CASS SUNSTEIN ~ ANTI-CATASTROPHE PRINCIPLE – FOUR QUALIFICATIONS ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ ATTFROSR-IMNSTTSTACITVSWCCROTO ~ Attentive To The Full Range Of Social Risks – It Makes No Sense To Take Steps To Avert Catastrophe If Those Very Steps Would Create Catastrophic Risks Of Their Own

~ ATTIO-C-E-WRRTCTLCMOATE ~ Attentive To The Idea Of – Cost-Effectiveness – Which Requires Regulators To Choose The Least Costly Means Of Achieving Their Ends

~ DCM-AIAWTREBOTLATBT ~ Distribution Considerations Matter – Applied In A Way That Reduces Extreme Burdens On Those Least Able To Bear Them

~ CMAS-TEOPCRBDFTE ~ Costs Matter As Such – The Extent Of Precautions Cannot Reasonably Be Divorced From Their Expense

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LIBERTARIAN PATERNALISM ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ T-LA-OTSLITSIT-IG-PSBFTOOOSAITCTDS ~ The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Opt Out Of Specified Arrangements If Hey Choose To Do So

~ T-PA-CITCTIILFPAPITATIPB-EWT-PEAA-ITU-APTCA-‘P’-IIATITCOAPIAWTWMCBO-ISCIMIDITOTOW-DTTWCITH-CI-UCA-A-NLOS-C-H-LP-PTBRTBEAIF ~ The – Paternalistic Aspect – Consists In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Private And Public Institutions To Attempt To Influence People’s Behavior – Even When Third-Party Effects Are Absent – In This Understanding – A Policy Therefore Counts As – “Paternalistic” – If It Attempts To Influence The Choices Of Affected Parties In A Way That Will Make Choosers Better Off – In Some Cases Individuals Make Inferior Decisions In Terms Of Their Own Welfare – Decisions That They Would Change If They Had – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – No Lack Of Self-Control – Hence – Libertarian Paternalism – Promises To Be Responsive To Both Excessive And Insufficient Fear

~ LP-IAR-WAN-TOP-B-CANBOFO-IIMCF-LP-I-TC-OTWSTDFT-PPO ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak And Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked Or Fenced Off – In Its Most Cautious Forms – Libertarian Paternalism – Imposes – Trivial Costs – On Those Who Seek To Depart From The – Planner’s Preferred Option

~ WAOOT-PTFASBTD-AA-ESC-ITRWT-ITCROATC? ~ Would Any One Object To – Putting The Fruit And Salad Before The Desserts – At An – Elementary School Cafeteria – If The Result Were To – Increase The Consumption Ratio Of Apples To Candy?

~ TPTICSBR-IOBOTCT-PDAEJOMCO-AL-TTDAFBJTTPCPD-B-TILESFTC ~ The Presumption That Individual Choices Should Be Respected – Is Often Based On The Claim That – People Do An Excellent Job Of Making Choices – Or – At Least – That They Do A Far Better Job Than Third Parties Could Possibly Do – But – There Is Little Empirical Support For This Claim

~ DR-OSK-A-I-A-MOTTTRWA-PAC=POL-W-FP-A-SP-HICF-BAC ~ Default Rules – Of Some Kind – Are – Inevitable – And – Much Of The Time Those Rules Will Affect – Preferences And Choices – People Often Lack – Well-Formed Preferences – And – Starting Points – Have Important Consequences For – Behavior And Choice

~ I-FP ~ Ill-Formed Preferences

~ I-US-W-FP-AEUTE ~ In – Unfamiliar Situations – Well-Formed Preferences – Are Especially Unlikely To Exist

~ TIOP-TINWTAEOBAC-TTFTCLI-ITMOSE-T-P-FOC-T-PCEAT-PSO ~ The Inevitability Of Paternalism – There Is Not Way To Avoid Effects On Behavior And Choices – The Task For The Committed Libertarian Is – In The Midst Of Such Effects – To – Preserve – Freedom Of Choice – That – People Can Easily Avoid The – Paternalist’s Suggested Option

~ SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TDEBAAM ~ So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Dangers Emphasized By Antipaternalist Are Minimal

~ TWMT-SS-A-A-ATEOAS-CP-ALFP-B-IP-SF-S-CP-TIIHLTOPDT ~ Those Who Make The – Slippery Slope – Argument – Are – Acknowledging The Existence Of A Self-Control Problem – At Least For Planners – But – If Planners – Suffer From Self-Control Problems – Then It Is Highly Likely That Other People Do Too

~ TG-SBT-A-R-I-A-O-H-E-A-TPASTILT-PPW-SD ~ The Goal – Should Be To – Avoid – Random – Inadvertent – Arbitrary – Or – Harmful – Effects – And – To Produce A Situation That Is Likely To – Promote People’s Welfare – Suitably Defined

CASS SUNSTEIN ~ LAWS OF FEAR ~ 2005

~ SPAFWTONTB-A-STAFWTSBF-IDN-TLRTPF-AAR-TLCBLIUAEDD ~ Sometimes People Are Fearful When They Ought Not To Be – And – Sometimes They Are Fearless When They Should Be Frightened – In Democratic Nations – The Law Responds To People’s Fears – As A Result – The Law Can Be Led In Unfortunate And Even Dangerous Directions

~ ‘RP’-PALRI-G-C-E-N ~ “Risk Panics” – Play A Large Role In – Groups – Cities – Even – Nations

~ W-FS-MIPFPTAAWAIN-A-UFTTAAWAII ~ Well-Functioning Societies – Make It Possible For People To Achieve Agreement When Agreement Is Necessary – And – Unnecessary For Them To Achieve Agreement When Agreement Is Impossible

~ DD-DBITAFTLQATTOACFPWDO-O-AUA-HTRTQ-ITCOF-IIOPTOJSAC ~ Deliberative Democracies Do Best If They Abstract From The Largest Questions And Try To Obtain A Consensus From People Who Disagree On – Or – Are Unsure About – How To Resolve Those Questions – In The Context Of Fear – It Is Often Possible To Obtain Just Such A Consensus

~ T-PP-TMF-B-IAOT-TAIITRSTSTPAPH-EICCAUAEIWDNKTTHWCTF ~ The – Precautionary Principle – Takes Many Forms – But – In All Of Them – The Animating Idea Is That Regulators Should Take Steps To Protect Against Potential Harms – Even If Causal Chains Are Unclear And Even If We Do Not Know That Those Harms Will Come To Fruition

~ HB-C-A-N-OSOOOAFSRA-‘S’-A-IO ~ Human Beings – Cultures – And – Nations – Often Single Out One Or A Few Social Risks As – “Salient” – And – Ignore The Others

~ T-AH-WPLSK-TCRTBSITCETOIIWTRCTF ~ The – Availability Heuristic – When People Lack Statistical Knowledge – They Consider Risks To Be Significant If They Can Easily Think Of Instances In Which Those Risks Came To Fruition

~ T-PP-MWBRAA-A-CP-DFSCIWIINPTAPTPCR ~ The – Precautionary Principle – Might Well Be Reformulated As An – Anti-Catastrophe Principle – Designed For Special Circumstances In Which It Is Not Possible To Assign Probabilities To Potentially Catastrophic Risks

~ EWEAIE-WC-TTCOAIOTASOTR ~ Especially When Emotions Are Intensely Engaged – Worst Cases – Tend To Crowd Out An Investigation Of The Actual Size Of The Risk

~ ‘LP’-AATSPIDTWPTW-WFTOC ~ “Libertarian Paternalism” – An Approach That Steers People In Directions That Will Promote Their Welfare – Without Foreclosing Their Own Choices

~ EE-ATSPEP-AMBT-‘WTP’ ~ Economic Efficiency – Attempts To Satisfy People’s Existing Preference –As Measured By Their – “Willingness To Pay”

~ HMPITRAOP? ~ How Much Precaution Is The Right Amount Of Precaution?

