RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ THE SLIPPERY SLOPE ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ S-MFT-OWA-MP-HII-WSF-T-O-M/C/B ~ Skeptics Might Fear That – Once We Accept – Modest Paternalism – Highly Intrusive Interventions – Will Surely Follow – To – Outright – Manipulation / Coercion / Bans

~ ROA-S-S-A-DTQOW-PHMIAOT-P-CTCTDRTTROOTFOAHSS-IOPAW-MPOT-A-DWITT-PSOTS ~ Reliance On A – Slippery-Slope – Argument – Ducks The Question Of Whether – Proposals Have Merit In And Of Themselves – Policies – Constructive To Criticize Them Directly Rather Than To Rely Only On The Fear Of A Hypothetical Slippery Slope – If Our Proposals Are Worthwhile – Make Progress On Those – And – Do Whatever It Takes To – Pour Sand On The Slope

~ LCOOR-RTSOTOSS-P-ED-T-RFOC-SLA-PI-CBEABTWSTAACOTO-TRDBAAM ~ Low Cost Opt-Out Rights – Reduces The Steepness Of The Ostensibly Slippery Slope – Proposals – Emphatically Designed – To – Retain Freedom Of Choice – So Long As – Paternalistic Interventions – Can Be Easily Avoided By Those Who Seek To Adopt A Course Of Their Own – The Risks Decried By Antipaternalists Are Modest

~ IMC-SKONII-A-CA-W-POP-MDS ~ In Many Cases – Some Kind Of Nudge Is Inevitable – And – Choice Architects – Whether – Private Or Public – Must Do Something

~ OLTUPTPDNA-B-PAP-I-NRTDHSSAH-WTRSI-IIBPFTOASSTTDNSTARAA-B-TRANT-A-STANSS ~ Often Life Turns Up Problems That People Did Not Anticipate – Both – Private And Public – Institutions – Need Rules To Determine How Such Situations Are Handled – When Those Rules Seem Invisible – It Is Because People Find Them Obvious And So Sensible That They Do Not See Them As Rules At All – But – The Rules Are Nonetheless There – And – Sometimes They Are Not So Sensible

~ TWMTA-SS-AI-TDTTSTB-CFNOFTS-TIAM ~ Those Who Make This Argument – Sometimes Speak – As If – The Default Terms That Set The Background – Come From Nature Or From The Sky – This Is A Mistake

RICHARD THALER + CASS SUNSTEIN ~ NUDGE ~ 2008

~ CA-TRFOTCIWPMD ~ Choice Architect – The Responsibility For Organizing The Context In Which People Make Decisions

~ TINSTAA’N’-D ~ There Is Not Such Thing As A – “Neutral” – Design

~ SAD-HSI ~ Seemingly Arbitrary Decisions – Have Subtle Influences

~ SAAID-CH-MIOPB-A-‘EM’ ~ Small And Apparently Insignificant Details – Can Have – Major Impacts On People’s Behavior – Assume – “Everything Matters”

~ TIT-‘EM’-CBB-PAE ~ The Insight That – “Everything Matters” – Can Be Both – Paralyzing And Empowering

~ LP-TPWTTITTHBCBD-T-LA-LITSIT-IG-PSBFTDWTL-A-TOOOUAITWTDS-T-PA-LITCTIILFCATTTIPBIOTMTL-L/H/B-AJBT ~ Libertarian Paternalism – The Problem With The Terms Is That They Have Been Captured By Dogmatists – The – Libertarian Aspect – Lies In The Straightforward Insistence That – In General – People Should Be Free To Do What They Like – And – To Opt Out Of Undesirable Arrangements If They Want To Do So – The – Paternalistic Aspect – Lies In The Claim That It Is Legitimate For Choice Architects To Try To Influence People’s Behavior In Order To Make Their Lives – Longer / Healthier / Better – As Judged By Themselves

~ IMC-IMPBD-DTWNHM-IT-HPFA-A-P-CI-UCA-A-CS-C ~ In Many Cases – Individuals Make Pretty Bad Decisions – Decisions They Would Not Have Made – If They – Had Paid Full Attention – And – Possessed – Complete Information – Unlimited Cognitive Abilities – And – Complete Self-Control

