MICHAEL SHERMER ~ AN EXGESIS OF WHY AND HOW WE ARE MORAL ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ MN ~ MORAL NATURALISM

~ WTIAGONIITTT-BISOAANO-AEH-NC-STSA ~ Whether There Is A God Or Not – Is Irrelevant To The Theory – Because – In Science Our Approach Is A Naturalistic One – All Effects Have – Natural Causes – Subject To Scientific Analysis

~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SENSE

~ MSIH-AMPIHG-E-PTTFONSOOI-A-S-TTFO-GSOOP ~ Moral Sentiments In Humans – And – Moral Principles In Human Groups – Evolved – Primarily – Through The Force Of Natural Selection Operating On Individuals – And – Secondarily – Through The Force Of – Group Selection Operating On Populations

~ AEMS ~ AN EVOLVED MORAL SOCIETY

~ HEAASPSWAAHON-F-S-SOTI-T-TEOTITTF-T-ASOBWTEF-T-TRAOTC-T-IAOS-T-SA-A-B-AAOOMOTSABCTD ~ Humans Evolved As A Social Primate Species With An Ascending Hierarchy Of Needs – From – Self-Survival Of The Individual – To – The Extension Of The Individual Through The Family – To – A Sense Of Bonding With The Extended Family – To – The Reciprocal Altruism Of The Community – To – Indirect Altruism Of Society – To – Species Altruism And Bioaltruism – As Awareness Of Our Membership Of The Species – And – Biosphere Continues To Develop

~ T-BB-HN-A-MF-ALU-BC-W-TM-SAC-HN-A-MF-ALU-CC ~ The – Most Basic – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Biological Control – Whereas – The More – Social And Cultural – Human Needs – And – Moral Feelings – Are Largely Under – Cultural Control

~ TNOMN ~ THE NATURE OF MORAL NATURE

~ H-A-BN-MAI-GAE/AAS/CAC/PAB/VAN-SMTVWI-AWA-WAB-G ~ Humans – Are – By Nature – Moral And Immoral / Good And Evil / Altruistic And Selfish / Cooperative And Competitive / Peaceful And Bellicose / Virtuous And Nonvirtuous – Such Moral Traits Vary Within Individuals – As Well As – Within And Between – Groups

~ PM ~ PROVISIONAL MORALITY

~ MP-A-PT-TI-TAT-MP-I-MC-I-MC-MOTT ~ Moral Principles – Are – Provisionally True – That Is – They Apply To – Most People – In – Most Cultures – In – Most Circumstances – Most Of The Time

~ PRAW ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG

~ A-FP:TFOWAAI-ROW-AF ~ Ask-First Principle: To Find Out Whether An Action Is – Right Or Wrong – Ask First

~ HP:IIAHMPTASHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ Happiness Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness

~ LP:IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ Liberty Principle: It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty

~ MP:WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ Moderation Principle: When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

~PJ ~ PROVISIONAL JUSTICE

~AWAAST-LON-A-FO-C-A-H-TSO-TAB-WA-FMA-RFOA-TI-C-A-SJ-WHCTPFO-RAG-A-A-RAP-SATTIAL-PJ-IN-HAN ~ Although We Are All Subject To – Laws Of Nature – And – Forces Of – Culture – And – History – That Shape Our – Thoughts And Behaviors – We Are– Free Moral Agents – Responsible For Our Actions – There Is – Individual Culpability – And – Social Justice – Within Human Communities That Produce Feelings Of – Righteousness And Guilt – And – Administer – Rewards And Punishments – Such That There Is At Least – Provisional Justice – In The – Here And Now

~ EEE ~ ENNOBLING EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS

~ AA-EMOHP-T-MS-T-IAG-A-BTTS-POTIFO-E/H/C ~ As An – Evolved Mechanism Of Human Psychology – The – Moral Sense – Transcends – Individuals And Groups – And – Belongs To The Species – Products Of The Impersonal Forces Of – Evolution / History / Culture