~ AGDOE-STPT-A-ER-CH-AEOLAH-PPAEVTTE-TBS-BTPATUMAD ~ A Great Deal Of Evidence – Suggests The Possibility That – An – Expensive Regulation – Can Have – Adverse Effects On Life And Health – Poor People Are Especially Vulnerable To This Effect – To Be Sure – Both The Phenomenon And The Underling Mechanism Are Disputed

~ T-AH-W-P-ATMORBAWECRCTM-IPCETOSE-TAFMLTBFTITC-TPI-T-AH-CLTSE-ITOB-EF-A-N ~ The – Availability Heuristic – When – People – Assess The Magnitude Of Risks By Asking Whether Examples Can Readily Come To Mind – If People Can Easily Think Of Such Examples – They Are Far More Likely To Be Frightened Than If They Cannot – The Problem Is – The – Availability Heuristic – Can Lead To Serious Errors – In Terms Of Both – Excessive Fear – And – Neglect

~ PN-B-S-PWALAOPAA-EWSEAI ~ Probability Neglect – But – Sometimes – People Will Attempt Little Assessment Of Probability At All – Especially When Strong Emotions Are Involved

~ LA-PTTB-LA-WMT-ALFT-SQ-ISA-MU-TAGISAD ~ Loss Aversion – People Tend To Be – Loss Averse – Which Means That – A Loss From The – Status Quo – Is Seen As – More Undesirable – Than A Gain Is Seen As Desirable

~ SQB-T-SQ-MTBAWGALAM-A-AL-FT-SQ-SMMBTAGFT-SQ-SG ~ Status Quo Bias – The – Status Quo – Marks The Baseline Against Which Gains And Losses Are Measured – And – A Loss – From The – Status Quo – Seems Much More Bad Than A Gain From The – Status Quo – Seems Good

~ PAFMWTT-FR-T-UO-EITA-SE ~ People Are Far More Willing To Tolerate – Familiar Risks – Than – Unfamiliar Ones – Even If They Are – Statistically Equivalent

~ A-RA-ONA-EH-INASGF-DC-EWABFAECAWAB ~ A – Risk Assessment – Offering Numbers About – Expected Harms – Is Not A Sufficient Ground For – Democratic Choice – Even When Accompanied By Figures About Expected Costs As Well As Benefits

~ WEKARTIO-B-DNPTTAPTE-IISTFT-MP:CTPWT-B-WC-O ~ When Existing Knowledge Allows Regulators To Identify Outcomes – But – Does Not Permit Them To Assign Probabilities To Each – It Is Standard To Follow The – Maximin Principle: Choose The Policy With The – Best – Worst-Case – Outcome

~ SSAR-B-MAN-W-AE-O-AS-I-‘R’-CBDITA-IAC-RIAMOD-EDOTF-T-‘RP’-SBUAAH-OTFIITFOPDTC-LMH-T-RP-WWWIMC-B-ICALTSAEDE ~ Some Systems Are Resilient – But – Many Are Not – Whether – An Ecosystem – Or – A Society – Is – “Resilient” – Cannot Be Decided In The Abstract – In Any Case – Resilience Is A Matter Of Degree – Everything Depends On The Facts – The – “Resilience Principle” – Should Be Understood As A Heuristic – One That Favors Inaction In The Face Of Possibly Damaging Technological Change – Like Most Heuristics – The – Resilience Principle – Will Work Well In Many Circumstances – But – It Can Also Lead To Systematic And Even Deadly Errors

~ ABAWATAWVOAEMCF-I-R-A-EB-ASAWAT-C-RTT-E-TVCLTPFITAR-AETPAFAOTUODSAHTDTDO-I-GM ~ A Better Approach Would Acknowledge That A Wide Variety Of Averse Effects May Come From – Inaction – Regulation – And – Everything Between – A Sensible Approach Would Attempt To – Counteract – Rather Than To – Embody – The Various Cognitive Limitations That People Face In Thinking About Risks – An Effort To Produce A Fair Accounting Of The Universe Of Dangers Should Also Help To Diminish The Dangers Of – Interest-Group Manipulation

~ PA-IIII-IIAH-A-IILTLTAH-‘RE’ ~ Public Alarm – Even If Ill Informed – Is Itself A Harm – And – It Is Likely To Lead To Additional Harms – “Ripple Effects”

~ WTP ~ Willingness To Pay

~ PA-ITVALP-A-IA-MOTT-WTAITDOT-‘S’-O-T-‘U’ ~ People Are – Insensitive To Variations Among Low Probabilities – And – Instead Ask – Much Of The Time – Whether They Are In The Domain Of The – “Safe” – Or – The – “Unsafe”

~ W-CSHTP ~ Worst-Case Scenarios Have Tremendous Power

~ C-S-AAS-ST-SB-O-C-IW-ARAAGE-MRFOPTA-U-C-CLPIMD-WAF-‘EM’-S-SFTDNMR ~ Cascades – Sometimes – Availability And Salience – Spread Through – Social Bandwagons – Or – Cascades – In Which – Apparently Representative Anecdotes And Gripping Examples – Move Rapidly From One Person To Another – Unfortunately – Cascades – Can Lead People In Mistaken Directions – With A Few – “Early Movers” – Spurring – Social Fear That Does Not Match Reality

~ F-IA-W-HEV-A-ELTS ~ Fear-Inducing Accounts – With – High Emotional Valence – Are – Especially Likely To Spread

~ GP-WIOITCO-F ~ Group Polarization – Will Inevitably Occur In The Context Of – Fear

~ B-IAS-MB-FONOTR-A-S-NRD ~ Both – Individuals And Societies – May Be – Fearful Of Nonexistent Or Trivial Risks – And – Simultaneously – Neglect Real Dangers

~ WCF-CRTWPCBA-IMSFTTA-A-CP ~ When Citizens Face – Catastrophic Risks To Which Probabilities Cannot Be Assigned – It Makes Sense For Them To Adopt An – Anti-Catastrophe Principle

~ WTW-CSITC-A-WPCBA-AL-MOS-MAGDOS ~ Where The Worst-Case Scenario Its Truly Catastrophic – And – When Probabilities Cannot Be Assigned – A Large – Margin Of Safety – Makes A Great Deal Of Sense

~ MOS ~ Margins Of Safety

~ IG-IIBTTPATDTTF-WTLOH? ~ In General – Isn’t It Best To Tell People About The Dangers That They Face – Whatever The Likelihood Of Harm?

~ AAOCAB-IAIIIT-AOR ~ An Accounting Of – Costs And Benefits – Is An Important Ingredient In The – Analysis Of Risks

~ W-F-LS-MWPFTITI ~ Well-Functioning – Legal Systems – Make Wrongdoers Pay For The Injuries They Inflict

~ TPE ~ Third Party Effects

~ T-OPS-A-U-W-TBIBLANWS ~ The – Ordinary Political Safeguards – Are – Unreliable – When – The Burdens Imposed By Law Are Not Widely Shared

~ ITCO-TTNS-IIPT-GWIOCLWAJ-HOCE ~ In The Context Of – Threats To National Security – It Is Predictable That – Governments Will Infringe On Civil Liberties Without Adequate Justification – History Offers Countless Examples

OWEN JONES ~ THE ESTABLISHMENT ~ 2014

~ T-E-INU-AIHAB-O-PG-TNTPTPIADIWATEAPHTRTV-TE-RAAOBOTGT-‘M’-D-TMSTIDNTTOI ~ Today’s – Establishment – Is Made Up – As It Has Always Been – Of – Powerful Groups – That Need To Protect Their Position In A Democracy In Which Almost The Entire Adult Population Has The Right To Vote – The Establishment – Represents An Attempt On Behalf Of These Groups To – “Manage” – Democracy – To Make Sure That It Does Not Threaten Their Own Interests

~ TSIOTME-ASOITHITRAJIPAB-ODA-‘N-L’-TDBOAFOCOTMCTSQ-TIIORA-‘F’-P-‘EF’-A-WIITLOI ~ The Shared Ideology Of The Modern Establishment – A Set Of Ideas That Helps It To Rationalize And Justify Its Position And Behavior – Often Described As – “Neo-Liberalism” – The Driving Back Of Any Form Of Collective Organization That Might Challenge The Status Quo – This Ideology Is Often Rationalized As – “Freedom” – Particularly – “Economic Freedom” – And – Wraps Itself In The Language Of Individualism

~ AWASM-TEICB-FL-A-A-‘RD’-C:TI-PI-GB-P/C/M-W-O-WMTITVWATST ~ As Well As Shared Mentality – The Establishment Is Cemented By – Financial Links – And – A – “Revolving Door” – Culture: That Is – Powerful Individuals – Gliding Between – Political / Corporate / Media – Worlds – Or – Who Manage To Inhabit These Various Worlds At The Same Time

~ YTIALFATHOET-IMATS-B-IICDOTSTF-BOB-S-FI-POP-RAD-AWEAGPE-TTUOWTLTLO-NS-AEOWCBDA-‘SFTR’

~ Yet There Is A Logical Flaw At The Heart Of Establishment Thinking – It May Abhor The State – But – It Is Completely Dependent On The State To Flourish – Bailed Out Banks – State-Funded Infrastructure – Protection Of Property – Research And Development – A Workforce Educated At Great Public Expense – The Topping Up Of Wages Too Low To Live On – Numerous Subsidies – All Examples Of What Could Be Described As – “Socialism For The Rich”

