JOSEPH STIGLITZ ~ THE PRICE OF INEQUALITY ~ HOW TODAY’S DIVIDED SOCIETY ENDANGERS OUR FUTURE ~ NORTON ~ 2012

~ SGVFCTC-TWSST-TWACUT-IMW-T-EAPS-HF-A-T-BWFU ~ Specific Grievances Varied From Country To Country – There Were Some Shared Themes – There Was A Common Understanding That – In Many Ways – The – Economic And Political System – Had Failed – And – That – Both Were Fundamentally Unfair

~ TGBWOEAPSASTD-WWWTTDD-AWTAC-BTLTBI ~ The Gap Between What Our Economic And Political Systems Are Supposed To Do – What We Were Told They Did Do – And What They Actually Do – Became Too Large To Be Ignored

~ TBHTB-T-WGA-WHBTATEED-ACLATSSTTWNAA-TBHITBTW ~ The Bankers Had Taken Bets – That – Without Government Assistance – Would Have Brought Them And The Entire Economy Down – A Closer Look At The System Showed That This Was Not An Accident – The Bankers Had Incentives To Behave This Way

~ TMOINE ~ The Market Obviously Is Not Efficient

~ U-TIOTMTGJFSMC-ITWFOTM-TGSOI-AAMCOI ~ Unemployment – The Inability Of The Market To Generate Jobs For So Many Citizens – Is The Worst Failure Of The Market – The Greatest Source Of Inefficiency – And A Major Cause Of Inequality

~ WHEHAHP ~ We Have Empty Homes And Homeless People

~ WAPAHPFO-I-AESTISSALE-WLG-A-ADTHBPIP ~ We Are Paying A High Price For Our – Inequality – An Economic System That Is Less Stable And Less Efficient – With Less Growth – And – A Democracy That Has Been Put Into Peril

~ TPOMIE-BTHNIMC ~ The Power Of Markets Is Enormous – But They Have No Inherent Moral Character

~ ATB-MHPACRITSIIPASOLITPTHY-BGHAPAMRITA-AFTF-MATFTA ~ At Their Best – Markets Have Played A Central Role In The Stunning Increases In Productivity And Standards Of Living In The Past Two Hundred Years – But Government Has Also Played A Major Role In These Advances – A Fact That Free-Market Advocates Typically Fail To Acknowledge

~ OTOH-MCACW-PECOTS-A-AWAC ~ On The Other Hand – Markets Can Also Concentrate Wealth – Pass Environmental Costs On To Society – And – Abuse Workers And Consumers

~ TFIPAEAR-ATREO-PHSTM-ASIIWT-ATT-ATEOTR ~ The Failures In Politics And Economics Are Related – And They Reinforce Each Other – Politics Have Shaped The Market – And Shaped It In Ways That – Advantage The Top – At The Expense Of The Rest

~ UMDNWW-AWHS ~ Unfettered Markets Do Not Work Well – As We Have Seen

~ TLOI-A-TAOO-INI-NIIRRSTPOIMF ~ The Level Of Inequality – And – The Absence Of Opportunity – Is Not Inevitable – Nor Is Its Recent Rise Simply The Product Of Inexorable Market Forces

~ IA-ATAM-ATTCTGMMTTTWBE-PBIWLTMG-TIAIC-T-DE-IHALP-AHLBD-HIHNLTMG ~ Inequality’s Apologists – And They Are Many – Argue To The Contrary That Giving More Money To The Top Will Benefit Everyone – Partly Because It Would Led To More Growth – This Is An Idea Called – Trickle-Down Economics – It Has A Long Pedigree – And Has Long Been Discredited – Higher Inequality Has Not Led To More Growth

~ SDIIFTBIP-TETERTTSAA-‘PT’ ~ So Difficult Is It For Those Born Into Poverty To Escape – That Economists Refer To The Situation As A – “Poverty Trap”

~ MOIIDFCCAOI ~ Measures Of Income Inequality Don’t Fully Capture Critical Aspects Of Inequality

~ MOTITETIARO-GP-BWTGDAWIDND-IITROPFAMAOEO ~ Much Of The Inequality That Exists Today Is A Result Of – Government Policy – Both What The Government Does And What It Does Not Do – Inequality Is The Result Of Political Forces As Much As Of Economic Ones

~ TMTMA-TMCTALTB-WGI-CMCEAD ~ The More Transparent Markets Are – The More Competitive They Are Likely To Be – Without Good Information – Capital Markets Can’t Exercise Any Discipline

~ T-WAS-CWI;IC-T-T-‘R’-O-L/NR-WMTD ~ Taxing – Work And Savings – Can Weaken Incentives; In Contrast – Taxing – The – “Rents” – On – Land / Natural Resources – Won’t Make Them Disappear