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004 ~ 999

~ TBA-FFMA-OCPAMPHDBF-MP-R-MR ~ To Be A – Fully Functioning Moral Agent – One Cannot Passively Accept Moral Principles Handed Down By Fiat – Moral Principles – Require – Moral Reasoning
~ M:RAW-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Morality: Right And Wrong – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ E:T-SS-O-A-TA-M-TAB-ITCOTROASG ~ Ethics: The – Scientific Study – Of – And – Theories About – Moral – Thoughts And Behaviors – In The Context Of The Rules Of A Social Group
~ LBTW-S-ECR-FT-POBF-HDVMO-BC-T-FG-A-T-A-EX-A-A-OV ~ Long Before There Were – State-Enforced Constitutional Rights – For The – Protection Of Basic Freedoms – Humans Devised Various Mechanisms Of – Behavioral Control – To – Facilitate Goodwill – And – To – Attenuate – Excessive Greed – Avarice – And – Other Vices
~ T-RF-O-H-VAV-SAS-IF-IA-COAIP-O-MAI-B ~ The – Religious Foundation – Of – Human – Virtues And Vices – Saints And Sinners – In Fact – Is A – Codification Of An Informal Psychology – Of – Moral And Immoral – Behavior
~ HAA-HS-PS-AAS-RAM-AA-SS-T-ET ~ Humans Are A – Hierarchical Social – Primate Species – And As Such – We Need – Rules And Morals – And A – Social Structure – To – Enforce Them
~ RMS-SATEI-J/C/I-A-MO-EMS-SATEBIP(TMROOPS)A-TOMO~ Religious Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed In – Judaism / Christianity / Islam – Are – Millennia Old – Evolutionary Moral Systems – Such As Those Expressed By Indigenous Peoples (The Modern Remnants Of Paleolithic Societies) Are – Tens Of Millennia Old
~ W-Q-ADF-H-Q ~ Why – Questions – Are Different From – How – Questions
~ AHSACH ~ All Humans Share A Common Humanity
~ WCCA-MS-TIN-DA-N-IR-A-PM-FAAOS-TP-EE-A-A-RBFB-SASOM-SAM-UAY-E-AETW-ET-W-BAS-O-MOTS-A-O-AS ~ We Can Construct A – Moral System – That Is Neither –Dogmatically Absolute – Nor – Irrationally Relative – A – Provisional Morality – For An Age Of Science – That Provides – Empirical Evidence – And – A – Rational Basis For Belief – Such A System Of Morality – Suggests A More – Universal And Tolerant – Ethic – An Ethic That Will – Ensure The – Well-Being And Survival – Of – All Members Of The Species – And – Of – All Species
~ M-ITEDO-HS ~ Morality – Is The Exclusive Domain Of – Homo Sapiens
~ AA-I-HA-A-JTTS-A-ITOT-CIAGS ~ All Animals – Including – Human Animals – Are – Just Trying To Survive – And – It Turns Out That – Cooperation Is A Good Strategy
~ IATTSOPP-R-HASAAIO-SO-A-BC-TROPMS-A-TPONO-BACRO-R-L-O;T-C-S-SAM-N-A-WT-IOW-L-C-T-I-S-SAT ~ In Addition To The Sanction Of Political Power – Religion – Has Also Served As An Institution Of – Social Order – And – Behavior Control – The Reinforcement Of Positive Moral Sentiments – And – The Punishment Of Negative Ones – Became A Central Role Of – Religious – Leaders – And – Organizations; They – Codified – Subjective – Social And Moral – Norms – And – With The – Invention Of Writing – Literally – Canonized – Them – In – Sacred – Scrolls And Texts
~ TWO-GAM ~ The Wedding Of – God And Mammon
~ B-SS-‘LTN’-M-O-IF/EF/C-‘O-G’-WTBDWC-TWT-CWF-DBWWC ~ Before State – Societies – “Love The Neighbor” – Meant – One’s – Immediate Family / Extended Family / Community – “Out-Groupers” – Were To Be Dealt With Cautiously – Trust Was Tentative – Conflict Was Frequent – Death By War Was Common
~ M-A-T-MN-150 ~ Morality – And – The – Magic Number – 150
~ LO-SGS-A-RTTCCO-HM-AT-HADEB-ITOT-150-IRTNOLD-C/G/GC-A-PC-WPIFG-AT-B-O-H-G-P ~ ~ Limits On – Social Group Size – Are – Related To The Carrying Capacity Of – Human Memory – And Thus – Have A Deep Evolutionary Basis – It Turns Out That – 150 – Is Roughly The Number Of Living Descendants – Children / Grandchildren / Great-Grandchildren – A – Paleolithic Couple – Would Produce In Four Generations – At The – Birthrate – Of – Hunter-Gather – Peoples
~ WGGL-TSISG-W?-TAI-MD-A-BC-OGE-200P-A-HS-INT-ETROC-A-TDWO-WITSGCBDWT-IPC-A-SP ~ When Groups Get Large – They Split Into Smaller Groups – Why? – The Answer Is – Moral Discipline – And – Behavior Control – Once Groups Exceed – 200 People – A – Hierarchical Structure – Is Needed To – Enforce The Rules Of Cooperation – And – To Deal With Offenders – Who In The Smaller Group Could Be Dealt With Through – Informal Personal Contracts – And – Social Pressure
~ IOTPTGO-R-YNTK-WBNS-A-WYWTTSY-TIIGTTSAOP-MCKA-G-ATO-SC-TC-CN ~ In Order To Play The Game Of – Reciprocation – You Need To Know – Whose Back Needs Scratching – And – Who You Will Trust To Scratch Yours – This Information Is Gathered Through Telling Stories About Other People – More Commonly Known As – Gossip – A Tool Of – Social Control – Through Communicating – Cultural Norms
~ M-S-A-B-WI-CI-ES-B-R-REAT-SS-T-ETROHI ~ Moral – Sentiments – And – Behaviors – Were Initially – Codified Into – Ethical Systems – By – Religion – Religion Emerged As The – Social Structure – To – Enforce The Rules Of Human Interactions
~ W-BAT-GWT-CAS-RDATP-SI-TF-CAG-ITSB-EAAS-D-EGAS-P-COC-A-RTLOCTTGT-SE-S-RR ~ ~ When – Bands And Tribes – Gave Way To – Chiefdoms And States – Religion Developed As The Principal – Social Institution – To Facilitate – Cooperation And Goodwill – It Di So By – Encouraging – Altruism And Selflessness – Discouraging – Excessive Greed And Selfishness – Promoting – Cooperation Over Competition – And – Revealing The Level Of Commitment To The Group Through – Social Events – And – Religious Rituals
~ PC-WPMB-NS-NC-A-MS-WAA-PSB-CS ~ Paleolithic Communities – Were Primarily Molded By – Natural Selection – Neolithic Communities – And – Modern Societies – Were And Are – Primarily Shaped By – Cultural Selection
~ IIAMAPO-HN-TBMAIITB-H/H/J/IL ~ It Is As Much A Part Of – Human Nature – To Be Moral As It Is To Be – Hungry / Horny / Jealous / In Love
~ TNCWGOWWAATDO-ALLTBEIYABTDY-LANLITBTL ~ The Normal Cues We Give Off When We Are Attempting To Deceive Others – Are Less Likely To Be Expressed If You Actually Believe The Deception Yourself – Liars Are Not Liars If They Believe The Lie
~ T-COMP-EAAFO-SC-TE-TSOIWG-A-TSOHGT ~ The – Codification Of Moral Principles – Evolved As A Form Of – Social Control – To Ensure – The Survival Of Individuals Within Groups – And – The Survival Of Human Groups Themselves
~ TM-O-PE ~ The Myth – Of – Pure Evil
~ TIN-SF-OOTRO-T-KL-O-N-A-HB-TWCC-E ~ There Is No – Supernatural Force – Operating Outside The Realm Of – The – Known Laws – Of – Nature – And – Human Behavior – That We Can Call – Evil
~ TCS-‘E’-DNLUTADUOTCOEB ~ To Call Something – “Evil” – Does Not Lead Us To A Deeper Understanding Of The Cause Of Evil Behavior
~ ITWNH-TWBNE ~ If There Were No Humans – There Would Be No Evil
~ WETB-M-B-HTCTB-I-SOTT-ISC-WSP-WDAOOUTIAGS-WDOA-CAOV ~ We Evolved To Be – Moral – But – Have The Capacity To Be – Immoral – Some Of The Time – In Some Circumstances – With Some People – Which Direction Any One Of Us Takes In Any Given Situation – Will Depend On A – Complex Array Of Variables
~ FW-HUA-A-FW-IFO-D-A-MC-FOTCW ~ Free Will – Holds Us Accountable – Abandon – Free Will – In Favor Of – Determinism – And – Moral Culpability – Flies Out The Courtroom Window
~ FW-AA-UF-WNAAIYDH-FW-GT-EG-A-SB-TGAWI? ~ Free Will – As A – Useful Fiction – Why Not Act As If You Do Have – Free Will – Gaining The – Emotional Gratification – And – Social Benefits – That Go Along With It?
~ CWCAESWR? ~ Can We Construct An Ethical System Without Religion?
~ IIAHLOM-TB-GFIOS-T-FTCIMB ~ It Is A Higher Level Of Morality – To Be – Good For Its Own Sake – Than – For The Consequences It May Bring
~ PMP:AFMPIMCMOTT-Y-FETAFTWDOH-B/C/C ~ Provisional Moral Principles: Applicable For Most People In Most Circumstances Most Of The Time – Yet – Flexible Enough To Account For The Wide Diversity Of Human – Behavior / Culture / Circumstances
~ B-CMBAS? ~ But – Can Morality Become A Science?
~ EUSCSAU ~ Even Unattended Stimuli Can Subtly Affect Us
~MJ-IN-CR-II-IE ~ Moral Judgment – Is Not – Calculatingly Rational – It Is – Intuitively Emotional
~ CB-PAPRIO-MI ~ Cognitive Biases – Play A Powerful Role In Our – Moral Intuitions
~ PE-A-PJ-ATBWCD-ALAHC-STWM-PTIMB ~ Provisional Ethics – And – Provisional Justice – Are The Best We Can Do – As Long As Humanity Continues – So Too Will Morality – Provisional Though It May Be
~ WCAPBM ~ We Can Also Practice Being Moral