~ TEDNRTSID-AA-IITJOTMTSLOTBOTWP-I-JAPA-OCAATBOTATBOS ~ The Establishment Does Not Receive The Scrutiny It Deserves – After All – It Is The Job Of The Media To Shed Light On The Behaviour Of Those With Power – Instead – Journalists And Politicians Alike – Obsessively Critique And Attack The Behaviour Of Those At The Bottom Of Society

~ EAAWREIHBLDOOTIM ~ Economists And Academics Who Reject Establishment Ideology Have Been Largely Driven Out Of The Intellectual Mainstream

~ A-IR-C-HTDAAF-TP ~ Anti-Immigrant Rhetoric – Conveniently – Helps To Deflect Attention Away From – The Powerful

~ T-‘BIWI’-I-TPTE-AEMUDOWLTWPFTTHERTEGSOI ~ The – “Because I’m Worth It” – Ideology – That Permeates The Establishment – An Ever More Unequal Distribution Of Wealth Leaves Those With Power Feeling That They Have Every Right To Ever Greater Slices Of It

~ TEHR-UAU-FTL ~ The Establishment Has Remained – Unaccountable And Unchallenged – For Too Long

~ TO ~ The Outriders

~ GM-I-F-MG-TJ-RTWOTE ~ Government Minsters – Invoke – Free-Market Globalization – To Justify – Resisting The Will Of The Electorate

~ PHBACSFTP ~ Politics Has Become A Closed Shop For The Privileged

~ TMPACR-B-FTFATATB-OWCBO-D/M/OL-T-DS-FT-WAP-E-ATTOS-HAS-GT-TOATPOTE ~ The Media Play A Crucial Role – By – Focusing Their Fire At Those At The Bottom – Often With Coverage Based On – Distortions / Myths / Outright Lies – They – Deflect Scrutiny – From The – Wealthy And Powerful – Elite – At The Top Of Society – Hardly A Surprise – Given That ~ Their Owners Are Themselves Part Of That Elite

~ BOHABWTAR-MOTMTSAAHPDOTIOTWWAP ~ Because Of How And By Whom They Are Run – Much Of The Media Today Serves As A Highly Partisan Defender Of The Interests Of Those With Wealth And Power

~ TWHBI-C-MTETHAFAAW-TWSOOLFBTAWBAMT ~ The Workforce Has Become Increasingly – Causalized – Making Them Easy To Hire And Fire At A Whim – Those Who Step Out Of Line Face Being Tossed Aside With Barely A Moment’s Thought

~ TUOTPAAPFBTPGBALW ~ The Use Of The Police As A Partisan Force By The Powerful Goes Back A Long Way

~ TPHBTTT-W-CP-AT-‘EW’ ~ The Police Had Been Trained To Treat – Working-Class People – As The – “Enemy Within”

~ TNEPT-STIF-AY-IHBEMA-HMAMPTTP-LWSLI-W-MTCDOD ~ The New Establishment Promised To – Set The Individual Free – And Yet – It Has Become Ever More Authoritarian – Handing More And More Power To The Police – Laws With Seemingly Laudable Intentions – Were – Manipulated To Crack Down On Dissent

~ PA-BTECTHRBTFOTS-IAF-TSTUTE-P-OC-TIAOTEB ~ Police Authoritarianism – Belied The Establishment’s Claims To Have Rolled Back The Frontiers Of The State – In Actual Fact – The State Thrives Under The Establishment – Providing – Of Course – That It Acts On The Establishment’s Behalf

~ TE-F-MI-IOLMTAFF-PPAIPHATEOS ~ The Establishment’s – Free-Market Ideology – Is Often Little More Than A Front For – Placing Public Assets In Private Hands At The Expense Of Society

~ S-BW-TSPOPR-EB-AEPALS ~ Statism – Begins With – The State’s Protection Of Property Rights – Enforced By – An Expensive Police And Legal System

~ OA-TTSTR-W-TPWP-TGSAH-TTIETPUTT ~ Once Again – The Taxpayer Shouldered The Risk – While – The Profit Was Privatized – These Government Subsidies Are Huge – The Taxpayer Is Expected To Pick Up The Tab

~ TMOAS:BOOTB-AFSOAS-FL-SM-TSITTST-TRTINB ~ The Mother Of All Subsidies: Bailing Out Of The Banks – A Financial System On A State-Fuelled Life-Support Machine – The State Is There To Support Them – To Rescue Them If Needs Be

~ RAD-HB-N-A-CBTP-WTPEAP ~ Risk And Debt – Have Been – Nationalized – And – Carried By The Population – While The Profitable Elements Are Privatized

~ W-TS-IP-IIBAMFSFPC-APSR-WTR-‘S’-ATBF-N-ATBOS-B-ATT ~ With – The State – Increasingly Privatized – It Is Becoming A Mere Funding Stream For Private Companies – A Publicly Subsidized Racket – Were The Real – “Scroungers” – Are To Be Found – Not – At The Bottom Of Society – But – At The Top

~ TAT-D ~ Tycoons And Tax-Dogers

~ RCBCSAFTW ~ Rights Can Be Casually Striped Away From The Workforce

~ IWBT-WP-W-PUTTFTC-N-TRFI-A-WLCTA ~ It Would Be The – Working People – Who – Picked Up The Tab For The Crisis – Not – Those Responsible For It – And – With Little Calling To Account

~ HTTAIR:TCSBBOATCM ~ Here’s The Thing About Ideological Rationales: They Can Sometimes Be Based On All Too Convenient Mirages

~ TMEHB-F-TAUD-RDMGWTPOTF ~ The Modern Establishment Has Been – Financialized – To An Unprecedented Degree – Restoring Democracy Means Grappling With The Power Of The Financiers

~ ABRFSTISSTBDDBFC ~ A Badly Regulated Financial Sector That Is So Susceptible To Being Dragged Down By Foreign Crises

~ ‘GI’-CJ-CT-PET-O-CC-A-ETATF ~ “Green Industries” – Creating Jobs – Confront The – Potentially Existential Threat – Of – Climate Change – And – End The Addiction To Finance

~ A-DRW-DTPO-BM-FP-T ~ A – Democratic Revolution Would – Drive The Power Of – Big Money – From Politics – Too

~ PISAEW-CPWEOTSOITGASDNTT-SA-FW-UB-CC-A-SO ~ Politics Increasingly Sidelines And Excludes Working-Class People With Experience Of The Sorts Of Issues That Government And Society Desperately Need To Tackle – Such As – Falling Wages – Unpaid Bills – Childcare Costs – And – So On

~ AT-WW-LSAF-PAABFTPI-ATMABEATEOS-A-TH-WGO-WP-SS-RITW-A-SO-AB-SA ~ Across The – Western World – Living Standards Are Falling – Public Assets Are Being Flogged To Private Interest – A Tiny Minority Are Being Enriched At The Expense Of Society – And – The Hard-Won Gains Of – Working People – Social Security – Rights In The Workplace – And – So On – Are Being – Stripped Away

~ TMO-‘TINA’-I-P-TWADKOS-WB-I-M-A-BAINB ~ The Mantra Of – “There Is Not Alternative” – Is – Pervasive – Those Wanting A Different Kind Of Society – Will Be – Ignored – Marginalized – And – Bitterly Attacked If Needs Be

~ TIOEEITIIP ~ The Illusion Of Every Era Is That It Is Permanent

JASON STANLEY ~ HOW PROPAGANDA WORKS ~ 2015

~ TLOHSTHATPTC-TFOTOI-W-TCG-A-T-SEF-W-OF ~ The Lessons Of History Show That Humans Are Too Prone To Confuse – The Furtherance Of Their Own Interests – With – The Common Good – And – Their – Subjective Explanatory Framework – With Objective Fact

~ S-W-M-P-CB-DBS-I-I-WPP ~ Sincere – Well-Meaning – People – Can Be – Deceived By Self-Interest – Into – Unwittingly Producing Propaganda

~ WSAU-WCETEO-FI-IASIU-DTUDBP-WORUPBOIRAUB-TBATBTRTAE-T-PE ~ When Societies Are Unjust – We Can Expect The Emergence Of – Flawed Ideologies – In A Society That Is Unjust – Due To Unjust Distinctions Between Persons – Ways Of Rationalizing Undeserved Privilege Become Ossified Into Rigid And Unchangeable Belief – Those Beliefs Are The Barriers To Rational Thought And Empathy – That – Propaganda Exploits

~ HPRUTEOFIPIS ~ Harmful Propaganda Relies Upon The Existence Of Flawed Ideologies Present In Society