~ INHTBWITGSY-F-$500M-AM-TW-$1B~ It’s Not Hard To Become Wealthy If The Government Sells You – For – $500 Million – A Mine – That’s Worth – $1 Billion

~ TSWTASMIGTGTGYO ~ The Simplest Way To A Sustainable Monopoly Is Getting The Government To Give You One

~ IOTTWIAFG-IQATBATWTROTG-A-IEW-IYCCYOR ~ It’s One Thing To Win In A Fair Game – It’s Quite Another To Be Able To Write The Rules Of The Game – And – It’s Even Worse – If You Can Choose Your Own Referees

~ ‘RC’-TOTRC-CFARTTSTTASTR-STSW-GWRITP-GC ~ “Regulatory Capture” – Those On The Regulatory Commissions – Come From And Return To The Sector That They Are Supposed To Regulate – Serve The Sector Well – Get Well Rewarded In Their Post-Government Career

~ ITGGYTRT-E-R-F-F-IDTAGTMAF ~ If The Government Grants You The Right To – Extract – Resources – For – Free – It Doesn’t Take A Genius To Make A Fortune

~ OESRP-NMHTM-AIA-M-CE-INSTSMSPTTS ~ Our Economic System Rewards Profits – No Matter How They’re Made – And In A – Money-Centric Economy – It’s Not Surprising To See Moral Scruples Put To The Side

~ TMDOAIS-IC ~ The Major Determinant Of An Individual’s Success – Initial Conditions

~ LIR-LR-A-ADADFS-CTTROTE-FAM ~ Low Interest Rates – Lax Regulations – And – A Distorted And Dysfunctional Financial Sector – Came To The Rescue Of The Economy – For A Moment

~ R-ATROTG-TEC-TPA-TPTTCPT ~ Regulations – Are The Rules Of The Game – To Ensure Competition – To Prevent Abuses – To Protect Those That Cannot Protect Themselves

~ MOTIIOE:TROR-S ~ Much Of The Inequality In Our Economy: The Result Of Rent-Seeking

~ TFSIST-STROTE-NTOWA ~ The Financial Sector Is Supposed To – Serve The Rest Of The Economy – Not The Other Way Around

~ MOT-‘FI’-WDT-CR-AALL-REP ~ Many Of These – “Financial Innovations” – Were Designed To – Circumvent Regulations – And Actually Lowered Long-Run Economic Performance

~ TCBDAWACC ~ There Can Be Destructive As Well As Constructive Competition

~ IF-ATPOF-IP ~ Increasing Fairness – And The Perception Of Fairness – Increases Productivity

~ TSTOEAPSIU-UT-WIEFTFOOS ~ The Sense That Our Economic And Political System Is Unfair – Undermines Trust – Which Is Essential For The Functioning Of Our Society

~ G-ITFITWWAT-C-TSTNP ~ Government – Is The Formal Institution Through Which We Act Together – Collectively – To Solve The Nation’s Problems

~ CATAIIESOS ~ Cooperation And Trust Are Important In Every Sphere Of Society

~ WOU-TROT-IMOEW-O-TIOTSC-TBUT ~ We Often Underestimate – The Role Of Trust – In Making Our Economy Work – Or – The Importance Of The Social Contract – That Binds Us Together

~ SC-ITGTHST ~ Social Capital – Is The Glue That Holds Societies Together

~ OCSH-D-NS-D-A-FAUG ~ One Cannot Simultaneously Have – Democracy – National Self-Determination – And – Full And Unfettered Globalization

~ N-ITHOTP-HSM-GSM-TSF-WWSR-WAAIR ~ Never – In The History Of The Planet – Had So Many – Given So Much – To So Few – Who Were So Rich – Without Asking Anything In Return

~ MH-BBHRAPLTERTBB ~ Moral Hazard – Bank Bailouts Had Repeatedly And Predictably Led To Excessive Risk Taking By Banks

~ RBBHIHCOT ~ Repeated Bank Bailouts Have Imposed High Costs On Taxpayers

~ ATW-TEO-FP-AL ~ Around The World – The Examples Of – Failed Privatizations – Are Legion

~ MOCWIHWTTC ~ Much Of Corporate Welfare Is Hidden Within The Tax Code

~ MCWITISD-ICGOTUOTR-WTBTL ~ Markets Can’t Work If There Isn’t Some Discipline – If Companies Get Only The Upside Of The Risks – With Taxpayer Bearing The Losses

~ WTWIO-DHTBTFCOTA-TWHII-NTIT-A-TTPTAROI ~ When Those Who Injure Others – Don’t Have To Bear The Full Consequences Of Their Actions – They Will Have Inadequate Incentives – Not To Injure Them – And – To Take Precautions To Avoid Risks Of Injury

~ IEPIACBTUD-PCWF ~ If Economic Power In A Country Becomes Too Unevenly Distributed – Political Consequences Will Follow