MICHAEL SHERMER ~ PROVISIONAL RIGHT AND WRONG ~ THE SCIENCE OF GOOD & EVIL ~ 2004

~ A-FP ~ ASK-FIRST PRINCIPLE
~ TFOWAAIROW-AF ~ To Find Out Whether An Action Is Right Or Wrong – Ask First
~ HP ~ HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTAWHWSEHIM-A-NSHWILTSEU ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Happiness With Someone Else’s Happiness In Mind – And – Never Seek Happiness When It Leads To Someone Else’s Unhappiness
~ LP ~ LIBERTY PRINCIPLE
~ IIAHMPTASLWSELIM-A-NSLWILTSELOL ~ It Is A Higher Moral Principle To Always Seek Liberty With Someone Else’s Liberty In Mind – And – Never Seek Liberty When It Leads To Someone Else’s Loss Of Liberty
~ MP ~ MODERATION PRINCIPLE
~ WIPD-EITDOAINV-A-MITPOEINV ~ When Innocent People Die – Extremism In The Defense Of Anything Is No Virtue – And – Moderation In The Protection Of Everything Is No Vice

NICHOLAS CARR ~ AUTOMATION COMPLACENCY / AUTOMATION BIAS ~ THE GLASS CAGE ~ 2014

~AC-PBSTOTTTTAOWGOATF-TTO-IAPSCU-TMAB-A-WPMTTRT ~ Automation Complacency – People Become So Trusting Of The Technology That Their Awareness Of What’s Going On Around Them Fades – They Tune Out – If A Problem Suddenly Crops Up – They May Act Bewildered – And – Waste Precious Moments Trying To Reorient Themselves

~ AB-WPGUWTTICTTM-EW-TIIWOM-T-IOD-OSOI ~ Automation Bias – When People Give Undue Weight To The Information Coming Through Their Monitors – Even When – The Information Is Wrong Or Misleading – They – Ignore Or Discount – Other Sources Of Information

JAY LIFTON ~ EIGHT CRITERIA FOR THOUGHT REFORM ~ THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM ~ 1961

~ M(E)C ~ MILIEU (ENVIRONMENTAL) CONTROL

~ COTM-FOI-A-SI ~ Control Over The Members’ – Flow Of Information – And – Social Interaction

~ MAITKAEOTO ~ Members Are Instructed To Keep An Eye On The Others

~ MM ~ MYSTICAL MANIPULATION

~ TGASIWNAP ~ The Group Attributes Supernatural Influences Where None Are Present

~ MATHA-C-LT-IWTAT ~ Members Are To Have A – Child-Like Trust – In Whatever They Are Taught

~ MF-‘C’-A-T-TAAPOSVIAU ~ Members Feel – “Chosen” – And – That ­– They Are A Part Of Something Very Important And Urgent

~ DFP ~ DEMAND FOR PURITY

~ UR-A-US-AIUTM ~ Unreasonable Rules – And – Unreachable Standards – Are Imposed Upon The Members

~ C ~ CONFESSION

~ TIGAY-CBUAY ~ The Information Gained About You – Can Be Used Against You

~ SS ~ SACRED SCIENCE

~ T-TOTG-AVA-T-U/U-T ~ The – Teachings Of The Group – Are Viewed As – The – Ultimate / Unquestionable – Truth

~ TLOTG-I-LAC ~ The Leader Of The Group – Is – Likewise – Above Criticism

~ LTL ~ LOADING THE LANGUAGE

~ TGL-STPO-CTT-A-SDCA ~ The Group’s Language – Serves The Purpose Of – Constructing Their Thinking – And – Shutting Down Critical Thinking Abilities

~ ‘GS’-FMTCEASDSBOCOOI ~ “Groupspeak” Forces Members To Censor, Edit And Slow Down Spontaneous Bursts Of Criticism Or Opposite Ideas

~ DOP ~ DOCTRINE OVER PERSON

~ AMRTOPHOII-TASTTIRTTGCAITOEAFATC ~ As Members Rewrite Their Own Personal History Or Ignore It – They Are Simultaneously Taught To Interpret Reality Through The Group Concepts And Ignore Their Own Experiences And Feelings As They Occur

~ DOE ~ DISPENSING OF EXISTENCE

~ TG-TE-ETTMAPOA-E-O-SG-OACUOU ~ The Group’s – Totalistic Environment – Emphasizes That The Members Are Part Of An – Elite – Or – Special Group – Outsiders Are Considered Unworthy Or Unenlightened

