ROBERT PAXTON ~ “MOBILIZING PASSIONS” ~ THE ANATOMY OF FASCISM

~ ASOOCBTROATS ~ A Sense Of Overwhelming Crisis Beyond The Reach Of Any Traditional Solutions

~ TPOTG-TWOHDSTER-WIOU-ATSOTITI ~ The Primacy Of The Group – Toward Which One Has Duties Superior To Every Right – Whether Individual Or Universal – And The Subordination Of The Individual To It

~ TBTOGIAV-ASTJAA-WLOML-AIE-BIAE ~ The Belief That One’s Group Is A Victim – A Sentiment That Justifies Any Action – Without Legal Or Moral Limits – Against Its Enemies – Both Internal And External

~ DOTGDUTCEO-IL-CC-AI ~ Dread Of The Group’s Decline Under The Corrosive Effects Of – Individualistic Liberalism – Class Conflict – Alien Influences

~ TNFCIOAPC-BCIP-O-BEVIN ~ The Need For Closer Integration Of A Purer Community – By Consent If Possible – Or – By Exclusionary Violence If Necessary

~ TNFABNC-AM-CIANCWICOITGHD ~ The Need For Authority By Natural Chiefs – Always Male – Culminating In A National Chieftain Who Alone Is Capable Of Incarnating The Group’s Historical Destiny

~ TSOTLIOAAUR ~ The Superiority Of The Leader’s Instincts Over Abstract And Universal Reason

~ TBOVATEOW-WTADTTGS ~ The Beauty Of Violence And The Efficacy Of Will – When They Are Devoted To The Group’s Success

~ TROTCPTDOWRFAKOHODL-RBDBTSCOTGPWADS ~ The Right Of The Chosen People To Dominate Others Without Restraint From Any Kind Of Human Or Divine Law – Right Being Decided By The Sole Criterion Of The Group’s Prowess Within A Darwinian Struggle

DAVID GRAEBER ~ DEBT – THE FIRST 5,000 YEARS ~ 2011 + 2012

~ IOTORCHTFSOFMEPDIWOZ-TTCHNAT-ANW ~ In Order To Obtain Refinancing Countries Have To Follow Some Orthodox Free-Market Economic Policy Designed In Washington Or Zurich – That Their Citizens Had Never Agreed To – And Never Would

~ IWABDTITCADC-ATAIT-WGE-THNCOTCPA ~ It Was A Bit Dishonest To Insist That Countries Adopt Democratic Constitutions – And Then Also Insists That – Whoever Gets Elected – They Have No Control Over Their Country Policies Anyway

~ FTOY-TSBRAPHLTTFOCBCAD-OAB-IP-DP-A-R-R-TSOS-TSOV-TSODCIS ~ For Thousands Of Years – The Struggle Between Rich And Poor Has Largely Taken The Form Of Conflicts Between Creditors And Debtors – Of Arguments About – Interest Payment – Debt Peonage – Amnesty – Repossession – Restitution – The Sequestering Of Sheep – The Seizing Of Vineyards – The Selling Of Debtors’ Children Into Slavery

~ FTLFTY-WRR-PIHB-WTRDOTDR-CTDARTL ~ For The Last Five Thousand Years – With Remarkable Regularity – Popular Insurrections Have Begun – With The Ritual Destruction Of The Debt Records – Cancel The Debts And Redistribute The Land

~ AAWROWTWHPACRISOBVORAW ~ Arguments About Who Really Owes What To Whom Have Played A Central Role In Shaping Our Basic Vocabulary Of Right And Wrong

~ TNNAVM-A-TWTOFOM ~ There’s Nothing New About Virtual Money – Actually – This Was The Original Form Of Money

~ ITCSV-TSATM-TAAEADOP-HRR-H-TWBTAHABI ~ In That Common Sense View – The State And The Market – Tower Above All Else As Diametrically Opposed Principles – Historical Reality Reveals – However – They Were Born Together And Have Always Been Intertwined

~ NOIIMTMDP-MADAOTSAETST ~ Not Only Is It Money That Makes Debt Possible – Money And Debt Appear On The Scene At Exactly The Same Time

~ SOTVFWDTHCDTUAMTRCAD ~ Some Of The Very First Written Documents That Have Come Down To Us Are Mesopotamian Tablets Recording Credits And Debits