~ IAD-API-APAIM-ACBIAPI-MHSDOA-OTMSTTINM-ABDAEP ~ In Any Democracy – A Public Institution – And Pretend As It Might – A Central Bank Is A Public Institution – Must Have Some Degree Of Accountability – Oversight To Make Sure That There Is No Malfeasance – A Central Bank’s Decisions Are Essentially Political

~ AWIP ~ Another World Is Possible

~ N-TPOE-TPOEAF ~ Not – The Politics Of Envy – The Politics Of Efficiency And Fairness

LAURENCE BRITT ~ 14 CHARACTERISTICS COMMON TO FASCIST REGIMES ~ 2003

~ H/G-M/I-S/P-P/C-S/I ~ Hitler/Germany – Mussolini/Italy – Salazar/Portugal – Pinochet/Chile – Suharto/Indonesia

~ POEP – PPIATNAWHTTF ~ Promotion Of Extreme Patriotism – Promote Pride In All Things National Along With Hostility To Things Foreign

~ DFHR-PCTAVOHRFTMONS ~ Disdain For Human Rights – Persuade Citizens To Accept Violations Of Human Rights For The Maintenance Of National Security

~ CS-FS(OCT)FTPPOS ~ Create Scapegoats – Find Scapegoats (Or Create Them) For The Perceived Problems Of Society

~ SOTM-RFFSPWITFOTMAI‘D’C ~ Supremacy Of The Military – Remove Funding From Social Programs While Increasing The Financing Of The Military And Its “Defence” Contractors

~ RS-PM-DIAETROWAS-CC ~ Rampant Sexism – Promote Male-Dominated Institutions And Encourage The Regarding Of Women As Second-Class Citizens

~ S/CMM-CTMOOC-OTOOI ~ Supportive/Controlled Mass Media – Control The Media Outright Or Co-Opt The Ownership Of It

~ TOWNS-EANSAWOISABTROL ~ Obsession With National Security – Establish A National Security Apparatus Which Operates In Secret And Beyond The Rule Of Law

~ RARL-PTREASDOTF-ATROOI-‘G’E ~ Religion And Regime Linked – Portray The Ruling Elites As Staunch Defenders Of The Faith – And The Righteous Opponents Of Its – “Godless” Enemies

~ PAPOC-LLC(PMC)TOIRFWLTROOC ~ Promotion And Protection Of Corporations – Leave Large Corporations (Particularly Military Contractors) To Operate In Relative Freedom While Limiting The Rights Of Ordinary Citizens

~ IOOL-COSUOTRAIATMBASOOP ~ Intolerance Of Organized Labour – Crush Or Strip Unions Of Their Rights And Influence As They Might Be A Source Of Opposition Power

~ SOIATA-SDIAAFEVTDFTPL ~ Suppression Of Intellectuals And The Arts – Strongly Discourage Intellectuals And Artists From Expressing Views That Deviate From The Party Line

~ OWCAP-OHSOCJ(ABLOP)WGTP(AATTN) ~ Obsession With Crime And Punishment – Operate Harsh Systems Of Criminal Justice (And Build Lots Of Prisons) While Glorifying The Police (And Adding To Their Numbers)

~ RCAC-PLGCTTTSTR ~ Rampant Cronyism And Corruption – Provide Lucrative Government Contracts To Those That Support The Regime

~ FE-CTEM-FAPSAOC-IADOV-DODLV-A-AALR-HERDBAJABABTTR ~ Fraudulent Elections – Control The Election Machinery – Fabricate And Promote Slander Against Opposition Candidates – Intimidate And Disenfranchise Opposition Voters – Destroy Or Disallow Legal Votes – And – As A Last Resort – Have Election Results Decided By A Judiciary Appointed By And Beholden To The Regime

ALAN WHITEHORN ~ BASED ON WORK BY GREGORY STANTON ~ THE STEPS AND STAGES OF GENOCIDE

~ C-USDSTIVAOWEC ~ Classification ~ Using Simplistic, Dualistic Stereotypes That Ignore Variations And Overlaps Within Each Category

~ S-CSFDTJ ~ Symbolization ~ Classification Slips From Describing To Judging

~ D-TVGIPAFOTMCAPANB-TSFSA-A-EDABLTFH ~ Dehumanization ~ The Victim Group Is Portrayed As Falling Outside The Main Community And Perceived As Not Belonging – Then Scapegoated For Society’s Ills – And – Eventually Described As Being Less Than Fully Human

~ O-MBOMOVG-ASCBAOTVDPFA ~ Organization ~ Mobilization Begins Of Militia Or Vigilante Groups And State Censorship Blocks Accounts Of The Victims’ Desperate Pleas For Assistance

