STANLEY MILGRAM ~ OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY ~ 1974

~ O-IT-PM-TL-IA-T-PP-T-DCTB-T-SOA ~ Obedience – Is The – Psychological Mechanism – That Links – Individual Action – To – Political Purpose – The – Dispositional Cement That Binds – To – Systems Of Authority

OP-SDTJ-A-WAPHOTP-CBAIATDP ~ Ordinary People – Simply Doing Their Jobs – And – Without Any Particular Hostility On Their Part – Can Become Agents In A Terrible Destructive Process

~ EWTDEOTWBPC-A-TAATCOAIWFSOM-RFPHTRNTRA-AVOIADACIP ~ Even When The Destructive Effects Of Their Work Become Patently Clear – And – They Are Asked To Carry Out Actions Incompatible With Fundamental Standards Of Morality – Relatively Few People Have The Resources Needed To Resist Authority – A Variety Of Inhibitions Against Disobeying Authority Come Into Play

~ SBIOA-IIETCTAOTBS ~ Sitting Back In One’s Armchair – It Is Easy To Condemn The Actions Of The Obedient Subjects

~ MF-CBSAWRE-B-ACROTIASF ~ Moral Factors – Can Be Shunted Aside With Relative Ease – By – A Calculated Restructuring Of The Informational And Social Field

~ ‘IWDWIWT’ ~ “I Was Just Doing What I Was Told”

~ A-T-AAIQ-TFTAEHIOAM ~ A – Tendency – Attributing An Impersonal Quality – To Forces That Are Essentially Human In Origin And Maintenance

~ WE? ~ Whose Experiment?

~ WSTDBSWTVS? ~ Why Should The Designer Be Served While The Victim Suffers?

~ NAOIHAUPQ-IMCBABPIIPC-B-AAATBDBIC-WNIHC-CBDITE ~ No Action Of Itself Has An Unchangeable Psychological Quality – Its Meaning Can Be Altered By Placing It In Particular Contexts – But – Allowing An Act To Be Dominated By Its Context – While Neglecting Its Human Consequences – Can Be Dangerous In The Extreme

~ SDOTV-PAMO-PJ-F-BTOTV-A-HBTCAO-M-P-A-W ~ Systematic Devaluation Of The Victim – Provides A Measure Of – Psychological Justification – For – Brutal Treatment Of The Victim – And – Has Been The Constant Accompaniment Of – Massacres – Pogroms – And – Wars

~ M-HDTV-AACO-AA ~ Many – Harshly Devalue The Victim – As A Consequence Of – Acting Against

~ B-B-T/W-A-TCSODA-MA-LAI-TCFTBAVIA ~ But – Between – Thoughts / Words – And – The Critical Step Of Disobeying A – Malevolent Authority – Lies Another Ingredient – The Capacity For Transforming Beliefs And Values Into Action

~ SFALITTMIAHSLATANTIA-‘IR’-MI-IA-CPM ~ Subjective Feelings Are Largely Irrelevant To The Moral Issue At Hand So Long As They Are Not Transformed Into Action – “Intellectual Resistance” – Merely Indulgence – In A – Consoling Psychological Mechanism

~ IIPETIR-WOIO-AILIACOEA-B-IFFTFCOTA ~ It Is Psychologically Easy To Ignore Responsibility – When One Is Only – An Intermediate Link In A Chain Of Evil Action – But – Is Far From The Final Consequences Of The Action

~ TPWAFRFTAHE-PTITMCCO-SOE-IMS ~ The Person Who Assumes Full Responsibility For The Act Has Evaporated – Perhaps This Is The Most Common Characteristic Of – Socially Organize Evil – In Modern Society

~ SITKTESI ~ Simplicity Is The Key To Effective Scientific Inquiry

~ OAMP-TOTCCTBUAIT:OSNISOAHPWINHNTTO ~ Of All Moral Principles – The One That Comes Closest To Being Universally Accepted Is This: One Should Not Inflict Suffering On A Helpless Person Who Is Neither Harmful Nor Threatening To Oneself

~ ‘ATSCBEP-TCNPTD’ ~ “Although The Shocks Can Be Extremely Painful – They Cause No Permanent Tissue Damage”

~ ‘TERTYC’ ~ “The Experiment Requires That You Continue”

~ ‘YHNOC-YMGO’ ~ “You Have No Other Choice – You Must Go On”

