CASS SUNSTEIN ~ ANTI-CATASTROPHE PRINCIPLE – FOUR QUALIFICATIONS ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ ATTFROSR-IMNSTTSTACITVSWCCROTO ~ Attentive To The Full Range Of Social Risks – It Makes No Sense To Take Steps To Avert Catastrophe If Those Very Steps Would Create Catastrophic Risks Of Their Own

~ ATTIO-C-E-WRRTCTLCMOATE ~ Attentive To The Idea Of – Cost-Effectiveness – Which Requires Regulators To Choose The Least Costly Means Of Achieving Their Ends

~ DCM-AIAWTREBOTLATBT ~ Distribution Considerations Matter – Applied In A Way That Reduces Extreme Burdens On Those Least Able To Bear Them

~ CMAS-TEOPCRBDFTE ~ Costs Matter As Such – The Extent Of Precautions Cannot Reasonably Be Divorced From Their Expense

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LIBERTARIAN PATERNALISM ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ T-LA-OTSLITSIT-IG-PSBFTOOOSAITCTDS ~ The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Opt Out Of Specified Arrangements If Hey Choose To Do So

~ T-PA-CITCTIILFPAPITATIPB-EWT-PEAA-ITU-APTCA-‘P’-IIATITCOAPIAWTWMCBO-ISCIMIDITOTOW-DTTWCITH-CI-UCA-A-NLOS-C-H-LP-PTBRTBEAIF ~ The – Paternalistic Aspect – Consists In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Private And Public Institutions To Attempt To Influence People’s Behavior – Even When Third-Party Effects Are Absent – In This Understanding – A Policy Therefore Counts As – “Paternalistic” – If It Attempts To Influence The Choices Of Affected Parties In A Way That Will Make Choosers Better Off – In Some Cases Individuals Make Inferior Decisions In Terms Of Their Own Welfare – Decisions That They Would Change If They Had – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – No Lack Of Self-Control – Hence – Libertarian Paternalism – Promises To Be Responsive To Both Excessive And Insufficient Fear

~ LP-IAR-WAN-TOP-B-CANBOFO-IIMCF-LP-I-TC-OTWSTDFT-PPO ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak And Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked Or Fenced Off – In Its Most Cautious Forms – Libertarian Paternalism – Imposes – Trivial Costs – On Those Who Seek To Depart From The – Planner’s Preferred Option

~ WAOOT-PTFASBTD-AA-ESC-ITRWT-ITCROATC? ~ Would Any One Object To – Putting The Fruit And Salad Before The Desserts – At An – Elementary School Cafeteria – If The Result Were To – Increase The Consumption Ratio Of Apples To Candy?

~ TPTICSBR-IOBOTCT-PDAEJOMCO-AL-TTDAFBJTTPCPD-B-TILESFTC ~ The Presumption That Individual Choices Should Be Respected – Is Often Based On The Claim That – People Do An Excellent Job Of Making Choices – Or – At Least – That They Do A Far Better Job Than Third Parties Could Possibly Do – But – There Is Little Empirical Support For This Claim

~ DR-OSK-A-I-A-MOTTTRWA-PAC=POL-W-FP-A-SP-HICF-BAC ~ Default Rules – Of Some Kind – Are – Inevitable – And – Much Of The Time Those Rules Will Affect – Preferences And Choices – People Often Lack – Well-Formed Preferences – And – Starting Points – Have Important Consequences For – Behavior And Choice

~ I-FP ~ Ill-Formed Preferences

~ I-US-W-FP-AEUTE ~ In – Unfamiliar Situations – Well-Formed Preferences – Are Especially Unlikely To Exist

~ TIOP-TINWTAEOBAC-TTFTCLI-ITMOSE-T-P-FOC-T-PCEAT-PSO ~ The Inevitability Of Paternalism – There Is Not Way To Avoid Effects On Behavior And Choices – The Task For The Committed Libertarian Is – In The Midst Of Such Effects – To – Preserve – Freedom Of Choice – That – People Can Easily Avoid The – Paternalist’s Suggested Option

~ SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TDEBAAM ~ So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Dangers Emphasized By Antipaternalist Are Minimal

~ TWMT-SS-A-A-ATEOAS-CP-ALFP-B-IP-SF-S-CP-TIIHLTOPDT ~ Those Who Make The – Slippery Slope – Argument – Are – Acknowledging The Existence Of A Self-Control Problem – At Least For Planners – But – If Planners – Suffer From Self-Control Problems – Then It Is Highly Likely That Other People Do Too

~ TG-SBT-A-R-I-A-O-H-E-A-TPASTILT-PPW-SD ~ The Goal – Should Be To – Avoid – Random – Inadvertent – Arbitrary – Or – Harmful – Effects – And – To Produce A Situation That Is Likely To – Promote People’s Welfare – Suitably Defined

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ SPAFWTONTB-A-STAFWTSBF-IDN-TLRTPF-AAR-TLCBLIUAEDD ~ Sometimes People Are Fearful When They Ought Not To Be – And – Sometimes They Are Fearless When They Should Be Frightened – In Democratic Nations – The Law Responds To People’s Fears – As A Result – The Law Can Be Led In Unfortunate And Even Dangerous Directions

~ ‘RP’-PALRI-G-C-E-N ~ “Risk Panics” – Play A Large Role In – Groups – Cities – Even – Nations

~ W-FS-MIPFPTAAWAIN-A-UFTTAAWAII ~ Well-Functioning Societies – Make It Possible For People To Achieve Agreement When Agreement Is Necessary – And – Unnecessary For Them To Achieve Agreement When Agreement Is Impossible

~ DD-DBITAFTLQATTOACFPWDO-O-AUA-HTRTQ-ITCOF-IIOPTOJSAC ~ Deliberative Democracies Do Best If They Abstract From The Largest Questions And Try To Obtain A Consensus From People Who Disagree On – Or – Are Unsure About – How To Resolve Those Questions – In The Context Of Fear – It Is Often Possible To Obtain Just Such A Consensus

~ T-PP-TMF-B-IAOT-TAIITRSTSTPAPH-EICCAUAEIWDNKTTHWCTF ~ The – Precautionary Principle – Takes Many Forms – But – In All Of Them – The Animating Idea Is That Regulators Should Take Steps To Protect Against Potential Harms – Even If Causal Chains Are Unclear And Even If We Do Not Know That Those Harms Will Come To Fruition

~ HB-C-A-N-OSOOOAFSRA-‘S’-A-IO ~ Human Beings – Cultures – And – Nations – Often Single Out One Or A Few Social Risks As – “Salient” – And – Ignore The Others

~ T-AH-WPLSK-TCRTBSITCETOIIWTRCTF ~ The – Availability Heuristic – When People Lack Statistical Knowledge – They Consider Risks To Be Significant If They Can Easily Think Of Instances In Which Those Risks Came To Fruition

~ T-PP-MWBRAA-A-CP-DFSCIWIINPTAPTPCR ~ The – Precautionary Principle – Might Well Be Reformulated As An – Anti-Catastrophe Principle – Designed For Special Circumstances In Which It Is Not Possible To Assign Probabilities To Potentially Catastrophic Risks

~ EWEAIE-WC-TTCOAIOTASOTR ~ Especially When Emotions Are Intensely Engaged – Worst Cases – Tend To Crowd Out An Investigation Of The Actual Size Of The Risk

~ ‘LP’-AATSPIDTWPTW-WFTOC ~ “Libertarian Paternalism” – An Approach That Steers People In Directions That Will Promote Their Welfare – Without Foreclosing Their Own Choices

~ EE-ATSPEP-AMBT-‘WTP’ ~ Economic Efficiency – Attempts To Satisfy People’s Existing Preference –As Measured By Their – “Willingness To Pay”

~ HMPITRAOP? ~ How Much Precaution Is The Right Amount Of Precaution?