~ LP-IAR-W/S/N-TOP-B-CANB/FO/SB ~ Libertarian Paternalism – Is A Relatively – Weak / Soft / Nonintrusive – Type Of Paternalism – Because – Choices Are Not Blocked / Fenced Off / Significantly Burdened

~ A-N-IAAOT-CA-TAPBIAPWWFAOOSCTEI-TCAAM-N-TIMBEACTA-NANM ~ A – Nudge – Is Any Aspect Of The – Choice Architecture – That Alters People’s Behavior In A Predictable Way Without Forbidding Any Options Or Significantly Changing Their Economic Incentives – To Count As A Mere – Nudge – The Intervention Must Be Easy And Cheap To Avoid – Nudges Are Not Mandates

~ PTFAEL-CAAN-BJF-DN ~ Putting The Fruit At Eye Level – Counts As A Nudge – Banning Junk Food – Does Not

~ TE-SOC-RHRSQATROMJADTPM-HOS-CTHFAFAB-HDMINSGE ~ The Emerging – Science Of Choice – Research Has Raised Serous Questions About The Rationality Of Many Judgments And Decisions That People Make – Hundreds Of Studies – Confirm That Human Forecasts Are Flawed And Biased – Human Decision Making Is Not So Great Either

~ ‘SQB’-AFNF-I-FAHOR-PHASTTGAWTSQODO-RSTWTDCA-MPSWT-EWTSAMH ~ “Status Quo Bias” – A Fancy Name For – Inertia – For A Host Of Reasons – People Have A Strong Tendency To Go Along With The Status Quo Or Default Option – Research Shows That Whatever The Default Choices Are – Many People Stick With Them – Even When The Stakes Are Much Higher

~ NUTPOI-TPCBH-SDO-A-OSST-M-CS-CHHEOO ~ Never Underestimate The Power Of Inertia – That Power Can Be Harnessed – Setting Default Options – And – Other Similar Seemingly Trivial – Menu-Changing Strategies – Can Have Huge Effects On Outcomes

~ BPDB-IAN-ACIOATIPLAHSMOSMP-A-WCDSWSTOEFTC ~ By Properly Deploying Both – Incentives And Nudges – We Can Improve Our Ability To Improve People’s Lives And Help Solve Many Of Society’s Major Problems – And – We Can Do So While Still Insisting On Everyone’s Freedom To Choose

~ T-FA-ITAAPAAOTTMCTAITBIOATVLABTTCTWBMBSE-TAIF-I-OF ~ The – False Assumption – Is That Almost All People Almost All Of The Time Make Choices That Are In Their Best Interest Or At The Very Least Are Better Than The Choices That Would Be Made By Someone Else – This Assumption Is False – Indeed – Obviously False

~ HWPCIAEQ-OWAILTVAD-ISRTSTPMGCICIW-TH-E/GI/PF-TDLWICIWTA-I/PI/FISOI ~ How Well People Choose Is An Empirical Question – One Whose Answer Is Likely To Vary Across Domains – It Seems Reasonable To Say That People Make Good Choices In Contexts In Which – They Have – Experience / Good Information / Prompt Feedback – They Do Less Well In Contexts In Which They Are – Inexperienced / Poorly Informed / Feedback Is Slow Or Infrequent

~ B-ITCRU-TROIOECDAR-FTC-ITBSABCA ~ By – Insisting That Choices Remain Unrestricted – The Risks Of Inept Or Even Corrupt Designs Are Reduced – Freedom To Choose – Is The Best Safeguard Against Bad Choice Architecture

~ CACMJITTLOOBDU-FE ~ Choice Architects Can Make Major Improvements To The Lives Of Others By Designing User-Friendly Environments

~ I-IAN-R-RAB-GWBBSAMM-N-BG-J-BG-IS-LP-I-NLNR ~ If – Incentives And Nudges – Replace – Requirements And Bans – Government Will Be Both Smaller And More Modest – Not – Bigger Government – Just – Better Governance – In Short – Libertarian Paternalism – Is – Neither Left Nor Right