~ TSOMFEABWAFWOB-TPIWTLTFITAS-WWNCVMCF ~ The Story Of Money For Economists Always Begins With A Fantasy World Of Barter – The Problem Is Where To Locate This Fantasy In Time And Space – What We Now Call Virtual Money Came First

~ B-ATBLAKOABOTUOCOPM-IHMBWPWAUTCTDWFOROATHNATC ~ Barter – Appears To Be Largely A Kind Of Accidental Byproduct Of The Use Of Coinage Or Paper Money – It Has Mainly Been What People Who Are Used To Cash Transactions Do When For One Reason Or Another They Have No Access To Currency

~ A-TFRWF-’F’-IAKHL-LM-’RTM’ ~ Amargi – The First Recorded Word For – “Freedom” – In Any Known Human Language – Literally Means – “Return To Mother”

~ SCM-MRS-NCCWTO-AL-IALTFWWRT ~ States Created Markets – Markets Require States – Neither Could Continue Without The Other – At Least – In Anything Like The Forms We Would Recognize Today

~ C-MWNITOTIOBBN-SNWHNRTEIBITFP ~ Clearly – Money Was Not Invented To Overcome The Inconveniences Of Barter Between Neighbors – Since Neighbors Would Have No Reason To Engage In Barter In The First Place

~ TSASA-CTTS-AT-DTEFITK-OTPOOTCB-NEF-IOTGTHOTC-MFSWT-PSWTTW-MABIEAASE ~ To Support A Standing Army – Coins To The Soldiers – And Then – Demands That Every Family In The Kingdom – Obliged To Pay One Of Those Coins Back – Now Every Family – In Order To Get Their Hands On The Coins – Must Find Some Way To – Provide Soldiers With Things They Want – Markets Are Brought Into Existence As A Side Effect

~ DTDLA-TTEOSAMASO-THRITETOITC-SSTATBWM ~ Despite The Dogged Liberal Assumption – That The Existence Of States And Markets Are Somehow Opposed – The Historical Record Implies That Exactly The Opposite Is The Case – Stateless Societies Tend Also To Be Without Markets

~ WIEO-OTLFTY-MHBE-ACOTS ~ Whatever Its Earliest Origins – Of The Last Four Thousand Years – Money Has Been Effectively – A Creature Of The State

~ MIC-ICBBIBBPCA-TSMETAADTLT ~ Money Is Credit – It Can Be Brought Into Being By Private Contractual Agreements – The State Merely Enforces The Agreement And Dictates The Legal Terms

~ AOTISTGBTSSOO-’SC’-TESAO-TNORKEWOBW-OWWSBBBTDODAOTOM-WWDFPBBTDOODAOAE ~ All Of This Is Said To Go Back To Some Sort Of Original – “Social Contract” – That Everyone Somehow Agreed On – Though No One Really Knows Exactly When Or By Whom – Or Why We Should Be Bound By The Decisions Of Distant Ancestors On This One Matter – When We Don’t Feel Particularly Bound By The Decisions Of Our Distant Ancestors On Anything Else

~ TBBSAM-BGAM-INITTHC ~ The Battle Between State And Market – Between Governments And Merchants – Is Not Inherent To The Human Condition

~ ‘F’-CTRAATRFTEOD ~“Freedom” – Came To Refer Above All To Release From The Effects Of Debt

~ AHRABOSVOR-IS-TDRIATROAM-BDIWHWSBHNYBR ~ All Human Relations Are Based On Some Variation On Reciprocity – If So – Then Debt Really Is At The Root Of All Morality – Because Debt Is What Happens When Some Balance Has Not Yet Been Restored

~ WEA-C-WOCF ~ We Are All – Communists – With Our Closest Friends

~ NRMOWWWTLIAPWNDLAOA ~ No Reasonable Man Or Woman Would Want To Live In A Place Where Neighbors Don’t Look After One Another

~ GASCADFCABOSF:TCBS ~ Gold And Silver Coins Are Distinguished From Credit Arrangements By One Spectacular Feature: They Can Be Stolen

~ MCSC ~ Military-Coinage-Slavery Complex

~ MATHFE-ITNEAL-AASEOGAS ~ Markets Appear To Have First Emerge – In The Near East At Least – As A Side Effect Of Government Administrative Systems