~ AGDOE-STPT-A-ER-CH-AEOLAH-PPAEVTTE-TBS-BTPATUMAD ~ A Great Deal Of Evidence – Suggests The Possibility That – An – Expensive Regulation – Can Have – Adverse Effects On Life And Health – Poor People Are Especially Vulnerable To This Effect – To Be Sure – Both The Phenomenon And The Underling Mechanism Are Disputed

~ T-AH-W-P-ATMORBAWECRCTM-IPCETOSE-TAFMLTBFTITC-TPI-T-AH-CLTSE-ITOB-EF-A-N ~ The – Availability Heuristic – When – People – Assess The Magnitude Of Risks By Asking Whether Examples Can Readily Come To Mind – If People Can Easily Think Of Such Examples – They Are Far More Likely To Be Frightened Than If They Cannot – The Problem Is – The – Availability Heuristic – Can Lead To Serious Errors – In Terms Of Both – Excessive Fear – And – Neglect

~ PN-B-S-PWALAOPAA-EWSEAI ~ Probability Neglect – But – Sometimes – People Will Attempt Little Assessment Of Probability At All – Especially When Strong Emotions Are Involved

~ LA-PTTB-LA-WMT-ALFT-SQ-ISA-MU-TAGISAD ~ Loss Aversion – People Tend To Be – Loss Averse – Which Means That – A Loss From The – Status Quo – Is Seen As – More Undesirable – Than A Gain Is Seen As Desirable

~ SQB-T-SQ-MTBAWGALAM-A-AL-FT-SQ-SMMBTAGFT-SQ-SG ~ Status Quo Bias – The – Status Quo – Marks The Baseline Against Which Gains And Losses Are Measured – And – A Loss – From The – Status Quo – Seems Much More Bad Than A Gain From The – Status Quo – Seems Good

~ PAFMWTT-FR-T-UO-EITA-SE ~ People Are Far More Willing To Tolerate – Familiar Risks – Than – Unfamiliar Ones – Even If They Are – Statistically Equivalent

~ A-RA-ONA-EH-INASGF-DC-EWABFAECAWAB ~ A – Risk Assessment – Offering Numbers About – Expected Harms – Is Not A Sufficient Ground For – Democratic Choice – Even When Accompanied By Figures About Expected Costs As Well As Benefits

~ WEKARTIO-B-DNPTTAPTE-IISTFT-MP:CTPWT-B-WC-O ~ When Existing Knowledge Allows Regulators To Identify Outcomes – But – Does Not Permit Them To Assign Probabilities To Each – It Is Standard To Follow The – Maximin Principle: Choose The Policy With The – Best – Worst-Case – Outcome

~ SSAR-B-MAN-W-AE-O-AS-I-‘R’-CBDITA-IAC-RIAMOD-EDOTF-T-‘RP’-SBUAAH-OTFIITFOPDTC-LMH-T-RP-WWWIMC-B-ICALTSAEDE ~ Some Systems Are Resilient – But – Many Are Not – Whether – An Ecosystem – Or – A Society – Is – “Resilient” – Cannot Be Decided In The Abstract – In Any Case – Resilience Is A Matter Of Degree – Everything Depends On The Facts – The – “Resilience Principle” – Should Be Understood As A Heuristic – One That Favors Inaction In The Face Of Possibly Damaging Technological Change – Like Most Heuristics – The – Resilience Principle – Will Work Well In Many Circumstances – But – It Can Also Lead To Systematic And Even Deadly Errors

~ ABAWATAWVOAEMCF-I-R-A-EB-ASAWAT-C-RTT-E-TVCLTPFITAR-AETPAFAOTUODSAHTDTDO-I-GM ~ A Better Approach Would Acknowledge That A Wide Variety Of Averse Effects May Come From – Inaction – Regulation – And – Everything Between – A Sensible Approach Would Attempt To – Counteract – Rather Than To – Embody – The Various Cognitive Limitations That People Face In Thinking About Risks – An Effort To Produce A Fair Accounting Of The Universe Of Dangers Should Also Help To Diminish The Dangers Of – Interest-Group Manipulation

~ PA-IIII-IIAH-A-IILTLTAH-‘RE’ ~ Public Alarm – Even If Ill Informed – Is Itself A Harm – And – It Is Likely To Lead To Additional Harms – “Ripple Effects”

~ WTP ~ Willingness To Pay

~ PA-ITVALP-A-IA-MOTT-WTAITDOT-‘S’-O-T-‘U’ ~ People Are – Insensitive To Variations Among Low Probabilities – And – Instead Ask – Much Of The Time – Whether They Are In The Domain Of The – “Safe” – Or – The – “Unsafe”

~ W-CSHTP ~ Worst-Case Scenarios Have Tremendous Power

~ C-S-AAS-ST-SB-O-C-IW-ARAAGE-MRFOPTA-U-C-CLPIMD-WAF-‘EM’-S-SFTDNMR ~ Cascades – Sometimes – Availability And Salience – Spread Through – Social Bandwagons – Or – Cascades – In Which – Apparently Representative Anecdotes And Gripping Examples – Move Rapidly From One Person To Another – Unfortunately – Cascades – Can Lead People In Mistaken Directions – With A Few – “Early Movers” – Spurring – Social Fear That Does Not Match Reality

~ F-IA-W-HEV-A-ELTS ~ Fear-Inducing Accounts – With – High Emotional Valence – Are – Especially Likely To Spread

~ GP-WIOITCO-F ~ Group Polarization – Will Inevitably Occur In The Context Of – Fear

~ B-IAS-MB-FONOTR-A-S-NRD ~ Both – Individuals And Societies – May Be – Fearful Of Nonexistent Or Trivial Risks – And – Simultaneously – Neglect Real Dangers

~ WCF-CRTWPCBA-IMSFTTA-A-CP ~ When Citizens Face – Catastrophic Risks To Which Probabilities Cannot Be Assigned – It Makes Sense For Them To Adopt An – Anti-Catastrophe Principle

~ WTW-CSITC-A-WPCBA-AL-MOS-MAGDOS ~ Where The Worst-Case Scenario Its Truly Catastrophic – And – When Probabilities Cannot Be Assigned – A Large – Margin Of Safety – Makes A Great Deal Of Sense

~ MOS ~ Margins Of Safety

~ IG-IIBTTPATDTTF-WTLOH? ~ In General – Isn’t It Best To Tell People About The Dangers That They Face – Whatever The Likelihood Of Harm?

~ AAOCAB-IAIIIT-AOR ~ An Accounting Of – Costs And Benefits – Is An Important Ingredient In The – Analysis Of Risks

~ W-F-LS-MWPFTITI ~ Well-Functioning – Legal Systems – Make Wrongdoers Pay For The Injuries They Inflict

~ TPE ~ Third Party Effects

~ T-OPS-A-U-W-TBIBLANWS ~ The – Ordinary Political Safeguards – Are – Unreliable – When – The Burdens Imposed By Law Are Not Widely Shared

~ ITCO-TTNS-IIPT-GWIOCLWAJ-HOCE ~ In The Context Of – Threats To National Security – It Is Predictable That – Governments Will Infringe On Civil Liberties Without Adequate Justification – History Offers Countless Examples

OWEN JONES ~ THE ESTABLISHMENT ~ 2014

~ T-E-INU-AIHAB-O-PG-TNTPTPIADIWATEAPHTRTV-TE-RAAOBOTGT-‘M’-D-TMSTIDNTTOI ~ Today’s – Establishment – Is Made Up – As It Has Always Been – Of – Powerful Groups – That Need To Protect Their Position In A Democracy In Which Almost The Entire Adult Population Has The Right To Vote – The Establishment – Represents An Attempt On Behalf Of These Groups To – “Manage” – Democracy – To Make Sure That It Does Not Threaten Their Own Interests

~ TSIOTME-ASOITHITRAJIPAB-ODA-‘N-L’-TDBOAFOCOTMCTSQ-TIIORA-‘F’-P-‘EF’-A-WIITLOI ~ The Shared Ideology Of The Modern Establishment – A Set Of Ideas That Helps It To Rationalize And Justify Its Position And Behavior – Often Described As – “Neo-Liberalism” – The Driving Back Of Any Form Of Collective Organization That Might Challenge The Status Quo – This Ideology Is Often Rationalized As – “Freedom” – Particularly – “Economic Freedom” – And – Wraps Itself In The Language Of Individualism

~ AWASM-TEICB-FL-A-A-‘RD’-C:TI-PI-GB-P/C/M-W-O-WMTITVWATST ~ As Well As Shared Mentality – The Establishment Is Cemented By – Financial Links – And – A – “Revolving Door” – Culture: That Is – Powerful Individuals – Gliding Between – Political / Corporate / Media – Worlds – Or – Who Manage To Inhabit These Various Worlds At The Same Time

~ YTIALFATHOET-IMATS-B-IICDOTSTF-BOB-S-FI-POP-RAD-AWEAGPE-TTUOWTLTLO-NS-AEOWCBDA-‘SFTR’

~ Yet There Is A Logical Flaw At The Heart Of Establishment Thinking – It May Abhor The State – But – It Is Completely Dependent On The State To Flourish – Bailed Out Banks – State-Funded Infrastructure – Protection Of Property – Research And Development – A Workforce Educated At Great Public Expense – The Topping Up Of Wages Too Low To Live On – Numerous Subsidies – All Examples Of What Could Be Described As – “Socialism For The Rich”

~ TEDNRTSID-AA-IITJOTMTSLOTBOTWP-I-JAPA-OCAATBOTATBOS ~ The Establishment Does Not Receive The Scrutiny It Deserves – After All – It Is The Job Of The Media To Shed Light On The Behaviour Of Those With Power – Instead – Journalists And Politicians Alike – Obsessively Critique And Attack The Behaviour Of Those At The Bottom Of Society