~ W-S-CPAMC-AC-TRIASOBO ~ When – Self-Control Problems And Mindless Choosing – Are Combined – The Result Is A Series Of Bad Outcomes

~ S-MSC-I-MAP-A-SWA-SSN-H-AEIBTSADOO ~ Sometimes – Massive Social Changes – In – Markets And Politics – Alike – Start With A – Small Social Nudge – Humans – Are Easily Influenced By The Statements And Deeds Of Others

~ HAENBOH-OR-WLTC ~ Humans Are Easily Nudged By Other Humans – One Reason – We Like To Conform

~ PBMLTCWTKTOPWSWTHTS-SPWGAWTGEWTT-O-K-TEEHB ~ People Become More Likely To Conform When They Know That Other People Will See What They Have To Say – Sometimes People Will Go Along With The Group Even When They Think – Or – Know – That Everyone Else Has Blundered

~ IMD-PATTT-ATF-TAOWEP-A-TTS-WI-BOTT-SI-AE-C-AAKS-CPLVITO ~ In Many Domains – People Are Tempted To Think – After The Fact – That An Outcome Was Entirely Predictable – And – That The Success – Was Inevitable – Beware Of That Temptation – Small Interventions – And Even – Coincidences – At A Key Stage – Can Produce Large Variations In The Outcome

~ T-SF-CHA-PE ~ The – Specific Framing – Can Have A – Powerful Effect

~ SI-CITEWWCICTM-S-TMHOAIOCWTAATCSA-T-‘P’-OISSATECBSP ~ Subtle Influences – Can Increase The Ease With Which Certain Information Comes To Mind – Sometimes – The Merest Hint Of An Idea Or Concept Will Trigger An Association That Can Stimulate Action – These – “Primes” – Occur In Social Situations And Their Effects Can Be Surprisingly Powerful

~ MPWTWOR-TLE-O-TPOLR-WONIIGFT ~ Many People Will Take Whatever Option Requires – The Least Effort – Or – The Path Of Least Resistance – Whether Or Not It Is Good For Them

~ HMM-A-W-DS-EIUTEAIAFAP ~ Humans Make Mistakes – A – Well-Designed System – Expects Its Users To Err And Is As Forgiving As Possible

~ GF-TBWTHHITPITPF-W-DS-TPWTADWAWTAMM ~ Give Feedback – The Best Way To Help Humans Improve Their Performance Is To Provide Feedback – Well-Designed Systems – Tell People When They Are Doing Well And When They Are Making Mistakes

~ AITOFIAWTTAGW-O-EMH-AATGW ~ An Important Type Of Feedback Is A Warning That Things Are Going Wrong – Or – Even More Helpful – Are About To Go Wrong

~ WS-HTATPO-OSMWTTAI ~ Warning Systems – Have To Avoid The Problem Of – Offering So Many Warnings That They Are Ignored

~ A-FQ-A-CA-WU?/WC?/WP?/WP? ~ Ask – Four Questions – About – Choice Architecture – Who Uses? / Who Chooses? / Who Pays? / Who Profits?

~ HA-LA-RS-T-HLATAMATLG ~ Humans Are – Loss Averse – Roughly Speaking – They – Hate Losses About Twice As Much As They Like Gains

~ ENABN-CAMHTOA-LUIWWC-A-E-MAT-WWC ~ Evil Nudgers And Bad Nudges – Choice Architects May Have Their Own Agendas – Line Up Incentives When We Can – And – Employ – Monitoring And Transparency – When We Can’t

~ PCA-PCA-WAB-V/MP-APGSBT-IT ~ Public Choice Architects – Private Choice Architects – Worry About Both – Voters / Maximizing Profits – A Primary Goal Should Be To – Increase Transparency

~ FPTC-INAW-A-RNINAP-DWTS-A-WTCANAS(MLAP)-I-T ~ Forcing People To Choose – Is Not Always Wise – And – Remaining Neutral Is Not Always Possible – Deciding Where To Stop – And – When To Call A Nudge A Shove (Much Less A Prison) – Is – Tricky