DAVID GRAEBER ~ DEBT – THE FIRST 5,000 YEARS ~ 2011 + 2012

~ IOTORCHTFSOFMEPDIWOZ-TTCHNAT-ANW ~ In Order To Obtain Refinancing Countries Have To Follow Some Orthodox Free-Market Economic Policy Designed In Washington Or Zurich – That Their Citizens Had Never Agreed To – And Never Would

~ IWABDTITCADC-ATAIT-WGE-THNCOTCPA ~ It Was A Bit Dishonest To Insist That Countries Adopt Democratic Constitutions – And Then Also Insists That – Whoever Gets Elected – They Have No Control Over Their Country Policies Anyway

~ FTOY-TSBRAPHLTTFOCBCAD-OAB-IP-DP-A-R-R-TSOS-TSOV-TSODCIS ~ For Thousands Of Years – The Struggle Between Rich And Poor Has Largely Taken The Form Of Conflicts Between Creditors And Debtors – Of Arguments About – Interest Payment – Debt Peonage – Amnesty – Repossession – Restitution – The Sequestering Of Sheep – The Seizing Of Vineyards – The Selling Of Debtors’ Children Into Slavery

~ FTLFTY-WRR-PIHB-WTRDOTDR-CTDARTL ~ For The Last Five Thousand Years – With Remarkable Regularity – Popular Insurrections Have Begun – With The Ritual Destruction Of The Debt Records – Cancel The Debts And Redistribute The Land

~ AAWROWTWHPACRISOBVORAW ~ Arguments About Who Really Owes What To Whom Have Played A Central Role In Shaping Our Basic Vocabulary Of Right And Wrong

~ TNNAVM-A-TWTOFOM ~ There’s Nothing New About Virtual Money – Actually – This Was The Original Form Of Money

~ ITCSV-TSATM-TAAEADOP-HRR-H-TWBTAHABI ~ In That Common Sense View – The State And The Market – Tower Above All Else As Diametrically Opposed Principles – Historical Reality Reveals – However – They Were Born Together And Have Always Been Intertwined

~ NOIIMTMDP-MADAOTSAETST ~ Not Only Is It Money That Makes Debt Possible – Money And Debt Appear On The Scene At Exactly The Same Time

~ SOTVFWDTHCDTUAMTRCAD ~ Some Of The Very First Written Documents That Have Come Down To Us Are Mesopotamian Tablets Recording Credits And Debits

~ TSOMFEABWAFWOB-TPIWTLTFITAS-WWNCVMCF ~ The Story Of Money For Economists Always Begins With A Fantasy World Of Barter – The Problem Is Where To Locate This Fantasy In Time And Space – What We Now Call Virtual Money Came First

~ B-ATBLAKOABOTUOCOPM-IHMBWPWAUTCTDWFOROATHNATC ~ Barter – Appears To Be Largely A Kind Of Accidental Byproduct Of The Use Of Coinage Or Paper Money – It Has Mainly Been What People Who Are Used To Cash Transactions Do When For One Reason Or Another They Have No Access To Currency

~ A-TFRWF-’F’-IAKHL-LM-’RTM’ ~ Amargi – The First Recorded Word For – “Freedom” – In Any Known Human Language – Literally Means – “Return To Mother”

~ SCM-MRS-NCCWTO-AL-IALTFWWRT ~ States Created Markets – Markets Require States – Neither Could Continue Without The Other – At Least – In Anything Like The Forms We Would Recognize Today

~ C-MWNITOTIOBBN-SNWHNRTEIBITFP ~ Clearly – Money Was Not Invented To Overcome The Inconveniences Of Barter Between Neighbors – Since Neighbors Would Have No Reason To Engage In Barter In The First Place

~ TSASA-CTTS-AT-DTEFITK-OTPOOTCB-NEF-IOTGTHOTC-MFSWT-PSWTTW-MABIEAASE ~ To Support A Standing Army – Coins To The Soldiers – And Then – Demands That Every Family In The Kingdom – Obliged To Pay One Of Those Coins Back – Now Every Family – In Order To Get Their Hands On The Coins – Must Find Some Way To – Provide Soldiers With Things They Want – Markets Are Brought Into Existence As A Side Effect

~ DTDLA-TTEOSAMASO-THRITETOITC-SSTATBWM ~ Despite The Dogged Liberal Assumption – That The Existence Of States And Markets Are Somehow Opposed – The Historical Record Implies That Exactly The Opposite Is The Case – Stateless Societies Tend Also To Be Without Markets

~ WIEO-OTLFTY-MHBE-ACOTS ~ Whatever Its Earliest Origins – Of The Last Four Thousand Years – Money Has Been Effectively – A Creature Of The State