~ EAAWREIHBLDOOTIM ~ Economists And Academics Who Reject Establishment Ideology Have Been Largely Driven Out Of The Intellectual Mainstream

~ A-IR-C-HTDAAF-TP ~ Anti-Immigrant Rhetoric – Conveniently – Helps To Deflect Attention Away From – The Powerful

~ T-‘BIWI’-I-TPTE-AEMUDOWLTWPFTTHERTEGSOI ~ The – “Because I’m Worth It” – Ideology – That Permeates The Establishment – An Ever More Unequal Distribution Of Wealth Leaves Those With Power Feeling That They Have Every Right To Ever Greater Slices Of It

~ TEHR-UAU-FTL ~ The Establishment Has Remained – Unaccountable And Unchallenged – For Too Long

~ TO ~ The Outriders

~ GM-I-F-MG-TJ-RTWOTE ~ Government Minsters – Invoke – Free-Market Globalization – To Justify – Resisting The Will Of The Electorate

~ PHBACSFTP ~ Politics Has Become A Closed Shop For The Privileged

~ TMPACR-B-FTFATATB-OWCBO-D/M/OL-T-DS-FT-WAP-E-ATTOS-HAS-GT-TOATPOTE ~ The Media Play A Crucial Role – By – Focusing Their Fire At Those At The Bottom – Often With Coverage Based On – Distortions / Myths / Outright Lies – They – Deflect Scrutiny – From The – Wealthy And Powerful – Elite – At The Top Of Society – Hardly A Surprise – Given That ~ Their Owners Are Themselves Part Of That Elite

~ BOHABWTAR-MOTMTSAAHPDOTIOTWWAP ~ Because Of How And By Whom They Are Run – Much Of The Media Today Serves As A Highly Partisan Defender Of The Interests Of Those With Wealth And Power

~ TWHBI-C-MTETHAFAAW-TWSOOLFBTAWBAMT ~ The Workforce Has Become Increasingly – Causalized – Making Them Easy To Hire And Fire At A Whim – Those Who Step Out Of Line Face Being Tossed Aside With Barely A Moment’s Thought

~ TUOTPAAPFBTPGBALW ~ The Use Of The Police As A Partisan Force By The Powerful Goes Back A Long Way

~ TPHBTTT-W-CP-AT-‘EW’ ~ The Police Had Been Trained To Treat – Working-Class People – As The – “Enemy Within”

~ TNEPT-STIF-AY-IHBEMA-HMAMPTTP-LWSLI-W-MTCDOD ~ The New Establishment Promised To – Set The Individual Free – And Yet – It Has Become Ever More Authoritarian – Handing More And More Power To The Police – Laws With Seemingly Laudable Intentions – Were – Manipulated To Crack Down On Dissent

~ PA-BTECTHRBTFOTS-IAF-TSTUTE-P-OC-TIAOTEB ~ Police Authoritarianism – Belied The Establishment’s Claims To Have Rolled Back The Frontiers Of The State – In Actual Fact – The State Thrives Under The Establishment – Providing – Of Course – That It Acts On The Establishment’s Behalf

~ TE-F-MI-IOLMTAFF-PPAIPHATEOS ~ The Establishment’s – Free-Market Ideology – Is Often Little More Than A Front For – Placing Public Assets In Private Hands At The Expense Of Society

~ S-BW-TSPOPR-EB-AEPALS ~ Statism – Begins With – The State’s Protection Of Property Rights – Enforced By – An Expensive Police And Legal System

~ OA-TTSTR-W-TPWP-TGSAH-TTIETPUTT ~ Once Again – The Taxpayer Shouldered The Risk – While – The Profit Was Privatized – These Government Subsidies Are Huge – The Taxpayer Is Expected To Pick Up The Tab

~ TMOAS:BOOTB-AFSOAS-FL-SM-TSITTST-TRTINB ~ The Mother Of All Subsidies: Bailing Out Of The Banks – A Financial System On A State-Fuelled Life-Support Machine – The State Is There To Support Them – To Rescue Them If Needs Be

~ RAD-HB-N-A-CBTP-WTPEAP ~ Risk And Debt – Have Been – Nationalized – And – Carried By The Population – While The Profitable Elements Are Privatized

~ W-TS-IP-IIBAMFSFPC-APSR-WTR-‘S’-ATBF-N-ATBOS-B-ATT ~ With – The State – Increasingly Privatized – It Is Becoming A Mere Funding Stream For Private Companies – A Publicly Subsidized Racket – Were The Real – “Scroungers” – Are To Be Found – Not – At The Bottom Of Society – But – At The Top

~ TAT-D ~ Tycoons And Tax-Dogers

~ RCBCSAFTW ~ Rights Can Be Casually Striped Away From The Workforce

~ IWBT-WP-W-PUTTFTC-N-TRFI-A-WLCTA ~ It Would Be The – Working People – Who – Picked Up The Tab For The Crisis – Not – Those Responsible For It – And – With Little Calling To Account

~ HTTAIR:TCSBBOATCM ~ Here’s The Thing About Ideological Rationales: They Can Sometimes Be Based On All Too Convenient Mirages

~ TMEHB-F-TAUD-RDMGWTPOTF ~ The Modern Establishment Has Been – Financialized – To An Unprecedented Degree – Restoring Democracy Means Grappling With The Power Of The Financiers

~ ABRFSTISSTBDDBFC ~ A Badly Regulated Financial Sector That Is So Susceptible To Being Dragged Down By Foreign Crises

~ ‘GI’-CJ-CT-PET-O-CC-A-ETATF ~ “Green Industries” – Creating Jobs – Confront The – Potentially Existential Threat – Of – Climate Change – And – End The Addiction To Finance

~ A-DRW-DTPO-BM-FP-T ~ A – Democratic Revolution Would – Drive The Power Of – Big Money – From Politics – Too

~ PISAEW-CPWEOTSOITGASDNTT-SA-FW-UB-CC-A-SO ~ Politics Increasingly Sidelines And Excludes Working-Class People With Experience Of The Sorts Of Issues That Government And Society Desperately Need To Tackle – Such As – Falling Wages – Unpaid Bills – Childcare Costs – And – So On

~ AT-WW-LSAF-PAABFTPI-ATMABEATEOS-A-TH-WGO-WP-SS-RITW-A-SO-AB-SA ~ Across The – Western World – Living Standards Are Falling – Public Assets Are Being Flogged To Private Interest – A Tiny Minority Are Being Enriched At The Expense Of Society – And – The Hard-Won Gains Of – Working People – Social Security – Rights In The Workplace – And – So On – Are Being – Stripped Away

~ TMO-‘TINA’-I-P-TWADKOS-WB-I-M-A-BAINB ~ The Mantra Of – “There Is Not Alternative” – Is – Pervasive – Those Wanting A Different Kind Of Society – Will Be – Ignored – Marginalized – And – Bitterly Attacked If Needs Be

~ TIOEEITIIP ~ The Illusion Of Every Era Is That It Is Permanent

RICHARD THALER ~ MISBEHAVING ~ 2015

~ SIF ~ Supposedly Irrelevant Factors

~ TMWIWPDFTFCTPEM ~ The Myriad Ways In Which People Depart From The Fictional Creatures That Populate Economic Models

~ TPIWTMBUBE-AMTR-HS-WAFCC-HE-E-CTTFW-HDALOM-A-TMTEMMALOBP-PTCH-SC The Problem Is With The Model Being Used By Economists – A Model That Replaces – Homo Sapiens – With A Fictional Creature Called – Homo Economicus – Econ – Compared To This Fictional World – Humans Do A Lot Of Misbehaving – And – That Means That Economic Models Make A Lot Of Bad Predictions – Predictions That Can Have – Serious Consequences

~ TPOWETRAF ~ The Premises On Which Economic Theory Rests Are Flawed

~ TBUWPMTCANU-TA-C-B ~ The Beliefs Upon Which People Make Their Choices Are Not Unbiased – There Are – Countless – Biases

~ O-MNBIT-ED-BIIAW-EFOHN ~ Overconfidence – May Not Be In The – Economists’ Dictionary – But – It Is A Well-Established Feature Of Human Nature

~ WNAEATDPER-OTATEAROH ~ We Need An Enriched Approach To Doing – Economic Research – One That Acknowledges The Existence And Relevance Of Humans

~ TBOTATEIAE-SNBD-TRUASPFMRM ~ Theories Based On The Assumption That Everyone Is A Econ – Should Not Be Discarded – They Remain Useful As Starting Points For More Realistic Models