~ PAIE-TASFAMLI-STVGOICR-SOOPPTMRTVGAD ~ Polarization And Increased Inequality ~ The Authoritarian State Formalizes And Magnifies Legal Inequalities – Stripping The Victim Group Of Its Citizenship Rights – Social Organizations Or Political Parties That Might Represent The Vulnerable Group Are Disbanded

~ P-TIVNTBI-OFTWIS-L-SFTP-A-D-DLADUWNOPRLATT ~ Preparation ~ The Intended Victims Need To Be Identified – Often Forced To Wear Identifying Symbols – Located – Separated From The Public – And – Disarmed – Death Lists Are Drawn Up With Names Of Potential Resistance Leaders At The Top

~ E-TKMBDBFNFADCORHFSMGOWTABGWTV-BMO-TKIBFVGMOPSEU-FBTPATA ~ Extermination ~ The Killing May Be Done By Former Neighbours From A Different Clan Or Religion Hoping For Some Material Gain Or Wishing To Avoid Being Grouped With The Victims – But More Often – The Killing Is By Fanatical Vigilante Groups, Militias Or Paramilitary Special Extermination Units – Facilitated By The Police And The Army

~ D-TCDAMIOTEOSPAEASOSAC-TVTABFCTTTOTWBT ~ Denial ~ The Conspirators Deny Any Malevolent Intent Or The Existence Of Secret Plans And Employ A Screen Of Secrecy And Censorship – The Victims Themselves Are Blamed For Causing The Terrible Times Or Triggering What Befell Them

ROBERT PAXTON ~ “MOBILIZING PASSIONS” ~ THE ANATOMY OF FASCISM

~ ASOOCBTROATS ~ A Sense Of Overwhelming Crisis Beyond The Reach Of Any Traditional Solutions

~ TPOTG-TWOHDSTER-WIOU-ATSOTITI ~ The Primacy Of The Group – Toward Which One Has Duties Superior To Every Right – Whether Individual Or Universal – And The Subordination Of The Individual To It

~ TBTOGIAV-ASTJAA-WLOML-AIE-BIAE ~ The Belief That One’s Group Is A Victim – A Sentiment That Justifies Any Action – Without Legal Or Moral Limits – Against Its Enemies – Both Internal And External

~ DOTGDUTCEO-IL-CC-AI ~ Dread Of The Group’s Decline Under The Corrosive Effects Of – Individualistic Liberalism – Class Conflict – Alien Influences

~ TNFCIOAPC-BCIP-O-BEVIN ~ The Need For Closer Integration Of A Purer Community – By Consent If Possible – Or – By Exclusionary Violence If Necessary

~ TNFABNC-AM-CIANCWICOITGHD ~ The Need For Authority By Natural Chiefs – Always Male – Culminating In A National Chieftain Who Alone Is Capable Of Incarnating The Group’s Historical Destiny

~ TSOTLIOAAUR ~ The Superiority Of The Leader’s Instincts Over Abstract And Universal Reason

~ TBOVATEOW-WTADTTGS ~ The Beauty Of Violence And The Efficacy Of Will – When They Are Devoted To The Group’s Success

~ TROTCPTDOWRFAKOHODL-RBDBTSCOTGPWADS ~ The Right Of The Chosen People To Dominate Others Without Restraint From Any Kind Of Human Or Divine Law – Right Being Decided By The Sole Criterion Of The Group’s Prowess Within A Darwinian Struggle

DAVID GRAEBER ~ DEBT – THE FIRST 5,000 YEARS ~ 2011 + 2012

~ IOTORCHTFSOFMEPDIWOZ-TTCHNAT-ANW ~ In Order To Obtain Refinancing Countries Have To Follow Some Orthodox Free-Market Economic Policy Designed In Washington Or Zurich – That Their Citizens Had Never Agreed To – And Never Would

~ IWABDTITCADC-ATAIT-WGE-THNCOTCPA ~ It Was A Bit Dishonest To Insist That Countries Adopt Democratic Constitutions – And Then Also Insists That – Whoever Gets Elected – They Have No Control Over Their Country Policies Anyway

~ FTOY-TSBRAPHLTTFOCBCAD-OAB-IP-DP-A-R-R-TSOS-TSOV-TSODCIS ~ For Thousands Of Years – The Struggle Between Rich And Poor Has Largely Taken The Form Of Conflicts Between Creditors And Debtors – Of Arguments About – Interest Payment – Debt Peonage – Amnesty – Repossession – Restitution – The Sequestering Of Sheep – The Seizing Of Vineyards – The Selling Of Debtors’ Children Into Slavery

~ FTLFTY-WRR-PIHB-WTRDOTDR-CTDARTL ~ For The Last Five Thousand Years – With Remarkable Regularity – Popular Insurrections Have Begun – With The Ritual Destruction Of The Debt Records – Cancel The Debts And Redistribute The Land