~ WUTATCAMATST-B-IMWTCREWBCAO-WMAWOEGTTMOM-CIFAFTAOUMTGMM-TEWTDTIBESKOFODFRM ~ We’re Use To Assuming That Capitalism And Markets Are The Same Thing – But – In Many Ways They Could Equally Well Be Conceived As Opposites – While Markets Are Ways Of Exchanging Goods Through The Medium Of Money – Capitalism Is First And Foremost The Art Of Using Money To Get More Money – The Easiest Way To Do This Is By Establishing Some Kind Of Formal Or De Facto Monopoly

~ B-1520A1650-UTOGASFMAPWTATAAPISTS-VLOTGASLVLIE-MOTGEUITII-ATOMOTSBWUSOTC-EHNPMOATAWTB-SIWFTPISFSSSAOI ~ Between – 1520 and 1640 – Untold Tons Of Gold And Silver From Mexico And Peru Were Transported Across The Atlantic And Pacific In Spanish Treasure Ships – Very Little Of That Gold And Silver Lingered Very Long In Europe – Most Of The Gold Ended Up In Temples In India – And The Overwhelming Majority Of The Silver Bullion Was Ultimately Shipped Off To China – Europe Had Never Produced Much Of Anything That Asians Wanted To Buy – So It Was Forced To Pay In Specie For Silks, Spices, Steel, And Other Imports

~ TEYOEEWLATGAET-EL-O-TNSOGASWWTPFT ~ The Early Years Of European Expansion Were Largely Attempts To Gain Access Either To – Eastern Luxuries – Or – To New Sources Of Gold And Silver With Which To Pay For Them

~ THTBPIM-EB-IC-CTBTMAIHITMA-BMOVFOVCM-T-PN-O-STKTOWOWTW ~ Taxes Had To Be Paid In Metal – Everyday Business – In Contrast – Continued To Be Transacted Much As It Had In The Middle Ages – By Means Of Various Forms Of Virtual Credit Money – Tallies – Promissory Notes – Or – Simply The Keeping Track Of Who Owed What To Whom

~ CC-WELBS-O-WPRTAT-TLBPAOS-AA-GASWUBTGTPAAPS ~ Cold Cash – Was Employed Largely Between Strangers – Or – When Paying Rents, Tithes, And Taxes – To Landlords, Bailiffs, Priest, And Other Superiors – Above All – Gold And Silver Were Used By The Government To Purchase Arms And Pay Soldiers

~ TGCTMWENTP ~ The Great Conversation That Many Were Expecting Never Took Place

~ WCTWEBWCNLIAATWBEW ~ We Cling To What Exists Because We Can No Longer Imagine An Alternative That Wouldn’t Be Even Worse

~ ASTRTWTNCOBHIPBW ~ Any System That Reduces The World To Numbers Can Only Be Held In Place By Weapons

~ ITLSOT-JANOHTRTTUOTV-NOHTRTTUWWTO ~ In The Largest Scheme Of Things – Just As No One Has The Right To Tell Us Our True Value – No One Has The Right To Tell Us What We Truly Owe

GARY HAUGEN + VICTOR BOUTROS ~ THE LOCUST EFFECT

~ TEOPRTEOV ~ The End Of Poverty Requires The End Of Violence

~ TVSWOV ~ The Vast Subterranean World Of Violence

~ TRIVHFOTS-B-MAOVATPAIH ~ This Reality Is Very Hard For Outsiders To See – Because – Most Acts Of Violence Against The Poor Are Intentionally Hidden

~ AESEOAFLAT-EM ~ An Entire Subterranean Economy Of Abduction, Forced Labor, And Torture – Engulfing Millions

~ VIAMAPOWIMTBPA-B-HSHOJ-IF-VIFTPTPPAMCA-IIOOTCRTAPITFP-AOOTPRTSP ~ Violence Is As Much A Part Of What It Means To Be Poor As – Being – Hungry, Sick, Homeless, Or Jobless – In Fact – Violence Is Frequently The Problem That Poor People Are Most Concerned About – It Is One Of The Core Reasons They Are Poor In The First Place – And One Of The Primary Reasons They Stay Poor

~ SV-OOTMPADSOVATP ~ Sexual Violence – One Of The Most Pervasive And Devastating Sources Of Violence Against The Poor