~ IYBT-FBATI-A-YAACB-TYCMSM ~ If You Believe That – Financial Bubbles Are Theoretically Impossible – And – You Are A Central Banker – Then You Can Make Serious Mistakes

~ TPRFAHTETITITAOTPMWTT ~ The Primary Reason For Adding Humans To Economic Theories Is To Improve The Accuracy Of The Predictions Made With Those Theories

~ ‘SL’-‘IL’ ~ “Statistical Life” / “Identified Life”

~ T-OC-OSAIWYGUBDI-OCAVAA-WCT-HOAC ~ The – Opportunity Cost – Of Some Activity Is What You Give Up By Doing It – Opportunity Costs Are Vague And Abstract – When Compared To – Handing Over Actual Cash

~ PTALITO-C-N-L-WF-DS-TB-GAL-A-LSMTE-SGFG ~ People Think About Life In Terms Of – Changes – Not – Levels – We Feel – Diminishing Sensitivity – To Both – Gains And Losses – And – Losses Sting More Than Equivalently-Sized Gains Feel Good

~ TIH ~ The Invisible Handwave

~ TINLWTAAACTMTPIRA-OCATMPWSBR-EIMIADH ~ There Is No Logical Way To Arrive At A Conclusion That Markets Transform People Into Rational Agents – One Can Argue That Market Prices Will Still Be Rational – Even If Many Individuals Are Decidedly Human

~ OYUA-BP-YCSIA-BS-IT ~ Once You Understand A – Behavioral Problem – You Can Sometimes Invent A – Behavioral Solution – To It

~ AAPIT-AICOTS-TIAF-L-“P”-WHGIACATF-A-A-D-MC-‘D’-WLFTP ~ At Any Point In Time – An Individual Consists Of Two Selves – There Is A Forward-Looking – “Planner” – Who Has Good Intentions And Cares About The Future – And – A – Devil-May-Care – “Doer” – Who Lives For The Present

~ T-R-T-E/T/E-A-L-IATC ~ The – Reluctance – To – Experiment / Test / Evaluate – And – Learn – Is All Too Common

~ OIAPF ~ Overconfidence Is A Powerful Force

~ WSF? ~ What Seems Fair?

~ A-PG-IOTECCWDTCOAE-A-IIITEAFCI ~ A – Public Good – Is One That Everyone Can Consume Without Diminishing The Consumption Of Anyone Else – And – It Is Impossible To Exclude Anyone From Consuming It

~ PAWTSSOTOMTTALTTWBU-A-TWTP-DPF-R-A-K-RCR-S ~ People Are Willing To Spend Some Of Their Own Money To Teach A Lesson To Those Who Behave Unfairly – And – This Willingness To Punish – Disciplines Potential Free Riders – And – Keeps – Robust Cooperation Rates – Stable

~ L-AR-TAP-A-G-A-P ~ Losses – Are Roughly – Twice As Painful – As – Gains – Are – Pleasurable

~ R(MO)-I-NNNS-TD-GET ~ Rationality (Meaning Optimization) – Is – Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient – To Do – Good Economic Theory

~ IPAL-TTTBMF ~ If People Are Laughing – They Tend To Be More Forgiving

~ OC-NFEATT-A-TUDSWAC ~ Of Course – New Fields Emerge All The Time – And – They Usually Do So Without Any Coordination

~ A-M ~ Anomaly-Mining

~ ‘CC’ ~ “Conditional Cooperators”

~ IWAIWHDAUATHALFAWTCTCOTBC ~ It Was As If We Had Discovered A Unicorn And Then Had A Long Fight About What To Call The Color Of The Beast’s Coat

~ TPIOW-A-S-VW ~ The Price Is Often Wrong – And – Sometimes – Very Wrong

~ IP-MSTIAAMOFTPAAR-TWNSANTTPA-B-OWGTBAP-A-TPSATBFTF-ICMSFP-MTLATWISW ~ If Policy-Makers Simply Take It As A Matter Of Faith That Prices Are Always Right – They Will Never See Any Need To Take Preventive Action – But – Once We Grant That Bubbles Are Possible – And – The Private Sector Appears To Be Feeding The Frenzy – It Can Make Sense For Policy-Makers To Lean Against The Wind In Some Way

~ ‘PD’ ~ “Path Dependence”

~ TGATT-IHTASQ ~ To Get At The Truth – It Helps To Ask Specific Questions

~ SMT ~ Save More Tomorrow

~ LP ~ Libertarian Paternalism

~ A-N-ISSFITETAOAAIB-NAEFH-B-NFE-SEAADTRT ~ A – Nudge – Is Some Small Feature In The Environment That Attracts Our Attention And Influences Behavior – Nudges Are Effective For Humans – But – Not For Econs – Since Econs Are Already Doing The Right Thing

~ ‘PC’ ~ “Prompted Choice”

~ WDWH-WM ~ When Dealing With Humans – Words Matter

~ IYWPTCWSNOR-IIAGSTIT(IT)-TMOPC ~ If You Want People To Comply With Some Norm Or Rule – It Is A Good Strategy To Inform Them (If True) – That Most Other People Comply

~ EN-MBB-TAT ~ Ethical Nudges – Must Be Both – Transparent And True

~ IYWTESTDS-MIE ~ If You Want To Encourage Someone To Do Something – Make It Easy

~ WCD-E-BP-WE ~ We Can’t Do – Evidence-Based Policy – Without Evidence

~ ISC-SI-AS-RTPWMOFTDS ~ In Some Cases – Successful Interventions – Are Simply – Reminders To People Who Might Otherwise Forget To Do Something

~ TOPAOITSCD-EDTCPYW ~ The Only Protection Against Overconfidence Is To Systematically Collect Data – Especially Data That Can Prove You Wrong

~ T-IOE-EE-T-O-CD-A-SP ~ The – Ideal Organizational Environment – Encourages Everyone – To – Observe – Collect Data – And – Speak Up

JASON STANLEY ~ HOW PROPAGANDA WORKS ~ 2015

~ TLOHSTHATPTC-TFOTOI-W-TCG-A-T-SEF-W-OF ~ The Lessons Of History Show That Humans Are Too Prone To Confuse – The Furtherance Of Their Own Interests – With – The Common Good – And – Their – Subjective Explanatory Framework – With Objective Fact

~ S-W-M-P-CB-DBS-I-I-WPP ~ Sincere – Well-Meaning – People – Can Be – Deceived By Self-Interest – Into – Unwittingly Producing Propaganda

~ WSAU-WCETEO-FI-IASIU-DTUDBP-WORUPBOIRAUB-TBATBTRTAE-T-PE ~ When Societies Are Unjust – We Can Expect The Emergence Of – Flawed Ideologies – In A Society That Is Unjust – Due To Unjust Distinctions Between Persons – Ways Of Rationalizing Undeserved Privilege Become Ossified Into Rigid And Unchangeable Belief – Those Beliefs Are The Barriers To Rational Thought And Empathy – That – Propaganda Exploits

~ HPRUTEOFIPIS ~ Harmful Propaganda Relies Upon The Existence Of Flawed Ideologies Present In Society

~ TIAPDOTI:ITTLT-EB-T-TAOK-OT-ID ~ There Is A Powerful Democratic Objection To Inequality: Inequality Tends To Lead To – Epistemic Barriers – To – The Acquisition Of Knowledge – Ones That – Imperil Democracy

~ FI-IAOTROG-OTOH-TBFLMIQTTAFIITFO-FLN-OTOH-TSMFLI-WBLTAA-FIOTOI-TWPTFRTMI ~ Flawed Ideology – Is An Obstacle To Realizing One’s Goals – On The One Hand – Those Benefiting From Large Material Inequalities Will Tend To Adopt Flawed Ideologies In The Form Of – False Legitimation Narratives – On The Other Hand – Those Suffering Materially From Large Inequalities – Will Be Led To Adopt A – Flawed Ideology Of Their Own Inferiority – This Will Prevent Them From Realizing Their Material Interests

~ ASIOA-DS-IIPSCO-L-AIHV-A-AF-PE ~ A System Is Only A – Democratic System – If It Places Some Conception Of – Liberty – As Its Highest Value – And – Allows For – Political Equality

~ IIUSTMTNOAARWTU-O-ROS-V ~ It Is Utterly Standard To Mask The Nature Of An Authoritarian Regime With The Use – Of – Revolutionary Or Socialist – Vocabulary

~ PICPOTMBWPBDAHBTRTG-A-H-DFSWIITOBI-PS-C-‘E’-R ~ Propaganda Is Characteristically Part Of The Mechanism By Which People Become Deceived About How Best To Realize Their Goals – And – Hence – Deceived From Seeing What Is In Their Own Best Interests – Propaganda Short-Circuits – “Economic” – Rationality