~ TIAPDOTI:ITTLT-EB-T-TAOK-OT-ID ~ There Is A Powerful Democratic Objection To Inequality: Inequality Tends To Lead To – Epistemic Barriers – To – The Acquisition Of Knowledge – Ones That – Imperil Democracy

~ FI-IAOTROG-OTOH-TBFLMIQTTAFIITFO-FLN-OTOH-TSMFLI-WBLTAA-FIOTOI-TWPTFRTMI ~ Flawed Ideology – Is An Obstacle To Realizing One’s Goals – On The One Hand – Those Benefiting From Large Material Inequalities Will Tend To Adopt Flawed Ideologies In The Form Of – False Legitimation Narratives – On The Other Hand – Those Suffering Materially From Large Inequalities – Will Be Led To Adopt A – Flawed Ideology Of Their Own Inferiority – This Will Prevent Them From Realizing Their Material Interests

~ ASIOA-DS-IIPSCO-L-AIHV-A-AF-PE ~ A System Is Only A – Democratic System – If It Places Some Conception Of – Liberty – As Its Highest Value – And – Allows For – Political Equality

~ IIUSTMTNOAARWTU-O-ROS-V ~ It Is Utterly Standard To Mask The Nature Of An Authoritarian Regime With The Use – Of – Revolutionary Or Socialist – Vocabulary

~ PICPOTMBWPBDAHBTRTG-A-H-DFSWIITOBI-PS-C-‘E’-R ~ Propaganda Is Characteristically Part Of The Mechanism By Which People Become Deceived About How Best To Realize Their Goals – And – Hence – Deceived From Seeing What Is In Their Own Best Interests – Propaganda Short-Circuits – “Economic” – Rationality

~ ‘DD’-GL-I-HOI-DBTRODWPATCG ~ “Democratic Deliberation” – Genuine Liberty – Is – Having One’s Interests – Decided By The Result Of Deliberation With Peers About The Common Good

~ TPUOTLOLD ~ The Propagandistic Use Of The Language Of Liberal Democracy

~ TIOMOPMTVAPWANCOOAT-VB-CWAATRTTSRTR-FCASIAWO-TIOWAP ~ The Influence Of Money On Politics Means That Voters Are Presented With A Narrow Choice Of Options At The – Voter’s Booth – Candidates Who Are Able To Raise The Titanic Sums Required To Run – From Corporate And Special Interests And Wealthy Oligarchs – The Interests Of Wealth And Power

~ IA-MS-TGGI-E ~ In A – Managerial Society – The Greatest Good Is – Efficiency

~ E-MBAV-B-IINA-DV ~ Efficiency – May Be A Value – But – It Is Not A – Democratic Value

~ APTPTBFTDIBBOTB ~ Austerity Policies To Pay The Banks For The Debt Incurred By Bailing Out The Banks

~ IINAT-CSTINA-WFF-AA-A-‘WFF’ ~ It Is Not Atypical To – Call Something That Is Not A – War For Freedom – At All – A – “War For Freedom”

~ VOP:AITRIADBACPI-Y-WPTTUTROTI ~ Vehicle Of Propaganda: An Institution That Represents Itself As Defined By A Certain Political Idea – Yet – Whose Practice Tends To Undermine The Realization Of That Ideal

~ FIB-CRD ~ Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Corrode Rational Debate

~ LAAMOC ~ Language As A Mechanism Of Control

~ G-IOPB-D-EILAPF ~ Genocide – Is Often Preceded By – Dehumanization – Expressed In Linguistic And Pictorial Form

~ TATIWTFAS-IARASFOPD ~ The Attempt To Introduce Words That Function As Slurs – Is A Regular And Systematic Feature Of Political Debate

~ A-CB-IOTWWBRTGU-EA-TABIWMIDT-RR-TMBNITBTII-C-W-B-TBAPBDOTCTC-C-P ~ A – Cherished Belief – Is One That We Will Be Reluctant To Give Up – Emotional Attachment – To A Belief Is What Makes It Difficult To – Rationally Revise – There May Be Nothing In The Beliefs That Is Intrinsically – Cherish-Worthy – But – The Beliefs Are Preserved By Dint Of Their Connection To Certain – Cherished – Practices

~ A-IB-I-CTIA/OS-I-A-TTCTIOM ~ An – Ideological Belief – Is – Connected To Identity And/Or Self-Interest – And – Tends To Contribute To Its Own Maintenance

~ OPF-AIWA-AB-BB-AAR-PI-CBASO-FIB ~ Our Perceptual Faculties – As Is Widely Agreed – Affected By – Background Beliefs – As A Result – Perception Itself – Can Be A Source Of – Flawed Ideological Belief

~ IINCTASOUPATFOEPB ~ It Is Now Clear That All Sorts Of Unconscious Processes Affect The Formation Of Even Perceptual Beliefs

~ DS-R-ACO-PE-I-GRT-FIB ~ Democratic Society – Requires – A Culture Of – Political Equality – Inequalities – Give Rise To – Flawed Ideological Beliefs

~ MTEIA ~ Mechanisms That Enable Illegitimate Authority

~ TBTTTAICOSI-SA-BITIOOG-O-OO-TTU-DI-SA-R ~ The Beliefs That Tend To Arise In Conditions Of Stark Inequality – Such As – Belief In The Inferiority Of Other Groups – Or – One’s Own – Tend To Undermine – Democratic Ideals – Such As – Reasonableness

~ ICBFIACS-TAF-ITRS-WTFAPBTTAOK ~ Ideologies Can Be Flawed In A Certain Sense – They Are Flawed – In The Relevant Sense – When They Function As Persistent Barriers To The Acquisition Of Knowledge

~ TATDKOFI-ATCOPP-TATFIB-TWCORTTD-A-TFIB-TWCORTTD ~ There Are Two Different Kinds Of Flawed Ideologies – At The Center Of Political Philosophy – These Are The Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Those With Control Of Resources Tend To Develop – And – The Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Those Without Control Of Resources Tend To Develop

~ SIADP-WONTIAJBDIM ~ Substantial Inequalities Are Democratically Problematic – Whether Or Not These Inequalities Are Justified By Differences In Merit

~ IINTETTWABIAPGWH-FIB-CTPTH-IP-TWBTDTPTO-AAROAF-SABP ~ It Is Natural To Expect That Those Who Are Born Into A Privileged Group Will Have – Flawed Ideological Beliefs – Concerning The Privileges They Have – In Particular – They Will Believe They Deserve The Privileges They Obtain – As A Result Of Accidental Forces – Such As Birth Position

~ AHPG-TH-SOTIC-TITTHATSTM-MOTHPG-TCOTMATES-WMIPOT-DN-OTS-TTGOSAJD-ATM-RT-AOBP ~ All Highly Privileged Groups – Throughout History – Share One Thing In Common – The Ideology That They Have Achieved Their Success Through Merit – Members Of The Highly Privileged Group – Through Control Of The Media And The Education System – Will Make It Part Of The – Dominant Narrative – Of The Society – That The Goods Of Society Are Justify Distributed – According To Merit – Rather Than – Accident Of Birth Position

~ TRO-‘D’-A-SCBE-FTPO-SE ~ The Redefinition Of – “Democracy” – As – Social Control By Elites – For The Purposes Of – Social Efficiency

~ DIASIWTCVA-AAE-ASIWOGOPMCFTMOTPI-TOOD ~ Democracy Is A System In Which The Chief Values Are – Autonomy And Equality – A System In Which One Group Of People Makes Choices For The Majority Of The Population Is – The Opposite Of Democracy

~ OC-EANIAD-H-WCLEDMOV ~ Of Course – Experts Are Needed In A Democracy – However – We Cannot Let Experts Dictate Matters Of Value

~ TTAJ:HA-CCA-C-ROVSAADL-CAAI-AC-YO-H-L/B/S/D/DCA-AAM-AE ~ Trying To Achieve Justice: Human Agency – Carefully Crafted Appeals – Consciousness-Raising Of Various Sorts And At Differing Levels – Cultural And Artistic Innovations – Aesthetic Challenges – Years Of – Human – Labour / Blood / Death / Suffering / Dreams / Direct Collective Action – All And More – Are Essential

~ RSM-ITTAAVADOTMO-IIO-R-T-SMAVA-STTPIWTMMS ~ Radical Social Movements – In Their Time Are Always Viewed As Disturbances Of The Moral Order – It Is Only – Retrospectively – That – Social Movements Are Viewed As – Speaking Truth To Power In Ways That Make Moral Sense