~ LSDP-SVHSIENACOTDW-THSAWOAPOWCAC-IIOWAGWARV ~ Like Some Dread Plague – Sexual Violence Has Seeped Into Every Nook And Cranny Of The Developing World – The Homes, Schools, Alleys, Workplaces, Orphanages And Places Of Worship, Commerce, And Care – It Is Overwhelmingly Women And Girls Who Are The Victims

~ THCBAPOSLBFTPWAG ~ The Home Can Be A Place Of Silent, Lawless Brutality For The Poorest Women And Girls

~ OOTPRGDGTSITDWISV ~ One Of The Primary Reasons Girls Don’t Go To School In The Developing World Is Sexual Violence

~ SVIAB-EDTAMOPWAROSMAPOACT ~ Sexual Violence Is A Business – Every Day There Are Millions Of People Who Are Raped Or Sexually Molested As Part Of A Commercial Transaction

~ ‘PG’ ~ “Property Grabbing”

~ MOTWPPLICIWTCBSTOOTHAOTLBTINRRKSFADWOTLATP ~ Most Of The World’s Poorest People Live In Circumstances In Which They Can Be Summarily Thrown Out Of Their Homes And Off Their Land Because There Is No Reliable Record Keeping System For Accurately Demonstrating Who Owns The Land And The Property

~ TBEOTSPATACBSAIAITVLS ~ The Best Efforts Of The Struggling Poor And Their Allies Can Be Swept Away In An Instance Through Violent Land Seizures

~ APAAD ~ Abusive Police And Arbitrary Detention

~ TIOLEITDWAAATTV-TIPWTPHBTTTTW-TMPCAPPFTGPIFTOPF ~ The Institutions Of Law Enforcement In The Developing World Are Actually Adding To The Violence – This Is Precisely What The Poor Have Been Trying To Tell The World – The Most Pervasive Criminal And Predatory Presence For The Global Poor Is Frequently Their Own Police Force

~ AD ~ Abusive Detention

~ AGFAPPAATDW-BPUATIJBTPOFC-AAWOEMSAPAOGAS ~ A Great Fear Among Poor People All Around The Developing World – Begin Picked Up And Thrown In Jail By The Police On False Charges – As A Way Of Extorting Money, Sex Acts, Property And Other Goods And Services

~ FFFIAIAFFW-IIITTEOOTRWTO ~ Freedom From Fear Is As Important As Freedom From Want – It Is Impossible To Truly Enjoy One Of These Rights Without The Other

~ ERSLOPTVTOECBDTPH-EIIIOOTFPA-TDHE ~ Even Relatively Small Losses Of Property Through Violent Theft Or Extortion Can Be Debilitating To Poor Households – Especially If It Is One Of Their Few Productive Assets – They Don’t Have Extras

~ IABIVBV-LU-E-A-ACW-TREIDAW-ATP-MPALTBDUTB ~ If A Breadwinner Is Victimized By Violence – Locked Up – Enslaved – Assaulted – And Can’t Work – The Ripple Effect Is Deep And Wide – Among The Poor – More People Are Likely To Be Dependent Upon That Breadwinner

~ THCOT ~ The Hidden Cost Of Trauma

~ TGDOVII-IITDOTPI ~ The Greatest Devastation Of Violence Is Invisible – It Is The Destruction Of The Person Inside

~ IWCOTLE-NEGPDTHTPWBTS ~ If We Can’t Overcome The Locust Effect – Nothing Else Good People Do To Help The Poor Will Be Truly Sustainable

~ BEPJSITDWICDD-AU ~ Building Effective Public Justice Systems In The Developing World Is Costly, Difficult, Dangerous – And Unlikely

~ IICTTCNAATLVMBA ~ It Is Certainly True That Cultural Norms And Attitudes That Legitimate Violence Must Be Addressed

~ IDN-E&B-A-‘TEN’-FIWP-CPTPIABWAPWAMCOTTPTNETL-TPACOBTPAPTWOABTMV ~ In Developing Nations – Extortion And Bribery – Are – “The Expected Norm” – For Interactions With The Police – Corruption Places The Poor In A Bidding War Against Perpetrators Who Are Making Counter Offers To The Police To Not Enforce The Law – The Police Are Co-Opted By The Powerful And Put To Work Oppressing And Bullying The Most Vulnerable