~ ‘DD’-GL-I-HOI-DBTRODWPATCG ~ “Democratic Deliberation” – Genuine Liberty – Is – Having One’s Interests – Decided By The Result Of Deliberation With Peers About The Common Good

~ TPUOTLOLD ~ The Propagandistic Use Of The Language Of Liberal Democracy

~ TIOMOPMTVAPWANCOOAT-VB-CWAATRTTSRTR-FCASIAWO-TIOWAP ~ The Influence Of Money On Politics Means That Voters Are Presented With A Narrow Choice Of Options At The – Voter’s Booth – Candidates Who Are Able To Raise The Titanic Sums Required To Run – From Corporate And Special Interests And Wealthy Oligarchs – The Interests Of Wealth And Power

~ IA-MS-TGGI-E ~ In A – Managerial Society – The Greatest Good Is – Efficiency

~ E-MBAV-B-IINA-DV ~ Efficiency – May Be A Value – But – It Is Not A – Democratic Value

~ APTPTBFTDIBBOTB ~ Austerity Policies To Pay The Banks For The Debt Incurred By Bailing Out The Banks

~ IINAT-CSTINA-WFF-AA-A-‘WFF’ ~ It Is Not Atypical To – Call Something That Is Not A – War For Freedom – At All – A – “War For Freedom”

~ VOP:AITRIADBACPI-Y-WPTTUTROTI ~ Vehicle Of Propaganda: An Institution That Represents Itself As Defined By A Certain Political Idea – Yet – Whose Practice Tends To Undermine The Realization Of That Ideal

~ FIB-CRD ~ Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Corrode Rational Debate

~ LAAMOC ~ Language As A Mechanism Of Control

~ G-IOPB-D-EILAPF ~ Genocide – Is Often Preceded By – Dehumanization – Expressed In Linguistic And Pictorial Form

~ TATIWTFAS-IARASFOPD ~ The Attempt To Introduce Words That Function As Slurs – Is A Regular And Systematic Feature Of Political Debate

~ A-CB-IOTWWBRTGU-EA-TABIWMIDT-RR-TMBNITBTII-C-W-B-TBAPBDOTCTC-C-P ~ A – Cherished Belief – Is One That We Will Be Reluctant To Give Up – Emotional Attachment – To A Belief Is What Makes It Difficult To – Rationally Revise – There May Be Nothing In The Beliefs That Is Intrinsically – Cherish-Worthy – But – The Beliefs Are Preserved By Dint Of Their Connection To Certain – Cherished – Practices

~ A-IB-I-CTIA/OS-I-A-TTCTIOM ~ An – Ideological Belief – Is – Connected To Identity And/Or Self-Interest – And – Tends To Contribute To Its Own Maintenance

~ OPF-AIWA-AB-BB-AAR-PI-CBASO-FIB ~ Our Perceptual Faculties – As Is Widely Agreed – Affected By – Background Beliefs – As A Result – Perception Itself – Can Be A Source Of – Flawed Ideological Belief

~ IINCTASOUPATFOEPB ~ It Is Now Clear That All Sorts Of Unconscious Processes Affect The Formation Of Even Perceptual Beliefs

~ DS-R-ACO-PE-I-GRT-FIB ~ Democratic Society – Requires – A Culture Of – Political Equality – Inequalities – Give Rise To – Flawed Ideological Beliefs

~ MTEIA ~ Mechanisms That Enable Illegitimate Authority

~ TBTTTAICOSI-SA-BITIOOG-O-OO-TTU-DI-SA-R ~ The Beliefs That Tend To Arise In Conditions Of Stark Inequality – Such As – Belief In The Inferiority Of Other Groups – Or – One’s Own – Tend To Undermine – Democratic Ideals – Such As – Reasonableness

~ ICBFIACS-TAF-ITRS-WTFAPBTTAOK ~ Ideologies Can Be Flawed In A Certain Sense – They Are Flawed – In The Relevant Sense – When They Function As Persistent Barriers To The Acquisition Of Knowledge

~ TATDKOFI-ATCOPP-TATFIB-TWCORTTD-A-TFIB-TWCORTTD ~ There Are Two Different Kinds Of Flawed Ideologies – At The Center Of Political Philosophy – These Are The Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Those With Control Of Resources Tend To Develop – And – The Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Those Without Control Of Resources Tend To Develop

~ SIADP-WONTIAJBDIM ~ Substantial Inequalities Are Democratically Problematic – Whether Or Not These Inequalities Are Justified By Differences In Merit

~ IINTETTWABIAPGWH-FIB-CTPTH-IP-TWBTDTPTO-AAROAF-SABP ~ It Is Natural To Expect That Those Who Are Born Into A Privileged Group Will Have – Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Concerning The Privileges They Have – In Particular – They Will Believe They Deserve The Privileges They Obtain – As A Result Of Accidental Forces – Such As Birth Position

~ AHPG-TH-SOTIC-TITTHATSTM-MOTHPG-TCOTMATES-WMIPOT-DN-OTS-TTGOSAJD-ATM-RT-AOBP ~ All Highly Privileged Groups – Throughout History – Share One Thing In Common – The Ideology That They Have Achieved Their Success Through Merit – Members Of The Highly Privileged Group – Through Control Of The Media And The Education System – Will Make It Part Of The – Dominant Narrative – Of The Society – That The Goods Of Society Are Justify Distributed – According To Merit – Rather Than – Accident Of Birth Position

~ TRO-‘D’-A-SCBE-FTPO-SE ~ The Redefinition Of – “Democracy” – As – Social Control By Elites – For The Purposes Of – Social Efficiency

~ DIASIWTCVA-AAE-ASIWOGOPMCFTMOTPI-TOOD ~ Democracy Is A System In Which The Chief Values Are – Autonomy And Equality – A System In Which One Group Of People Makes Choices For The Majority Of The Population Is – The Opposite Of Democracy

~ OC-EANIAD-H-WCLEDMOV ~ Of Course – Experts Are Needed In A Democracy – However – We Cannot Let Experts Dictate Matters Of Value

~ TTAJ:HA-CCA-C-ROVSAADL-CAAI-AC-YO-H-L/B/S/D/DCA-AAM-AE ~ Trying To Achieve Justice: Human Agency – Carefully Crafted Appeals – Consciousness-Raising Of Various Sorts And At Differing Levels – Cultural And Artistic Innovations – Aesthetic Challenges – Years Of – Human – Labour / Blood / Death / Suffering / Dreams / Direct Collective Action – All And More – Are Essential

~ RSM-ITTAAVADOTMO-IIO-R-T-SMAVA-STTPIWTMMS ~ Radical Social Movements – In Their Time Are Always Viewed As Disturbances Of The Moral Order – It Is Only – Retrospectively – That – Social Movements Are Viewed As – Speaking Truth To Power In Ways That Make Moral Sense

~ THNOSM-F-T-E-PR-OB-C-OITSOTMT-TPTA-A-NS ~ The Heroic Narrative Of Social Movements – Faces – The Ever-Present Risk – Of Being – Co-Opted In The Service Of The Message That – The Problems They Addressed – Are – Now Solved

EMILY ESFAHANI SMITH ~ THE POWER OF MEANING ~ 2017

~ WLHM-ITO-L-O-DQ-T-P-HEAAATA-II-TMIQOA ~ Whether Life Has Meaning – Is The Only – Life-Or-Death Question – That – Philosophy – Has Ever Asked And Attempted To Answer – It Is – The Most Important Question Of All

~ WLFREOTW-A-SOAU-B-TWI-C/D/S ~ We Long For Rational Explanations Of The World – And – Seek Order And Unity – But – The World Is – Chaotic / Disordered / Senseless

~ TFPOM:B/P/S/T ~ The Four Pillars Of Meaning: Belonging / Purpose / Storytelling / Transcendence

~ ASOB-CIA-TMIDOM ~ A Sense Of Belonging – Clocks In As – The Most Important Driver Of Meaning

~ P-NMT-FAS-T-LFAHL-TNN-LAC-TN-TBTS ~ People – Need More That – Food And Shelter – To – Live Full And Healthy Lives – They Need – Love And Care – They Need – To Belong To Someone

~ AS-PASLTWFAN-A-MTIFO-T/P/C ~ Across Society – People Are Spending Less Time With Friends And Neighbors – And – More Time In Front Of – Television / Phone / Computer

~ SE-I-ATTM ~ Social Exclusion – Is – A Threat To Meaning

~ TSMOR-CKTMOOAC-AEA-TSMOBCBIU ~ The Smallest Moment Of Rejection – Can Knock The Meaning Out Of A Connection – As Easily As – The Smallest Moment Of Belonging Can Build It Up