~ THNOSM-F-T-E-PR-OB-C-OITSOTMT-TPTA-A-NS ~ The Heroic Narrative Of Social Movements – Faces – The Ever-Present Risk – Of Being – Co-Opted In The Service Of The Message That – The Problems They Addressed – Are – Now Solved

SHOSHANA ZUBOFF ~ HOW IS IT THAT THIS MARKET FORM HAS BEEN ABLE TO SUCCEED? ~ THE AGE OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM ~ 2019

~ U-IWITRTWIWTDFATHGB ~ Unprecedented – It Was Impossible To Recognize The Ways In Which They Differed From Anything That Had Gone Before

~ DAI-TC-AIRTBOA-TTOEATIID-TCOOADOTUOTD-TPSATTKUIOIP-A-TIOTCOLRFTO ~ Declaration As Invasion – The Corporation – Asserted Its Rights To Bypass Our Awareness – To Take Our Experience And Transform It Into Data – To Claim Ownership Of And Decisions Over The Uses Of Those Data – To Produce Strategies And Tactics That Keep Us Ignorant Of Its Practices – And – To Insist On The Conditions Of Lawlessness Required For These Operations

~ HC-SCFSITNZTEGROBWT-T-‘WOT’-STGAFPTS ~ Historical Context – Surveillance Capitalism Found Shelter In The Neoliberal Zeitgeist That Equated Government Regulation Of Business With Tyranny – The – “War On Terror” – Shifted The Government’s Attention From Privacy To Surveillance

~ F-SRWEAAO ~ Fortifications – Strong Relationships With Elected And Appointed Officials

~ TDC-AIAP ~ The Dispossession Cycle – Audacious Incursions Are Pursued

~ D-FS-TMO-SP-BCWTMO-BM ~ Dependency – Free Services – The Means Of – Social Participation – Become Coextensive With The Means Of – Behavioral Modification

~ S-I-N-O-FT/P/C/C-WRDO-TPI ~ Self-Interest – Networks – Of – Fellow Travelers / Partners / Collaborators / Customers – Whose Revenues Depend On – The Prediction Imperative

~ I-WSM-E/S/C-F-SOOI-LA-AI-CFLA-LAR-P ~ Inclusion – With So Much – Energy / Success / Capital – Flowing – Standing Outside Of It – Let Alone – Against It – Can Feel Like A – Lonely And Risky – Prospect

~ I-MP-IWAA-SC-A-RTA-RM ~ Identification – Many People – Identify With And Admire – Surveillance Capitalists – And – Regard Them As – Role Models

~ A-AOTF-G-TNF-S-TMABR ~ Authority – Authorities On The Future – Geniuses – The Naturalistic Fallacy – Successful – They Must Also Be Right

~ SP-AECOBR ~ Social Persuasion – An Endless Cascade Of Beguiling Rhetoric

~ FA-T-‘DONA’ ~ Foreclosed Alternatives – The – “Dictatorship Of No Alternatives”

~ I-N-IF-P-A-STNP-WFI-R ~ Inevitablism ~ New – Institutional Facts – Proliferate – And – Stabilize The New Practices – We Fall Into – Resignation

~ TIOHF-AW-T-F-HM-AWIAIONTROIOF ~ The Ideology Of Human Frailty – A Worldview – That – Frames – Human Mentation – As Woefully Irrational And Incapable Of Noticing The Regularity Of Its Own Failure

~ I-IIITUSTHB-CIS-A-DAFI ~ Ignorance – It Is Impossible To Understand Something That Has Been – Crafted In Secrecy – And – Designed As Fundamentally Illegible

~ V-FITDIRT ~ Velocity – From Invention To Domination In Record Time

SHOSHANA ZUBOFF ~ THE AGE OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM ~ 2019

~ HOE-IT-DF ~ Home Or Exile – In The – Digital Future

~ HOE?-LOS?-MOS?-TAETO-K-A-A-P-TCNBSFAT-TINEOH;EGMAIWAIANTRUTRTCIEA ~ Home Or Exile? – Lord Or Subject? – Master Or Slave? – These Are Eternal Themes Of – Knowledge – Authority – And – Power – That Can Never Be Settled For All Time – There Is No End Of History; Each Generation Must Assert Its Will And Imagination As New Threats Require Us To Retry The Case In Every Age

~ WCTNWFTMWIWIEOCAP-B-IHB-WNTO-A-D-A-V-ATSOAPFSA ~ We Celebrate The Networked World For The Many Ways In Which It Enriches Our Capabilities And Prospects – But – It Has Birthed – Whole New Territories Of – Anxiety – Danger – And – Violence – As The Sense Of A Predictable Future Slips Away

~ ‘MOBM’-SC-BANSOP-I-IP-KASHBTOE ~ “Means Of Behavioral Modification” – Surveillance Capitalism – Births A New Species Of Power – Instrumentarianism – Instrumentarian Power – Knows And Shapes Human Behavior Toward Others’ Ends

~ SC–QRTTCDATW-A-TD ~ Surveillance Capitalists – Quickly Realized That They Could Do Anything They Wanted – And – They Did

~ SCACATETTIIMFFB-UAIKATPTATK-VDONK-FU-B-NFU ~ Surveillance Capitalism’s Actual Customers Are The Enterprises That Trade In Its Markets For Future Behavior – Unprecedented Asymmetries In Knowledge And The Power That Accrues To Knowledge – Vast Domains Of New Knowledge – From Us – But – Not For Us

~ SC-IA-RFDB-NEI-T-DSN-A-NT-ER-AW-IA-TAETTVPOA-DS ~ Surveillance Capitalism – Is A – Rogue Force Driven By – Novel Economic Imperatives – That – Disregard Social Norms – And – Nullify The – Elemental Rights – Associated With – Individual Autonomy – That Are Essential To The Very Possibility Of A – Democratic Society

~ JAICFATEONANTTCUTE-AICSBSCAINIP-WTATEOHNAWTTCUUH ~ Just As Industrial Civilization Flourished At The Expense Of Nature And Now Threatens To Cost Us The Earth – An Information Civilization Shaped By Surveillance Capitalism And Its New Instrumentarian Power – Will Thrive At The Expense Of Human Nature And Will Threaten To Cost Us Our Humanity

~ TU-OEFSCMTFATA:IIU-TUINU-WWESU-WAIITTLOFC-TRIPTWIU-ICBAGWOEC ~ The Unprecedented – One Explanation For Surveillance Capitalism’s Many Triumphs Floats Above The All: It Is Unprecedented – The Unprecedented Is Necessarily Unrecognizable – When We Encounter Something Unprecedented – We Automatically Interpret It Through The Lenses Of Familiar Categories – Thereby Rendering Invisible Precisely That Which Is Unprecedented – It Cannot Be Adequately Grasped With Our Existing Concepts

~ TI-DNE-TAA-E-M-N-E-IT ~ Technological Inevitability – Does Not Exist – Technologies Are Always – Economic – Means – Not – Ends – In Themselves

~ ADO-EDG-HFTMT-PAONE-A-T-EI-TIP-TMPHCTFEFTF-E-RAV-ATOR ~ A Decade Of – Explosive Digital Growth – Had Failed To Mitigate The – Punishing Austerity Of Neoliberal Economics – And – The – Extreme Inequality – That It Produced – Too Many People Had Come To Feel Excluded From The Future – Embracing – Rage And Violence – As Their Only Remedies

~ ‘TRTBF’ ~ “The Right To Be Forgotten”

~ FE-UT-OE-T-FACOPC-T-PTIFPC ~ Financial Elites – Use Their – Outsized Earnings – To – Fund A Cycle Of Political Capture – That – Protects Their Interests From Political Challenge

~ CSNBER-IIMTB-C-B-ADSAII-B-RCIA ~ Capitalism Should Not Be Eaten Raw – It Is Meant To Be – Cooked – By – A Democratic Society And Its Institutions – Because – Raw Capitalism Is Antisocial

~ TPOV-SA-F-NA-B ~ The Patterns Of Violations – Signalled A – Feature – Not A – Bug

~ CTTSOTI ~ Challenges To The Sanctity Of The Individual

~ TRTTFT-A-TRTS ~ The Right To The Future Tense – And – The Right To Sanctuary

~ WHYTI-TP-A-NFO-CA-TEA-TPRTAHF ~ We Have Yet To Invent – The Politics – And – New Forms Of – Collaborative Action – That Effectively Assert – The People’s Right To A Human Future

~ NAIIWOI ~ Not All Information Is Worthy Of Immortality

~ BS ~ Beharioral Surplus

~ BM ~ Behavioral Modification

~ WHBRA-WM-‘DE’-WA-A-CE ~ What Had Been Regarded As – Waste Material – “Data Exhaust” – Was Quickly – A – Critical Element