~ TSRIT:TPDHPP ~ The Stark Reality Is This: The Poor Don’t Have Police Protection

~ ADD ~ A Dream Devastated

~ CNOTJDS ~ Catastrophic Neglect Of The Justice Delivery System

~ OCTLSICIAFL-TTLOTCP-ANOTPAEE ~ Of Course The Legal System Is Conducted In A Foreign Language – That’s The Language Of The Colonial Power – And Now Of The Political And Economic Elite

~ PJAPL ~ Private Justice And Public Lawlessness

~ EDNNAEPJSTPTFBVBO-B-TMNABPJSTPTFBHAFVO ~ Elites Do Not Need An Effective Public Justice System To Protect Them From Being Victimized By Others – But – They May Need A Broken Public Justice System To Protect Them From Being Held Accountable For Victimizing Others

~ BJSAITTHB-ECJSTIOTM ~ Broken Public Justice Systems Auction Impunity To The Highest Bidder – Effective Criminal Justice Systems Take Impunity Off The Market

~ SV ~ Security Vacuums

~ IC ~ International Crime

~ TTHSCFTIACTRIIPTATLTIUSMOETATP ~ The Time Has Surely Come For The International Aid Community To Revise Its Investment Priorities To Address The Lawlessness That Is Undermining So Many Other Efforts To Assist The Poor

~ STBFJSITDWALTSOWTALLACFWTCTFOAVCCSASB-TPTISEASOLLACF ~ Struggles To Build Functioning Justice Systems In The Developing World Are Likely To Succeed Only Where There Are Local Leaders And Community Forces Willing To Carry The Fight On A Very Committed, Costly, Sustained, And Sacrificial Basis – This Priorities The Identification, Support, Encouragement, And Strengthening Of Local Leaders And Community Forces

~ TPWITPJSITDWA-GVPP-O-IT-PM-UR-FTSTWAADODL-A-TICOAGRVAT ~ The People Working In The Public Justice Systems In The Developing World Are – Generally Very Poorly Paid – Overworked – Ill-Trained – Poorly Managed – Under-Resourced – Forced To Serve The Whims And Arbitrary Demands Of Dysfunctional Leaders – And – Trained In Cultures Of Abuse, Gratuitous Rudeness, Violence, And Theft

~ DPOH ~ Demonstrations Projects Of Hope

~ 15-70-15 ~ The 15-70-15 Rule

~ BSD ~ Build Social Demand

~ LFDCRITS ~ Look For Decisive, Courageous Reformers Inside The System

~ ACITCJSF ~ Attack Corruption In The Criminal Justice System First

~ CHAEIFPC ~ Clean House And End Impunity For Police Corruption

~ TTNPWR ~ Treat The New Police With Respect

~ WPTTECFAPR ~ Win Public Trust Through Effective Crime Fighting And Public Relations

~ IBTJ ~ International Bridges To Justice

~ JSR ~ Justice Sector Roundtables

~ RAC ~ Rights Awareness Campaigns

~ DRC&TPOLS ~ Defender Resource Centers And The Provision Of Legal Services

~ T-DOT-I-IDOPARAP ~ Transformed – Days Of Tragedy – Into – Iconic Days Of Public Awareness, Remembrance And Protest

~ LEOTP ~ Legal Empowerment Of The Poor

~ TTCAGP-WWSOGP-WMSOTVIITP ~ Transform The Conversation About Global Poverty – Whenever We Speak Of Global Poverty – We Must Speak Of The Violence Imbedded In That Poverty

~ TPOVDETW-H-DW-D-I-U-GD-H-S-BFTP-VIEBAD-A-IFTHFUSTTON ~ The Problem Of Violence Deserves Equal Time With – Hunger – Dirty Water – Disease – Illiteracy – Unemployment – Gender Discrimination – Housing – Sanitation – Because For The Poor – Violence Is Every Bit As Devastating – And – Is Frequently The Hidden Force Undermining Solutions To These Other Needs

~ FFVAF ~ Freedom From Violence And Fear

BRUCE BUENO DE MESQUITE + ALASTAIR SMITH ~ THE RULES ~ THE DICTATOR’S HANDBOOK

~ KYWCASAP-FEEMCACTMDOE ~ Keep Your Winning Coalition As Small As Possible – Fewer Essentials Equals More Control And Contributes To More Discretion Over Expenditures