~ C-LATCO-B ~ Compassion – Lies At The Center Of – Belonging

~ MGT-HAT-IOFIT-LML-TMCT-S/T/C-TLWT-A-UTFTBOO ~ Many Great Thinkers – Have Argued That – In Order For Individuals To – Live Meaningful Lives – They Must Cultivate The – Strengths / Talents / Capacities – That Lie Within Them – And – Use Them For The Benefit Of Others

~ ETMTTCBMPWTBTPYL ~ Even The Most Tedious Tasks Can Be Made Purposeful When They Benefit The People You Love

~ NAOUW-FOC-B-TDMWC-FP ~ Not All Of Us Will – Find Our Calling – But – That Doesn’t Mean We Can’t – Find Purpose

~ EOUHA-COP-F/C/W-WLWCI-TALECLB ~ Each Of Us Has A – Circle Of People – Families / Communities / Work – Whose Lives We Can Improve – That’s A Legacy Everyone Can Leave Behind

~ OSIEFAD-SNAHS:TNTMSOTW-SAPEWICTDOI-UWWAAHWGTW ~ Our Storytelling Impulse Emerges From A Deep-Seated Need All Humans Share: The Need To Make Sense Of The World – Stories Are Particularly Essential When It Comes To Defining Our Identity – Understanding Who We Are And How We Got That Way

~ O-S-TTFOTM-EE-OOL-GAB-B-TATETWNTMSO-TATETSU ~ Our – Stories – Tend To Focus On The Most – Extraordinary Events – Of Our Lives – Good And Bad – Because – Those Are The Experiences That We Need To Make Sense Of – Those Are The Experiences That Shape Us

~ T-O-OA-RS-I-A-‘CS’ ~ The – Opposite – Of A – Redemptive Story – Is – A – “Contamination Story”

~ WAATAOOOSACCTCTWWTT ~ We Are All The Authors Of Our Own Stories And Can Choose To Change The Way We’re Telling Them

~ BWAFMISTBO ~ But We Also Find Meaning In Stories Told By Others

~ A-BWM-WUTS-BAGWOA-DARR-O-ITHDR-CTU ~ A – Brush With Mystery – Whether Underneath The Stars – Before A Gorgeous Work Of Art – During A Religious Ritual – Or – In The Hospital Delivery Room – Can Transform Us

~ TE-CL-D-SP-W-Y-STTCAPUTGIWTUMUWAOLMF-WDSBROTPO-B/P/S/T-ITPAS-WBATLOTWAS-B-I-TPCOFAAROAST-WCRTTBESAMR ~ Traumatic Experiences – Can Leave – Deep – Sometimes Permanent – Wounds – Yet – Struggling Through Them Can Also Push Us To Grow In Ways That Ultimately Make Us Wiser And Our Lives More Fulfilling – We Do So By Relying On The Pillars Of – Belonging / Purpose / Storytelling / Transcendence – If Those Pillars Are Strong – We’ll Be Able To Lean On Them When Adversity Strikes – But – If – The Pillars Crumble Or Fall As A Result Of A Shattering Trauma – We Can Rebuild Them To Be Even Stronger And More Resilient

~ VRE-A-FBOP-DNLT-HB-B-SAT-W-D-IHUMBO-IER-T-SD-EWIUH ~ Venting Raw Emotions – And – Falling Back On Platitudes – Does Not Lead To – Health Benefits – But – Sustained And Thoughtful – Writing – Does – It Helps Us Move Beyond Our – Initial Emotional Reactions – To – Something Deeper – Expressive Writing Is Uniquely Healing

~ COM ~ Cultures Of Meaning

~ HMIL-HBAW-L-BIF-A-MGMITB ~ Having Meaning In Life – Has Been Associated With – Longevity – Better Immune Functioning – And – More Gray Matter In The Brain

~ WT-SOD-OLPTCTT-L-A-M-ICABA-C-FTTWO-ATHNDB-TMOTL ~ While The – Specter Of Death – Often Leads People To Conclude That Their – Lives – Are – Meaningless – It Can Also Be A – Catalyst – For Them To Work Out – As They Have Never Done Before – The Meaning Of Their Lives

SHOSHANA ZUBOFF ~ HOW IS IT THAT THIS MARKET FORM HAS BEEN ABLE TO SUCCEED? ~ THE AGE OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM ~ 2019

~ U-IWITRTWIWTDFATHGB ~ Unprecedented – It Was Impossible To Recognize The Ways In Which They Differed From Anything That Had Gone Before

~ DAI-TC-AIRTBOA-TTOEATIID-TCOOADOTUOTD-TPSATTKUIOIP-A-TIOTCOLRFTO ~ Declaration As Invasion – The Corporation – Asserted Its Rights To Bypass Our Awareness – To Take Our Experience And Transform It Into Data – To Claim Ownership Of And Decisions Over The Uses Of Those Data – To Produce Strategies And Tactics That Keep Us Ignorant Of Its Practices – And – To Insist On The Conditions Of Lawlessness Required For These Operations

~ HC-SCFSITNZTEGROBWT-T-‘WOT’-STGAFPTS ~ Historical Context – Surveillance Capitalism Found Shelter In The Neoliberal Zeitgeist That Equated Government Regulation Of Business With Tyranny – The – “War On Terror” – Shifted The Government’s Attention From Privacy To Surveillance

~ F-SRWEAAO ~ Fortifications – Strong Relationships With Elected And Appointed Officials

~ TDC-AIAP ~ The Dispossession Cycle – Audacious Incursions Are Pursued

~ D-FS-TMO-SP-BCWTMO-BM ~ Dependency – Free Services – The Means Of – Social Participation – Become Coextensive With The Means Of – Behavioral Modification

~ S-I-N-O-FT/P/C/C-WRDO-TPI ~ Self-Interest – Networks – Of – Fellow Travelers / Partners / Collaborators / Customers – Whose Revenues Depend On – The Prediction Imperative

~ I-WSM-E/S/C-F-SOOI-LA-AI-CFLA-LAR-P ~ Inclusion – With So Much – Energy / Success / Capital – Flowing – Standing Outside Of It – Let Alone – Against It – Can Feel Like A – Lonely And Risky – Prospect

~ I-MP-IWAA-SC-A-RTA-RM ~ Identification – Many People – Identify With And Admire – Surveillance Capitalists – And – Regard Them As – Role Models

~ A-AOTF-G-TNF-S-TMABR ~ Authority – Authorities On The Future – Geniuses – The Naturalistic Fallacy – Successful – They Must Also Be Right

~ SP-AECOBR ~ Social Persuasion – An Endless Cascade Of Beguiling Rhetoric

~ FA-T-‘DONA’ ~ Foreclosed Alternatives – The – “Dictatorship Of No Alternatives”

~ I-N-IF-P-A-STNP-WFI-R ~ Inevitablism ~ New – Institutional Facts – Proliferate – And – Stabilize The New Practices – We Fall Into – Resignation

~ TIOHF-AW-T-F-HM-AWIAIONTROIOF ~ The Ideology Of Human Frailty – A Worldview – That – Frames – Human Mentation – As Woefully Irrational And Incapable Of Noticing The Regularity Of Its Own Failure

~ I-IIITUSTHB-CIS-A-DAFI ~ Ignorance – It Is Impossible To Understand Something That Has Been – Crafted In Secrecy – And – Designed As Fundamentally Illegible

~ V-FITDIRT ~ Velocity – From Invention To Domination In Record Time

SHOSHANA ZUBOFF ~ THE AGE OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM ~ 2019

~ HOE-IT-DF ~ Home Or Exile – In The – Digital Future

~ HOE?-LOS?-MOS?-TAETO-K-A-A-P-TCNBSFAT-TINEOH;EGMAIWAIANTRUTRTCIEA ~ Home Or Exile? – Lord Or Subject? – Master Or Slave? – These Are Eternal Themes Of – Knowledge – Authority – And – Power – That Can Never Be Settled For All Time – There Is No End Of History; Each Generation Must Assert Its Will And Imagination As New Threats Require Us To Retry The Case In Every Age

~ WCTNWFTMWIWIEOCAP-B-IHB-WNTO-A-D-A-V-ATSOAPFSA ~ We Celebrate The Networked World For The Many Ways In Which It Enriches Our Capabilities And Prospects – But – It Has Birthed – Whole New Territories Of – Anxiety – Danger – And – Violence – As The Sense Of A Predictable Future Slips Away

~ ‘MOBM’-SC-BANSOP-I-IP-KASHBTOE ~ “Means Of Behavioral Modification” – Surveillance Capitalism – Births A New Species Of Power – Instrumentarianism – Instrumentarian Power – Knows And Shapes Human Behavior Toward Others’ Ends

~ SC–QRTTCDATW-A-TD ~ Surveillance Capitalists – Quickly Realized That They Could Do Anything They Wanted – And – They Did