JOHN TIERNEY + ROY BAUMEISTER ~ THE POWER OF BAD ~ 2019

~ NE ~ Negativity Effect
~ NB/ND/NE:TUTF-N-EAE-TAUMST-P-O ~ Negativity Bias / Negativity Dominance / Negativity Effect: The Universal Tendency For – Negative – Events And Emotions – To Affect Us More Strongly Than – Positive – Ones
~ DBAWOC-B-UBASOP-STHFITC-A-MATFS-BIS-B-GCP-IWKWWUA ~ Devastated By A Word Of Criticism – But – Unmoved By A Shower Of Praise – See The Hostile Face In The Crowd – And – Miss All The Friendly Smiles – Bad Is Stronger – But – Good Can Prevail – If We Know What We’re Up Against
~ B-RT-NE-A-OOIR-WC-BDP-TMEATF-A-ETRBOTB-BL/BN/BF-C-PI-TMP-IF-TMU-S/S/K ~ By – Recognizing The – Negativity Effect – And – Overriding Our Innate Responses – We Can – Break Destructive Patterns – Think More Effectively About The Future – And – Exploit The Remarkable Benefits Of This Bias – Bad Luck / Bad News / Bad Feelings – Create – Powerful Incentives – The Most Powerful – In Fact – To Make Us – Stronger / Smarter / Kinder
~ T-NE-DR-BC-PTAE-SBS-IMP-PP-ED ~ The – Negativity Effect – Destroys Reputations / Bankrupts Companies / Promotes Tribalism And Xenophobia / Spreads Bogus Scares / Ignites Moral Panics / Poisons Politics / Elects Demagogues
~ TASMM-SP-O-FAV-T-MOB-WH-PFAP-B-FTP-A-FH ~ There Are So Many More – Skilled Purveyors – Of – Fear And Vitriol – The – Merchants Of Bad – Who Have – Prospered Financially And Politically – By – Frightening The Public – And – Fomenting Hatred
~ T-UOB-IIPT-STM-A-ETW ~ The – Upside Of Bad – Is Its Power To – Sharpen The Mind – And – Energize The Will
~ BM-C-UF-TDGA ~ Bad Moments – Create – Unconscious Feelings – That Don’t Go Away
~ PEATT-SMES-B-OF-TSOB-CBD-A-WWFH-G-DAWFU ~ Paying Extra Attention To Threats – Still Makes Evolutionary Sense – But – Our Fine-Tuned Sense Of Bad – Can Be Debilitating – And – What Worked For Hunger-Gathers Doesn’t Always Work For Us
~ BT-AHIM-A-TUTMJASA-J-FM ~ Bad Today – Also Has Its Merchants – And – They Use The Media Just As Skilfully As – Junk-Food Marketers
~ WAPT-OOA-AWA-OPTCOD ~ We’re All Prone To – Overestimate Our Abilities – As Well As – Our Power To Control Our Destiny
~ CC-TN-ESO-HT-LTATLEWO ~ Crisis Crisis – The Never-Ending Series Of – Hyped Threats – Leading To Actions That Leave Everyone Worse Off
~ HBIB? ~ How Bad Is Bad?
~ TPW-BAG-YNT-EYRM ~ To – Properly Weigh – Bad Against Good – You Need To – Engage Your Rational Mind
~ PR-TNOGEFEBE ~ Positivity Ratio – The Number Of Good Events For Every Bad Event
~ T-ROF-IT-FGT-T-O-OBT-IDATEPIES-NTEKO-GAB-E-SFOBAIP ~ The – Rule Of Four – It Takes – Four Good Things – To – Overcome – One Bad Thing – It Doesn’t Apply To Every Person In Every Situation – Nor To Every Kind Of – Good And Bad – Event – Some Forms Of Bad Are Incomparably Powerful
~ T-W-T-H-E-NTIBTDWTBOIC-IMAWFOTC ~ The – What-The-Hell – Effect – Now That I’ve Broken The Diet With The Bowl Of Ice Cream – I May As Well Finish Off The Carton
~ TTDOOYH-IOTYFITM-MARB-H-ASR-III-X-S-IWD-Y-ARTTRBCDAII ~ Take The Decision Out Of Your Hands – Instead Of Trusting Your Feelings In The Moment – Make A Rule Before-Hand – A Simple Rule – If I’m In – X – Situation – I Will Do – Y – A Rule That The Rational Brain Can Deploy Against Irrational Impulses
~ WTOSB-A-CS-TG-RTA-NL-TB ~ We’re Too Often Swayed By – A – Clear Short-Term Gain – Rather Than A – Nebulous Long-Term Benefit
~ NIATDTS-A-IHC ~ Negativity Is A Tough Disease To Shake – And – It’s Highly Contagious
~BAT-HYT-RTSSNOS-WDMMFYRT-AGWOD ~ Being Able To – Hold Your Tongue – Rather Than Say Something Nasty Or Spiteful – Will Do Much More For Your Relationship Than – A Good Word Or Deed
~ DO ~ Don’t Overpromise
~ DECFGTEM ~ Don’t Expect Credit For Going The Extra Mile
~ RT-BIITEOTB-AOTSTTTROTW-CDARIILLTOP ~ Remember That – Bad Is In The Eye Of The Beholder – An Offense That Seems Trifling To The Rest Of The World – Can Destroy A Relationship If It Looms Large To One Person
~ PTBMTGU ~ Put The Bad Moments To Good Use
~TBYB ~ Think Before You Blame
~ WYF-BIAIR ~ When You’re Fighting – Bring In An Imaginary Referee
~ GASO ~ Get A Second Opinion
~ SJ ~ Suspend Judgment
~ DTTB ~ Don’t Take The Bait
~ IYMR-DE ~ If You Must Respond – Don’t Escalate
~ FT-NGR-INSMWYDOO-IWYDO ~ Follow The – Negative Golden Rule – It’s Not So Much What You Do Onto Others – It’s What You Don’t Do
~ TFB-B-R-TTBATNS-AIADTT-TBFLOAITEFOD ~ The Fearful Brain – Bad – Rules – Throughout The Brain And The Nervous System – Attention Is Automatically Drawn To Threats – The Brain Focuses Longer On An Image That Evokes Fear Or Disgust
~ WMAACOTOATBFOOMAF ~ We’re Marvellously Adept At Convincing Ourselves That Others Are To Blame For Our Own Mistakes And Failures
~ ACISC ~ A Carrot In Stick’s Clothing
~ C/A/N/O/E ~ Conscientiousness / Agreeableness / Neuroticism / Openness / Extraversion
~ O-L/D/EU-P-WETSTWT-IDMITWOPWMOTG-TSCCFTDD ~ One – Lazy / Disagreeable / Emotionally Unstable – Person – Was Enough To Sabotage The Whole Team – It Didn’t Matter If There Was One Particularly Wonderful Member Of The Group – The Star Couldn’t Compensate For The Dud’s Damage
~ SR-IJOOMVOBN-IAYMSAPTOT ~ Social Rejection – Isn’t Just One Of Many Varieties Of Bad News – It Affects You More Strongly And Profoundly Than Other Types
~ SR-IMST-SA ~ Social Rejection – Is Much Stronger Than – Social Acceptance
~ TFSIDWBAITIT ~ The First Step In Dealing With Bad Apples Is To Identify Them
~ OP-TI-HA-TNE ~ Online Perils – The Internet – Has Amplified – The Negativity Effect
~ CE ~ Counternegativity Experts
~ IYFI-SLTLA-ES-A-R-P-O-CAM-A-SMTLA-SOY-FAF ~ If You’re Feeling Insecure – Spend Less Time Looking At – Elaborately Staged – And – Retouched – Photos – Of – Celebrities And Models – And – Spend More Time Looking At – Snapshots Of Your – Friends And Family
~ T-CC-TEOPNBBC ~ The – Crisis Crisis – The Exploitation Of People’s Negativity Bias By Crisismongers
~ TMOB ~ The Merchants Of Bad
~ T-NB-MUPT-QGAIOIAATWG-AT-GLFMO-T-W-H-I-IETA ~ The – Negativity Bias – Makes Us Prone To – Quickly Generalize Any Individual’s Offence Into Animus Against The Whole Group – And Then – Go Looking For More Offenders – The – Witch-Hunting – Instinct – Is Easy To Arouse
~ RLAGPTW-TSWDAG-OW-HSIWMTEW ~ Remarkably Little Attention Gets Paid To Whether – The Solution Will Do Any Good – Or Whether – History Suggests It Will Make Things Even Worse
~ WA-THDT-IOA-LRDT ~ Worrying About – Tiny Hypothetical Dangers Tomorrow – Instead Of A – Large Real Danger Today
~ S-GPFTP-TP-IOS ~ Stop – Giving Prizes For Terror Pornography – The Publicity – Inspires Other Sociopaths
~ WRONG ~ Page 228 ~ “vaping – safer” ~ vaping (“pens”) mixtures just like tobacco (cigarette) mixtures (you mention this) it’s the additives (details) that make the poison (evil)
~ WRONG ~ Page 243 ~ “fake news” ~ very real polarizing effect on society ~ weaponized by authoritarian states (Russia / China / Iran / Saudi Arabia / North Korea for specific domestic political objectives and generally as destabilizing (polarizing) propaganda directed at their perceived enemies
~ IDEA ~ Climate Change ~ an excellent example of a serious problem (which has sometimes been treated as if it were “tiny hypothetical dangers tomorrow”)