~ KYNSALAP-MALSOIAYCERATIYC-IAEA ~ Keep Your Nominal Selectorate As Large As Possible – Maintain A Large Selectorate Of Interchangeables And You Can Easily Replace Any Troublemakers In Your Coalition – Influentials And Essentials Alike

~ CTFOR-IABFARTDWETIITHALPFWTPCFT ~ Control The Flow Of Revenue – It’s Always Better For A Ruler To Determine Who Eats Than It Is To Have A Larger Pie From Which The People Can Feed Themselves

~ PYKSJETKTL-YBAOTITYKWTMIATD ~ Pay Your Key Supporters Just Enough To Keep Them Loyal – Your Big Advantage Over Them Is That You Know Where The Money Is And They Don’t

~ DTMOOYSPTMTPLB-TFS-INTBTCTYCOS ~ Don’t Take Money Out Of Your Supporters’ Pockets To Make The People’s Lives Better – The Flip Side – Is Not To Be Too Cheap Toward Your Coalition Of Supporters

BRUCE BUENO DE MESQUITE + ALASTAIR SMITH ~ THE DICTATOR’S HANDBOOK

~ NLWCGA ~ No Leader Whatsoever Can Govern Alone

~ GDNDIK-TDATDOTSAWC-LLDODAAC-OAC ~ Governments Do Not Differ In Kind – They Differ Along The Dimensions Of Their Selectorates And Winning Coalitions – Labels Like Democracy Or Dictatorship Are A Convenience – Only A Convenience

~ TKBH-ALNM-ECTMF ~ To Keep Backers Happy – A Leader Needs Money – Extraction Can Take Many Forms

~ WEFETBBOUTWOSPC-TD ~ When Essential Followers Expect To Be Better Off Under The Wing Of Some Political Challenger – They Desert

~ MSTBAFSUTECOFAITAMAAC ~ Murder Seems To Be A Favored Solution Under The Extreme Conditions Of Fear And Insecurity That Accompany Monarchic And Autocratic Succession

~ WPSTAAAICTITNOPTWTAB ~ What Politicians Seek To Avoid Are Any Institutional Changes That Increase The Number Of People To Whom They Are Beholden

~ DACIATPFCTPIAD ~ Divide And Conquer Is A Terrific Principle For Coming To Power In A Democracy

~ DAGJINETEPS ~ Doing A Good Job Is Not Enough Ensure Political Survival

~ TTMICOACA:LLL~ The Three Most Important Characteristics Of A Coalition Are: Loyalty; Loyalty; Loyalty

~ DFSAALTSBMM ~ Debt Forgiveness Simply Allows Autocratic Leaders To Start Borrowing More Money

~ WKTDRAATETIO-DFWTPOSDNW ~ We Know That Debt Relief Allows Autocrats To Entrench Themselves In Office – Debt Forgiveness With The Promise Of Subsequent Democratization Never Works

~ TRTOG:AMTKTCH-B-NTH-A-PJETKTIFRUIR-BNEOTSOSAWCMACOAR ~ The Real Task Of Governing: Allocating Money To Keep The Coalition Happy – But – Not Too Happy – And Providing Just Enough To Keep The Interchangeables From Rising Up In Revolt – Better Not Err On The Side Of Shortchanging Anyone Who Could Mount A Coup Or A Revolution

~ KTFAH-ATMAUTRUAY-ISETHT-SSIP-AAUTR ~ Keep Them Fat And Happy – And The Masses Are Unlikely To Rise Up Against You – It Seems Equally True However That – Sick, Starving, Ignorant People – Are Also Unlikely To Revolt

~ WMR?- IITGIB-TWANINC-TFATWACTR-TLACAHNRTR ~ Who Makes Revolution? – It Is The Great In-Between – Those Who Are Neither Immiserated Nor Coddled – The Former Are Too Weak And Cowered To Revolt – The Latter Are Content And Have No Reason To Revolt

~ TMRMTAGLFOPRTPOIIITFODOABCTCPSPTGFTP ~ The Most Reliable Means To A Good Life For Ordinary People Remains The Presence Of Institutional Incentives In The Form Of Dependence On A Big Coalition That Compels Power-Seeking Politicians To Govern For The People

~ IDAL? ~ Is Democracy A Luxury?