~ BVRC-BD-A-RITIOTPOS-W-RAS-STALAMCU-T-RM-THBSUT-IQ-WNABPTUITSO-TATIU ~ Behavioral Value Reinvestment Cycle – Behavioral Data – Are – Reinvested In The Improvement Of The Product Or Service – Was – Rapidly And Secretly – Subordinated To A Larger And More Complex Undertaking – The – Raw Materials – That Had Been Solely Used To – Improve Quality – Would Now Also Be Put To Use In The Service Of – Targeting Advertising To Individual Users

~ BD-AFUB-SI-CA-S-‘UPI’ ~ Behavioral Data – Available For Uses Beyond – Service Improvement – Constituted A – Surplus – “User Profile Information”

~ SC-INA-IRODT-NII-ANEOIC ~ Surveillance Capitalism – Is Not An – Inherent Result Of Digital Technology – Nor Is It – A Necessary Expression Of Information Capitalism

~ UWNLEIT-BR-TMTOE-A-NEL-BO-F-TAS-STGNOP-ILL-A-TLI-TSPOTB ~ Users Were No Longer Ends In Themselves – But Rather – The Means To Others’ Ends – A – New Economic Logic – Based On – Fortune-Telling And Selling – Serving The Genuine Needs Of People – Is Less Lucrative – And – Therefore Less Important – Than Selling Predictions Of Their Behavior

~ TKP-TEOTE-ITROOLABDFTSOO-IC-OU ~ The Key Point – The Essence Of The Exploitation – Is The Rendering Of Our Lives As Behavioral Data For The Sake Of Others’ – Improved Control – Of Us

~ DR-V-BOEKTTIADTM ~ Decisions Rights – Vanish – Before One Even Knows That There Is A Decision To Make

~ BFM-TNPSAOIAA-TS-CBATMOD ~ Behavioral Futures Markets – The New Prediction Systems Are Only Incidentally About Ads – The Systems – Can Be Applied To Many Other Domains

~ DD ~ Digital Dispossession

~ IA-A-ID-T-PHDR ~ Intelligence Agencies – Are – Irresistibly Drawn – To – Privately Held Data Resources

~ LAANR ~ Lawlessness As A Natural Right

~ PK-DFBS-CA-HCWE ~ Predictive Knowledge – Derived From Behavioral Surplus – Could Also – Help Candidates Win Elections

~ GAS-A-M-S-B-SR ~ Goods And Services – Are – Merely – Surveillance-Bound – Supply Routes

~ TDC:I/H/A/R ~ The Dispossession Cycle: Incursion / Habituation / Adaptation / Redirection

~ I-W-A/K/A ~ Incursion – Without – Authorization / Knowledge / Agreement

~ A-SRE-ABPO-M-AC-S-P ~ A – Single Rogue Engineer – A Brilliant Piece Of – Misdirection – A Classic – Scapegoating – Ploy

~ IYANOOM-YDNE ~ If You Are Not On Our Map – You Do Not Exist

~ S-A-A-S ~ Surveillance-As-A-Service

~ WK?/WD?/WDWD?~ Who Knows? / Who Decides? / Who Decides Who Decides?

~ RSC-IAMATTS-AIITC ~ Raw Surveillance Capitalism – Is As Much A Threat To Society – As It Is To Capitalism

~ O-ER-T-TFT-WI-TRTAFOTIOIFT-OOOA-T-I-M-A-C-OB ~ Our – Elemental Right – To – The Future Tense – Which Is – The Right To Act Free Of The Influence Of Illegitimate Forces That – Operate Outside Our Awareness – To – Influence – Modify – And – Condition – Our Behavior

~ UC-INJA-KM-IIA-AM-DTP-MC-AU-A-FT ~ Ubiquitous Computing – Is Not Just A – Knowing Machine – It Is An – Actuating Machine – Designed To Produce – More Certainty – About Us – And – For Them

~ TKTNDOFIP ~ The Knowledge That Now Displaces Our Freedom Is Proprietary

~ OWW ~ Observation Without Witness

~ YAN-TP-YA-TAC-T-‘P’-DFTSTIRFYL ~ You Are Not – The Product – You Are – The Abandoned Carcass – The – “Product” – Derives From The Surplus That Is Ripped From Your Life

~ P-N-OOTMOBM-BO ~ Power – Now – Ownership Of The Means Of Behavioral Modification – Big Other

~ EUHAH ~ Every Unicorn Has A Hunter

~ TMOTBABOANGDTGTTIOTCS ~ Too Many Of The Best And Brightest Of A New Generation Devote Their Genius To The Intensification Of The Click-Stream

~ B-T-F-‘FC’-L/L/M/B ~ Behavior – The – Fourth – “Fictional Commodity” – Land / Labor / Money / Behavior

~ TANINT-D-N-BR-HN ~ The Aim Now Is Not To – Dominate – Nature – But Rather – Human Nature

SHOSHANA ZUBOFF ~ SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM ~ THE AGE OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM ~ 2019

~ SC-UCHE-A-FRM-F-TIBD-ASOTDAAT-POSI-TRADAA-PBS-FI-AMP-KA-MI’-A-FI-PP-T-AWYWD-N/S/L/F-T-PP-ATIANKOMFBP-BFM-M-AET-LBOOFB ~ Surveillance Capitalism – Unilaterally Claims Human Experience – As – Free Raw Material – For – Translation Into Behavioral Data – Although Some Of These Data Are Applied To – Product Or Service Improvement – The Rest Are Declared As A – Proprietary Behavioral Surplus – Fed Into – Advanced Manufacturing Processes – Known As – “Machine Intelligence” – And – Fabricated Into – Prediction Products – That – Anticipate What You Will Do – Now / Soon / Later / Finally – These – Prediction Products – Are Traded In A New Kind Of Marketplace For Behavioral Predictions – Behavioral Futures Markets – Many – Are Eager To – Lay Bets On Our Future Behavior

~ AMP-NOKOB-B-ASOBAX-WT-RFKTP-IINLETAIFAU-TGNITAU ~ Automated Machine Processes – Not Only Know Our Behavior – But – Also Shape Our Behavior At Scale – With This – Reorientation From Knowledge To Power – It Is No Longer Enough To Automate Information Flows About Us – The Goal Now Is To Automate Us

HANNAH ARENDT ~ THE ORIGINS OF TOTALITARIANISM ~ 1950

~ AFTE-I-AIACT-TUOTM-ATMO-CWTM ~ Attraction For The Elite – Is – As Important A Clue To – The Understanding Of Totalitarian Movements – As The More Obvious – Connection With The Mob

~ NPETE-T-T-PAPM-O-PWTONBSTPL ~ Nothing Proved Easier To Destroy – Than – The – Privacy And Private Morality – Of – People Who Thought Of Nothing But Safeguarding Their Private Lives

~ TIP-I-RAF-RT-ROTS-W-TCAFWLO-IAC-ISTBGOT-L ~ Totalitarianism In Power – Invariably – Replaces All First-Rate Talents – Regardless Of Their Sympathies – With – Those Crackpots And Fools Whose Lack Of – Intelligence And Creativity – Is Still The Best Guarantee Of Their – Loyalty

~ OTMATECBABTMOTI-TMHTBWBP ~ Only The Mob And The Elite Can Be Attracted By The Momentum Of Totalitarianism Itself – The Masses Have To Be Won By Propaganda

~ TCQOAMLHB-UI-NAAE ~ The Chief Qualification Of A Mass Leader Has Become – Unending Infallibility – Never Admit An Error

~ TPEOI-TSSOPAAMIAO-PF-THOA-PIITFOP ~ The Propaganda Effect Of Infallibility – The Striking Success Of Posing As A Mere Interpreting Agent Of – Predictable Forces – The Habit Of Announcing – Political Intentions In The Form Of Prophecy

~ WCMAN-F-A-NE-IF-B-O-TCOTSOWTAPP ~ What Convinces Masses Are Not – Facts – And – Not Even – Invented Facts – But – Only – The Consistency Of The System Of Which They Are Presumably Part

~ FTO-STTM-WAMO-NAR-T-FTMATTCOTOW-AMSI-DTOWATTCOTM ~ Fellow-Traveller Organizations – Surround The Totalitarian Movements – With A Mist Of – Normality And Respectability – That – Fools The Membership About The True Character Of The Outside World – As Much As It – Does The Outside World About The True Character Of The Movement

~ IIBOT-EA-BTFO-A-SS-OC-AO-T-SP-OTCI-T-TR-BOAFO-GC-A-AA-GR-ECAPITHOTP ~ It Is Because Of The – Essential Affinity – Between The Functioning Of – A – Secret Society – Of Conspirators – And Of – The – Secret Police – Organized To Combat It – That – Totalitarian Regimes – Based On A Fiction Of – Global Conspiracy – And – Aiming At – Global Rule – Eventually Concentrate All Power In The Hands Of The Police

~ IITFFTCOTOIWCTHROTTH ~ It Is This Freedom From The Content Of Their Own Ideologies Which Characterizes The Highest Rank Of The Totalitarian Hierarchy

~ MOTEOTNWIIDDWTG-CCBTT-AEAACSWSPTHLIGOR ~ Many Of The Errors Of The Nontotalitarian World In Its Diplomatic Dealings With Totalitarian Government – Can Clearly Be Traced To – An Experience And A Common Sense Which Suddenly Proved To Have Lost Its Grasp On Reality

~ T-CAEC-O-TR-SA-TLIWTFBOTTEIPIBV ~ The – Concentration And Extermination Camps – Of – Totalitarian Regimes – Serve As – The Laboratories In Which The Fundamental Belief Of Totalitarianism That Everything Is Possible Is Being Verified

~ ‘PC’ ~ “Proctective Custody”

~’EIP’-‘EIP ‘~ “Everything Is Permitted” – “Everything Is Possible”

~ WMHTCO-M-WWACWT-MPOC?