~ MIC-ICBBIBBPCA-TSMETAADTLT ~ Money Is Credit – It Can Be Brought Into Being By Private Contractual Agreements – The State Merely Enforces The Agreement And Dictates The Legal Terms

~ AOTISTGBTSSOO-’SC’-TESAO-TNORKEWOBW-OWWSBBBTDODAOTOM-WWDFPBBTDOODAOAE ~ All Of This Is Said To Go Back To Some Sort Of Original – “Social Contract” – That Everyone Somehow Agreed On – Though No One Really Knows Exactly When Or By Whom – Or Why We Should Be Bound By The Decisions Of Distant Ancestors On This One Matter – When We Don’t Feel Particularly Bound By The Decisions Of Our Distant Ancestors On Anything Else

~ TBBSAM-BGAM-INITTHC ~ The Battle Between State And Market – Between Governments And Merchants – Is Not Inherent To The Human Condition

~ ‘F’-CTRAATRFTEOD ~“Freedom” – Came To Refer Above All To Release From The Effects Of Debt

~ AHRABOSVOR-IS-TDRIATROAM-BDIWHWSBHNYBR ~ All Human Relations Are Based On Some Variation On Reciprocity – If So – Then Debt Really Is At The Root Of All Morality – Because Debt Is What Happens When Some Balance Has Not Yet Been Restored

~ WEA-C-WOCF ~ We Are All – Communists – With Our Closest Friends

~ NRMOWWWTLIAPWNDLAOA ~ No Reasonable Man Or Woman Would Want To Live In A Place Where Neighbors Don’t Look After One Another

~ GASCADFCABOSF:TCBS ~ Gold And Silver Coins Are Distinguished From Credit Arrangements By One Spectacular Feature: They Can Be Stolen

~ MCSC ~ Military-Coinage-Slavery Complex

~ MATHFE-ITNEAL-AASEOGAS ~ Markets Appear To Have First Emerge – In The Near East At Least – As A Side Effect Of Government Administrative Systems

~ WUTATCAMATST-B-IMWTCREWBCAO-WMAWOEGTTMOM-CIFAFTAOUMTGMM-TEWTDTIBESKOFODFRM ~ We’re Use To Assuming That Capitalism And Markets Are The Same Thing – But – In Many Ways They Could Equally Well Be Conceived As Opposites – While Markets Are Ways Of Exchanging Goods Through The Medium Of Money – Capitalism Is First And Foremost The Art Of Using Money To Get More Money – The Easiest Way To Do This Is By Establishing Some Kind Of Formal Or De Facto Monopoly

~ B-1520A1650-UTOGASFMAPWTATAAPISTS-VLOTGASLVLIE-MOTGEUITII-ATOMOTSBWUSOTC-EHNPMOATAWTB-SIWFTPISFSSSAOI ~ Between – 1520 and 1640 – Untold Tons Of Gold And Silver From Mexico And Peru Were Transported Across The Atlantic And Pacific In Spanish Treasure Ships – Very Little Of That Gold And Silver Lingered Very Long In Europe – Most Of The Gold Ended Up In Temples In India – And The Overwhelming Majority Of The Silver Bullion Was Ultimately Shipped Off To China – Europe Had Never Produced Much Of Anything That Asians Wanted To Buy – So It Was Forced To Pay In Specie For Silks, Spices, Steel, And Other Imports

~ TEYOEEWLATGAET-EL-O-TNSOGASWWTPFT ~ The Early Years Of European Expansion Were Largely Attempts To Gain Access Either To – Eastern Luxuries – Or – To New Sources Of Gold And Silver With Which To Pay For Them

~ THTBPIM-EB-IC-CTBTMAIHITMA-BMOVFOVCM-T-PN-O-STKTOWOWTW ~ Taxes Had To Be Paid In Metal – Everyday Business – In Contrast – Continued To Be Transacted Much As It Had In The Middle Ages – By Means Of Various Forms Of Virtual Credit Money – Tallies – Promissory Notes – Or – Simply The Keeping Track Of Who Owed What To Whom

~ CC-WELBS-O-WPRTAT-TLBPAOS-AA-GASWUBTGTPAAPS ~ Cold Cash – Was Employed Largely Between Strangers – Or – When Paying Rents, Tithes, And Taxes – To Landlords, Bailiffs, Priest, And Other Superiors – Above All – Gold And Silver Were Used By The Government To Purchase Arms And Pay Soldiers