~ HEPAAPTTA-ASAMSTLEO ~ Highly Educated People Are A Potential Threat To Autocrats – And So Autocrats Make Sure To Limit Educational Opportunity

~ FA-MSOP-LIALC-WAYAFCTTE-IMW ~ For Autocrats – Money Spent On People – Like Infants And Little Children – Who Are Years Away From Contributing To The Economy – Is Money Wasted

~ RAVCTBAIIETHTTC-TMTAGSOG-WITMCTA-BHACTWCCLTNRPC-PEOO-TUTA ~ Roads Are Very Costly To Build And It Is Easy To Hide Their True Costs – This Makes Them A Good Source Of Graft – Which In Turn Makes Constructing Them Attractive – But Having A Country Too Well Connected Can Lead To New Regional Power Centers – Political, Economic Or Otherwise – That Undermine The Autocrat

~ TWMCRAALBASC ~ The World’s Most Corrupt Regimes Are Always Led By A Small Coalition

~ WS:SCAW ~ Wall Street: Small Coalitions At Work

~ MTATDISAOBW ~ More Than A Trillion Dollars Is Spent Annually On Bribes Worldwide

~ LCPTADRITTTCLFG ~ Leaders Can Put Themselves At Dire Risk If They Take Their Coalition’s Loyalty For Granted

~ AIGIEFPCFMRAIFLQ-T-TRPAS ~ Aid Is Given In Exchange For Policy Concessions Far More Readily And In Far Larger Quantities – Than – To Reduce Poverty And Suffering

~ WKTAWMBITPOGG-JAWKTMOTNIGTPWBG ~ We Know That Aid Works Much Better In The Presence Of Good Governance – Just As We Know That More Often Than Not It Goes To Places With Bad Governance

~ MREUSROAWA-OSOTSRCABWTIP ~ Many Revolutions End Up Simply Replacing One Autocracy With Another – On Some Occasions The Successor Regime Can Actually Be Worse Than Its Predecessor

~ OPWTEIRNBSCBD-TSWFTOITBOAE ~ Only People Willing To Engage In Really Nasty Behaviour Should Contemplate Becoming Dictators – The Softhearted Will Find Themselves Ousted In The Blink Of An Eye

~ NAWNRWOLWFARD-TATWMOP-TLHRTRTESWHTETP ~ Nations Awash With Natural Resource Wealth Or Lavished With Foreign Aid Rarely Democratize – They Are The World’s Most Oppressive Places – Their Leaders Have Resources To Reward Their Essential Supporters Without Having To Empower The People

~ JAWDFONL-FA-SBTTTAOPR-ANTIP ~ Just As With Debt Forgiveness Or New Loans – Foreign Aid – Should Be Tied To The Actuality Of Political Reform – And Not To Its Promise

~ WSTPTFNDWWW-NWTW ~ We Seem To Prefer That Foreign Nations Do What We Want – Not What They Want

~ WSNLTQFPBTWTLI ~ We Should Never Let The Quest For Perfection Block The Way To Lesser Improvement

~ EMIIGCRISIITWOPMOPOS ~ Even Minor Improvements In Governance Can Result In Significant Improvements In The Welfare Of Potentially Millions Of People Or Shareholders

~ BTWOMAOLGRBSCOEWALTLWCMTR ~ Behind The World Of Misery And Oppression Lie Governments Run By Small Cliques Of Essentials Who Are Loyal To Leaders Who Can Make Them Rich

~ BTWOFAPLGTDOTBOASCOOP ~ Behind The World Of Freedom And Prosperity Lie Governments That Depend On The Backing Of A Substantial Coalition Of Ordinary People

MARK KURLANSKY ~ NONVIOLENCE

~ TINPWFNV ~ There Is No Proactive Word For Non-Violence

~ NTBMFAD-WEUT ~ Nations That Build Military Forces As Deterrents Will Eventually Use Them

~ PONVASAEOTS ~ Practitioners Of Non-Violence Are Seen As Enemies Of The State

~ OASTOAR-TRLINVT ~ Once A State Takes Over A Religion – The Religion Loses Its Non-Violent Teachings

~ ARCBDACBMHASAHID ~ A Rebel Can Be Defanged And Co-Opted By Making Him A Saint After He Is Dead

~ SBEW-TAAAFFL ~ Somewhere Behind Every War – There Are Always A Few Founding Lies

