~ Biased Beliefs About Economics – Make Democracy Worse At What It Does Most – Understanding These Biases Is Therefore Important – Not Just For Economists – But – For Everyone Who Studies Politics

URSULA FRANKLIN ~ A CHECKLIST TO HELP IN THE DISCOURSE ON PUBLIC DECISION-MAKING ~ THE REAL WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY ~ 1990

~ PJ ~ Promotes Justice

~ RR ~ Restores Reciprocity

~ CDOIB ~ Confers Divisible Or Indivisible Benefits

~ FPOM ~ Favours People Over Machines

~ MGOMD ~ Maximizes Gain Or Minimizes Disaster

~ CIFOW ~ Conservation Is Favoured Over Waste

~ TRIFOTI ~ The Reversible Is Favoured Over The Irreversible