~ What Meaning Has The Concept Of – Murder – When We Are Confronted With The – Mass Production Of Corpses?

~ TPCBDEWTDOTP ~ The Psyche Can Be Destroyed Even Without The Destruction Of The Physical

~ TANPT-LITCC-IHCNBFEBTIFTVRTISOO-LAD-ICNBFR-FTVRT-TSRTTWOTL-WMII-T-BF-IH[/H]OE-IIAT-ASTTOAP-FTSOTIITWOTL-WNISTKITAAOD-IST-IIATTHNBB ~ There Are No Parallels To – Life In The Concentration Camps – Its Horror Can Never Be Fully Embraced By The Imagination For The Very Reason That It Stands Outside Of – Life And Death – It Can Never Be Fully Reported – For The Very Reason That – The Survivor Returns To The World Of The Living – Which Makes It Impossible – To – Believe Fully – In His[/Her] Own Experiences – It Is As Though – A Story To Tell Of Another Planet – For The Status Of The Inmates In The World Of The Living – Where Nobody Is Supposed To Know If They Are Alive Or Dead – Is Such That – It Is As Though They Had Never Been Born

~ TCCAAI-WNEFTSOAPLY-TOPEFOTCHBTFOTOSA-CCEMFTOS-AWTHBPCHBD-MBAMC-UDC-T-IOTH-ICBUWT-EU-TAO-MAU-CBAALOP-IT-RIC-WHAFO-CC-F-TEOTW ~ The Concentration Camp As An Institution – Was Not Established For The Sake Of Any Possible Labor Yield – The Only Permanent Economic Function Of The Camps Has Been The Financing Of Their Own Supervisory Apparatus – Concentration Camps Exist Mostly For Their Own Sake – Any Work That Has Been Performed Could Have Been Done – Much Better And More Cheaply – Under Different Conditions – The – Incredibility Of The Horrors – Is Closely Bound Up With Their – Economic Uselessness – This Atmosphere Of – Madness And Unreality – Created By An Apparent Lack Of Purpose – Is The – Real Iron Curtain – Which Hides All Forms Of – Concentration Camps – From – The Eyes Of The World

~ T-GITC-EAATT-AOU-STTOTPT ~ The – Guards In The Camps – Embraced An Attitude Toward The – Atmosphere Of Unreality – Similar To That Of The Prisoners Themselves

~ L-IA-CC-S-A-D-O-P-O-D ~ Life – In A – Concentration Camp – Simply – A – Dragged-Out – Process – Of – Dying

~ WCMTPHC-IOT-SSI?-TAIOTV:NMEDT-T-GH-WW-C-CV-WC-ITPTS:’P’-C-W-E-JAI-B-IOA ~ What Crime Must These People Have Committed – In Order To – Suffer So Inhumanely? – The Absolute Innocence Of The Victims: No Man Ever Deserved This – The – Grotesque Haphazardness – With Which – Concentration-Camp Victims – Were Chosen – In The Perfected Terror State: “Punishment” – Can – With – Equal – Justice And Injustice – Be – Inflicted On Anyone

~ T-I-MMOC-IPBT-HAPI-POLC ~ The – Insane – Mass Manufacture Of Corpses – Is Preceded By The – Historically And Politically Intelligible – Preparation Of Living Corpses

~ CWTCHWWTIAS-A-TC-MIT-B-UFTSOO-IWTAUDOTA ~ Contrasting With The Complete Haphazardness With Which The Inmates Are Selected – Are – The Categories – Meaningless In Themselves – But – Useful From The Standpoint Of Organization – Into Which They Are Usually Divided On Their Arrival

~ MCOI ~ Meaningless Categories Of Inmates

~ WCC-WT-UF-TI-A-T-VW-DT-TOITD-ATSCNI-N-M

~ Without Concentration Camps – Without The – Undefined Fear – They Inspire – And – The – Very Well-Defined Training – They Offer In Totalitarian Domination – A Totalitarian State Can Neither – Inspire – Nor – Maintain

~ UN-T-TB-T-EIP-STHPOT-ECBD ~ Until Now The – Totalitarian Belief – That – Everything Is Possible – Seems To Have Proved Only That – Everything Can Be Destroyed

~ TDOT-CF-A-HOO-IT-TPACRS-TS-WWCUWISITA-P-S-O-E-M ~ The Danger Of The – Corpse Factories – And – Holes Of Oblivion – Is That – Today – People Are Continuously Rendered Superfluous – Totalitarian Solutions – Which Will Come Up Whenever It Seems Impossible To Alleviate – Political – Social – Or – Economic – Misery

! TL-DL-A-PTETDRO-JOE-E-TLO-H-O-ON-WTIISO-RAW–F-IB ~ Totalitarian Lawfulness – Defying Legality – And – Pretending To Establish The Direct Reign Of – Justice On Earth – Executes – The Law Of – History – Or – Of Nature – Without Translating It Into Standards Of – Right And Wrong – For – Individual Behavior

~ TAO-TE-HNBT-IC-B-T-DTCTFA ~ The Aim Of – Totalitarian Education – Has Never Been To – Install Convictions – But – To – Destroy The Capacity To Form Any

~ E/V-TPMDTTW-T-E-T-MBS-WTRNTGTBOIS-IAPTF-EWFTROEATROV ~ Executioners / Victims – The Process May Decide That Those Who – Today – Eliminate – Tomorrow – Must Be Sacrificed – What Totalitarian Rule Needs To Guide The Behavior Of Its Subjects – Is A Preparation To Fit – Equally Well For The Role Of Executioner And The Role Of Victim

~ I-I-W-TTSOTA-CE-EAEO-B-DIFASP-A-AVRP ~ Ideologies – Isms – Which – To The Satisfaction Of Their Adherents – Can Explain – Everything And Every Occurrence – By – Deducing It From A Single Premise – Are – A Very Recent Phenomenon

~ T-ISOTR-IN-TC-B-P-FW-TDB-FAF-(TROE)-A-TDB-TAF-(TSOT)-NLE ~ The – Ideal Subject Of Totalitarian Rule – Is Not – The Convinced – But – People – For Whom – The Distinction Between – Fact And Fiction – (The Reality Of Experience) – And – The Distinction Between – True And False – (The Standards Of Thought) – No Longer Exist

~ EEIHNCANB ~ Every End In History Necessarily Contains A New Beginning

THOMAS FRANK ~ THE PEOPLE, NO ~ 2020

~ FTVB-P-HTM-TWPAIPUI-MAMIW-OC-D-DER-A-TWPAIECI-ADMO-GR-IW-DLTD ~ From The Very Beginning – Populism – Had Two Meanings – There Was Populism As Its Proponents Understood It – Meaning A Movement In Which – Ordinary Citizens – Demanded – Democratic Economic Reforms – And – There Was Populism As Its Enemies Characterized It – A Dangerous Movement Of – Groundless Resentment – In Which – Demagogues Led The Disreputable

~ TIO – WP-CTA-EP-LO;YMSICOOTMSO-DT ~ The Idea Of – Working People – Coming Together Against – Economic Privilege – Lives On; You Might Say It Constitutes One Of The Main Streams Of – Democratic Tradition