~ AAWROWTWHPACRISOBVORAW ~ Arguments About Who Really Owes What To Whom Have Played A Central Role In Shaping Our Basic Vocabulary Of Right And Wrong

~ TNNAVM-A-TWTOFOM ~ There’s Nothing New About Virtual Money – Actually – This Was The Original Form Of Money

~ ITCSV-TSATM-TAAEADOP-HRR-H-TWBTAHABI ~ In That Common Sense View – The State And The Market – Tower Above All Else As Diametrically Opposed Principles – Historical Reality Reveals – However – They Were Born Together And Have Always Been Intertwined

~ NOIIMTMDP-MADAOTSAETST ~ Not Only Is It Money That Makes Debt Possible – Money And Debt Appear On The Scene At Exactly The Same Time

~ SOTVFWDTHCDTUAMTRCAD ~ Some Of The Very First Written Documents That Have Come Down To Us Are Mesopotamian Tablets Recording Credits And Debits

~ TSOMFEABWAFWOB-TPIWTLTFITAS-WWNCVMCF ~ The Story Of Money For Economists Always Begins With A Fantasy World Of Barter – The Problem Is Where To Locate This Fantasy In Time And Space – What We Now Call Virtual Money Came First

~ B-ATBLAKOABOTUOCOPM-IHMBWPWAUTCTDWFOROATHNATC ~ Barter – Appears To Be Largely A Kind Of Accidental Byproduct Of The Use Of Coinage Or Paper Money – It Has Mainly Been What People Who Are Used To Cash Transactions Do When For One Reason Or Another They Have No Access To Currency

~ A-TFRWF-’F’-IAKHL-LM-’RTM’ ~ Amargi – The First Recorded Word For – “Freedom” – In Any Known Human Language – Literally Means – “Return To Mother”

~ SCM-MRS-NCCWTO-AL-IALTFWWRT ~ States Created Markets – Markets Require States – Neither Could Continue Without The Other – At Least – In Anything Like The Forms We Would Recognize Today

~ C-MWNITOTIOBBN-SNWHNRTEIBITFP ~ Clearly – Money Was Not Invented To Overcome The Inconveniences Of Barter Between Neighbors – Since Neighbors Would Have No Reason To Engage In Barter In The First Place

~ TSASA-CTTS-AT-DTEFITK-OTPOOTCB-NEF-IOTGTHOTC-MFSWT-PSWTTW-MABIEAASE ~ To Support A Standing Army – Coins To The Soldiers – And Then – Demands That Every Family In The Kingdom – Obliged To Pay One Of Those Coins Back – Now Every Family – In Order To Get Their Hands On The Coins – Must Find Some Way To – Provide Soldiers With Things They Want – Markets Are Brought Into Existence As A Side Effect

~ DTDLA-TTEOSAMASO-THRITETOITC-SSTATBWM ~ Despite The Dogged Liberal Assumption – That The Existence Of States And Markets Are Somehow Opposed – The Historical Record Implies That Exactly The Opposite Is The Case – Stateless Societies Tend Also To Be Without Markets

~ WIEO-OTLFTY-MHBE-ACOTS ~ Whatever Its Earliest Origins – Of The Last Four Thousand Years – Money Has Been Effectively – A Creature Of The State

~ MIC-ICBBIBBPCA-TSMETAADTLT ~ Money Is Credit – It Can Be Brought Into Being By Private Contractual Agreements – The State Merely Enforces The Agreement And Dictates The Legal Terms

~ AOTISTGBTSSOO-’SC’-TESAO-TNORKEWOBW-OWWSBBBTDODAOTOM-WWDFPBBTDOODAOAE ~ All Of This Is Said To Go Back To Some Sort Of Original – “Social Contract” – That Everyone Somehow Agreed On – Though No One Really Knows Exactly When Or By Whom – Or Why We Should Be Bound By The Decisions Of Distant Ancestors On This One Matter – When We Don’t Feel Particularly Bound By The Decisions Of Our Distant Ancestors On Anything Else

~ TBBSAM-BGAM-INITTHC ~ The Battle Between State And Market – Between Governments And Merchants – Is Not Inherent To The Human Condition

~ ‘F’-CTRAATRFTEOD ~“Freedom” – Came To Refer Above All To Release From The Effects Of Debt

~ AHRABOSVOR-IS-TDRIATROAM-BDIWHWSBHNYBR ~ All Human Relations Are Based On Some Variation On Reciprocity – If So – Then Debt Really Is At The Root Of All Morality – Because Debt Is What Happens When Some Balance Has Not Yet Been Restored

~ WEA-C-WOCF ~ We Are All – Communists – With Our Closest Friends

~ NRMOWWWTLIAPWNDLAOA ~ No Reasonable Man Or Woman Would Want To Live In A Place Where Neighbors Don’t Look After One Another