GEORGE LAKOFF + MARK JOHNSON ~ TRUTH ~ METAPHORS WE LIVE BY ~ 1980

~ TITTI-AOT-INO-M-B-SAP-D-TIARTACSTIDILPBM-MOOMHEIOCOALP-B-M-AIUUB-PIP-PL/RL/BL/A/M/E ~ The Idea That There Is – Absolute Objective Truth – Is Not Only – Mistaken– But – Socially And Politically – Dangerous – Truth Is Always Relative To A Conceptual System That Is Defined In Large Part By Metaphor – Most Of Our Metaphors Have Evolved In Our Culture Over A Long Period – But – Many – Are Imposed Upon Us By – People In Power – Political Leaders / Religious Leaders / Business Leaders / Advertisers / Media / Etc

~ IACWT-MOO-IVMA-A-TIAAT-TPWGT-ITMOTC-GTDWWCTBT-AAO-T ~ In A Culture Where The – Myth Of Objectivism – Is Very Much Alive – And – Truth Is Always Absolute Truth – The People Who Get To – Impose Their Metaphors On The Culture – Get To Define What We Consider To Be True – Absolutely And Objectively – True

~ TIOTIODL-WBOA-B-PAS-O-WWTTBT ~ The Importance Of Truth In Our Daily Lives – We Base Our Actions – Both – Physical And Social – On – What We Take To Be True

~ OTW-TMTU-B-IHSV-A-AUTFIOW ~ On The Whole – Truth Matters To Us – Because – It Has Survival Value – And – Allows Us To Function In Our World

~ TIBOU ~ Truth Is Based On Understanding

AMARTYA SEN ~ THE IDEA OF JUSTICE ~ 2009

~ MAON-ACB-PWAD ~ Many Acts Of Nastiness – Are Committed By – People Who Are Deluded

~ OOTMPIFO-R-ITIHUT-SI-A-BB ~ One Of The Main Points In Favour Of – Reason – Is That It Helps Us To – Scrutinize Ideology – And – Blind Belief

~ R-CBCW-TRWO-V-A-T-OP/OC/OC-A-W-EDGFRAT-WCARA-OOM-A-TTLNTRT ~ Reasoning – Can Be Concerned With – The Right Way Of – Viewing – And – Treating – Other People / Other Cultures / Other Claims – And – With – Examining Different Grounds For Respect And Tolerance – We Can Also Reason About – Our Own Mistakes – And – Try To Learn Not To Repeat Them

~ M-CD-F-CI-RF-UF-MAC-BO-R-A-CS ~ Millions – Can Die – From – Calamitous Inaction – Resulting From – Unreasoned Fatalism – Masquerading As Composure – Based On – Realism – And – Common Sense

~ T-N-A-D-OT-NE-AHSP ~ The – Neglect – And – Deterioration – Of The – Natural Environment – A Hugely Serious Problem

~ TPC-CB-H-N-O-CO-WN-CS-NJ-GWTO ~ To Prevent Catastrophes – Caused By – Human – Negligence – Or – Callous Obduracy – We Need – Critical Scrutiny – Not Just – Good Will Towards Others

~ NGO-UI-A-UFS ~ Not Giving Or – Unscrutinized Instincts – An – Unconditional Final Say

~ JAF-B-WIF?-ICBSAADFI ~ Justice As Fairness – But – What Is Fairness? – It Can Broadly Be Seen As A Demand For Impartiality

~ HTTNO-DATM-A-TAA-OSOPOJFTTEG ~ How To Take Note Of – Diversities Among The Members – And – To Arrive At – One Set Of Principles Of Justice Fair To The Entire Group

~ LCBRTBOAFTCOF ~ Liberty Cannot Be Reduced To Being Only A Facility That Complements Other Facilities

~ T-IR-O-AB ~ The – Inescapable Relevance – Of – Actual Behaviour

~ WRHTP-CBB-ACCOATOJ ~ What Really Happens To People – Cannot But Be – A Central Concern Of A Theory Of Justice

~ TROGP ~ The Relevance Of Global Perspectives

~ TCNOIC ~ The Contingent Nature Of Institutional Choice

~ TNIOUP-BB-IB-IVIFS-BA-B-PC ~ The Negative Influence Of Unchecked Power – Both Because – Institutional Balance – Is Very Important For Society – But Also – Because – Power Corrupts

~ IAF-ATOJ-HTGAIPTTROI-H-ITPJRTTTITMOJ-TBUONBCSTWAHITW-NMHETIATTB ~ Institutions As Foundations – Any Theory Of Justice – Has To Give An Important Place To The Role Of Institutions – However – Institutions That Promote Justice Rather Than Treating The Institutions Themselves Manifestations Of Justice – The Basic Unreliability Of Not Being Constantly Sensitive To What Actually Happens In The World – No Matter How Excellent The Institution Are Taken To Be

~ NOA-DAC-POTSMOTTOJ-IIATCT-TN-R-A-R-OTT-DOCF-DAD ~ Not Only Are – Dialogue And Communication – Part Of The Subject Matter Of The Theory Of Justice – It Is Also The Case That – The Nature – Robustness – And – Reach – Of The Theories – Depend On Contributions From – Discussion And Discourse

~ IIU-THADOTFOHB-TSSPWLM-FONTBIITFC ~ It Is Unsustainable – To Have A Defence Of The Freedom Of Human Beings – That Separates Some People Whose Liberties Matter – From Others Not To Be Included In That Favoured Category

~ JOJ-CBAEPA-TIUTO ~ Judgements Of Justice – Cannot Be An Entirely Private Affair – That Is Unfathomable To Others

~ TICAII-ITNOT-IAP-OTWANPTTSCOAP-B-WBSOTCODT ~ There Is Clearly An Important Issue – In The Neglect Of The – Interests And Perspectives – Of Those Who Are Not Parties To The Social Contract Of A Polity – But – Who Bear Some Of The Consequence Of Decisions Taken