~ SCACATETTIIMFFB-UAIKATPTATK-VDONK-FU-B-NFU ~ Surveillance Capitalism’s Actual Customers Are The Enterprises That Trade In Its Markets For Future Behavior – Unprecedented Asymmetries In Knowledge And The Power That Accrues To Knowledge – Vast Domains Of New Knowledge – From Us – But – Not For Us

~ SC-IA-RFDB-NEI-T-DSN-A-NT-ER-AW-IA-TAETTVPOA-DS ~ Surveillance Capitalism – Is A – Rogue Force Driven By – Novel Economic Imperatives – That – Disregard Social Norms – And – Nullify The – Elemental Rights – Associated With – Individual Autonomy – That Are Essential To The Very Possibility Of A – Democratic Society

~ JAICFATEONANTTCUTE-AICSBSCAINIP-WTATEOHNAWTTCUUH ~ Just As Industrial Civilization Flourished At The Expense Of Nature And Now Threatens To Cost Us The Earth – An Information Civilization Shaped By Surveillance Capitalism And Its New Instrumentarian Power – Will Thrive At The Expense Of Human Nature And Will Threaten To Cost Us Our Humanity

~ TU-OEFSCMTFATA:IIU-TUINU-WWESU-WAIITTLOFC-TRIPTWIU-ICBAGWOEC ~ The Unprecedented – One Explanation For Surveillance Capitalism’s Many Triumphs Floats Above The All: It Is Unprecedented – The Unprecedented Is Necessarily Unrecognizable – When We Encounter Something Unprecedented – We Automatically Interpret It Through The Lenses Of Familiar Categories – Thereby Rendering Invisible Precisely That Which Is Unprecedented – It Cannot Be Adequately Grasped With Our Existing Concepts

~ TI-DNE-TAA-E-M-N-E-IT ~ Technological Inevitability – Does Not Exist – Technologies Are Always – Economic – Means – Not – Ends – In Themselves

~ ADO-EDG-HFTMT-PAONE-A-T-EI-TIP-TMPHCTFEFTF-E-RAV-ATOR ~ A Decade Of – Explosive Digital Growth – Had Failed To Mitigate The – Punishing Austerity Of Neoliberal Economics – And – The – Extreme Inequality – That It Produced – Too Many People Had Come To Feel Excluded From The Future – Embracing – Rage And Violence – As Their Only Remedies

~ ‘TRTBF’ ~ “The Right To Be Forgotten”

~ FE-UT-OE-T-FACOPC-T-PTIFPC ~ Financial Elites – Use Their – Outsized Earnings – To – Fund A Cycle Of Political Capture – That – Protects Their Interests From Political Challenge

~ CSNBER-IIMTB-C-B-ADSAII-B-RCIA ~ Capitalism Should Not Be Eaten Raw – It Is Meant To Be – Cooked – By – A Democratic Society And Its Institutions – Because – Raw Capitalism Is Antisocial

~ TPOV-SA-F-NA-B ~ The Patterns Of Violations – Signalled A – Feature – Not A – Bug

~ CTTSOTI ~ Challenges To The Sanctity Of The Individual

~ TRTTFT-A-TRTS ~ The Right To The Future Tense – And – The Right To Sanctuary

~ WHYTI-TP-A-NFO-CA-TEA-TPRTAHF ~ We Have Yet To Invent – The Politics – And – New Forms Of – Collaborative Action – That Effectively Assert – The People’s Right To A Human Future

~ NAIIWOI ~ Not All Information Is Worthy Of Immortality

~ BS ~ Beharioral Surplus

~ BM ~ Behavioral Modification

~ WHBRA-WM-‘DE’-WA-A-CE ~ What Had Been Regarded As – Waste Material – “Data Exhaust” – Was Quickly – A – Critical Element

~ BVRC-BD-A-RITIOTPOS-W-RAS-STALAMCU-T-RM-THBSUT-IQ-WNABPTUITSO-TATIU ~ Behavioral Value Reinvestment Cycle – Behavioral Data – Are – Reinvested In The Improvement Of The Product Or Service – Was – Rapidly And Secretly – Subordinated To A Larger And More Complex Undertaking – The – Raw Materials – That Had Been Solely Used To – Improve Quality – Would Now Also Be Put To Use In The Service Of – Targeting Advertising To Individual Users

~ BD-AFUB-SI-CA-S-‘UPI’ ~ Behavioral Data – Available For Uses Beyond – Service Improvement – Constituted A – Surplus – “User Profile Information”

~ SC-INA-IRODT-NII-ANEOIC ~ Surveillance Capitalism – Is Not An – Inherent Result Of Digital Technology – Nor Is It – A Necessary Expression Of Information Capitalism

~ UWNLEIT-BR-TMTOE-A-NEL-BO-F-TAS-STGNOP-ILL-A-TLI-TSPOTB ~ Users Were No Longer Ends In Themselves – But Rather – The Means To Others’ Ends – A – New Economic Logic – Based On – Fortune-Telling And Selling – Serving The Genuine Needs Of People – Is Less Lucrative – And – Therefore Less Important – Than Selling Predictions Of Their Behavior

~ TKP-TEOTE-ITROOLABDFTSOO-IC-OU ~ The Key Point – The Essence Of The Exploitation – Is The Rendering Of Our Lives As Behavioral Data For The Sake Of Others’ – Improved Control – Of Us

~ DR-V-BOEKTTIADTM ~ Decisions Rights – Vanish – Before One Even Knows That There Is A Decision To Make

~ BFM-TNPSAOIAA-TS-CBATMOD ~ Behavioral Futures Markets – The New Prediction Systems Are Only Incidentally About Ads – The Systems – Can Be Applied To Many Other Domains

~ DD ~ Digital Dispossession

~ IA-A-ID-T-PHDR ~ Intelligence Agencies – Are – Irresistibly Drawn – To – Privately Held Data Resources

~ LAANR ~ Lawlessness As A Natural Right

~ PK-DFBS-CA-HCWE ~ Predictive Knowledge – Derived From Behavioral Surplus – Could Also – Help Candidates Win Elections

~ GAS-A-M-S-B-SR ~ Goods And Services – Are – Merely – Surveillance-Bound – Supply Routes

~ TDC:I/H/A/R ~ The Dispossession Cycle: Incursion / Habituation / Adaptation / Redirection

~ I-W-A/K/A ~ Incursion – Without – Authorization / Knowledge / Agreement

~ A-SRE-ABPO-M-AC-S-P ~ A – Single Rogue Engineer – A Brilliant Piece Of – Misdirection – A Classic – Scapegoating – Ploy

~ IYANOOM-YDNE ~ If You Are Not On Our Map – You Do Not Exist

~ S-A-A-S ~ Surveillance-As-A-Service

~ WK?/WD?/WDWD?~ Who Knows? / Who Decides? / Who Decides Who Decides?

~ RSC-IAMATTS-AIITC ~ Raw Surveillance Capitalism – Is As Much A Threat To Society – As It Is To Capitalism

~ O-ER-T-TFT-WI-TRTAFOTIOIFT-OOOA-T-I-M-A-C-OB ~ Our – Elemental Right – To – The Future Tense – Which Is – The Right To Act Free Of The Influence Of Illegitimate Forces That – Operate Outside Our Awareness – To – Influence – Modify – And – Condition – Our Behavior

~ UC-INJA-KM-IIA-AM-DTP-MC-AU-A-FT ~ Ubiquitous Computing – Is Not Just A – Knowing Machine – It Is An – Actuating Machine – Designed To Produce – More Certainty – About Us – And – For Them

~ TKTNDOFIP ~ The Knowledge That Now Displaces Our Freedom Is Proprietary

~ OWW ~ Observation Without Witness

~ YAN-TP-YA-TAC-T-‘P’-DFTSTIRFYL ~ You Are Not – The Product – You Are – The Abandoned Carcass – The – “Product” – Derives From The Surplus That Is Ripped From Your Life

~ P-N-OOTMOBM-BO ~ Power – Now – Ownership Of The Means Of Behavioral Modification – Big Other

~ EUHAH ~ Every Unicorn Has A Hunter

~ TMOTBABOANGDTGTTIOTCS ~ Too Many Of The Best And Brightest Of A New Generation Devote Their Genius To The Intensification Of The Click-Stream

~ B-T-F-‘FC’-L/L/M/B ~ Behavior – The – Fourth – “Fictional Commodity” – Land / Labor / Money / Behavior

~ TANINT-D-N-BR-HN ~ The Aim Now Is Not To – Dominate – Nature – But Rather – Human Nature