~ GASCADFCABOSF:TCBS ~ Gold And Silver Coins Are Distinguished From Credit Arrangements By One Spectacular Feature: They Can Be Stolen

~ MCSC ~ Military-Coinage-Slavery Complex

~ MATHFE-ITNEAL-AASEOGAS ~ Markets Appear To Have First Emerge – In The Near East At Least – As A Side Effect Of Government Administrative Systems

~ WUTATCAMATST-B-IMWTCREWBCAO-WMAWOEGTTMOM-CIFAFTAOUMTGMM-TEWTDTIBESKOFODFRM ~ We’re Use To Assuming That Capitalism And Markets Are The Same Thing – But – In Many Ways They Could Equally Well Be Conceived As Opposites – While Markets Are Ways Of Exchanging Goods Through The Medium Of Money – Capitalism Is First And Foremost The Art Of Using Money To Get More Money – The Easiest Way To Do This Is By Establishing Some Kind Of Formal Or De Facto Monopoly

~ B-1520A1650-UTOGASFMAPWTATAAPISTS-VLOTGASLVLIE-MOTGEUITII-ATOMOTSBWUSOTC-EHNPMOATAWTB-SIWFTPISFSSSAOI ~ Between – 1520 and 1640 – Untold Tons Of Gold And Silver From Mexico And Peru Were Transported Across The Atlantic And Pacific In Spanish Treasure Ships – Very Little Of That Gold And Silver Lingered Very Long In Europe – Most Of The Gold Ended Up In Temples In India – And The Overwhelming Majority Of The Silver Bullion Was Ultimately Shipped Off To China – Europe Had Never Produced Much Of Anything That Asians Wanted To Buy – So It Was Forced To Pay In Specie For Silks, Spices, Steel, And Other Imports

~ TEYOEEWLATGAET-EL-O-TNSOGASWWTPFT ~ The Early Years Of European Expansion Were Largely Attempts To Gain Access Either To – Eastern Luxuries – Or – To New Sources Of Gold And Silver With Which To Pay For Them

~ THTBPIM-EB-IC-CTBTMAIHITMA-BMOVFOVCM-T-PN-O-STKTOWOWTW ~ Taxes Had To Be Paid In Metal – Everyday Business – In Contrast – Continued To Be Transacted Much As It Had In The Middle Ages – By Means Of Various Forms Of Virtual Credit Money – Tallies – Promissory Notes – Or – Simply The Keeping Track Of Who Owed What To Whom

~ CC-WELBS-O-WPRTAT-TLBPAOS-AA-GASWUBTGTPAAPS ~ Cold Cash – Was Employed Largely Between Strangers – Or – When Paying Rents, Tithes, And Taxes – To Landlords, Bailiffs, Priest, And Other Superiors – Above All – Gold And Silver Were Used By The Government To Purchase Arms And Pay Soldiers

~ TGCTMWENTP ~ The Great Conversation That Many Were Expecting Never Took Place

~ WCTWEBWCNLIAATWBEW ~ We Cling To What Exists Because We Can No Longer Imagine An Alternative That Wouldn’t Be Even Worse

~ ASTRTWTNCOBHIPBW ~ Any System That Reduces The World To Numbers Can Only Be Held In Place By Weapons

~ ITLSOT-JANOHTRTTUOTV-NOHTRTTUWWTO ~ In The Largest Scheme Of Things – Just As No One Has The Right To Tell Us Our True Value – No One Has The Right To Tell Us What We Truly Owe

GARY HAUGEN + VICTOR BOUTROS ~ THE LOCUST EFFECT

~ TEOPRTEOV ~ The End Of Poverty Requires The End Of Violence

~ TVSWOV ~ The Vast Subterranean World Of Violence

~ TRIVHFOTS-B-MAOVATPAIH ~ This Reality Is Very Hard For Outsiders To See – Because – Most Acts Of Violence Against The Poor Are Intentionally Hidden

~ AESEOAFLAT-EM ~ An Entire Subterranean Economy Of Abduction, Forced Labor, And Torture – Engulfing Millions

~ VIAMAPOWIMTBPA-B-HSHOJ-IF-VIFTPTPPAMCA-IIOOTCRTAPITFP-AOOTPRTSP ~ Violence Is As Much A Part Of What It Means To Be Poor As – Being – Hungry, Sick, Homeless, Or Jobless – In Fact – Violence Is Frequently The Problem That Poor People Are Most Concerned About – It Is One Of The Core Reasons They Are Poor In The First Place – And One Of The Primary Reasons They Stay Poor

~ SV-OOTMPADSOVATP ~ Sexual Violence – One Of The Most Pervasive And Devastating Sources Of Violence Against The Poor