~ TLRO-OP-ADTO-UAU-P-TBBIC-A-EUTBF-TITCF-DS-IS ~ The Liberating Role Of – Open Impartiality – Allows Different Types Of – Unprejudiced And Unbiased – Perspectives – To Be Brought Into Consideration – And – Encourages Us To Benefit From – The Insights That Come From – Differently Situated – Impartial Spectators

~ WWCS-I-NIOWWSIRTWWATTS ~ What We Can See – Is – Not Independent Of Where We Stand In Relation To What We Are Trying To See

~ WION?-TQOODTONHAHPITHOEIITW-WAIL-TAFN-NLITWT ~ Who Is Our Neighbour? – The Question Of One’s Duty To One’s Neighbours Has A Huge Place In The History Of Ethical Ideas In The World – We Are Increasingly Linked – There Are Few Non-Neighbours Left In The World Today

~ TAO-TCEHBHCTDMOMET-WMOTGPOTDHAETSDATVOTA-TDHN-H-ABPIE-TEAOEM-TEAAIPOUHB-TGEPIRIBRIS ~ The Assumption Of – The Completely Egoistic Human Being – Has Come To Dominate Much Of Mainstream Economic Theory – While Many Of The Great Practitioners Of The Discipline Have Also Expressed Their Serious Doubts About The Veracity Of That Assumption – This Dichotomy Has Not – However – Always Been Present In Economics – The Early Authors On Economic Matters – Took Ethics As An Important Part Of Understanding Human Behaviour – They Gave Ethical Principles Important Roles In Behavioural Relations In Society

~ BCOTDAPOO-NNBSAAVOR ~ Being Considerate Of The Desires And Pursuits Of Others – Need Not Be Seen As A Violation Of Rationality

~ TATGWOBATAO-MBTC-N-AC-TCBE-A-SN-TMWVITD ~ There Are Two Grand Ways Of Bringing About The Attainment Of – Mutual Benefits Through Cooperation – Namely – Agreed Contracts – That Can Be Enforced – And – Social Norms – That May Work Voluntarily In That Direction

~ PACD ~ Poverty As Capability Deprivation

~ MCBD-NOT-DTPOD-B-A-TRII ~ Much Can Be Done – Not Only To – Diminish The Penalty Of Disability – But – Also – To – Reduce Its Incidence

~ WHTCBT-FOA-A-TNOT-CAO-THAA-UOL ~ We Have To Consider Both The – Freedom Of Action – And – The Nature Of The – Consequences And Outcomes – To Have An Adequate – Understanding Of Liberty

~ COD-NMHVTMBITR-MFSWOATDAO-PG ~ Critics Of Democracy – No Matter How Vigorous They May Be In Their Rejection – Must Find Some Way Of Addressing The Deep Attraction Of – Participatory Governance

~ TVT-D-IBSA-‘GBD’-HG-WS ~ The View That – Democracy – Is Best Seen As – “Government By Discussion” – Has Gained – Widespread Support

~ WDNHTBBIACWALDH-T-CTPT ~ We Do Not Have To Be Born In A Country With A Long Democratic History – To – Choose That Path Today

~ IAU-FOV-R-O-O-CAA-T-FOTP-I-CTTP ~ Informed And Unregimented – Formation Of Values – Requires – Openness – Of – Communication And Argument – The – Freedom Of The Press – Is – Crucial To This Process

~ I-AMIRTS-TROM-AEO-DOD-I-T-LCBGWHTRMR ~ If – A Majority Is Ready To Support – The Rights Of Minorities – And Even Of – Dissenting Or Discordant – Individuals – Then – Liberty Can Be Guaranteed Without Having To Restrain Majority Rule

~ O-MEIPR-I-QCT-TPOJ ~ Open-Minded Engagement In Public Reasoning – Is – Quite Central To – The Pursuit Of Justice

~ JBSTBD ~ Justice Being Seen To Be Done

~ N-P-A-RFJ ~ Non-Parochialism – A – Requirement Or Justice

HENRIETTE KLAUSER ~ WITH PEN IN HAND ~ 2003

~ THPOW ~ The Healing Power Of Writing

~ AWEODF-WR-I-P-A-P-WFTPOOW-BTDOSOTPFOH-A-RIWH ~ As We Expressed Our Deepest Feelings – Without Reserve – In – Poetry – And – Prose – We Felt The Power Of Our Words – Begin To Draw Out Some Of The Pain From Our Hearts – And – Replace It With Hope

~ AST-ATAOU:W ~ A Simple Tool – Available To All Of Us: Writing

~ R;GIAD ~ Rapidwriting: Get It All Down

~ TW:YCHTT ~ Twilight Writing: You Can Handle The Truth

~ RHM:WPWTS ~ Resistance Has Meaning: Write Past Wanting To Stop

~ LFYPS:IYB ~ Learn From Your Physical Self: Interview Your Body

~ OHWTP ~ Others Have Walked This Path

~ WH ~ Writing Heals

~ WPG-MCM-OO-A-U-T-PG ~ Writing Provides Grounding – Making Concrete Marks – Out Of – Abstract – Unarticulated – Thoughts – Provides Grounding

~ WIT ~ Writing Is Therapeutic

~ TAOMTPATP-CBM-CACS ~ The Act Of Moving The Pen Across The Page – Can Be Meditative – Creating A Calming State

~ TINROWWTW ~ There Is No Right Or Wrong Way To Write

~ TT-I-CC-WW-A-IA ~ Taking Time – Is – Counter Culture – We Want – An – Instant Answer

~ SPW-T-BWTW ~ Some People Write – Then – Burn What They Wrote

~ UYPWAABOYP-LB-YWSHFYHC ~ Use Your Past Writing As A Benchmark Of Your Progress – Look Back – You Will See How Far You Have Come

~ WIPOTPTGYTTOS-YMNFLW-DIA ~ Writing Is Part Of The Process That Gets You To The Other Side – You May Not Feel Like Writing – Do It Anyway

~ RE-CTTS ~ Raw Emotions – Coming To The Surface

~ L-MI-C-A ~ Listing – Makes It – Concrete – Attainable

~ ASIP ~ A Shift In Perception

~ A-IO-A-ATD-EATSPUIFM-A-MLTAUB ~ Action – Is Often – An – Antidote To Depression – Even A Tiny Step Puts You In Forward Motion – And – May Lead To An Unpredictable Boon

~ OWTFYAOWIMIOY-I-TDAPOYH-A-PIOI-WYAFATPM ~ One Way To Focus Your Awareness On What Is Moving Inside Of You – Is – To Draw A Picture Of Your Heart – And – Pencil Inside Of It – Whatever You Are Feeling At This Precise Moment