~ TGCTMWENTP ~ The Great Conversation That Many Were Expecting Never Took Place

~ WCTWEBWCNLIAATWBEW ~ We Cling To What Exists Because We Can No Longer Imagine An Alternative That Wouldn’t Be Even Worse

~ ASTRTWTNCOBHIPBW ~ Any System That Reduces The World To Numbers Can Only Be Held In Place By Weapons

~ ITLSOT-JANOHTRTTUOTV-NOHTRTTUWWTO ~ In The Largest Scheme Of Things – Just As No One Has The Right To Tell Us Our True Value – No One Has The Right To Tell Us What We Truly Owe

CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN ~ THE INNOVATOR’S DILEMMA

~ CDOCAIFR-CWIPTDSTCAIDS ~ Companies Depend On Customers And Investors For Resources – Companies With Investment Patterns That Don’t Satisfy Their Customers And Investors Don’t Survive

~ SMDSTGNOLC ~ Small Markets Don’t Solve The Growth Needs Of Large Companies

~ MTDECBA ~ Markets That Don’t Exist Can’t Be Analyzed

~ AOCDID ~ An Organization’s Capabilities Define Its Disabilities

~ FIAISTS ~ Failure Is An Intrinsic Step Toward Success

~ TVOAOTCBWDAPAM-AKMOGM-IF-IWSCACVHPTO ~ The Values Of An Organization Are The Criteria By Which Decisions About Priorities Are Made – A Key Metric Of Good Management – In Fact – Is Whether Such Clear And Consistent Values Have Permeated The Organization

~ HSCAVRDIMI ~ Huge Size Constitutes A Very Real Disability In Managing Innovation

~ ATPBWWHGDITOAFTNP? ~ Are The Processes By Which Work Habitually Gets Done In The Organization Appropriate For This New Problem?

~ TWODTATS-IIOTVATRDTUIMMTCTVINM ~ The Weaknesses Of Disruptive Technologies Are Their Strengths – It Is Often The Very Attribute That Render Disruptive Technologies Useless In Mainstream Markets That Constitute Their Value In New Markets

~ TFTWMSICADT-FAMWPCOADTFTDA ~ The Firms That Were Most Successful In Commercializing A Disruptive Technology – Find A Market Where Product Competition Occurred Along Dimensions That Favored The Disruptive Attributes

MARI SWINGLE ~ I-MINDS ~ 2016

~ DTOOO-WAIA ~ Due To Our Own Overarousal – We Are Increasingly Annoyed

~ TLAOL ~ The Lost Art Of Leisure

~ WHMFBGOIATGI-TA ~ We Have Moved Far Beyond Gaming Or Internet Addiction To Generalize I-Tech Addiction

~ AAC-MEOADA-W-I-A-D-ADHD-SI ~ Across All Cultures – Mounting Evidence Of A Definite Association – With – I-Addiction – Depression – ADHD – Suicidal Ideation

~ AD ~ Alpha Deregulation

~ TDED:AITAHULES-A-EUDUNH ~ The Double-Edged Delusion: All I-Tech Are Helping Us Learn Exquisite Skills – And – Excessive Usage Does Us No Harm

~ EGCBAMITSWASA ~ Excessive Gaming Changes Brain Activity Much In The Same Way As Substance Abuse

~ AGMWBT-NEIAI-ATLYOYC-E-SI-B-O-

~ FLC-TPDPATH ~ For Little Children – The Potential Developmental Perils Are Too High

~ I-TSNRHIOHP-IWCT-ISBIAT-NARF-

~ KDOWALTGS-EAAANSWPOI-

~ O-G-O-S-HTBALBB-O-TBDNLTL-

~ B-AAWS-LANFP ~ Babies – Although Attentively Watching Screens – Learn Absolutely Nothing From Programs

~ UFRSO-DBITEHAPI-GTICF-PTIYET-

~ TIMETTEIODMIICTBOIIMCPOD-

~ SOPHFACBETVATDOAD-

~ THSIFOVD-AOTCWCATGE-

~ LKDCI-MBNAMTAOTGOD ~ Little Kids Don’t Crave I-Media By Nature Any More Than Any Other Toy, Game, Or Device

~ TDE ~ The Disinhibition Effect

~ ITP-TBCUFR-TTC ~ In The Past – The Bullied Could Usually Find Refuge – Today They Cannot

~ SATN:D-D-A-TDOI ~ Sex And The Net: Desensitization – Disinhibition – And – The Death Of Intimacy

~ MPNBTNTCWOATRSDOSV ~ Many People Now Believe They Need To Compete With Online Activity To Remain Sexually Desirable Or Sexually Valid