~ LSDP-SVHSIENACOTDW-THSAWOAPOWCAC-IIOWAGWARV ~ Like Some Dread Plague – Sexual Violence Has Seeped Into Every Nook And Cranny Of The Developing World – The Homes, Schools, Alleys, Workplaces, Orphanages And Places Of Worship, Commerce, And Care – It Is Overwhelmingly Women And Girls Who Are The Victims

~ THCBAPOSLBFTPWAG ~ The Home Can Be A Place Of Silent, Lawless Brutality For The Poorest Women And Girls

~ OOTPRGDGTSITDWISV ~ One Of The Primary Reasons Girls Don’t Go To School In The Developing World Is Sexual Violence

~ SVIAB-EDTAMOPWAROSMAPOACT ~ Sexual Violence Is A Business – Every Day There Are Millions Of People Who Are Raped Or Sexually Molested As Part Of A Commercial Transaction

~ ‘PG’ ~ “Property Grabbing”

~ MOTWPPLICIWTCBSTOOTHAOTLBTINRRKSFADWOTLATP ~ Most Of The World’s Poorest People Live In Circumstances In Which They Can Be Summarily Thrown Out Of Their Homes And Off Their Land Because There Is No Reliable Record Keeping System For Accurately Demonstrating Who Owns The Land And The Property

~ TBEOTSPATACBSAIAITVLS ~ The Best Efforts Of The Struggling Poor And Their Allies Can Be Swept Away In An Instance Through Violent Land Seizures

~ APAAD ~ Abusive Police And Arbitrary Detention

~ TIOLEITDWAAATTV-TIPWTPHBTTTTW-TMPCAPPFTGPIFTOPF ~ The Institutions Of Law Enforcement In The Developing World Are Actually Adding To The Violence – This Is Precisely What The Poor Have Been Trying To Tell The World – The Most Pervasive Criminal And Predatory Presence For The Global Poor Is Frequently Their Own Police Force

~ AD ~ Abusive Detention

~ AGFAPPAATDW-BPUATIJBTPOFC-AAWOEMSAPAOGAS ~ A Great Fear Among Poor People All Around The Developing World – Begin Picked Up And Thrown In Jail By The Police On False Charges – As A Way Of Extorting Money, Sex Acts, Property And Other Goods And Services

~ FFFIAIAFFW-IIITTEOOTRWTO ~ Freedom From Fear Is As Important As Freedom From Want – It Is Impossible To Truly Enjoy One Of These Rights Without The Other

~ ERSLOPTVTOECBDTPH-EIIIOOTFPA-TDHE ~ Even Relatively Small Losses Of Property Through Violent Theft Or Extortion Can Be Debilitating To Poor Households – Especially If It Is One Of Their Few Productive Assets – They Don’t Have Extras

~ IABIVBV-LU-E-A-ACW-TREIDAW-ATP-MPALTBDUTB ~ If A Breadwinner Is Victimized By Violence – Locked Up – Enslaved – Assaulted – And Can’t Work – The Ripple Effect Is Deep And Wide – Among The Poor – More People Are Likely To Be Dependent Upon That Breadwinner

~ THCOT ~ The Hidden Cost Of Trauma

~ TGDOVII-IITDOTPI ~ The Greatest Devastation Of Violence Is Invisible – It Is The Destruction Of The Person Inside

~ IWCOTLE-NEGPDTHTPWBTS ~ If We Can’t Overcome The Locust Effect – Nothing Else Good People Do To Help The Poor Will Be Truly Sustainable

~ BEPJSITDWICDD-AU ~ Building Effective Public Justice Systems In The Developing World Is Costly, Difficult, Dangerous – And Unlikely

~ IICTTCNAATLVMBA ~ It Is Certainly True That Cultural Norms And Attitudes That Legitimate Violence Must Be Addressed

~ IDN-E&B-A-‘TEN’-FIWP-CPTPIABWAPWAMCOTTPTNETL-TPACOBTPAPTWOABTMV ~ In Developing Nations – Extortion And Bribery – Are – “The Expected Norm” – For Interactions With The Police – Corruption Places The Poor In A Bidding War Against Perpetrators Who Are Making Counter Offers To The Police To Not Enforce The Law – The Police Are Co-Opted By The Powerful And Put To Work Oppressing And Bullying The Most Vulnerable

~ TSRIT:TPDHPP ~ The Stark Reality Is This: The Poor Don’t Have Police Protection

~ ADD ~ A Dream Devastated

~ CNOTJDS ~ Catastrophic Neglect Of The Justice Delivery System

~ OCTLSICIAFL-TTLOTCP-ANOTPAEE ~ Of Course The Legal System Is Conducted In A Foreign Language – That’s The Language Of The Colonial Power – And Now Of The Political And Economic Elite