~ KOW-A-LTPAFY ~ Keep On Writing – And – Let The Pen Answer For You

~ S-WMYS-HAMFY-IYWBPETLFI ~ Sometimes – What Makes You Sad – Has A Message For You – If You Will Be Patient Enough To Listen For It

~ WBAFTI-W-HTIOMA-WNA-B-WYWSD-ISBTY ~ Writing Brings A Fullness To Ideas – Which – Holding Them In Our Mind Alone – Will Never Accomplish – Because – When You Write Something Down – It Speaks Back To You

~ T-ATEOTD-WBYL-A-WMYS ~ Track – At The End Of The Day – What Brought You Light – And – What Made You Sad

~ LYWSBTY ~ Let Your Writing Speak Back To You

~ BGTBAN-WOSYAGW-A-SOI-PTPAAQ-A-DBFANKTA-LTQSIYC-FTINM-WUWCTM-DNBCINISIT-NTIOP-YBIWOI-YWBATTAWIPIDYD ~ Before Going To Bed At Night – Write Out Something You Are Grappling With – And – Sleep On It – Pose The Problem As A Question – And – Don’t Be Frantic About Not Knowing The Answer – Let The Question Seep Into Your Consciousness – First Thing In The Morning – Write Up Whatever Comes To Mind – Do Not Be Concerned If No Immediate Solution Is There – Now That It’s On Paper – Your Brain Is Working On It – You Will Be Alert To The Answer When It Presents Itself During Your Day

~ TIA-FAR-TCF-CWHBBUFY-T-P ~ There Is A – Freedom And Release – That Comes From – Consigning What Has Been Bottled Up For Years – To – Paper

~ WYHAROYW-IPAIIDP ~ When You Have A Record Of Your Whining – It Provides An Insight Into Destructive Patterns

~ LIP-FYP ~ Life Is Precious – Follow Your Passion

~ AJ-IAWTRI-ANH-S-TBTY-O-S-S ~ A Journal – Is A Way To Ramble Incessantly – And Not Have – Someone – Talk Back To You – Or – Say – Stop

~ WYH/GYT/PTP-O-SAV-AAII-YJ ~ Wring Your Hands / Gnash Your Teeth / Pound The Pillow – Or – Seethe And Vent – All About It In – Your Journal

~ APOA-CTD ~ A Pattern Of Abuse – Connecting The Dots

~ L-UAU-DV-E ~ Left – Unchecked And Unchallenged – Domestic Violence – Escalates

~ WGTTC ~ Writing Gets To The Core

~ CWAMAAIEIYL-NFP-B-FY-T-NWSY-A-P-TSWAFS-CF-A-F-BH-WCWWA-S/G-TMYW-TMYWR ~ Consider Writing A Memoir About An Important Event In Your Life – Not For Publication – But – For Yourself – To – Name What Shaped You – And – Perhaps – To Share With A Few Select – Close Friends – And – Family – Be Honest – Write Continuously Without Worrying About – Style / Grammar – The More You Write – The More You Will Remember

~ WAR ~ Writing And Ritual

~ BC-I-JW-WTCPI-IDHTBP ~ Be Creative – In – Journal Writing – Whatever That Creative Process Is – It Doesn’t Have To Be Perfect

~ T-A-ET ~ Thanks – And – Ever Thanks

TIM KASSER ~ THE HIGH PRICE OF MATERIALISM ~ 2002

~ ATPI-HH-WH-EMR-T-F/C/S/E-ELIOE-TSREINMA-UF-IIA-R-AWTILSD-N-AQLAMAPOTWGTUJHFWAFAAOTG-I-T-HC-I-DIITDW:A-‘F’-FW-O/L/ME-A-A-‘T’-CB-D/PS ~ At This Point In – Human History – We Have – Enough Material Resources – To – Feed / Clothe /Shelter / Educate – Every Living Individual On Earth – That Such Resources Exist Is Not Merely A – Utopian Fantasy – It Is A – Reality – About Which There Is Little Serious Debate – Nonetheless – A Quick Look Around Most Any Part Of This Warming Globe Tells Us Just How Far We Are From Achieving Any Of These Goals – Instead – The – Human Community – Is – Dividing Itself Into Two Distinct Worlds: A – “First” – Filled With – Opulence / Luxury / Material Excess – And – A – “Third” – Characterized By – Deprivation / Poverty /Struggle

~ W-F-A-T-W-CFBDANB-I-A-IMC-OF-RIPOW-SB-EW-FOI ~ Whereas – First – And – Third – Worlds – Could Formerly Be Distinguished Along National Boundaries – Increasingly – And – In Most Countries – One Finds – Relatively Insulated Pockets Of Wealth – Surrounded By – Ever Widening – Fields Of Impoverishment

~ MOTWPINGUI-W-T-A-E-WTMGOIITGWTCFT-WT-EL-SAM-ANLBSA-MP-B-A-CG-T-GR-E-H-OB-P-EOOU-CSRBCTTRO-CAM ~ Most Of The World’s Population Is Now Growing Up In – Winner-Take-All – Economies – Where The Main Goal Of Individuals Is To Get Whatever They Can For Themselves – Within This – Economic Landscape – Selfishness And Materialism – Are No Longer Being Seen As – Moral Problems – But – As – Cardinal Goals – This – Global Reality – Exists – However – Only Because – People – Each One Of Us – Can So Readily Be Converted To The Religions Of – Consumerism And Materialism

~ WHAA-WV-IW-WAS-I-J-NB-AW/K/CC-B-I-T-R-‘S’

~ We Have Adopted A – World View – In Which – Worth And Success – Is– Judged – Not By – Apparent Wisdom / Kindness / Community Contributions – But – In – The – Right – “Stuff”

~ TBTMPOTHS ~ The Burdens That Materialism Places On The Human Soul

~ DTH-MAM-MG-DUIAEMFPOL-NOMW-WH-B-O-PTG-WHT-M/U/R/I-A-CM-A-E-H-L-SAS ~ Desires To Have – More And More – Material Goods – Drive Us Into An Ever More Frantic Pace Of Life – Not Only Must We – Work Harder – But – Once – Possessing The Goods – We Have To – Maintain / Upgrade / Replace / Insure – And – Constantly Manage – An – Ever-Heavier – Load – Strain And Stress

~ WIR?-WT-POMAP-BA-‘TGL’-O-ATPO-CS-F? ~ Who Is Right? – Will The – Pursuit Of Money And Possessions – Bring About – “The Good Life” – Or – Are The Promises Of – Consumer Society – False?

~ WHTO-IE-A-IR-WWATMO-CC-A-PB?-WHTT-QOOL-W-WV,? ~ What Happens To Our – Internal Experience – And – Interpersonal Relationships – When We Adopt The Messages Of – Consumer Culture – As – Personal Beliefs? – What Happens To The – Quality Of Our Lives – When – We Value Materialism?