~ WCBIAOTIAI-T-TIHMMAATP ~ We Can’t Blame It All On The Internet And I-Tech – The Internet Has Merely Magnified And Accelerated The Process

~ SFMIISOAEO-TTEORL ~ Sexuality For Males Is Increasingly Sought Out And Expressed Online – To The Exclusion Of Real Life

~ ATPOCHBFTBSRTDAA ~ Addiction To Pornography Or Cybersex Has Been Found To Be Specifically Related To Depression And Anxiety

~ FOMO ~ Fear Of Missing Out

~ IMBTMAOTTCOTMTITTA ~ It May Be The Medium As Opposed To The Content Of The Medium That Is The True Addiction

~ GIA ~ Generalized Internet Addiction

~ FIA ~ Fantasy Internet Addiction

~ TIA ~ Technological Internet Addiction

~ WWHFTAIWIHTOBITGEOLOI-T ~ What We Have Forgotten To Ask Is What Is Happening To Our Brains In This Great Experiment Of Life On I-Tech

~ C ~ Cyberchondria

~ BLNLTT-TS-RU-DU ~ But Let’s Not Let This Tool – This System – Rule Us – Deregulate Us

~ SOB ~ Setting Of Boundaries

~ TBP! ~ Take Back Play!

03-09-2017

~ WH ~ Which Hunt

~ ICBM ~ Inter Continental Ballistic Missile

~ ASTRTWTNCOBHIPBW ~ Any System That Reduces The World To Numbers Can Only Be Held In Place By Weapons ~ David Graeber ~ Debt – The First 5,000 Years

~ FTR ~ Faking The Real ~ Hal Niedzviecki ~ The Peep Diaries

~ IDWTWFP-IWTBPFWIW ~ I Didn’t Want To Write For Pay – I Wanted To Be Paid For What I Write ~ Leonard Cohen

~ IDNAWEIS ~ I Don’t Necessarily Agree With Everything I Say ~ Marshall McLuhan

~ AWA ~ Arguing With Algorithms

~ DAW ~ Democracy At Work ~ Richard Wolff

~ WS ~ Wage Slave ~ Karl Marx

~ PCLAPAMAC ~ People Care Less About Privacy And More About Connection ~ Hal Niedzviecki ~ The Peep Diaries

~ IOTORCHTFSOFMEPDIWOZ-TTCHNAT-ANW ~ In Order To Obtain Refinancing Countries Have To Follow Some Orthodox Free-Market Economic Policy Designed In Washington Or Zurich – That Their Citizens Had Never Agreed To – And Never Would ~ David Graeber ~ Debt – The First 5,000 Years

~ WMBHEWL-ILIWWHCTE-AWMBMWM-WWHTTDE ~ We May Be Happy Enough With Little – If Little Is What We Have Come To Expect – And We May Be Miserable With Much – When We Have Been Taught To Desire Everything ~ Alain De Botton ~ The Consolations Of Philosophy

~ AMINTT ~ A Map Is Not The Territory ~ Alfred Korzybski ~ Science And Sanity ~ 1973

~ TPTW-IITC-NTB ~ The Power To Win – Is In The Community – Not The Boardroom ~ Jane McAlevey ~ No Shortcuts ~ 2016

~ SAHB-CHS-AIAFOF-OBD-TO ~ Solidarity Among Human Beings – Can Happen Spontaneously – As In A Flood Or Fire – Or By Design – Through Organizing ~ Jane McAlevey ~ No Shortcuts ~ 2016

~ OEOPIAAHODAA ~ Our Enclaves Of Private Individualism Are Also Havens Of Depression And Anxiety ~ Hal Niedzviecki ~ The Peep Diaries

~ WSDE ~ Worker’s Self-Directed Enterprises ~ Richard Wolff ~ Democracy At Work ~ 2012

~ MFM ~ Mine Forged Manacles ~ William Blake

~ BFP ~ Bankruptcy For Profit ~ George Akerlof + Robert Shiller ~ Phishing For Phools

CARNE ROSS ~ THE LEADERLESS REVOLUTION ~ 2011

~ ACIAPSC ~ Anyone Can Initiate A Profound Social Change

~ TVCIW-NA-FMOU-PIASS-WO-TD ~ The Vast Crowd Is Watching – Not Acting – For Most Of Us – Politics Is A Spectator Sport – We Observe – They Do

~ TDCBVATR ~ The Deepening Chasm Between Voters And Their Representatives

~ TPSIOMAMNBC-BBBBATW ~ The Political Space Is Occupied More And More Not By Citizens – But By Big Business And The Wealthy

~ WPUTF-AFP-TPTPP ~ Wealthy Philanthropists Use Their Foundations – And Financial Pull – To Promote Their Political Preferences

~ IGCPF-TSSAJAOOCA-WC? ~ If Government Cannot Provide For – The Stability, Safety And Just Arbitration Of Our Common Affairs – Who Can?