~ PJAPL ~ Private Justice And Public Lawlessness

~ EDNNAEPJSTPTFBVBO-B-TMNABPJSTPTFBHAFVO ~ Elites Do Not Need An Effective Public Justice System To Protect Them From Being Victimized By Others – But – They May Need A Broken Public Justice System To Protect Them From Being Held Accountable For Victimizing Others

~ BJSAITTHB-ECJSTIOTM ~ Broken Public Justice Systems Auction Impunity To The Highest Bidder – Effective Criminal Justice Systems Take Impunity Off The Market

~ SV ~ Security Vacuums

~ IC ~ International Crime

~ TTHSCFTIACTRIIPTATLTIUSMOETATP ~ The Time Has Surely Come For The International Aid Community To Revise Its Investment Priorities To Address The Lawlessness That Is Undermining So Many Other Efforts To Assist The Poor

~ STBFJSITDWALTSOWTALLACFWTCTFOAVCCSASB-TPTISEASOLLACF ~ Struggles To Build Functioning Justice Systems In The Developing World Are Likely To Succeed Only Where There Are Local Leaders And Community Forces Willing To Carry The Fight On A Very Committed, Costly, Sustained, And Sacrificial Basis – This Priorities The Identification, Support, Encouragement, And Strengthening Of Local Leaders And Community Forces

~ TPWITPJSITDWA-GVPP-O-IT-PM-UR-FTSTWAADODL-A-TICOAGRVAT ~ The People Working In The Public Justice Systems In The Developing World Are – Generally Very Poorly Paid – Overworked – Ill-Trained – Poorly Managed – Under-Resourced – Forced To Serve The Whims And Arbitrary Demands Of Dysfunctional Leaders – And – Trained In Cultures Of Abuse, Gratuitous Rudeness, Violence, And Theft

~ DPOH ~ Demonstrations Projects Of Hope

~ 15-70-15 ~ The 15-70-15 Rule

~ BSD ~ Build Social Demand

~ LFDCRITS ~ Look For Decisive, Courageous Reformers Inside The System

~ ACITCJSF ~ Attack Corruption In The Criminal Justice System First

~ CHAEIFPC ~ Clean House And End Impunity For Police Corruption

~ TTNPWR ~ Treat The New Police With Respect

~ WPTTECFAPR ~ Win Public Trust Through Effective Crime Fighting And Public Relations

~ IBTJ ~ International Bridges To Justice

~ JSR ~ Justice Sector Roundtables

~ RAC ~ Rights Awareness Campaigns

~ DRC&TPOLS ~ Defender Resource Centers And The Provision Of Legal Services

~ T-DOT-I-IDOPARAP ~ Transformed – Days Of Tragedy – Into – Iconic Days Of Public Awareness, Remembrance And Protest

~ LEOTP ~ Legal Empowerment Of The Poor

~ TTCAGP-WWSOGP-WMSOTVIITP ~ Transform The Conversation About Global Poverty – Whenever We Speak Of Global Poverty – We Must Speak Of The Violence Imbedded In That Poverty

~ TPOVDETW-H-DW-D-I-U-GD-H-S-BFTP-VIEBAD-A-IFTHFUSTTON ~ The Problem Of Violence Deserves Equal Time With – Hunger – Dirty Water – Disease – Illiteracy – Unemployment – Gender Discrimination – Housing – Sanitation – Because For The Poor – Violence Is Every Bit As Devastating – And – Is Frequently The Hidden Force Undermining Solutions To These Other Needs

~ FFVAF ~ Freedom From Violence And Fear

BRUCE BUENO DE MESQUITE + ALASTAIR SMITH ~ THE RULES ~ THE DICTATOR’S HANDBOOK

~ KYWCASAP-FEEMCACTMDOE ~ Keep Your Winning Coalition As Small As Possible – Fewer Essentials Equals More Control And Contributes To More Discretion Over Expenditures

~ KYNSALAP-MALSOIAYCERATIYC-IAEA ~ Keep Your Nominal Selectorate As Large As Possible – Maintain A Large Selectorate Of Interchangeables And You Can Easily Replace Any Troublemakers In Your Coalition – Influentials And Essentials Alike

~ CTFOR-IABFARTDWETIITHALPFWTPCFT ~ Control The Flow Of Revenue – It’s Always Better For A Ruler To Determine Who Eats Than It Is To Have A Larger Pie From Which The People Can Feed Themselves

~ PYKSJETKTL-YBAOTITYKWTMIATD ~ Pay Your Key Supporters Just Enough To Keep Them Loyal – Your Big Advantage Over Them Is That You Know Where The Money Is And They Don’t

~ DTMOOYSPTMTPLB-TFS-INTBTCTYCOS ~ Don’t Take Money Out Of Your Supporters’ Pockets To Make The People’s Lives Better – The Flip Side – Is Not To Be Too Cheap Toward Your Coalition Of Supporters