~ AI ~ Aspiration Index

~ TM-MV-AATCOOL-TMO-QOL-ID ~ The More – Materialistic Values – Are At The Center Of Our Lives – The More Our – Quality Of Life – Is Diminished

~ MV-AAW-RL-W-B ~ Materialistic Values – Are Associated With – Relatively Low – Well-Being

~ PN ~ Psychological Needs

~ PACBWM-T-NCBSBHTRP-AOU-T-SE-TO-O-I-MV-TI-WI-TMOCS-I-OO-VABS-TVTBTOOL-BI-G/A/B ~ People Are Constantly Bombarded With Messages – That – Needs Can Be Satisfied By Having The Right Products – All Of Us – To – Some Extent –Take On – Or – Internalize – Materialistic Values – That Is – We Incorporate – The Messages Of Consumer Society – Into – Our Own – Value And Belief Systems – These Values Then Begin To Organize Our Lives – By Influencing – Goals / Attitudes / Behaviors

~ ASFOMV-IO-A-S-O-M-O-A-PH-CB-A-R-FINS ~ A Strong Focus On Materialistic Values – Is Often – A – Symptom – Or – Manifestation – Of – A – Personal History – Characterized By – A – Relative – Failure In Need Satisfaction

~ MVANJEOU-I-TLPTOTLIWTDAPJOSTN-AT-CEMT-M ~ Materialistic Values Are Not Just Expressions Of Unhappiness – Instead – They Lead People To Organize Their Lives In Ways That Do A Poor Job Of Satisfying Their Needs – And Thus – Contribute Even More To – Misery

~ TF-IOC-T-PSE-F-OEY-A-TEWHT-SDHMW-EF-SAS ~ The Family – Is Or Course The – Primary Socializing Environment – For – Our Early Years – And – The Experiences We Have There – Strongly Determine How Much We – Eventually Feel – Safe And Secure

~ TWPTTCSOTF-A-SC-IWCAR-H-IR-ITO-FN-O-S/S/S ~ The Ways Parents Treat Their Children – Stability Of The Family – And – Socioeconomic Circumstances – In Which Children Are Raised – Have – Important Ramifications – In Terms Of – Fulfilling Needs – Of – Safety / Sustenance / Security

~ A-MO-DWI-HE-EIC-T-FTSTNF-S/S/S ~ A – Materialistic Orientation – Develops When Individuals – Have Experiences – Especially In Childhood – That – Fail To Support Their Needs For – Security / Safety / Sustenance

~ MV-AB-ASOAUI-A-ACSTOIAAT-AP-A-SN-TPITMVARPCS ~ Materialistic Values – Are Both – A Symptom Of An Underlying Insecurity – And – A Coping Strategy Taken On In An Attempt To – Alleviate Problems – And – Satisfy Needs – The Problem Is That Materialistic Values Are Rather Poor Coping Strategies

~ ETSPOMI-EAU ~ Even The Successful Pursuit Of Materialistic Ideals – Typically Turns Out To Be – Empty And Unsatisfying

~ MPT-N-MG-SON-AT-I-W-B ~ Making Progress Toward – Non-Materialistic Goals – Satisfies One’s Needs – And Thus – Improves – Well-Being

~ N-ODAADA-LS-E ~ Narcissism – Often Develops As A Defense Agaisnt – Low Self-Esteem

~ P-ES-ALAFO-HFTAF-W/W/W-TIWLTB ~ People’s – Emotional States – Are Largely A Function Of – How Far They Are From – Who / What / Where – They Ideally Would Like To Be

~ OOTMRMIHUI-A-WAP-ITTFVSIITM ~ One Of The Main Reasons Materialistic Individuals Have Unrealistic Ideals – About – Wealth And Possessions – Is That They Frequently View Such Images In The Media

~ MIWALOT ~ Materialistic Individuals Watch A Lot Of Television

~ RB-LFTNNT-TWGT-RTF ~ Rising Baselines – Looking For The Next New Thing – That Will Give The – Temporary Fix

~ TSTIT-WPFTEOEMSOF-TOPITT-MWBB-AT-CTSFWWNMTH ~ The Sad Truth Is That – When People Feel The Emptiness Of Either Material Success Or Failure – They Often Persist In Thinking That – More Will Be Better – And Thus – Continue To Strive For What Will Never Make Them Happier

~ PWFOMA-ODSAT-‘E’-O-TR ~ People Who Focus On Materialistic Aims – Often Do So At The – “Expense” – Of – Their – Relationships

~ BVHBEOHB-TETWIFOMP-ATWTIWOP ~ Because Values Have Broad Effects On Human Behavior – The Extent To Which Individuals Focus On Materialistic Pursuits – Affect The Way They Interact With Other People

~ ‘MM’ ~ “Market Metaphors”

~ W-C/P/M-BO-PA-WBLCWFU-O-SE/F/D-I-OBO-AT-LVAP ~ When – Consumption / Possessions / Money – Become Our – Primary Aims – We Become Less Concerned With Fully Understanding – Others’ – Subjective Experience / Feelings / Desires – Instead – Others Become Objects – And Thus – Lose Value As People

~ ASFO-W/F/I-U-TSONF-AAA ~ A Strong Focus On – Wealth / Fame / Image – Undermines – The Satisfaction Of Needs For – Authenticity And Autonomy

~ IRAIMOB-GP-MOP-F-DSTE-CITM-OTOH-ICLP-TCMATRTTA-A-C-TE-L-I-A-E ~ If Rewards Are Important Motivators Of Behavior – Giving People – Money Or Praise – For – Doing Something They Enjoy – Could Increase Their Motivation – On The Other Hand – It Could Lead People To Care More About The Rewards Than The Activity – And – Consequently – To Experience – Less – Interest – And – Enjoyment

~ RT-PPT-FAA-PF-C/P/C-WT-FOMV ~ Rather Than – Providing Paths To – Freedom And Autonomy – People Feel – Chained / Pressured / Controlled – When They – Focus On Materialistic Values

~ WMVDOS-WM-FAFF-WMUC-WTEOILHW ~ When Materialistic Values Dominate Our Society – We Move – Farther And Farther From – What Makes Us Civilized – We Treat Each Other In Less Humane Ways

~ MV-UO-QOL ~ Materialistic Values – Undermine Our – Quality Of Life

~ AYWMVHAWFY-O-WTCTPYPI ~ Ask Yourself Whether Materialistic Values Have Actually Worked For You – Or – Whether They Continue To Perpetuate Your Problems Instead

~ TAGLAWYNRA ~ Take A Good Look At What Your Needs Really Are

~ A-F-Z ~ Advertising-Free-Zones

~ AATBDTPW-B ~ Advertisements Appear To Be Detrimental To Peoples Well-Being

~ MVBU-W-TAHIICWOV ~ Materialistic Values Become Unhealthy – When – They Are Highly Important In Comparison With Other Values