~ SOG-IOT-A-RMLT-I-A ~ Self-Organized Government – Is One Term – Another – Rather More Loaded Term – Is – Anarchism

~ TMAOVILLALAAAS ~ The Minimalist Act Of Voting Is Looking Less And Less Adequate As A Solution

~ SUFPDP-AATWSU-PATNT-S ~ Setting Up Fake Pro-Democracy Pages – Arresting All Those Who Showed Up – Power Adapts To New Technology – Swiftly

~ IOED-TW-OMLTFTOAW-ATATOD-‘TDM’ ~ Instead Of Encouraging Debate – The Web – Offers Multiple Locations To Find Those One Agrees With – And To Avoid Those One Doesn’t – “The Daily Me”

~ ‘DD’-MP ~ “Deliberative Democracy” – Meeting People

~ IPATTDSABSWICIA-ATOTDI ~ If People Are Told To Do Something Awful By Someone Who Is Clearly In Authority – All Too Often They Do It

~ WPFNAANRFTA-TCCHC ~ When People Feel No Agency And No Responsibility For Their Actions – They Can Commit Horrific Crimes

~ AIAIUFO-THO-‘G’-WAFOUOLGOPM ~ As In All Institutions Unscrutinized From Outside – The Hold Of – “Groupthink” – Was A Firm One Upon Our Little Group Of Policy Makers

~ TAIO-CIWTCOTA-RTMUT-

~ HCATGOPPKWIBFTCOM? ~ How Can A Tiny Group Of People Possibly Know What Is Best For Their Country Of Millions?

~ TMEOA-‘P’-CTEITSIBD-WIIN ~ The Mere Existence Of A – “Process” – Created The Erroneous Impression That Something Is Being Done – When It Is Not

~ TMDEOTSINTIDW-IITW-IWNIISTF-

~ CTCA-IACHAFGPTCTC-AITOTWW-TGP ~ Contrary To Common Assumptions – Individuals Acting Collectively Have A Far Greater Power To Control Their Circumstances – And Indeed Those Of The Whole World – Than Governments Pretend

~ TMATE ~ The Means Are The Ends

~ PCMRTW-WRIBTA-IFEOT-EWC-CRMWA-

~ LYC-AIDOWYCMA-DNLOTYWTCA-MUYOM ~ Locate Your Convictions – An Individual Discovery Of What You Care Most About – Do Not Let Others Tell You What To Care About – Make Up Your Own Mind

~ AAITMATE-IAH-AIAN ~ Act As If The Means Are The End – It’s All Here – And It’s All Now

~ GCTTNOO-BUWTSATN-NWWTTNA-APWTW ~ Give Consideration To The Needs Of Others – Based Upon What They Say Are Their Needs – Not What We Think Their Needs Are – Ask People What They Want

~ ATSTM-H-YCMTMD ~ Address Those Suffering The Most – Here – You Can Make The Most Difference

~ C&N ~ Consult And Negotiate

~ ‘BP-SD’ ~ “Big Picture – Small Deeds”

~ UN ~ Use Nonviolence

~ DNBSWP-OWR ~ Do Not Be Satisfied With Process – Only With Results

~ IITATBOTPWMH-EITDNKI ~ It Is Those At The Base Of The Pyramid Who Make History – Even If They Do Not Know It

~ EFIBTA ~ Even Failure Is Better Than Acquiescence

ABIGAIL SELLEN + RICHARD HARPER ~ THE MYTH OF THE PAPERLESS OFFICE ~ 2002

~ ISTTMIPRAHAT-TMPNTPI ~ It Seems That The More Information People Receive And Have Access To – The More People Need To Print It

~ SOPIAEBCIFMO ~ Storage Of Paper Is An Even Bigger Cost Issue For Many Organizations

~ TRIFO-H-INTGROPFIOS-BTHSMTUTOWP-ATWIWPPAR ~ The Real Issue For Organizations – However – Is Not To Get Rid Of Paper For Its Own Sake – But – To Have Sufficient Motivation To Understand Their Own Work Processes – And The Ways In Which Paper Plays A Role

~ PE ~ Paper Everywhere

~ KWRSAFPDORBTTITDK-R-IITPOTNTIIIHTTCAOTT ~ Knowledge Workers Rarely Store And File Paper Documents Or Refer Back To The Information They Do Keep – Rather – It Is The Process Of Taking Notes That Is Important In Helping Them To Construct And Organize Their Thoughts