~ PLTSTIAFL ~ People Like To See Themselves In A Favourable Light

~ A-TPIA-P-S-S ~ Action – Takes Place In A – Physical-Social – Setting

~ OWSRATVWRMI ~ Obedience Was Significantly Reduced As The Victim Was Rendered More Immediate

~ DO-EB-EOEC ~ Diminishing Obedience – Explained By – Enrichment Of Empathic Cues

~ WTVIC-IIMDTE-FT ~ When The Victim Is Close – It Is More Difficult To Exclude – From Thought

~ TMOD ~ The Mechanism Of Denial

~ WMLNTHO-SBNHTIEL ~ We May Learn Not To Harm Others – Simply By Not Harming Them In Everyday Life

~ TFT-WANOR-MHAPEOTPPTMOBTO ~ The Fact That – We Are Near Or Remote – May Have A Powerful Effect On The Psychological Processes That Mediate Our Behavior Toward Others

~ T-C-A-V-A-PP-OT-V ~ The – Concrete – Visible – And – Proximal Presence – Of The – Victim

~ TRDSFTPM ~ The Results Differed Sharply From The Predictions Made

~ T-P-POAA-AIFCT-OOD ~ The – Physical – Presence Of An Authority – An Important Force Contributing To – Obedience Or Defiance

~ DBTACPA ~ Disagreement Between The Authorities Completely Paralyzed Action

~ AFFTHEOASHTTL-RTSFALA-ITTB ~ Action Flows From The Higher End Of A Social Hierarchy To The Lower – Responsive To Signals From A Level Above – Indifferent To Those Below

~ I-AWCBTPOHA ~ Inevitably – Action Was Controlled By The Person Of Higher Authority

~ TIIW-I-S-OTA-B-TGIS ~ The Individual Is Weak – In – Solitary – Opposition To Authority – But – The Group Is Strong

~ MS-FEO-ITSBWHATEOA ~ Mutual Support – For Each Other – Is The Strongest Bulwark We Have Against The Excesses Of Authority

~ WNR-GP-KUTTDOAAPATWCAS ~ With Numbing Regularity – Good People – Knuckle Under To The Demands Of Authority And Perform Actions That Were Callous And Severe

~ STA-I-APAPC ~ Submission To Authority – Is – A Powerful And Prepotent Condition

~ EWA-I-CCW-ARSIWCWAHBGR-WFTCHMFBP ~ Experience With Authority – Is – Continual Confrontation With – A Reward Structure In Which Compliance With Authority Has Been Generally Rewarded – While Failure To Comply Has Most Frequently Been Punished

~ ‘TP’-CWIPEGFTI-B-ISFITFTIET-COTHF ~ “The Promotion” – Carries With It Profound Emotional Gratification For The Individual – But – Its Special Feature Is The Fact That It Ensures The – Continuity Of The Hierarchical Form

~ G-AAFTKMTTPTAC;WTDON-TOIDAITD ~ Generally – Authorities Are Felt To Know More Than The Person They Are Commanding; Whether They Do Or Not – The Occasion Is Defined As If They Do

~ IINOITPTTLGTO-TMALGTT-APEICBAISOIIR ~ It Is Not Only Important To People That They Look Good To Others – They Must Also Look Good To Themselves – A Person’s Ego Ideal Can Be An Important Source Of Internal Inhibitory Regulation

~ D/T/PB-NTMS ~ Distance / Time / Physical Barriers – Neutralize The Moral Sense

~ R-MBCOIOW-IMBSTTV-WISASOH[/H]OP-F-SAB-F-SORTTGDOTV ~ Responsibility – May Be Cast Off In Other Ways – It May Be Shifted To The Victim – Who Is Seen As Bringing On His[/Her] Own Punishment – For – Stupidity And Obstinacy – From – Shifting Of Responsibility To The Gratuitous Deprecation Of The Victim

~ D-INAATCE-DRAMOIR-AT-T-IA-DOA-B-TPCIC ~ Disobedience – Is Not An Act That Comes Easily – Disobedience Requires A Mobilization Of Inner Resources – And Their – Transformation – Into A – Domain Of Action – But – The Psychic Cost Is Considerable

~ TPOD-IAGST-OHBF ~ The Price Of Disobedience – Is A Gnawing Sense That – One Has Been Faithless

~ TRODITTPOOAD ~ The Role Of Denial In The Total Process Of Obedience And Disobedience

~ OARD-COBEP-FO ~ Ordinary And Routine Destruction – Carried Out By Everyday People – Following Orders