CAROL TAVRIS + ELLIOT ARONSON ~ MISTAKES WERE MADE (BUT NOT BY ME) ~ 2007

~ TETD-S-J-TETPTNTJOAAD-ETWO-ITUF-‘CD’-ASOT-TOWAPHT-C(I/A/B/O)-TA-PI-WEO ~ The Engine That Drives – Self-Justification – The Energy That Produces The Need To Justify Our Actions And Decisions – Especially The Wrong Ones – Is The Unpleasant Feeling – “Cognitive Dissonance” – A State Of Tension – That Occurs When A Person Holds Two – Cognitions (Ideas / Attitudes / Beliefs / Opinions) – That Are – Psychologically Inconsistent – With Each Other

~ DID-B-THTITCEO-ITFW-A-A-WACWSOLTTCOTOEINA ~ Dissonance Is Disquieting – Because – To Hold Two Ideas That Contradict Each Other – Is To Flirt With – Absurdity – And – We Are Creatures Who Spend Our Lives Trying To Convince Ourselves That Our Existence Is Not Absurd

~ IAPVGTADOPE-IOTAS-GOO-T-GOO-B-MA ~ If A Person Voluntarily Goes Through A Difficult Or Painful Experience – In Order To Attain Some – Goal Or Object – That – Goal Or Object – Becomes – More Attractive

~ OWAIIABAHJIW-COMILHW-IMET-S-NE-IAEFADTMJTKIT-TIITCTF ~ Once We Are Invested In A Belief And Have Justified Its Wisdom – Changing Our Minds Is Literally Hard Work – It’s Much Easier To – Slot – New Evidence – Into An Existing Framework And Do The Mental Justification To Keep It There – Than It Is To – Change The Framework

~ OWMAD-WHAKOTAODTBI ~ Once We Make A Decision – We Have All Kinds Of Tools At Our Disposal To Bolster It

~ CLTJTAAE-TSMUTBO-GWBWC-EWMW-LWAEO-POWCBAS-TWIAO-SWCAAC-IATC-A-VC-IS:ABS-J-WBMA ~ Children Learn To Justify Their Aggressive Actions Early – The Same Mechanism Underlies The Behavior Of – Gangs Who Bully Weaker Children – Employers Who Mistreat Workers – Lovers Who Abuse Each Other – Police Officers Who Continue Beating A Suspect – Tyrants Who Imprison And Oppress – Soldiers Who Commit Atrocities Against Civilians – In All These Cases – A – Vicious Circle – Is Created: Aggression Begets Self-Justification – Which Begets More Aggression

~ F-APGACCASOBAC-A-‘VC’-WPDAGD-PWTDIOAWOBC-TWCTSTBOTGIAWL-TDAF-IDWANFTMHH ~ Fortunately – A Person’s Generous Actions Can Create A Spiral Of Benevolence And Compassion – A – “Virtuous Circle” – When People Do A Good Deed – Particularly When They Do It On A Whim Or By Chance – They Will Come To See The Beneficiary Of Their Generosity In A Warmer Light – To Do A Favor – Is Dissonant With Any Negative Feelings They Might Have Had

~ HOSHST-CT-PBOAD-PBOAEYOT-APEARBTC ~ Hundred Of Studies Have Shown That – Compared To – Predictions Based On Actuarial Data – Predictions Based On An Expert’s Years Of Training And Personal Experience – Are Rarely Better Than Chance

~ E-RTD-CBTFF-B-CUWEOWTWHBR-‘IO’-IOTICHNI-IOB-B-B ~ Experts – Reduced The Dissonance – Caused By Their Failed Forecasts – By – Coming Up With Explanations Of Why They Would Have Been Right – “If Only” – If Only That Improbable Calamity Had Not Intervened – If Only Blah-Blah-Blah

~ PWHBST-BT-A-AGITI-B-RATEH-CTD-ED-TWDNSITSE-ITPW-A-DTLIGH-WTTFS ~ People Who Have Been Sorely Tempted – Battled Temptation – And – Almost Given In To It – But – Resisted At The Eleventh Hour – Come To Dislike – Even Despise – Those Who Did Not Succeed In The Same Effort – It’s The People Who – Almost – Decide To Live In Glass Houses – Who Throw The First Stones

~ MEV-I-APFO-S-J ~ Minimizing Ethical Violations – Is – A Popular Form Of – Self-Justification

~ OPCEUDIAHT-TACROBASS-J ~ Ordinary People Can End Up Doing Immoral And Harmful Things – Through A Chain Reaction Of Behavior And Subsequent Self-Justification

~ WAPSOTU-TRTTLSTTAP-LACTTMBO-PITBS ~ When Affluent People Speak Of The Underprivileged – They Rarely Thank Their Lucky Stars That They Are Privileged – Let Alone Consider That They Might Be Overprivileged – Privilege Is Their Blind Spot

~ WCAO-PBS-B-IWAUOT-WMBUR-CELAMFD-IAWNHOV-BIWSCOSJB-BS-EOPAAOP ~ We Cannot Avoid Our – Psychological Blind Spots – But – If We Are Unaware Of Them – We May Become Unwittingly Reckless – Crossing Ethical Lines And Making Foolish Decisions – Introspection Alone Will Not Help Our Visions – Because It Will Simply Confirm Our Self-Justifying Beliefs – Blind Spots – Enhance Our Pride And Activate Our Prejudices

~ OYTTG-NMHS-YWFTUTGSB-EIIO-AF-YA ~ Once You Take The Gift – No Matter How Small – You Will Feel The Urge To Give Something Back – Even If It’s Only – At First – Your Attention

~ JAWCIHIEBO-SWCSPIEBO-TTO-E-P-BS ~ Just As We Can Identify Hypocrisy In Everyone But Ourselves – So We Can See Prejudices In Everyone But Ourselves – Thanks To Our – Ego-Preserving – Blind Spots

~ P-EFTDOTHM-TPAPIIC-S-THUQPNI-TDITS-FODWTCWALA-A-EDBC ~ Prejudices – Emerge From The Disposition Of The Human Mind – To Perceive And Process Information In Categories – Stereotypes – They Help Us Quickly Process New Information – The Downside Is That Stereotypes – Flatten Out Differences Within The Category We Are Looking At – And – Exaggerate Differences Between Categories

~ ASAPHCACC-U-H-TIPEWIIIA-N-U ~ As Soon As People Have Created A Category Called – Us – However – They Invariably Perceive Everybody Who Isn’t In It As – Not-Us

~ BPOT-TA-U/U/I/IM-C/I/S/S/ES/-WAFGOUAHWTT ~ By Persuading Ourselves That – They Are – Unworthy / Unteachable / Incompetent / Inherently Math-Challenged / Immoral / Sinful / Stupid / Even Subhuman – We Avoid Feeling Guilty Or Unethical About How We Treat Them

~ WASIROE-IBSFTICAAA-IS ~ When A Story Is Repeated Often Enough – It Becomes So Familiar That It Chips Away At A Person’s Initial Skepticism

~ FM-APTFTAJTM-B-SAAHP:AITTRFTL ~ False Memories – Allow People To Forgive Themselves And Justify Their Mistakes – But – Sometimes At A High Price: An Inability To Take Responsibility For Their Lives

~ TGATBOOODO-SIT-CG:TGT-I-G-TNTM-TND ~ To Guard Against The Bias Of Our Own Direct Observations – Scientist Invented The – Control Group: The Group That – Isn’t – Getting – The New Therapeutic Method – The New Drug

~ W-BPAAAC-I-AWAICOBAAP-TGMO-AC-N-70%-DNRTPC ~ While – Being Physically Abused As A Child – Is – Associated With An Increased Chance Of Becoming An Abusive Parent – The Great Majority Of – Abused Children – Nearly – 70 Percent – Do Not Repeat Their Parents’ Cruelties

~ C-CLW-S/NC/M-IOOT-SS-T-ARIIFF ~ Contempt – Criticism Laced With – Sarcasm / Name Calling / Mockery – Is One Of The – Strongest Signs – That – A Relationship Is In Free Fall

~ OPCTTAOA-‘WST?-TBLATAITIDWTP ~ Once People Commit Themselves To An Opinion About – “Who Started This?” – They Became Less Able To Accept Information That Is Dissonant With Their Positions

~ BINCTB-SOR-IC-A-UI-CB-O-P-TIOOTMTDFISP ~ Brutality Is Not Confined To Brutes – Sadists Or Psychopaths – It Can – And – Usually Is – Committed By – Ordinary – People – This Is One Of The Most Thoroughly Documented Findings In Social Psychology

~ TIO-SMNA-PF-TB-DOJ-BA-IAOL-THU-IOW-MBD-G-A-GU ~ The Importance Of – Seeing Mistakes Not As – Personal Failings – To Be – Denied Or Justified – But As – Inevitable Aspect Of Life – That Help Us – Improve Our Work – Make Better Decisions – Grow – And – Grow Up