~ APMPHAHAWWITW ~ A Propaganda Machine Promoting Hatred Always Has A War Waiting In The Wings

~ PWGTW-STRTE ~ People Who Go To War – Start To Resemble Their Enemy

~ ACBAVAANVFIAMA ~ A Conflict Between A Violent And A Non-Violent Force Is A Moral Argument

~ ITVSCPTNVSIV-TVSHW ~ If The Violent Side Can Provoke The Non-Violent Side Into Violence – The Violent Side Has Won

~ TPLNITNOM-BITNOP ~ The Problem Lies Not In The Nature Of Man – But In The Nature Of Power

~ TLAWL-TLPIB ~ The Longer A War Lasts – The Less Popular It Becomes

~ TSIIIIWAMBICCOPWF ~ The State Imagines It Is Impotent Without A Military Because It Cannot Conceive Of Power Without Force

~ IIONTLBTBOAMAGTP ~ It Is Often Not The Largest But The Best Organized And Most Articulate Group That Prevails

~ ADMEWA’ES’-OTFSAF ~ All Debate Momentarily Ends With An “Enforced Silence” Once The First Shots Are Fired

~ ASWINNTOAEPBIUTCTRI ~ A Shooting War Is Not Necessary To Overthrow An Established Power But Is Used To Consolidate The Revolution Itself

~ VDNR-IALTMV ~ Violence Does Not Resolve – It Always Leads To More Violence

~ WPPA(AGOVIALPTFPA) ~ Warfare Produces Peace Activists (A Group Of Veterans Is A Likely Place To Find Peace Activists)

~ PMBFDNAW ~ People Motivated By Fear Do Not Act Well

~ WIIPFTCAPFWBRTRUIASAOTO-IIAITCTTMDVWNVR ~ While It Is Perfectly Feasible To Convince A People Faced With Brutal Repression To Rise Up In A Suicidal Attack On Their Oppressor – It Is Almost Impossible To Convince Them To Meet Deadly Violence With Non-Violent Resistance

~ WDNHTBSTTGP-ITCBCOBAAVPM ~ Wars Do Not Have To Be Sold To The General Public – If They Can Be Carried Out By An All-Volunteer Professional Military

~ OYSTBOK-YJG’D&D’-WL ~ Once You Start The Business Of Killing – You Just Get “Deeper And Deeper” – Without Limits

~ VACWASRE-WIODAIITVF ~ Violence Always Comes With A Supposedly Rational Explanation – Which Is Only Dismissed As Irrational If The Violence Fails

~ VIAVTIATO ~ Violence Is A Virus That Infects And Takes Over

~ TMITDAOSPOW-MSFWTBAWDFTOMV ~ The Miracle Is That Despite All Of Society’s Promotion Of Warfare – Most Soldiers Find Warfare To Be A Wrenching Departure From Their Own Moral Values

~ THWOBAMTEWHABD ~ The Hard Work Of Beginning A Movement To End War Has Already Been Done

JOHN HORGAN ~ THE END OF WAR

~ WANHFW-WCEWIWWACTEI ~ We Are Not Hardwired For War – We Can End War If We Want And Choose To End It

~ WWSBTWCEW-WAWOOW ~ When We Start Believing That We Can End War – We’re Already Well On Our Way

~ WHNSC-NEC-NDIHASS ~ War Has No Single Cause – Not Even Close – Nor Does It Have A Single Solution

~ WMABSL-IIACTIIAT-SMSTTFJIENB ~ What Makes A Belief System Lethal – Is Its Adherents’ Conviction That It Is Absolutely True – So Much So That They Feel Justified In Eliminating Non-Believers

~ WRO ~ War’s Recent Origin

~ YCBIAOAFBA ~ You Can’t Blame It All On A Few Bad Apples

~ EC ~ Enlightened Globalization

~ TEMOW ~ The Essential Mystery Of War

~ WITUBB ~ War Is The Ultimate Bad Barrel

~ UW ~ Uninventing War

~ UTSOPCN ~ Under The Spell Of Pathological Cultural Norms

~ WHTWTEW-WNOTW We Have The Ways To End War – We Need Only The Will

~ FMPATW-WPNJMEAPPBAEP ~ For Many People Around The World – War Provides Not Just Meaning Excitement, And Political Power But Also Enormous Profits