~ A-P-‘ETOD’-HT-PP-SBMBA-‘COE’-RTBT-EAD-P-IR-MPM-A-OOI-MP-IA-AMFAR ~ Anti-Populism – “Elitist Theory Of Democracy” – Holds That – Public Policy – Should Be Made By A – “Consensus Of Elites” – Rather Than By The – Emotional And Deluded – People – It Regards – Mass Protest Movements – As – Outbreaks Of Irrationality – Marginalized People – It Assumes – Are Marginalized For A Reason

~ T-O-O-F-TT-PPC-FQFIRITPA-UINI-W-A-PHOTMTEFORY-D/FC/OE-TAADTA-IOU-ENOCHPHFOMMS ~ The – Obvious – Objective – Fact – That The – Professional Political Class – Fails Quite Frequently Is Regarded In This Philosophy As – Uninteresting If Not Impossible – When Anti-Populists Have Occasion To Mention The Elite Failures Of Recent Years – Deindustrialization / Financial Crisis / Opioid Epidemic – They Almost Always Dismiss Them As – Inevitable Or Unpredictable – Episodes No One Could Have Possibly Have Foreseen Or Managed More Successfully

~ OTSO-EF-TINIPOIATIWP-NIAATDWEKB-ITCIB-ATPOF-O-DTPDMBRI-A-PWCTLET ~ On The Subject Of – Elite Failure – There Is No International Program Of Inquiry As There Is With Populism – No Incentives At All To Discover Why Experts Keep Blundering – If The Choice Is Between – Admitting That Professionals Often Fail – Or – Determining That Popular Democracy Must Be Reined In – Anti-Populists Will Choose The Latter Every Time

~ SPHTP-TF-MAWOSCR-HFOTBEWNTNOOT ~ Something Profound Had Taken Place – The Farmers – Men And Women Of Society’s Commonest Rank – Had Figured Out That Being Exploited Was Not The Natural Order Of Things

~ A-P-ASA-ATFJ-UP ~ Anti-Populism – Always Serves As – A Tool For Justifying – Unaccountable Power

~ TRPWP-WAGP-W-T-OPHCTUTIATWAWNAUTK ~ The Real Problem With Populism – With All Genuine Populisms – Was – That – Ordinary People Had Come To Understand Their Interests All Too Well And Were Now Acting Upon That Knowledge

~ TATC-TPP:YMEBRB-G/E-E-OB-R/A-D-BTTINMGANPA ~ Those Are The Choices – The Punditburo Proclaims: You Must Either Be Ruled By – Gracious / Enlightened – Experts – Or By – Racist / Authoritarian – Dunces – Between Them There Is No Middle Ground And No Possible Alternative

~ ‘P’-WAWUTE-THOSHCATLCTPWTDNB ~ “Populism” – Was A Word Used To Express – The Horror Of Seeing Hierarchies Collapse And The Lowly Clamber To Places Where They Do Not Belong

~ A-P-IAA-TPLIOTW;TCATH-BRTWTTDO-GAJAT-AWTD ~ Anti-Populism – Is Always About – The Powerful Lording It Over The Weak; The Credentialed And The High-Born Reminding The World That The Definitions Of – Goodness And Justice And Truth – Are Whatever They Determine

~ P-INAAW-M-A-PT-HITB ~ Populism – Is Not At All What – Modern – Anti-Populist Theory – Holds It To Be

~ TP-TA-PM-W-ED ~ The Problem – The Anti-Populists Maintained – Was – Excessive Democracy

~ BTSCOI-ATU-SOE-LTTSI:YMNCOOSE-TWMLTPABSWTL ~ Both The – Sunny Credo Of Individualism – And The Ugly – Science Of Eugenics – Led To The Same Imperative: You Must Not Challenge Or Overthrow Society’s Elites – The Weak Must Learn Their Place And Be Satisfied With Their Lot

~ TSTHPFTLFD-TPIITCB-TCOROBOTOS-A-TCOEPEBOTO ~ The System That Has Prevailed For The Last Few Decades – The Public Is Invited To Choose Between – The Candidate Of Resentful Oil Billionaires On The One Side – And – The Candidate Of Enlightened Private-Equity Billionaires On The Other

~ OE-HLTWIT-GD-OE-WNHPTMTGUOOI ~ Orthodox Economics – Had Led The World Into The – Great Depression – Orthodox Economics – Would Never Have Permitted The Measures That Got Us Out Of It

~ A-PWTUBANE-LBAHOTA-PU-TGTA-PI-TLOT-A-BIIAF-BSO-B-I-I-ICTSTSFAA-RTPOTP-BN-A-PDIWBMO-PAST-‘P’-BTPTFTOOT-IWTSBOHA-THBLAR-PRTEOTE ~ Anti-Populism Was Taken Up By A New Elite – Led By A Handful Of Thinkers At – Prestigious Universities – This Group Translated Anti-Populism Into – The Language Of Theory – And – Built It Into A Full-Blown System Of – Big – Intimidating – Ideas – It Continued To Serve The Same Function As Always – Rationalizing The Power Of The Powerful – But Now – Anti-Populism Did Its Work By Means Of – Psychology And Social Theory – “Populism” – Became Their – Pet Term – For – The Opposite Of Themselves – It Was The Same – Bill Of Hysterical Accusations – That Had Been Leveled At Reformers – Populism Represented The Denial Of Their Expertise

~ EWITBT-EAOI-MMOWPWD ~ Everyone Wanted It To Be True – Everyone Agreed On It – Mass Movements Of Working People Were Dangerous

~ TI-‘SA’-ATSO-MPM-AAATRTDTAI-SESS-B-ITOTBCA-ALTC(OH)CA-TAAG-IOTDI-DTDA-‘SA’-CCTDTRO-EH-A ~ To Identify – “Status Anxiety” – As The Source Of – Mass Protest Movements – And Also As The Reason To Dismiss Them As Irrational – Sounded Ever So Scientific – But – It Turned Out To Be Completely Arbitrary – A Label The Critic (Or Historian) Could Affix – To Almost Any Group – In Order To Disparage It – Dismissing Their Discontent As –”Status Anxiety” – Comes Close To Denying The Reality Of – Economic Hardship – Altogether

~ T-P-ITNWGT-MM-TA-BAI-TCSOREE-TSEA:TBOOP/TFOPM/TWOE ~ Today – Populism – Is The Name We Give To – Mass Movements – That Are – Bigoted And Irrational – The Common Sense Of Ruling Elites Everywhere – The Same Eternal Archetype: The Bigotry Of Ordinary People / The Folly Of Protest Movements / The Wisdom Of Elites

~ PAS-BAR-#1SH;PAMEDFSITS-‘P’-NW-A-S/U-P ~ Populism As Style – Became A Runaway #1 Smash Hit; Populism As Multiracial Economic Democracy Faded Slowly Into The Sunset – “Populism” – Now Meaning – A – Sunny / Upbeat – Peopleism

~ TPR-ITAKOHBTCYAPWCDOWAIA-TL-ITIP-TWHCTMN ~ The Pseudopopulist Revolution – It Takes A Kind Of Hallucinatory Bravado To Call Yourself A Populist While Cracking Down On Workers And Ignoring Anti-Trust Laws – If This Is Populism – The Word Has Truly Come To Mean Nothing

~ WTRCMCTR-IAT-GT-O-DS-VBEEEANEA ~ Why The Ruling Class Must Continue To Rule – Is Always The – Great Theme – Of – Democracy Scares – Voiced By Eminent Economist And Newspaper Editor Alike

~ AGPM-HAT-BWPT-ABO-R/R/E-IOT-RC ~ All Genuine Populist Movements – Have Aimed To – Bring Working People Together – Across Barriers Of – Race / Religion / Ethnicity – In Order To – Reform Capitalism

~ WA-HOP-ISBA-LFC-TRA-~ When A – History Of Protest – Is Sponsored By A – Luxury Fashion Company – The Results Are – – Overdetermined

~ TMOA-PITSAE:TLO-II-ADB-I/B/A/H-DIAPBIGSPAV ~ The Message Of Anti-Populism Is The Same As Ever: The Lower Orders – It Insists – Are Driven By – Irrationality / Bigotry / Authoritarianism / Hate – Democracy Is A Problem Because It Gives Such People A Voice

~ P-WAI-RO-A-P-IAAD-IHFHRIN-IVOTCGIB ~ Populism – Was And Is – Relentlessly Optimistic – Anti-Populism – Is All About Despair – Its Hope For Human Redemption Is Nil – It’s Vision Of The Common Good Is Bleak

~ TDF-ED-IHYBAMMO-OP-AAMMO-OP-IT-IHYA-ED ~ The Demand For – Economic Democracy – Is How You Build A Mass Movement Of – Ordinary People – And A Mass Movement Of – Ordinary People – In Turn – Is How You Achieve – Economic Democracy