~ DOAPD-AWO-’MSIGT’ ~ Delivery Of A Paper Document – A Way Of – “Making Sure It Gets There”

~ RFP ~ Reading From Paper

~ WTOMPWGT-PWP-TMITMOD-TMPOP-O-DCTFAW ~ Wherever Two Or More People Were Gathered Together – Paper Was Present – The More Intensive The Meeting Or Discussion – The More Bits Of Paper – On – Desks, Coffee Tables, Floors, And Walls

~ TROPIMMCADIWWPTMA ~ The Role Of Paper Is Much More Complex And Deeply Interwoven With Work Practice Than Might Appear

~ TIALTBGIONLLAPAAPIOL-IOCTIUAAIOAWOLAHTMBDD ~ There Is A Lot To Be Gained If One No Longer Looks At Paper As A Problem In Organizational Life – Instead One Can Treat Its Use As An Indication Or A Way Of Learning About How Things Might Be Done Differently

~ PCABUAAFBOWAFPTAMHTF ~ Paper Can Also Be Used As A Fall-Back Or Work-Around For Problems That Are Much Harder To Fix

~ HMPWTBITOOTF? ~ How Much Paper Will There Be In The Office Of The Future?

~ PAWPHCOTY-A-CTLSWP-WESTACI-ID ~ Paper And Work Practices Have Coevolved Over The Years – And – Changing These Long-Standing Work Patterns – Within Existing Social, Technological, And Cultural Infrastructures – Is Difficult

~ MDATPAIDFTTAH ~ Many Digital Alternatives To Paper Are Inadequately Designed For The Tasks At Hand

~ PHPATMITBCFSTAH-A-TWLCTMITPMFCWTITFF ~ Paper Has Particular Affordances That Make It The Best Choice For Some Tasks At Hand – And – That Will Likely Continue To Make It The Preferred Medium For Certain Work Tasks In The Foreseeable Future

~ GROPOAASRIOL-OTCGITWOUTRUPTME ~ Getting Rid Of Paper Often Assumes A Symbolic Role In Office Life – One That Can Get In The Way Of Understanding The Real Underlying Problems That May Exist

~ TROPIOLNTBUAHCWWPATABHTDAA ~ The Role Of Paper In Office Life Needs To Be Understood As Having Coevolved With Work Practices And Thus As Being Hard To Disentangle And Alter

~ DTM-TITTAABTGPIOSM-TNTBCCRFMC-BOAGUOTE-SPATIAIP ~ Dispel The Myths – The Idea That There Are Always Benefits To Going Paperless Is One Such Myth – There Need To Be Clear-Cut Reasons For Making Changes – Based On A Good Understanding Of The Existing – Social, Physical, And Technological Infrastructures Already In Place

~ CFTSOCIHP-GPFTSO-’OWTO-IWTN’-IDTEIF ~ Change For The Sake Of Change Is Hugely Problematic – Going Paperless For The Sake Of – “Out With The Old – In With The New” – Is Destined To End In Failure

~ TNTBBRTOEANJAOANT-OERAPATWPSIAAKH-OAE-OTIAFTRTIOLATBP ~ There Needs To Be Better Recognition That Office Environments Are Not Just About Old And New Technologies – Office Environments Revolve Around People And The Ways People Share Informational Artifacts And Know-How – Offices Are Ecologies – Often There Is A Failure To Recognize The Importance Of Looking At This Broader Picture

~ COP-IHNOIEAC-TPOCTTCSANACISTAPCOFDOWR ~ Communities of Practice – Informal Human Networks Of Information Exchange And Collaboration – The Patterns Of Collaboration That These Communities Support Are Not Adequately Captured In Such Things As Process Charts Or Formal Descriptions Of Work Responsibilities

~ NTWUSTROPRTRI-TNWNRTOBWC-W-IWEOIDW ~ New Technologies Will Usually Shift The Role Of Paper Rather Than Replace It – The New Will Not Replace The Old But Will Coexist – Will – Interact With Each Other In Different Ways

~ DTF ~ Designing The Future

~ MKWMMPC ~ More Knowledge Work Means More Paper Consumed

~ MIMIDFTMOSIOAMSOI-TIODTPOP ~ More Information Means Increased Demand For The Means Of Sorting It Out And Making Sense Of It – This Is Often Done Through Printing On Paper

~ TPO-IAM-NBPFTATG-BBTKTWTTGCBAWP ~ The Paperless Office – Is A Myth – Not Because People Fail To Achieve Their Goals – But Because They Know Too Well That Their Goals Cannot Be Achieved Without Paper

ROBERT FRANK ~ SUCCESS AND LUCK ~ 2016

~ GF&TMOM ~ Good Fortune And The Myth Of Meritocracy

~ SSHDTCEPAMLRIILOTMPOI ~ Social Scientists Have Discovered That Chance Events Play A Much Larger Role In Important Life Outcomes Than Most People Once Imagined

~ TROMHCEN ~ The Rhetoric Of Meritocracy Has Caused Enormous Harm

~ M-CI-1958-AAP-QCOA-AAOP ~ Meritocracy – Coined In – 1958 – As A Pejorative – Quickly Co-Opted As – An Adjective Of Praise

~ STTEMHEABOL-AVOTTTTDRBOT-TTAWTTTA ~ Saying That Top Earners May Have Enjoyed A Bit Of Luck – Apparently Verges On Telling Them That They Don’t Really Belong On Top – That They Aren’t Who They Think They Are

~ TROMATHCTETWSAFOHDOECBAIC ~ The Rhetoric Of Meritocracy Appears To Have Camouflaged The Extent To Which Success And Failure Often Hinge Decisively On Events Completely Beyond Any Individual’s Control

~ SMCEFMMPILTTMPR ~ Seemingly Minor Chance Events Figure Much More Prominently In Life Trajectories Than Most People Realize

~ BWATMTAHPWNAMMS? ~ But What About The Many Talented And Hardworking People Who Never Achieve Much Material Success?

~ IOTTSTSWW1%HTOII1%MTD1PMI-B-TIOCLMLWSSPDTI-TFDIE ~ It’s One Thing To Say That Someone Who Works 1 Percent Harder Than Others Or Is 1 Percent More Talented Deserves 1 Percent More Income – But – The Importance Of Chance Looms Much Larger When Such Small Performance Differences Translate Into – Thousands-Fold Differences In Earnings

~ WTAM-TPRTATAHOWITM-AENOC-ATMCTA-TMLM ~ Winner-Take-All Markets – The Prodigious Rewards That Accrue To A Handful Of Winners In These Markets – Attracts Enormous Numbers Of Contestants – And The More Contestants There Are – The More Luck Matters

~ PWBTSDOOTAA-AHAESOHTTA-MFIETMTKOENFS ~ People Who Believe That Success Depends Only On Talent And Effort – And Have An Exaggerated Sense Of How Talented They Are – May Find It Easier To Muster The Kinds Of Effort Necessary For Success

~ B-UTIOEF-MAEC-IM-FEEPTCIAIWTHNRPOS-IAATMSPMRTUTINTSETSMS ~ But Underestimating The Importance Of External Forces – May Also Entail Significant Costs – It May – For Example Encourage People To Compete In Arenas In Which They Have No Realistic Prospect Of Succeeding – It Also Appears To Make Successful People More Reluctant To Underwrite The Investments Necessary To Sustain Environments That Support Material Success

~ TFRTNSCPWEMFICTAC ~ The Fact Remains That No Society Can Prosper Without Effective Means For Its Citizens To Act Collectively

~ SGIU-ISWTAWTMIB-SSHDMEGTO ~ Since Government Is Unavoidable – It’s Surely Worth Thinking About Ways To Make It Better – Some Societies Have Demonstrably More Effective Governments Than Others

~ ‘HB’-WYTYAKWH-IETIRFWIHTH ~ “Hindsight Bias” – When You Think You Already Know What Happened – It’s Easy To Invent Reasons For Why It Had To Happen

~ HBOWPFWPOUSO ~ Hindsight Bias Operates With Particular Force When People Observe Unusually Successful Outcomes

~ TME ~ The Matthew Effect

~ WTAM-GDTCF-RDLOAPTORP-RTTBHCITHOAFTP ~ Winner-Take-All Markets – Generally Display Two Characteristic Features – Rewards Depend Less On Absolute Performance Than On Relative Performance – Rewards Tend To Be Highly Concentrated In The Hands Of A Few Top Performers

~ B-EP-ASMC-WWAWEBETAH-B-TWRB-TMTAH-ITCP ~ Because – Enormous Prizes – Attract So Many Contestants – Winners Will Almost Without Exception Be Enormously Talented And Hardworking – But – They Will Rarely Be – The Most Talented And Hardworking – In The Contestant Pool

~ E-HUTH-IAGM-TMMYST-TMLTB-AIYSTEM-ABI ~ Events – Highly Unlikely To Happen – In Any Given Moment – The More Moments You String Together – The More Likely They Become – And If You String Together Enough Moments – All But Inevitable

~ METAHPFTAASMOMS-MOTASLLTTW ~ Many Extremely Talented And Hardworking People Fail To Achieve Any Significant Measure Of Material Success – Many Of Them Are Simply Less Lucky Than The Winners

~ TITSASTMWWOBTAL-IHCA-MWNHEBRCHTNBB-EAAH ~ This Isn’t The Same As Saying That Most Winners Win Only Because They Are Lucky – In Highly Competitive Arenas – Most Would Not Have Even Been Realistic Contenders Had They Not Been Both – Extremely Able And Hardworking

~ TWAOPTATFTBLMBUTTKOFNTIFP ~ Those Who Are Overly Prone To Attribute Their Failures To Bad Luck May Be Unreceptive To The Kinds Of Feedback Needed To Improve Future Performance

~ TBOFB ~ The Burden Of False Beliefs

~ TIODOPLTTAO-THBBIAHDC-TLBOCOIIBTWCBU ~ There Is One Dimension Of Personal Luck That Transcends All Others – To Have Been Born In A Highly Developed Country – The Lucky Beneficiaries Of Centuries Of Intensive Investment By Those Who Came Before Us

~ IBBIAGEIOOTLTTCHTA-FTALIHMSPMRTPTTRTSTINTMAGE ~ If Being Born In A Good Environment Is One Of The Luckiest Things That Can Happen To Anyone – Failure To Appreciate Luck’s Importance Has Made Successful People More Reluctant To Pay The Taxes Required To Support The Investments Necessary To Maintain A Good Environment

~ TFTAADTBCEP-ORTARWP-STOCBBCARIFFO ~ The Fact That Americans Are Driving The Best Cars Ever Produced – On Roads That Are Riddled With Potholes – Suggests That Our Current Balance Between Cars And Roads Is Far From Optimal

~ PWFMHTAALTTWTAAGOTSA ~ People Will Fight Much Harder To Avoid A Loss Than They Would To Achieve A Gain Of The Same Amount

~ OCPOPAPSHBDC-NJFPAMIF-BAFTWT ~ Our Current Patterns Of Private And Public Spending Have Been Deeply Counterproductive – Not Just For Poor And Middle-Income Families – But Also For The Wealthy Themselves

~ EPIWAEPFTEPOTVSTP ~ Extensive Public Investment Was An Essential Precondition For The Economic Prosperity Of Those Very Same Tax Protesters

~ POSOCAAT ~ Public Opinion Shifts One Conversation At A Time

~ TRSBFTALPRISHMIHTSTPINTSTSOLATFG ~ Tax Resistance Spawned By Failure To Appreciate Luck’s Pivotal Role In Success Has Made It Harder To Sustain The Public Investment Needed To Support The Stock Of Luck Available To Future Generations

~ ATPIT-IFOAPCT-WPABOFAE ~ Abandoning The Progressive Income Tax – In Favor Of A Progressive Consumption Tax – Would Produce A Better Outcome For Almost Everyone

~ PWETAAAOTP-ANJHBOTF-TAMLTP-TIPBMOTBSSATE ~ People Who Enjoy The Admiration And Affection Of Their Peers – Are Not Just Happier Because Of That Fact – They’re Also More Likely To Prosper – That’s In Part Because Most Of The Biggest Economic Success Stories Are Team Efforts

~ IMBIYITALRIYS-IOBPWTBOYFHDS-ESTTWMYFH-TMFTOTBOYMAMYMLTPIPMT ~ It May Be In Your Interest To Acknowledge Luck’s Role In Your Success – If Only Because People Will Think Better Of You For Having Done So – Evidence Suggests That This Will Make You Feel Happier – The Mere Fact That Others Think Better Of You May Also Make You More Likely To Prosper In Purely Material Terms

~ TWHT-TASTSAEAFTBL-MBPAISC-BOB-IIOITEMRA ~ The Widespread Human Tendency – To Attribute Success To Skill And Effort And Failure To Bad Luck – May Be Psychologically Adaptive In Some Cases – But On Balance – It’s In Our Interest To Embrace More Realistic Attributions

~ CTPB-PWINOFMPTGW-BAFETC ~ Contrary To Popular Belief – Private Waste Is Not Only Far More Pervasive Than Government Waste – But Also Far Easier To Curtail

~ APBMRAOWRFCPOT-TCCFWSSOGABTFTF-A-TACSOOCAAT ~ Although Popular Beliefs May Remain At Odds With Reality For Considerable Periods Of Time –The Consensus Can Flip With Surprising Speed Once Good Arguments Begin To Find Their Footing – And – Those Arguments Can Spread Only One Conversation At At Time